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zshall(1)                                                            zshall(1)




NAME

       zshall - the Z shell meta-man page


OVERVIEW

       Because  zsh contains many features, the zsh manual has been split into
       a number of sections.  This manual page includes all the separate  man-
       ual pages in the following order:

       zshroadmap   Informal introduction to the manual
       zshmisc      Anything not fitting into the other sections
       zshexpn      Zsh command and parameter expansion
       zshparam     Zsh parameters
       zshoptions   Zsh options
       zshbuiltins  Zsh built-in functions
       zshzle       Zsh command line editing
       zshcompwid   Zsh completion widgets
       zshcompsys   Zsh completion system
       zshcompctl   Zsh completion control
       zshmodules   Zsh loadable modules
       zshtcpsys    Zsh built-in TCP functions
       zshzftpsys   Zsh built-in FTP client
       zshcontrib   Additional zsh functions and utilities


DESCRIPTION

       Zsh  is  a  UNIX  command  interpreter (shell) usable as an interactive
       login shell and as a shell script command processor.  Of  the  standard
       shells,  zsh most closely resembles ksh but includes many enhancements.
       Zsh has command line editing, builtin spelling correction, programmable
       command completion, shell functions (with autoloading), a history mech-
       anism, and a host of other features.


AUTHOR

       Zsh was originally written by Paul Falstad <pf@zsh.org>.   Zsh  is  now
       maintained  by  the  members of the zsh-workers mailing list <zsh-work-
       ers@zsh.org>.   The  development  is  currently  coordinated  by  Peter
       Stephenson <pws@zsh.org>.  The coordinator can be contacted at <coordi-
       nator@zsh.org>, but matters relating to the code should generally go to
       the mailing list.


AVAILABILITY

       Zsh  is available from the following anonymous FTP sites.  These mirror
       sites are kept frequently up to date.  The sites marked with (H) may be
       mirroring ftp.cs.elte.hu instead of the primary site.

       Primary site
              ftp://ftp.zsh.org/pub/
              http://www.zsh.org/pub/

       Australia
              ftp://ftp.zsh.org/pub/
              http://www.zsh.org/pub/
              http://mirror.dejanseo.com.au/pub/zsh/

       Hungary
              ftp://ftp.cs.elte.hu/pub/zsh/
              http://www.cs.elte.hu/pub/zsh/

              The  up-to-date  source  code is available via anonymous CVS and
              Git from Sourceforge.  See  http://sourceforge.net/projects/zsh/
              for  details.  A summary of instructions for the CVS and Git ar-
              chives can be found at http://zsh.sourceforget.net/.



MAILING LISTS

       Zsh has 3 mailing lists:

       <zsh-announce@zsh.org>
              Announcements about releases, major changes in the shell and the
              monthly posting of the Zsh FAQ.  (moderated)

       <zsh-users@zsh.org>
              User discussions.

       <zsh-workers@zsh.org>
              Hacking, development, bug reports and patches.

       To subscribe or unsubscribe, send mail to the associated administrative
       address for the mailing list.

       <zsh-announce-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-users-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-workers-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-announce-unsubscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-users-unsubscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-workers-unsubscribe@zsh.org>

       YOU ONLY NEED TO JOIN ONE OF THE MAILING LISTS AS THEY ARE NESTED.  All
       submissions  to  zsh-announce are automatically forwarded to zsh-users.
       All submissions to zsh-users are automatically forwarded  to  zsh-work-
       ers.

       If  you  have  problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any of the mailing
       lists, send mail to <listmaster@zsh.org>.  The mailing lists are  main-
       tained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@kom.auc.dk>.

       The  mailing  lists  are archived; the archives can be accessed via the
       administrative addresses listed above.  There is also a  hypertext  ar-
       chive,   maintained   by   Geoff   Wing   <gcw@zsh.org>,  available  at
       http://www.zsh.org/mla/.


THE ZSH FAQ

       Zsh has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), maintained by Peter
       Stephenson  <pws@zsh.org>.   It  is  regularly  posted to the newsgroup
       comp.unix.shell and the zsh-announce mailing list.  The latest  version
       can    be    found   at   any   of   the   Zsh   FTP   sites,   or   at
       http://www.zsh.org/FAQ/.  The contact address for  FAQ-related  matters
       is <faqmaster@zsh.org>.


THE ZSH WEB PAGE

       Zsh  has  a  web page which is located at http://www.zsh.org/.  This is
       maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@zsh.org>,  of  SunSITE  Denmark.
       The contact address for web-related matters is <webmaster@zsh.org>.


THE ZSH USERGUIDE

       A  userguide is currently in preparation.  It is intended to complement
       the manual, with explanations and hints on issues where the manual  can
       be cabbalistic, hierographic, or downright mystifying (for example, the
       word `hierographic' does not exist).  It can be viewed in  its  current
       state  at  http://zsh.sourceforge.net/Guide/.   At the time of writing,
       chapters dealing with startup files and their contents and the new com-
       pletion system were essentially complete.


THE ZSH WIKI

       A  `wiki'  website for zsh has been created at http://www.zshwiki.org/.
       This is a site which can be added to and  modified  directly  by  users
       without any special permission.  You can add your own zsh tips and con-
       figurations.


INVOCATION

       The following flags are interpreted by the shell when invoked to deter-
       mine where the shell will read commands from:

       -c     Take  the  first  argument  as a command to execute, rather than
              reading commands from a script or standard input.  If  any  fur-
              ther  arguments  are  given,  the  first  one is assigned to $0,
              rather than being used as a positional parameter.

       -i     Force shell to be interactive.  It is still possible to  specify
              a script to execute.

       -s     Force shell to read commands from the standard input.  If the -s
              flag is not present and an argument is given, the first argument
              is taken to be the pathname of a script to execute.

       If  there are any remaining arguments after option processing, and nei-
       ther of the options -c or -s was supplied, the first argument is  taken
       as  the file name of a script containing shell commands to be executed.
       If the option PATH_SCRIPT is set, and the file name does not contain  a
       directory  path  (i.e.  there is no `/' in the name), first the current
       directory and then the command path given  by  the  variable  PATH  are
       searched  for  the  script.   If the option is not set or the file name
       contains a `/' it is used directly.

       After the  first  one  or  two  arguments  have  been  appropriated  as
       described above, the remaining arguments are assigned to the positional
       parameters.

       For further options,  which  are  common  to  invocation  and  the  set
       builtin, see zshoptions(1).

       Options  may  be specified by name using the -o option.  -o acts like a
       single-letter option, but takes a following string as the option  name.
       For example,

              zsh -x -o shwordsplit scr

       runs  the  script  scr,  setting the XTRACE option by the corresponding
       letter `-x' and the SH_WORD_SPLIT  option  by  name.   Options  may  be
       turned  off  by  name  by using +o instead of -o.  -o can be stacked up
       with preceding single-letter options, so for example `-xo  shwordsplit'
       or `-xoshwordsplit' is equivalent to `-x -o shwordsplit'.

       Options  may  also  be  specified  by  name  in  GNU long option style,
       `--option-name'.  When this is done, `-' characters in the option  name
       are permitted: they are translated into `_', and thus ignored.  So, for
       example, `zsh  --sh-word-split'  invokes  zsh  with  the  SH_WORD_SPLIT
       option  turned  on.   Like other option syntaxes, options can be turned
       off by replacing the initial `-' with a `+'; thus `+-sh-word-split'  is
       equivalent  to  `--no-sh-word-split'.   Unlike  other  option syntaxes,
       GNU-style long options cannot be stacked with any other options, so for
       example  `-x-shwordsplit'  is  an error, rather than being treated like
       `-x --shwordsplit'.

       The special GNU-style option `--version' is handled; it sends to  stan-
       dard  output  the shell's version information, then exits successfully.
       `--help' is also handled; it sends to standard output a list of options
       that can be used when invoking the shell, then exits successfully.

       Option  processing  may  be finished, allowing following arguments that
       start with `-' or `+' to be treated as normal arguments, in  two  ways.
       Firstly,  a lone `-' (or `+') as an argument by itself ends option pro-
       cessing.  Secondly, a special option `--' (or `+-'), which may be spec-
       ified  on its own (which is the standard POSIX usage) or may be stacked
       with preceding options (so `-x-' is equivalent to  `-x  --').   Options
       are not permitted to be stacked after `--' (so `-x-f' is an error), but
       note the GNU-style option form discussed above,  where  `--shwordsplit'
       is permitted and does not end option processing.

       Except  when  the sh/ksh emulation single-letter options are in effect,
       the option `-b' (or `+b') ends option processing.  `-b' is  like  `--',
       except that further single-letter options can be stacked after the `-b'
       and will take effect as normal.




COMPATIBILITY

       Zsh tries to emulate sh or ksh when it is invoked as sh or ksh  respec-
       tively;  more  precisely,  it  looks at the first letter of the name by
       which it was invoked, excluding any initial `r' (assumed to  stand  for
       `restricted'),  and  if  that  is `s' or `k' it will emulate sh or ksh.
       Furthermore, if invoked as su (which happens on  certain  systems  when
       the shell is executed by the su command), the shell will try to find an
       alternative name from the SHELL environment variable and perform emula-
       tion based on that.

       In sh and ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not spe-
       cial and not initialized by the shell:  ARGC,  argv,  cdpath,  fignore,
       fpath,  HISTCHARS,  mailpath,  MANPATH,  manpath, path, prompt, PROMPT,
       PROMPT2, PROMPT3, PROMPT4, psvar, status, watch.

       The usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed.  Login  shells
       source /etc/profile followed by $HOME/.profile.  If the ENV environment
       variable is set on  invocation,  $ENV  is  sourced  after  the  profile
       scripts.  The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion, command
       substitution, and arithmetic expansion before being  interpreted  as  a
       pathname.   Note  that the PRIVILEGED option also affects the execution
       of startup files.

       The following options are set if the shell is invoked  as  sh  or  ksh:
       NO_BAD_PATTERN,    NO_BANG_HIST,    NO_BG_NICE,   NO_EQUALS,   NO_FUNC-
       TION_ARGZERO, GLOB_SUBST,  NO_GLOBAL_EXPORT,  NO_HUP,  INTERACTIVE_COM-
       MENTS,  KSH_ARRAYS,  NO_MULTIOS, NO_NOMATCH, NO_NOTIFY, POSIX_BUILTINS,
       NO_PROMPT_PERCENT,    RM_STAR_SILENT,    SH_FILE_EXPANSION,    SH_GLOB,
       SH_OPTION_LETTERS,   SH_WORD_SPLIT.    Additionally  the  BSD_ECHO  and
       IGNORE_BRACES options are set if zsh  is  invoked  as  sh.   Also,  the
       KSH_OPTION_PRINT,  LOCAL_OPTIONS,  PROMPT_BANG,  PROMPT_SUBST  and SIN-
       GLE_LINE_ZLE options are set if zsh is invoked as ksh.


RESTRICTED SHELL

       When the basename of the command used to invoke  zsh  starts  with  the
       letter  `r'  or the `-r' command line option is supplied at invocation,
       the shell becomes  restricted.   Emulation  mode  is  determined  after
       stripping  the  letter `r' from the invocation name.  The following are
       disabled in restricted mode:

       o      changing directories with the cd builtin

       o      changing or unsetting the PATH, path, MODULE_PATH,  module_path,
              SHELL,  HISTFILE,  HISTSIZE,  GID,  EGID,  UID,  EUID, USERNAME,
              LD_LIBRARY_PATH,    LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH,     LD_PRELOAD     and
              LD_AOUT_PRELOAD parameters

       o      specifying command names containing /

       o      specifying command pathnames using hash

       o      redirecting output to files

       o      using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another
              command

       o      using jobs -Z to overwrite the shell process' argument and envi-
              ronment space

       o      using  the ARGV0 parameter to override argv[0] for external com-
              mands

       o      turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED

       These restrictions are enforced after  processing  the  startup  files.
       The  startup  files  should set up PATH to point to a directory of com-
       mands which can be safely invoked in the restricted environment.   They
       may also add further restrictions by disabling selected builtins.

       Restricted  mode  can  also  be  activated  any  time  by  setting  the
       RESTRICTED option.   This  immediately  enables  all  the  restrictions
       described  above  even if the shell still has not processed all startup
       files.


STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES

       Commands are first read from /etc/zshenv; this  cannot  be  overridden.
       Subsequent behaviour is modified by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options; the
       former affects all startup files, while the second only affects  global
       startup  files  (those  shown here with an path starting with a /).  If
       one of the options is  unset  at  any  point,  any  subsequent  startup
       file(s)  of the corresponding type will not be read.  It is also possi-
       ble for a file in  $ZDOTDIR  to  re-enable  GLOBAL_RCS.  Both  RCS  and
       GLOBAL_RCS are set by default.

       Commands  are then read from $ZDOTDIR/.zshenv.  If the shell is a login
       shell, commands are read from /etc/zprofile  and  then  $ZDOTDIR/.zpro-
       file.   Then,  if  the  shell  is  interactive,  commands are read from
       /etc/zshrc and then $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc.  Finally, if the shell is a  login
       shell, /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/.zlogin are read.

       When  a  login  shell  exits,  the  files  $ZDOTDIR/.zlogout  and  then
       /etc/zlogout are read.  This happens with either an explicit  exit  via
       the exit or logout commands, or an implicit exit by reading end-of-file
       from the terminal.  However, if the shell terminates  due  to  exec'ing
       another  process,  the  logout  files  are  not  read.   These are also
       affected by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options.  Note  also  that  the  RCS
       option  affects  the saving of history files, i.e. if RCS is unset when
       the shell exits, no history file will be saved.

       If ZDOTDIR is unset, HOME is used instead.  Files listed above as being
       in /etc may be in another directory, depending on the installation.

       As /etc/zshenv is run for all instances of zsh, it is important that it
       be kept as small as possible.  In particular, it is a good idea to  put
       code  that does not need to be run for every single shell behind a test
       of the form `if [[ -o rcs ]]; then ...' so that it will not be executed
       when zsh is invoked with the `-f' option.

       Any  of  these files may be pre-compiled with the zcompile builtin com-
       mand (see zshbuiltins(1)).  If a compiled file exists  (named  for  the
       original  file plus the .zwc extension) and it is newer than the origi-
       nal file, the compiled file will be used instead.



ZSHROADMAP(1)                                                    ZSHROADMAP(1)




NAME

       zshroadmap - informal introduction to the zsh manual

       The Zsh Manual, like the shell itself, is large and often  complicated.
       This section of the manual provides some pointers to areas of the shell
       that are likely to be of particular interest to new  users,  and  indi-
       cates where in the rest of the manual the documentation is to be found.



WHEN THE SHELL STARTS

       When it starts, the shell reads commands from various files.  These can
       be  created  or  edited  to  customize  the  shell.   See  the  section
       Startup/Shutdown Files in zsh(1).

       If no personal initialization files exist for the current user, a func-
       tion  is  run  to help you change some of the most common settings.  It
       won't appear if your administrator has disabled the zsh/newuser module.
       The  function  is  designed  to be self-explanatory.  You can run it by
       hand with `autoload -Uz zsh-newuser-install;  zsh-newuser-install  -f'.
       See also the section User Configuration Functions in zshcontrib(1).



INTERACTIVE USE

       Interaction with the shell uses the builtin Zsh Line Editor, ZLE.  This
       is described in detail in zshzle(1).

       The first decision a user must make is whether to use the Emacs  or  Vi
       editing  mode  as  the  keys  for  editing are substantially different.
       Emacs editing mode is probably more natural for beginners  and  can  be
       selected explicitly with the command bindkey -e.

       A  history mechanism for retrieving previously typed lines (most simply
       with the Up or Down arrow keys) is available; note that,  unlike  other
       shells,  zsh  will not save these lines when the shell exits unless you
       set appropriate variables, and the number of history lines retained  by
       default  is  quite  small (30 lines).  See the description of the shell
       variables (referred to in the documentation  as  parameters)  HISTFILE,
       HISTSIZE and SAVEHIST in zshparam(1).

       The shell now supports the UTF-8 character set (and also others if sup-
       ported by the operating system).  This is  (mostly)  handled  transpar-
       ently  by the shell, but the degree of support in terminal emulators is
       variable.   There  is  some  discussion  of  this  in  the  shell  FAQ,
       http://toast/stuff/  .   Note  in  particular that for combining
       characters to be handled the option COMBINING_CHARS needs  to  be  set.
       Because  the shell is now more sensitive to the definition of the char-
       acter set, note that if you are upgrading from an older version of  the
       shell  you should ensure that the appropriate variable, either LANG (to
       affect all aspects of the shell's operation)  or  LC_CTYPE  (to  affect
       only  the  handling  of character sets) is set to an appropriate value.
       This is true even if you are using a single-byte character set  includ-
       ing  extensions  of  ASCII  such as ISO-8859-1 or ISO-8859-15.  See the
       description of LC_CTYPE in zshparam(1).


   Completion
       Completion is a feature present in many shells. It allows the  user  to
       type only a part (usually the prefix) of a word and have the shell fill
       in the rest.  The completion system in zsh is programmable.  For  exam-
       ple,  the  shell can be set to complete email addresses in arguments to
       the mail command from your ~/.abook/addressbook; usernames,  hostnames,
       and  even  remote  paths in arguments to scp, and so on.  Anything that
       can be written in or glued together with zsh can be the source of  what
       the line editor offers as possible completions.

       Zsh  has  two  completion systems, an old, so called compctl completion
       (named after the builtin command that serves as its complete  and  only
       user  interface),  and  a new one, referred to as compsys, organized as
       library of builtin and user-defined functions.  The two systems  differ
       in  their  interface  for  specifying the completion behavior.  The new
       system is more customizable and is supplied with completions  for  many
       commonly used commands; it is therefore to be preferred.

       The completion system must be enabled explicitly when the shell starts.
       For more information see zshcompsys(1).


   Extending the line editor
       Apart from completion, the line editor is highly extensible by means of
       shell  functions.   Some  useful functions are provided with the shell;
       they provide facilities such as:

       insert-composed-char
              composing characters not found on the keyboard

       match-words-by-style
              configuring what the line editor considers a word when moving or
              deleting by word

       history-beginning-search-backward-end, etc.
              alternative ways of searching the shell history

       replace-string, replace-pattern
              functions for replacing strings or patterns globally in the com-
              mand line

       edit-command-line
              edit the command line with an external editor.

       See the section `ZLE Functions' in zshcontrib(1)  for  descriptions  of
       these.



OPTIONS

       The  shell  has  a  large number of options for changing its behaviour.
       These cover all aspects of the shell; browsing the  full  documentation
       is  the only good way to become acquainted with the many possibilities.
       See zshoptions(1).



PATTERN MATCHING

       The shell has a rich set of  patterns  which  are  available  for  file
       matching  (described  in the documentation as `filename generation' and
       also known for historical reasons as `globbing') and for use when  pro-
       gramming.   These are described in the section `Filename Generation' in
       zshexpn(1).

       Of particular interest are the following patterns that are not commonly
       supported by other systems of pattern matching:

       **     for matching over multiple directories

       ~, ^   the   ability   to  exclude  patterns  from  matching  when  the
              EXTENDED_GLOB option is set

       (...)  glob qualifiers, included in parentheses at the end of the  pat-
              tern,  which  select  files  by  type  (such  as directories) or
              attribute (such as size).



GENERAL COMMENTS ON SYNTAX

       Although the syntax of zsh is in ways similar to the  Korn  shell,  and
       therefore  more  remotely to the original UNIX shell, the Bourne shell,
       its default behaviour does not entirely  correspond  to  those  shells.
       General  shell  syntax  is introduced in the section `Shell Grammar' in
       zshmisc(1).

       One commonly encountered difference is that variables substituted  onto
       the  command line are not split into words.  See the description of the
       shell option SH_WORD_SPLIT in the section `Parameter Expansion' in zsh-
       expn(1).  In zsh, you can either explicitly request the splitting (e.g.
       ${=foo}) or use an array when you want a variable  to  expand  to  more
       than one word.  See the section `Array Parameters' in zshparam(1).



PROGRAMMING

       The  most  convenient  way of adding enhancements to the shell is typi-
       cally  by  writing  a  shell  function  and  arranging  for  it  to  be
       autoloaded.  Functions are described in the section `Functions' in zsh-
       misc(1).  Users changing from the C  shell  and  its  relatives  should
       notice that aliases are less used in zsh as they don't perform argument
       substitution, only simple text replacement.

       A few general functions, other than those for the line editor described
       above,  are provided with the shell and are described in zshcontrib(1).
       Features include:

       promptinit
              a prompt theme system for changing prompts easily, see the  sec-
              tion `Prompt Themes'


       zsh-mime-setup
              a  MIME-handling  system  which dispatches commands according to
              the suffix of a file as done by graphical file managers

       zcalc  a calculator

       zargs  a version of xargs that makes the find command redundant

       zmv    a command for renaming files by means of shell patterns.



ZSHMISC(1)                                                          ZSHMISC(1)




NAME

       zshmisc - everything and then some


SIMPLE COMMANDS & PIPELINES

       A simple command is a sequence of optional parameter  assignments  fol-
       lowed  by  blank-separated  words,  with  optional  redirections inter-
       spersed.  The first word is the command to be executed, and the remain-
       ing  words, if any, are arguments to the command.  If a command name is
       given, the parameter assignments modify the environment of the  command
       when it is executed.  The value of a simple command is its exit status,
       or 128 plus the signal number if terminated by a signal.  For example,

              echo foo

       is a simple command with arguments.

       A pipeline is either a simple command, or a sequence  of  two  or  more
       simple commands where each command is separated from the next by `|' or
       `|&'.  Where commands are separated by `|', the standard output of  the
       first  command is connected to the standard input of the next.  `|&' is
       shorthand for `2>&1 |', which connects both the standard output and the
       standard  error  of the command to the standard input of the next.  The
       value of a pipeline is the value of the last command, unless the  pipe-
       line  is preceded by `!' in which case the value is the logical inverse
       of the value of the last command.  For example,

              echo foo | sed 's/foo/bar/'

       is a pipeline, where the output (`foo' plus a  newline)  of  the  first
       command will be passed to the input of the second.

       If a pipeline is preceded by `coproc', it is executed as a coprocess; a
       two-way pipe is established between it and the parent shell.  The shell
       can read from or write to the coprocess by means of the `>&p' and `<&p'
       redirection operators or with `print -p' and  `read  -p'.   A  pipeline
       cannot be preceded by both `coproc' and `!'.  If job control is active,
       the coprocess can be treated in other than input and output as an ordi-
       nary background job.

       A  sublist  is  either  a single pipeline, or a sequence of two or more
       pipelines separated by `&&' or `||'.  If two pipelines are separated by
       `&&',  the  second  pipeline  is  executed  only  if the first succeeds
       (returns a zero status).  If two pipelines are separated by  `||',  the
       second  is executed only if the first fails (returns a nonzero status).
       Both operators have equal precedence and  are  left  associative.   The
       value  of  the sublist is the value of the last pipeline executed.  For
       example,

              dmesg | grep panic && print yes

       is a sublist consisting of two pipelines, the second just a simple com-
       mand  which  will be executed if and only if the grep command returns a
       zero status.  If it does not, the value of the sublist is  that  return
       status,  else  it is the status returned by the print (almost certainly
       zero).

       A list is a sequence of zero or more sublists, in which each sublist is
       terminated  by `;', `&', `&|', `&!', or a newline.  This terminator may
       optionally be omitted from the last sublist in the list when  the  list
       appears as a complex command inside `(...)' or `{...}'.  When a sublist
       is terminated by `;' or newline, the  shell  waits  for  it  to  finish
       before  executing  the  next  sublist.  If a sublist is terminated by a
       `&', `&|', or `&!', the shell executes the last pipeline in it  in  the
       background,  and  does  not  wait for it to finish (note the difference
       from other shells which execute the whole sublist in  the  background).
       A backgrounded pipeline returns a status of zero.

       More generally, a list can be seen as a set of any shell commands what-
       soever, including the complex commands below; this is implied  wherever
       the  word  `list' appears in later descriptions.  For example, the com-
       mands in a shell function form a special sort of list.


PRECOMMAND MODIFIERS

       A simple command may be preceded by a precommand modifier,  which  will
       alter  how  the  command  is  interpreted.   These  modifiers are shell
       builtin commands with the exception of nocorrect which  is  a  reserved
       word.

       -      The  command  is  executed  with  a `-' prepended to its argv[0]
              string.

       builtin
              The command word is taken to be the name of a  builtin  command,
              rather than a shell function or external command.

       command [ -pvV ]
              The command word is taken to be the name of an external command,
              rather than a shell function or builtin.   If the POSIX_BUILTINS
              option  is  set, builtins will also be executed but certain spe-
              cial properties of them are suppressed. The  -p  flag  causes  a
              default  path  to be searched instead of that in $path. With the
              -v flag, command is similar to whence and with -V, it is equiva-
              lent to whence -v.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ]
              The  following  command  together  with  any arguments is run in
              place of the current process, rather than as a sub-process.  The
              shell  does not fork and is replaced.  The shell does not invoke
              TRAPEXIT, nor does it source zlogout  files.   The  options  are
              provided for compatibility with other shells.

              The -c option clears the environment.

              The  -l  option  is  equivalent to the - precommand modifier, to
              treat the replacement command as a login shell; the  command  is
              executed  with  a  - prepended to its argv[0] string.  This flag
              has no effect if used together with the -a option.

              The -a option is used to specify explicitly the  argv[0]  string
              (the  name  of  the command as seen by the process itself) to be
              used by the replacement command and is  directly  equivalent  to
              setting a value for the ARGV0 environment variable.

       nocorrect
              Spelling  correction is not done on any of the words.  This must
              appear before any other precommand modifier,  as  it  is  inter-
              preted  immediately,  before  any  parsing  is  done.  It has no
              effect in non-interactive shells.

       noglob Filename generation (globbing) is not performed on  any  of  the
              words.


COMPLEX COMMANDS

       A complex command in zsh is one of the following:

       if list then list [ elif list then list ] ... [ else list ] fi
              The  if  list is executed, and if it returns a zero exit status,
              the then list is executed.  Otherwise, the elif list is executed
              and  if  its status is zero, the then list is executed.  If each
              elif list returns nonzero status, the else list is executed.

       for name ... [ in word ... ] term do list done
              where term is at least one newline or ;.   Expand  the  list  of
              words,  and set the parameter name to each of them in turn, exe-
              cuting list each time.  If the in word is omitted, use the posi-
              tional parameters instead of the words.

              More  than  one  parameter  name  can  appear before the list of
              words.  If N names are given, then on each execution of the loop
              the  next  N words are assigned to the corresponding parameters.
              If there are more names  than  remaining  words,  the  remaining
              parameters  are  each set to the empty string.  Execution of the
              loop ends when there is no remaining word to assign to the first
              name.  It is only possible for in to appear as the first name in
              the list, else it will be treated as  marking  the  end  of  the
              list.

       for (( [expr1] ; [expr2] ; [expr3] )) do list done
              The arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated first (see the sec-
              tion `Arithmetic Evaluation').  The arithmetic expression  expr2
              is  repeatedly  evaluated  until  it  evaluates to zero and when
              non-zero, list is executed and the arithmetic  expression  expr3
              evaluated.   If any expression is omitted, then it behaves as if
              it evaluated to 1.

       while list do list done
              Execute the do list as long as the while  list  returns  a  zero
              exit status.

       until list do list done
              Execute the do list as long as until list returns a nonzero exit
              status.

       repeat word do list done
              word is expanded and treated as an arithmetic expression,  which
              must evaluate to a number n.  list is then executed n times.

              The  repeat  syntax is disabled by default when the shell starts
              in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be enabled  with  the
              command `enable -r repeat'

       case  word  in  [ [(] pattern [ | pattern ] ... ) list (;;|;&|;|) ] ...
       esac
              Execute  the list associated with the first pattern that matches
              word, if any.  The form of the patterns is the same as that used
              for filename generation.  See the section `Filename Generation'.

              If the list that is executed is terminated with ;&  rather  than
              ;;,  the following list is also executed.  The rule for the ter-
              minator of the following list ;;, ;& or ;| is applied unless the
              esac is reached.

              If  the  list  that  is executed is terminated with ;| the shell
              continues to scan the patterns looking for the next match,  exe-
              cuting  the  corresponding  list,  and applying the rule for the
              corresponding terminator ;;, ;& or ;|.  Note that  word  is  not
              re-expanded;  all  applicable  patterns are tested with the same
              word.

       select name [ in word ... term ] do list done
              where term is one or more newline or ; to terminate  the  words.
              Print  the  set  of words, each preceded by a number.  If the in
              word is omitted, use the  positional  parameters.   The  PROMPT3
              prompt is printed and a line is read from the line editor if the
              shell is interactive and that is active, or else standard input.
              If  this line consists of the number of one of the listed words,
              then the parameter name is set to the word corresponding to this
              number.   If  this  line is empty, the selection list is printed
              again.  Otherwise, the value of the parameter  name  is  set  to
              null.   The  contents  of  the  line read from standard input is
              saved in the parameter REPLY.  list is executed for each  selec-
              tion until a break or end-of-file is encountered.

       ( list )
              Execute  list  in a subshell.  Traps set by the trap builtin are
              reset to their default values while executing list.

       { list }
              Execute list.

       { try-list } always { always-list }
              First execute try-list.  Regardless of errors,  or  break,  con-
              tinue,  or  return commands encountered within try-list, execute
              always-list.  Execution then continues from the  result  of  the
              execution of try-list; in other words, any error, or break, con-
              tinue, or return command is treated in the  normal  way,  as  if
              always-list  were  not  present.   The  two  chunks  of code are
              referred to as the `try block' and the `always block'.

              Optional newlines or semicolons may  appear  after  the  always;
              note,  however,  that  they may not appear between the preceding
              closing brace and the always.

              An `error' in this context is a condition such as a syntax error
              which  causes  the shell to abort execution of the current func-
              tion, script, or list.   Syntax  errors  encountered  while  the
              shell  is  parsing  the  code do not cause the always-list to be
              executed.  For example, an erroneously constructed if  block  in
              try-list  would cause the shell to abort during parsing, so that
              always-list would not be executed, while an erroneous  substitu-
              tion  such as ${*foo*} would cause a run-time error, after which
              always-list would be executed.

              An error condition can be tested  and  reset  with  the  special
              integer  variable  TRY_BLOCK_ERROR.   Outside an always-list the
              value is irrelevant,  but  it  is  initialised  to  -1.   Inside
              always-list,  the  value  is  1  if  an  error  occurred  in the
              try-list, else 0.  If TRY_BLOCK_ERROR is set  to  0  during  the
              always-list,  the  error  condition  caused  by  the try-list is
              reset, and shell execution continues normally after the  end  of
              always-list.  Altering the value during the try-list is not use-
              ful (unless this forms part of an enclosing always block).

              Regardless of TRY_BLOCK_ERROR, after the end of always-list  the
              normal  shell  status $? is the value returned from always-list.
              This  will  be  non-zero  if  there  was  an  error,   even   if
              TRY_BLOCK_ERROR was set to zero.

              The  following  executes  the given code, ignoring any errors it
              causes.  This is an alternative to the usual convention of  pro-
              tecting code by executing it in a subshell.

                     {
                         # code which may cause an error
                       } always {
                         # This code is executed regardless of the error.
                         (( TRY_BLOCK_ERROR = 0 ))
                     }
                     # The error condition has been reset.

              An  exit  command (or a return command executed at the outermost
              function level of a script) encountered  in  try-list  does  not
              cause  the  execution  of always-list.  Instead, the shell exits
              immediately after any EXIT trap has been executed.

       function word ... [ () ] [ term ] { list }
       word ... () [ term ] { list }
       word ... () [ term ] command
              where term is one or more newline or ;.  Define a function which
              is  referenced  by  any one of word.  Normally, only one word is
              provided; multiple words are usually  only  useful  for  setting
              traps.   The  body of the function is the list between the { and
              }.  See the section `Functions'.

              If the option  SH_GLOB  is  set  for  compatibility  with  other
              shells,  then whitespace may appear between between the left and
              right parentheses when there is a single word;   otherwise,  the
              parentheses  will  be  treated  as forming a globbing pattern in
              that case.

       time [ pipeline ]
              The pipeline is executed, and timing statistics are reported  on
              the  standard error in the form specified by the TIMEFMT parame-
              ter.  If pipeline is omitted, print statistics about  the  shell
              process and its children.

       [[ exp ]]
              Evaluates  the conditional expression exp and return a zero exit
              status if it is true.  See the section `Conditional Expressions'
              for a description of exp.


ALTERNATE FORMS FOR COMPLEX COMMANDS

       Many  of  zsh's  complex  commands  have  alternate  forms.   These are
       non-standard and are likely not to be obvious even  to  seasoned  shell
       programmers; they should not be used anywhere that portability of shell
       code is a concern.

       The short versions below only work if sublist is of the form `{ list }'
       or  if the SHORT_LOOPS option is set.  For the if, while and until com-
       mands, in both these cases the test part of the loop must also be suit-
       ably  delimited, such as by `[[ ... ]]' or `(( ... ))', else the end of
       the test will not be recognized.  For the for, repeat, case and  select
       commands  no  such special form for the arguments is necessary, but the
       other condition (the special form of sublist or use of the  SHORT_LOOPS
       option) still applies.

       if list { list } [ elif list { list } ] ... [ else { list } ]
              An alternate form of if.  The rules mean that

                     if [[ -o ignorebraces ]] {
                       print yes
                     }

              works, but

                     if true {  # Does not work!
                       print yes
                     }

              does not, since the test is not suitably delimited.

       if list sublist
              A short form of the alternate `if'.  The same limitations on the
              form of list apply as for the previous form.

       for name ... ( word ... ) sublist
              A short form of for.

       for name ... [ in word ... ] term sublist
              where term is at least one newline or ;.  Another short form  of
              for.

       for (( [expr1] ; [expr2] ; [expr3] )) sublist
              A short form of the arithmetic for command.

       foreach name ... ( word ... ) list end
              Another form of for.

       while list { list }
              An  alternative form of while.  Note the limitations on the form
              of list mentioned above.

       until list { list }
              An alternative form of until.  Note the limitations on the  form
              of list mentioned above.

       repeat word sublist
              This is a short form of repeat.

       case word { [ [(] pattern [ | pattern ] ... ) list (;;|;&|;|) ] ... }
              An alternative form of case.

       select name [ in word term ] sublist
              where  term  is  at  least  one  newline  or ;.  A short form of
              select.


RESERVED WORDS

       The following words are recognized as reserved words when used  as  the
       first word of a command unless quoted or disabled using disable -r:

       do  done  esac then elif else fi for case if while function repeat time
       until select coproc nocorrect foreach end ! [[ { }

       Additionally,  `}'  is  recognized  in  any  position  if  neither  the
       IGNORE_BRACES option nor the IGNORE_CLOSE_BRACES option is set.


ERRORS

       Certain  errors  are  treated  as fatal by the shell: in an interactive
       shell, they cause control to return to  the  command  line,  and  in  a
       non-interactive  shell  they  cause  the shell to be aborted.  In older
       versions of zsh, a non-interactive shell running  a  script  would  not
       abort  completely, but would resume execution at the next command to be
       read from the script, skipping the remainder of any functions or  shell
       constructs  such as loops or conditions; this somewhat illogical behav-
       iour can be recovered by setting the option CONTINUE_ON_ERROR.

       Fatal errors found in non-interactive shells include:
       Failure to parse shell options passed when invoking the shell
       Failure to change options with the set builtin
       Parse errors of all sorts, including failures to parse
              mathematical expressions
       Failures to set or modify variable behaviour with typeset,
              local, declare, export, integer, float
       Execution of incorrectly positioned loop control structures
              (continue, break)
       Attempts to use regular expression with no regular expression
              module available
       Disallowed operations when the RESTRICTED options is set
       Failure to create a pipe needed for a pipeline
       Failure to create a multio
       Failure to autoload a module needed for a declared shell feature
       Errors creating command or process substitutions
       Syntax errors in glob qualifiers
       File generation errors where not caught by the option BAD_PATTERN
       All bad patterns used for matching within case statements
       File generation failures where not caused by NO_MATCH or
       All file generation errors where the pattern was used to create a
              multio
       Memory errors where detected by the shell
       Invalid subscripts to shell variables
       Attempts to assign read-only variables
       Logical errors with variables such as assignment to the wrong type
       Use of invalid variable names
       Errors in variable substitution syntax
       Failure to convert characters in $'...' expressions
              similar options

       If the POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, more errors associated with  shell
       builtin  commands are treated as fatal, as specified by the POSIX stan-
       dard.



COMMENTS

       In non-interactive shells, or in interactive shells with  the  INTERAC-
       TIVE_COMMENTS  option set, a word beginning with the third character of
       the histchars parameter (`#' by default) causes that word and  all  the
       following characters up to a newline to be ignored.


ALIASING

       Every  token  in the shell input is checked to see if there is an alias
       defined for it.  If so, it is replaced by the text of the alias  if  it
       is  in command position (if it could be the first word of a simple com-
       mand), or if the alias is global.  If the text ends with a  space,  the
       next  word  in  the shell input is treated as though it were in command
       position for purposes of alias expansion.  An alias  is  defined  using
       the alias builtin; global aliases may be defined using the -g option to
       that builtin.

       Alias expansion is done on the shell input before any  other  expansion
       except  history  expansion.   Therefore, if an alias is defined for the
       word foo, alias expansion may be avoided by quoting part of  the  word,
       e.g.  \foo.   Any  form  of quoting works, although there is nothing to
       prevent an alias being defined for the quoted  form  such  as  \foo  as
       well.  For use with completion, which would remove an initial backslash
       followed by a character that isn't special, it may be  more  convenient
       to  quote  the word by starting with a single quote, i.e. 'foo; comple-
       tion will automatically add the trailing single quote.

       There is a commonly encountered problem with aliases illustrated by the
       following code:

              alias echobar='echo bar'; echobar

       This  prints  a  message  that  the command echobar could not be found.
       This happens because aliases are expanded when the code is read in; the
       entire  line  is read in one go, so that when echobar is executed it is
       too late to expand the newly defined alias.  This is often a problem in
       shell scripts, functions, and code executed with `source' or `.'.  Con-
       sequently, use of functions  rather  than  aliases  is  recommended  in
       non-interactive code.

       Note  also  the  unhelpful  interaction of aliases and function defini-
       tions:

              alias func='noglob func'
              func() {
                  echo Do something with $*
              }

       Because aliases are expanded in function definitions, this  causes  the
       following command to be executed:

              noglob func() {
                  echo Do something with $*
              }

       which  defines noglob as well as func as functions with the body given.
       To avoid this, either quote the name func or use the alternative  func-
       tion  definition  form  `function func'.  Ensuring the alias is defined
       after the function works but is problematic if the code fragment  might
       be re-executed.



QUOTING

       A  character  may be quoted (that is, made to stand for itself) by pre-
       ceding it with a `\'.  `\' followed by a newline is ignored.

       A string enclosed between `$'' and `'' is processed the same way as the
       string arguments of the print builtin, and the resulting string is con-
       sidered to be entirely quoted.  A literal `'' character can be included
       in the string by using the `\'' escape.

       All  characters  enclosed  between a pair of single quotes ('') that is
       not preceded by a `$' are quoted.  A single quote cannot appear  within
       single  quotes unless the option RC_QUOTES is set, in which case a pair
       of single quotes are turned into a single quote.  For example,

              print ''''

       outputs nothing apart from a newline if RC_QUOTES is not set,  but  one
       single quote if it is set.

       Inside  double  quotes  (""), parameter and command substitution occur,
       and `\' quotes the characters `\', ``', `"', and `$'.


REDIRECTION

       If a command is followed by & and job control is not active,  then  the
       default  standard  input  for  the command is the empty file /dev/null.
       Otherwise, the environment for the execution of a command contains  the
       file  descriptors  of  the  invoking  shell as modified by input/output
       specifications.

       The following may appear anywhere in a simple command or may precede or
       follow  a  complex  command.   Expansion occurs before word or digit is
       used except as noted below.  If the result of substitution on word pro-
       duces  more  than  one  filename,  redirection occurs for each separate
       filename in turn.

       < word Open file word for reading as standard input.

       <> word
              Open file word for reading and writing as  standard  input.   If
              the file does not exist then it is created.

       > word Open file word for writing as standard output.  If the file does
              not exist then it is created.  If the file exists, and the CLOB-
              BER  option  is  unset,  this  causes an error; otherwise, it is
              truncated to zero length.

       >| word
       >! word
              Same as >, except that the file is truncated to zero  length  if
              it exists, even if CLOBBER is unset.

       >> word
              Open  file  word  for writing in append mode as standard output.
              If the file does not exist, and the  CLOBBER  option  is  unset,
              this causes an error; otherwise, the file is created.

       >>| word
       >>! word
              Same  as  >>,  except  that  the  file is created if it does not
              exist, even if CLOBBER is unset.

       <<[-] word
              The shell input is read up to a line that is the same  as  word,
              or to an end-of-file.  No parameter expansion, command substitu-
              tion or filename generation is performed on word.  The resulting
              document, called a here-document, becomes the standard input.

              If  any character of word is quoted with single or double quotes
              or a `\', no interpretation is placed upon the characters of the
              document.  Otherwise, parameter and command substitution occurs,
              `\' followed by a newline is removed, and `\' must  be  used  to
              quote  the  characters  `\', `$', ``' and the first character of
              word.

              Note that word itself does not undergo shell  expansion.   Back-
              quotes  in  word  do  not  have their usual effect; instead they
              behave similarly to double quotes, except  that  the  backquotes
              themselves  are  passed through unchanged.  (This information is
              given for completeness and it is not recommended that backquotes
              be  used.)  Quotes in the form $'...' have their standard effect
              of expanding backslashed references to special characters.

              If <<- is used, then all leading tabs are stripped from word and
              from the document.

       <<< word
              Perform  shell expansion on word and pass the result to standard
              input.  This is known as a here-string.  Compare the use of word
              in  here-documents  above,  where  word  does  not undergo shell
              expansion.

       <& number
       >& number
              The standard input/output is  duplicated  from  file  descriptor
              number (see dup2(2)).

       <& -
       >& -   Close the standard input/output.

       <& p
       >& p   The  input/output from/to the coprocess is moved to the standard
              input/output.

       >& word
       &> word
              (Except where `>& word' matches one of the above syntaxes;  `&>'
              can  always  be  used  to avoid this ambiguity.)  Redirects both
              standard output and standard error (file descriptor  2)  in  the
              manner  of  `>  word'.   Note  that  this does not have the same
              effect as `> word 2>&1' in the presence of multios (see the sec-
              tion below).

       >&| word
       >&! word
       &>| word
       &>! word
              Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descrip-
              tor 2) in the manner of `>| word'.

       >>& word
       &>> word
              Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descrip-
              tor 2) in the manner of `>> word'.

       >>&| word
       >>&! word
       &>>| word
       &>>! word
              Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descrip-
              tor 2) in the manner of `>>| word'.

       If one of the above is preceded by a digit, then  the  file  descriptor
       referred  to is that specified by the digit instead of the default 0 or
       1.  The order in which redirections are specified is significant.   The
       shell  evaluates  each  redirection  in  terms of the (file descriptor,
       file) association at the time of evaluation.  For example:

              ... 1>fname 2>&1

       first associates file descriptor 1 with file fname.  It then associates
       file descriptor 2 with the file associated with file descriptor 1 (that
       is, fname).  If the order of redirections were reversed, file  descrip-
       tor 2 would be associated with the terminal (assuming file descriptor 1
       had been) and then file descriptor 1  would  be  associated  with  file
       fname.

       The  `|&' command separator described in Simple Commands & Pipelines in
       zshmisc(1) is a shorthand for `2>&1 |'.

       The various forms of process substitution, `<(list)',  and  `=(list())'
       for  input and `>(list)' for output, are often used together with redi-
       rection.  For example, if word in an output redirection is of the  form
       `>(list)'  then the output is piped to the command represented by list.
       See Process Substitution in zshexpn(1).


OPENING FILE DESCRIPTORS USING PARAMETERS

       When the shell is parsing arguments to a command, and the shell  option
       IGNORE_BRACES  is  not set, a different form of redirection is allowed:
       instead of a digit before the operator there is a valid  shell  identi-
       fier  enclosed  in  braces.   The shell will open a new file descriptor
       that is guaranteed to be at least 10 and set the parameter named by the
       identifier  to  the  file  descriptor opened.  No whitespace is allowed
       between the closing brace and the redirection character.  For example:

              ... {myfd}>&1

       This opens a new file descriptor that is a duplicate of file descriptor
       1  and  sets  the  parameter myfd to the number of the file descriptor,
       which will be at least 10.  The new file descriptor can be  written  to
       using the syntax >&$myfd.

       The  syntax  {varid}>&-,  for example {myfd}>&-, may be used to close a
       file descriptor opened in this fashion.  Note that the parameter  given
       by varid must previously be set to a file descriptor in this case.

       It  is an error to open or close a file descriptor in this fashion when
       the parameter is readonly.  However, it is not  an  error  to  read  or
       write  a  file  descriptor using <&$param or >&$param if param is read-
       only.

       If the option CLOBBER is unset, it is an error to open a file  descrip-
       tor  using  a  parameter that is already set to an open file descriptor
       previously allocated by this mechanism.  Unsetting the parameter before
       using it for allocating a file descriptor avoids the error.

       Note  that this mechanism merely allocates or closes a file descriptor;
       it does not perform any redirections from or to it.  It is usually con-
       venient  to  allocate  a file descriptor prior to use as an argument to
       exec.  The syntax does not in any case work when  used  around  complex
       commands  such  as  parenthesised subshells or loops, where the opening
       brace is interpreted as part of a command list to be  executed  in  the
       current shell.

       The  following shows a typical sequence of allocation, use, and closing
       of a file descriptor:

              integer myfd
              exec {myfd}>~/logs/mylogfile.txt
              print This is a log message. >&$myfd
              exec {myfd}>&-

       Note that the expansion of  the  variable  in  the  expression  >&$myfd
       occurs  at  the  point  the  redirection  is opened.  This is after the
       expansion of command arguments and after any redirections to  the  left
       on the command line have been processed.


MULTIOS

       If the user tries to open a file descriptor for writing more than once,
       the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that  copies
       its  input  to  all the specified outputs, similar to tee, provided the
       MULTIOS option is set, as it is by default.  Thus:

              date >foo >bar

       writes the date to two files, named `foo' and `bar'.  Note that a  pipe
       is an implicit redirection; thus

              date >foo | cat

       writes the date to the file `foo', and also pipes it to cat.

       If  the MULTIOS option is set, the word after a redirection operator is
       also subjected to filename generation (globbing).  Thus

              : > *

       will truncate all files in the current directory, assuming  there's  at
       least  one.  (Without the MULTIOS option, it would create an empty file
       called `*'.)  Similarly, you can do

              echo exit 0 >> *.sh

       If the user tries to open a file descriptor for reading more than once,
       the  shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies
       all the specified inputs to its output in the order specified,  similar
       to cat, provided the MULTIOS option is set.  Thus

              sort <foo <fubar

       or even

              sort <f{oo,ubar}

       is equivalent to `cat foo fubar | sort'.

       Expansion of the redirection argument occurs at the point the redirect-
       ion is opened, at the point described above for the  expansion  of  the
       variable in >&$myfd.

       Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection; thus

              cat bar | sort <foo

       is equivalent to `cat bar foo | sort' (note the order of the inputs).

       If  the MULTIOS option is unset, each redirection replaces the previous
       redirection for that file descriptor.  However, all files redirected to
       are actually opened, so

              echo foo > bar > baz

       when MULTIOS is unset will truncate bar, and write `foo' into baz.

       There  is  a  problem  when an output multio is attached to an external
       program.  A simple example shows this:

              cat file >file1 >file2
              cat file1 file2

       Here, it is possible that the second `cat' will not  display  the  full
       contents  of  file1  and  file2  (i.e.  the  original  contents of file
       repeated twice).

       The reason for this is that the  multios  are  spawned  after  the  cat
       process  is  forked from the parent shell, so the parent shell does not
       wait for the multios to finish writing data.  This means the command as
       shown  can  exit  before  file1 and file2 are completely written.  As a
       workaround, it is possible to run the cat process as part of a  job  in
       the current shell:

              { cat file } >file >file2

       Here, the {...} job will pause to wait for both files to be written.



REDIRECTIONS WITH NO COMMAND

       When a simple command consists of one or more redirection operators and
       zero or more parameter assignments, but no command name, zsh can behave
       in several ways.

       If  the  parameter NULLCMD is not set or the option CSH_NULLCMD is set,
       an error is caused.  This is the csh behavior and CSH_NULLCMD is set by
       default when emulating csh.

       If  the option SH_NULLCMD is set, the builtin `:' is inserted as a com-
       mand with the given redirections.  This is the default  when  emulating
       sh or ksh.

       Otherwise, if the parameter NULLCMD is set, its value will be used as a
       command with the given redirections.  If both NULLCMD  and  READNULLCMD
       are  set,  then the value of the latter will be used instead of that of
       the former when the redirection is an input.  The default  for  NULLCMD
       is `cat' and for READNULLCMD is `more'. Thus

              < file

       shows the contents of file on standard output, with paging if that is a
       terminal.  NULLCMD and READNULLCMD may refer to shell functions.



COMMAND EXECUTION

       If a command name contains no slashes, the shell attempts to locate it.
       If  there exists a shell function by that name, the function is invoked
       as described in the section  `Functions'.   If  there  exists  a  shell
       builtin by that name, the builtin is invoked.

       Otherwise,  the  shell  searches  each element of $path for a directory
       containing an executable file by that name.  If the  search  is  unsuc-
       cessful,  the  shell prints an error message and returns a nonzero exit
       status.

       If execution fails because the file is not in  executable  format,  and
       the  file  is  not  a  directory,  it  is assumed to be a shell script.
       /bin/sh is spawned to execute it.  If the program is a  file  beginning
       with `#!', the remainder of the first line specifies an interpreter for
       the program.  The shell will execute the specified interpreter on oper-
       ating  systems that do not handle this executable format in the kernel.

       If no external command is found but a  function  command_not_found_han-
       dler  exists  the  shell  executes  this function with all command line
       arguments.  The function should return status zero if  it  successfully
       handled  the  command,  or non-zero status if it failed.  In the latter
       case the standard handling is applied: `command not found'  is  printed
       to  standard  error and the shell exits with status 127.  Note that the
       handler is executed in a subshell forked to execute  an  external  com-
       mand,  hence  changes  to  directories,  shell parameters, etc. have no
       effect on the main shell.


FUNCTIONS

       Shell functions are defined with the function reserved word or the spe-
       cial  syntax  `funcname  ()'.   Shell  functions are read in and stored
       internally.  Alias names are resolved when the function is read.  Func-
       tions  are  executed  like  commands with the arguments passed as posi-
       tional parameters.  (See the section `Command Execution'.)

       Functions execute in the same process as the caller and share all files
       and  present  working  directory  with  the caller.  A trap on EXIT set
       inside a function is executed after the function completes in the envi-
       ronment of the caller.

       The return builtin is used to return from function calls.

       Function  identifiers  can be listed with the functions builtin.  Func-
       tions can be undefined with the unfunction builtin.


AUTOLOADING FUNCTIONS

       A function can be marked as undefined using the  autoload  builtin  (or
       `functions  -u'  or `typeset -fu').  Such a function has no body.  When
       the function is first executed, the shell searches for  its  definition
       using the elements of the fpath variable.  Thus to define functions for
       autoloading, a typical sequence is:

              fpath=(~/myfuncs $fpath)
              autoload myfunc1 myfunc2 ...

       The usual alias expansion during reading  will  be  suppressed  if  the
       autoload builtin or its equivalent is given the option -U. This is rec-
       ommended for the use of functions supplied with the  zsh  distribution.
       Note  that  for functions precompiled with the zcompile builtin command
       the flag -U must be provided when the .zwc file is created, as the cor-
       responding information is compiled into the latter.

       For  each  element  in fpath, the shell looks for three possible files,
       the newest of which is used to load the definition for the function:

       element.zwc
              A file created with  the  zcompile  builtin  command,  which  is
              expected  to  contain  the  definitions for all functions in the
              directory named element.  The file is treated in the same manner
              as  a  directory  containing files for functions and is searched
              for the definition of the function.   If the definition  is  not
              found,  the  search for a definition proceeds with the other two
              possibilities described below.

              If element already includes a .zwc extension (i.e. the extension
              was  explicitly  given by the user), element is searched for the
              definition of the function without comparing its age to that  of
              other  files;  in  fact, there does not need to be any directory
              named element without the suffix.   Thus  including  an  element
              such as `/usr/local/funcs.zwc' in fpath will speed up the search
              for functions, with the  disadvantage  that  functions  included
              must  be  explicitly recompiled by hand before the shell notices
              any changes.

       element/function.zwc
              A file created with zcompile, which is expected to  contain  the
              definition  for function.  It may include other function defini-
              tions as well, but those are neither loaded nor executed; a file
              found  in  this way is searched only for the definition of func-
              tion.

       element/function
              A file of zsh command text, taken to be the definition for func-
              tion.

       In  summary, the order of searching is, first, in the parents of direc-
       tories in fpath for the newer of  either  a  compiled  directory  or  a
       directory  in fpath; second, if more than one of these contains a defi-
       nition for the function that is sought, the leftmost in  the  fpath  is
       chosen;  and  third, within a directory, the newer of either a compiled
       function or an ordinary function definition is used.

       If the KSH_AUTOLOAD option is set, or the file contains only  a  simple
       definition of the function, the file's contents will be executed.  This
       will normally define the function in question,  but  may  also  perform
       initialization, which is executed in the context of the function execu-
       tion, and may therefore define local parameters.  It is an error if the
       function is not defined by loading the file.

       Otherwise,  the  function body (with no surrounding `funcname() {...}')
       is taken to be the complete contents of the file.  This form allows the
       file  to be used directly as an executable shell script.  If processing
       of the file results in the  function  being  re-defined,  the  function
       itself  is  not re-executed.  To force the shell to perform initializa-
       tion and then call the function defined, the file should  contain  ini-
       tialization code (which will be executed then discarded) in addition to
       a complete function definition (which will be retained  for  subsequent
       calls to the function), and a call to the shell function, including any
       arguments, at the end.

       For example, suppose the autoload file func contains

              func() { print This is func; }
              print func is initialized

       then `func; func' with KSH_AUTOLOAD set will produce both  messages  on
       the  first  call, but only the message `This is func' on the second and
       subsequent calls.  Without KSH_AUTOLOAD set, it will produce  the  ini-
       tialization  message  on  the  first call, and the other message on the
       second and subsequent calls.

       It is also possible  to  create  a  function  that  is  not  marked  as
       autoloaded,  but  which loads its own definition by searching fpath, by
       using `autoload -X' within a shell function.  For example, the  follow-
       ing are equivalent:

              myfunc() {
                autoload -X
              }
              myfunc args...

       and

              unfunction myfunc   # if myfunc was defined
              autoload myfunc
              myfunc args...

       In  fact,  the  functions  command outputs `builtin autoload -X' as the
       body of an autoloaded function.  This is done so that

              eval "$(functions)"

       produces a reasonable result.  A true autoloaded function can be  iden-
       tified  by  the  presence  of  the  comment  `# undefined' in the body,
       because all comments are discarded from defined functions.

       To load the definition of an autoloaded function myfunc without execut-
       ing myfunc, use:

              autoload +X myfunc



ANONYMOUS FUNCTIONS

       If  no  name  is given for a function, it is `anonymous' and is handled
       specially.  Either form of function definition may be used: a `()' with
       no  preceding  name, or a `function' with an immediately following open
       brace.  The function is executed immediately at the point of definition
       and  is  not  stored  for  future  use.   The  function  name is set to
       `(anon)'.

       Arguments to the function may be specified as words following the clos-
       ing  brace  defining the function, hence if there are none no arguments
       (other than $0) are set.  This is a difference from the way other func-
       tions  are  parsed: normal function definitions may be followed by cer-
       tain keywords such as `else' or `fi', which will be  treated  as  argu-
       ments  to anonymous functions, so that a newline or semicolon is needed
       to force keyword interpretation.

       Note also that the argument list of any enclosing script or function is
       hidden  (as  would  be  the  case for any other function called at this
       point).

       Redirections may be applied to the anonymous function in the same  man-
       ner  as  to a current-shell structure enclosed in braces.  The main use
       of anonymous functions is to provide a scope for local variables.  This
       is  particularly  convenient  in start-up files as these do not provide
       their own local variable scope.

       For example,

              variable=outside
              function {
                local variable=inside
                print "I am $variable with arguments $*"
              } this and that
              print "I am $variable"

       outputs the following:

              I am inside with arguments this and that
              I am outside

       Note that function definitions with arguments that expand  to  nothing,
       for  example `name=; function $name { ... }', are not treated as anony-
       mous functions.  Instead, they are treated as normal  function  defini-
       tions where the definition is silently discarded.



SPECIAL FUNCTIONS

       Certain functions, if defined, have special meaning to the shell.


   Hook Functions
       For the functions below, it is possible to define an array that has the
       same name as the function with `_functions' appended.  Any  element  in
       such an array is taken as the name of a function to execute; it is exe-
       cuted in the same context and with the  same  arguments  as  the  basic
       function.   For example, if $chpwd_functions is an array containing the
       values `mychpwd', `chpwd_save_dirstack', then  the  shell  attempts  to
       execute  the functions `chpwd', `mychpwd' and `chpwd_save_dirstack', in
       that order.  Any function that does not exist is silently  ignored.   A
       function  found  by  this mechanism is referred to elsewhere as a `hook
       function'.  An error in any function causes subsequent functions not to
       be  run.  Note further that an error in a precmd hook causes an immedi-
       ately following periodic function not to run (though it may run at  the
       next opportunity).

       chpwd  Executed whenever the current working directory is changed.

       periodic
              If  the parameter PERIOD is set, this function is executed every
              $PERIOD seconds, just before a prompt.  Note  that  if  multiple
              functions  are  defined  using the array periodic_functions only
              one period is applied to the complete set of functions, and  the
              scheduled time is not reset if the list of functions is altered.
              Hence the set of functions is always called together.

       precmd Executed before each prompt.  Note that precommand functions are
              not  re-executed  simply because the command line is redrawn, as
              happens, for example, when a notification about an  exiting  job
              is displayed.

       preexec
              Executed  just  after a command has been read and is about to be
              executed.  If the history mechanism is active (and the line  was
              not discarded from the history buffer), the string that the user
              typed is passed as the first argument, otherwise it is an  empty
              string.   The  actual  command  that will be executed (including
              expanded aliases) is passed in two different forms:  the  second
              argument  is  a single-line, size-limited version of the command
              (with things like function bodies elided);  the  third  argument
              contains the full text that is being executed.

       zshaddhistory
              Executed  when  a  history line has been read interactively, but
              before it is executed.  The sole argument is the  complete  his-
              tory  line  (so  that  any  terminating  newline  will  still be
              present).

              If any of the hook functions return a non-zero value the history
              line will not be saved, although it lingers in the history until
              the next line is executed allow you to reuse or edit it  immedi-
              ately.

              A  hook function may call `fc -p ...' to switch the history con-
              text so that the history is saved in a different file  from  the
              that  in  the  global  HISTFILE parameter.  This is handled spe-
              cially: the history context is automatically restored after  the
              processing of the history line is finished.

              The  following  example  function first adds the history line to
              the normal history with the newline stripped,  which is  usually
              the  correct behaviour.  Then it switches the history context so
              that the line will be written to a history file in  the  current
              directory.

                     zshaddhistory() {
                       print -sr -- ${1%%$'\n'}
                       fc -p .zsh_local_history
                     }

       zshexit
              Executed at the point where the main shell is about to exit nor-
              mally.  This is not called by exiting subshells,  nor  when  the
              exec  precommand  modifier  is  used before an external command.
              Also, unlike TRAPEXIT, it is not called when functions exit.


   Trap Functions
       The functions below are treated specially but do not have corresponding
       hook arrays.

       TRAPNAL
              If defined and non-null, this function will be executed whenever
              the shell catches a signal SIGNAL, where NAL is a signal name as
              specified  for  the  kill  builtin.   The  signal number will be
              passed as the first parameter to the function.

              If a function of this form is defined and null,  the  shell  and
              processes spawned by it will ignore SIGNAL.

              The return status from the function is handled specially.  If it
              is zero, the signal is assumed to have been handled, and  execu-
              tion  continues  normally.   Otherwise, the shell will behave as
              interrupted except  that  the  return  status  of  the  trap  is
              retained.

              Programs  terminated  by  uncaught  signals typically return the
              status 128 plus the signal number.  Hence the  following  causes
              the  handler for SIGINT to print a message, then mimic the usual
              effect of the signal.

                     TRAPINT() {
                       print "Caught SIGINT, aborting."
                       return $(( 128 + $1 ))
                     }

              The functions TRAPZERR, TRAPDEBUG and TRAPEXIT  are  never  exe-
              cuted inside other traps.

       TRAPDEBUG
              If  the  option  DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD  is set (as it is by default),
              executed before each command; otherwise executed after each com-
              mand.  See the description of the trap builtin in zshbuiltins(1)
              for details of additional features provided in debug traps.

       TRAPEXIT
              Executed when the shell exits,  or  when  the  current  function
              exits  if  defined  inside  a  function.  The value of $? at the
              start of execution is the exit status of the shell or the return
              status of the function exiting.

       TRAPZERR
              Executed  whenever  a  command has a non-zero exit status.  How-
              ever, the function is not executed if the command occurred in  a
              sublist  followed  by  `&&' or `||'; only the final command in a
              sublist of this type causes the trap to be executed.  The  func-
              tion TRAPERR acts the same as TRAPZERR on systems where there is
              no SIGERR (this is the usual case).

       The functions beginning `TRAP' may alternatively be  defined  with  the
       trap  builtin:   this  may be preferable for some uses.  Setting a trap
       with one form removes any trap of the other form for the  same  signal;
       removing  a  trap in either form removes all traps for the same signal.
       The forms

              TRAPNAL() {
               # code
              }

       ('function traps') and

              trap '
               # code
              ' NAL

       ('list traps') are equivalent in most ways, the  exceptions  being  the
       following:

       o      Function  traps  have  all  the  properties of normal functions,
              appearing in the list of functions and being called  with  their
              own  function context rather than the context where the trap was
              triggered.

       o      The return status from function  traps  is  special,  whereas  a
              return from a list trap causes the surrounding context to return
              with the given status.

       o      Function traps are not reset  within  subshells,  in  accordance
              with  zsh  behaviour;  list  traps are reset, in accordance with
              POSIX behaviour.


JOBS

       If the MONITOR option is set, an interactive  shell  associates  a  job
       with  each  pipeline.  It keeps a table of current jobs, printed by the
       jobs command, and assigns them small integer numbers.  When  a  job  is
       started  asynchronously  with  `&', the shell prints a line to standard
       error which looks like:

              [1] 1234

       indicating that the job which was started asynchronously was job number
       1 and had one (top-level) process, whose process ID was 1234.

       If  a  job  is  started with `&|' or `&!', then that job is immediately
       disowned.  After startup, it does not have a place in  the  job  table,
       and is not subject to the job control features described here.

       If  you are running a job and wish to do something else you may hit the
       key ^Z (control-Z) which sends a TSTP signal to the current job:   this
       key  may  be redefined by the susp option of the external stty command.
       The shell will then normally indicate  that  the  job  has  been  `sus-
       pended',  and  print another prompt.  You can then manipulate the state
       of this job, putting it in the background with the bg command,  or  run
       some  other  commands  and  then eventually bring the job back into the
       foreground with the foreground command fg.  A ^Z takes  effect  immedi-
       ately  and is like an interrupt in that pending output and unread input
       are discarded when it is typed.

       A job being run in the background will suspend if it tries to read from
       the terminal.

       Note  that  if  the  job running in the foreground is a shell function,
       then suspending it will have the effect of causing the shell  to  fork.
       This  is  necessary  to  separate the function's state from that of the
       parent shell performing the job control, so that the latter can  return
       to  the  command  line prompt.  As a result, even if fg is used to con-
       tinue the job the function will no longer be part of the parent  shell,
       and any variables set by the function will not be visible in the parent
       shell.  Thus the behaviour is different from the case where  the  func-
       tion  was  never suspended.  Zsh is different from many other shells in
       this regard.

       The same behaviour is found when the shell is  executing  code  as  the
       right  hand  side  of a pipeline or any complex shell construct such as
       if, for, etc., in order that the entire block of code can be managed as
       a  single job.  Background jobs are normally allowed to produce output,
       but this can be disabled by giving the command `stty tostop'.   If  you
       set this tty option, then background jobs will suspend when they try to
       produce output like they do when they try to read input.

       When a command is suspended and continued later with  the  fg  or  wait
       builtins,  zsh  restores tty modes that were in effect when it was sus-
       pended.  This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is  contin-
       ued via `kill -CONT', nor when it is continued with bg.

       There  are  several  ways  to refer to jobs in the shell.  A job can be
       referred to by the process ID of any process of the job or  by  one  of
       the following:

       %number
              The job with the given number.
       %string
              Any job whose command line begins with string.
       %?string
              Any job whose command line contains string.
       %%     Current job.
       %+     Equivalent to `%%'.
       %-     Previous job.

       The shell learns immediately whenever a process changes state.  It nor-
       mally informs you whenever a job becomes blocked  so  that  no  further
       progress  is possible.  If the NOTIFY option is not set, it waits until
       just before it prints a prompt before it informs you.  All such notifi-
       cations  are  sent directly to the terminal, not to the standard output
       or standard error.

       When the monitor mode is on, each background job that  completes  trig-
       gers any trap set for CHLD.

       When  you  try  to leave the shell while jobs are running or suspended,
       you will be warned that `You have suspended (running) jobs'.   You  may
       use  the  jobs command to see what they are.  If you do this or immedi-
       ately try to exit again, the shell will not warn you a second time; the
       suspended  jobs will be terminated, and the running jobs will be sent a
       SIGHUP signal, if the HUP option is set.

       To avoid having the shell terminate the running jobs,  either  use  the
       nohup command (see nohup(1)) or the disown builtin.


SIGNALS

       The INT and QUIT signals for an invoked command are ignored if the com-
       mand is followed by `&' and the MONITOR  option  is  not  active.   The
       shell  itself  always ignores the QUIT signal.  Otherwise, signals have
       the values inherited by the shell from its parent (but see the  TRAPNAL
       special functions in the section `Functions').


ARITHMETIC EVALUATION

       The  shell  can  perform  integer and floating point arithmetic, either
       using the builtin let, or via a substitution of the form $((...)).  For
       integers,  the  shell is usually compiled to use 8-byte precision where
       this is available, otherwise precision is 4 bytes.  This can be tested,
       for example, by giving the command `print - $(( 12345678901 ))'; if the
       number appears unchanged, the precision is at least 8 bytes.   Floating
       point  arithmetic  always  uses  the `double' type with whatever corre-
       sponding precision is provided by the compiler and the library.

       The let builtin command takes arithmetic expressions as arguments; each
       is  evaluated  separately.   Since many of the arithmetic operators, as
       well as spaces, require quoting, an alternative form is  provided:  for
       any command which begins with a `((', all the characters until a match-
       ing `))' are treated as a quoted expression  and  arithmetic  expansion
       performed  as  for  an  argument  of let.  More precisely, `((...))' is
       equivalent to `let "..."'.  The return status is 0  if  the  arithmetic
       value of the expression is non-zero, 1 if it is zero, and 2 if an error
       occurred.

       For example, the following statement

              (( val = 2 + 1 ))

       is equivalent to

              let "val = 2 + 1"

       both assigning the value 3 to the shell variable val  and  returning  a
       zero status.

       Integers can be in bases other than 10.  A leading `0x' or `0X' denotes
       hexadecimal.  Integers may also be of the form `base#n', where base  is
       a decimal number between two and thirty-six representing the arithmetic
       base and n is a number in that base (for example,  `16#ff'  is  255  in
       hexadecimal).   The base# may also be omitted, in which case base 10 is
       used.  For backwards compatibility the form `[base]n' is also accepted.

       An  integer expression or a base given in the form `base#n' may contain
       underscores (`_') after the leading digit for  visual  guidance;  these
       are  ignored  in  computation.   Examples  are 1_000_000 or 0xffff_ffff
       which are equivalent to 1000000 and 0xffffffff respectively.

       It is also possible to specify a base to be used for output in the form
       `[#base]',  for  example  `[#16]'.  This is used when outputting arith-
       metical substitutions or when assigning to scalar  parameters,  but  an
       explicitly  defined  integer  or  floating  point parameter will not be
       affected.  If an integer variable is implicitly defined  by  an  arith-
       metic  expression,  any  base  specified in this way will be set as the
       variable's output arithmetic base as if the option  `-i  base'  to  the
       typeset builtin had been used.  The expression has no precedence and if
       it occurs more than once in a mathematical expression, the last encoun-
       tered  is  used.   For  clarity it is recommended that it appear at the
       beginning of an expression.  As an example:

              typeset -i 16 y
              print $(( [#8] x = 32, y = 32 ))
              print $x $y

       outputs first `8#40', the rightmost value in the given output base, and
       then  `8#40 16#20', because y has been explicitly declared to have out-
       put base 16, while x (assuming it does not already exist) is implicitly
       typed  by  the arithmetic evaluation, where it acquires the output base
       8.

       If the C_BASES option is set, hexadecimal numbers  in  the  standard  C
       format,  for  example 0xFF instead of the usual `16#FF'.  If the option
       OCTAL_ZEROES is also set (it is not by default), octal numbers will  be
       treated  similarly  and  hence appear as `077' instead of `8#77'.  This
       option has no effect on the output of bases other than hexadecimal  and
       octal, and these formats are always understood on input.

       When  an output base is specified using the `[#base]' syntax, an appro-
       priate base prefix will be output if necessary, so that the value  out-
       put  is  valid  syntax  for  input.   If  the # is doubled, for example
       `[##16]', then no base prefix is output.

       Floating point constants are recognized by the presence  of  a  decimal
       point  or an exponent.  The decimal point may be the first character of
       the constant, but the exponent character e or E may not, as it will  be
       taken  for  a  parameter name.  All numeric parts (before and after the
       decimal point and in the exponent) may contain  underscores  after  the
       leading digit for visual guidance; these are ignored in computation.

       An  arithmetic expression uses nearly the same syntax and associativity
       of expressions as in C.

       In the native mode of operation, the following operators are  supported
       (listed in decreasing order of precedence):

       + - ! ~ ++ --
              unary plus/minus, logical NOT, complement, {pre,post}{in,de}cre-
              ment
       << >>  bitwise shift left, right
       &      bitwise AND
       ^      bitwise XOR
       |      bitwise OR
       **     exponentiation
       * / %  multiplication, division, modulus (remainder)
       + -    addition, subtraction
       < > <= >=
              comparison
       == !=  equality and inequality
       &&     logical AND
       || ^^  logical OR, XOR
       ? :    ternary operator
       = += -= *= /= %= &= ^= |= <<= >>= &&= ||= ^^= **=
              assignment
       ,      comma operator

       The operators `&&', `||', `&&=', and `||='  are  short-circuiting,  and
       only  one of the latter two expressions in a ternary operator is evalu-
       ated.  Note the precedence of the bitwise AND, OR, and XOR operators.

       With the option C_PRECEDENCES the precedences (but no other properties)
       of the operators are altered to be the same as those in most other lan-
       guages that support the relevant operators:

       + - ! ~ ++ --
              unary plus/minus, logical NOT, complement, {pre,post}{in,de}cre-
              ment
       **     exponentiation
       * / %  multiplication, division, modulus (remainder)
       + -    addition, subtraction
       << >>  bitwise shift left, right
       < > <= >=
              comparison
       == !=  equality and inequality
       &      bitwise AND
       ^      bitwise XOR
       |      bitwise OR
       &&     logical AND
       ^^     logical XOR
       ||     logical OR
       ? :    ternary operator
       = += -= *= /= %= &= ^= |= <<= >>= &&= ||= ^^= **=
              assignment
       ,      comma operator

       Note  the  precedence  of exponentiation in both cases is below that of
       unary operators, hence `-3**2' evaluates as `9', not -9.  Use parenthe-
       ses  where  necessary: `-(3**2)'.  This is for compatibility with other
       shells.

       Mathematical functions can be  called  with  the  syntax  `func(args)',
       where  the  function  decides  if  the  args  is  used as a string or a
       comma-separated list of arithmetic  expressions.  The  shell  currently
       defines  no mathematical functions by default, but the module zsh/math-
       func may be loaded with the zmodload builtin to provide standard float-
       ing point mathematical functions.

       An  expression of the form `##x' where x is any character sequence such
       as `a', `^A', or `\M-\C-x' gives the value of  this  character  and  an
       expression of the form `#foo' gives the value of the first character of
       the contents of the parameter foo.  Character values are  according  to
       the  character  set used in the current locale; for multibyte character
       handling the option MULTIBYTE must be set.  Note that this form is dif-
       ferent  from `$#foo', a standard parameter substitution which gives the
       length of the parameter foo.  `#\' is accepted instead of `##', but its
       use is deprecated.

       Named  parameters  and  subscripted  arrays  can  be referenced by name
       within an arithmetic expression without using the  parameter  expansion
       syntax.  For example,

              ((val2 = val1 * 2))

       assigns twice the value of $val1 to the parameter named val2.

       An  internal  integer representation of a named parameter can be speci-
       fied with the integer builtin.  Arithmetic evaluation is  performed  on
       the  value  of each assignment to a named parameter declared integer in
       this manner.  Assigning a floating point number to an  integer  results
       in rounding down to the next integer.

       Likewise,  floating  point  numbers  can  be  declared  with  the float
       builtin; there are two types, differing only in their output format, as
       described  for  the typeset builtin.  The output format can be bypassed
       by using arithmetic substitution instead of the parameter substitution,
       i.e.  `${float}'  uses  the  defined  format,  but  `$((float))' uses a
       generic floating point format.

       Promotion of integer to floating point values is performed where neces-
       sary.   In  addition,  if  any operator which requires an integer (`~',
       `&', `|', `^', `%', `<<', `>>' and their equivalents  with  assignment)
       is given a floating point argument, it will be silently rounded down to
       the next integer.

       Scalar variables can hold integer or floating point values at different
       times; there is no memory of the numeric type in this case.

       If a variable is first assigned in a numeric context without previously
       being declared, it will be implicitly typed as  integer  or  float  and
       retain  that  type either until the type is explicitly changed or until
       the end of the scope.  This  can  have  unforeseen  consequences.   For
       example, in the loop

              for (( f = 0; f < 1; f += 0.1 )); do
              # use $f
              done

       if  f has not already been declared, the first assignment will cause it
       to be created as an integer, and consequently the operation `f +=  0.1'
       will  always cause the result to be truncated to zero, so that the loop
       will fail.  A simple fix would be to turn the initialization into `f  =
       0.0'.   It is therefore best to declare numeric variables with explicit
       types.


CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS

       A conditional expression is used with the [[ compound command  to  test
       attributes  of  files  and  to compare strings.  Each expression can be
       constructed from one or more of the following unary or  binary  expres-
       sions:

       -a file
              true if file exists.

       -b file
              true if file exists and is a block special file.

       -c file
              true if file exists and is a character special file.

       -d file
              true if file exists and is a directory.

       -e file
              true if file exists.

       -f file
              true if file exists and is a regular file.

       -g file
              true if file exists and has its setgid bit set.

       -h file
              true if file exists and is a symbolic link.

       -k file
              true if file exists and has its sticky bit set.

       -n string
              true if length of string is non-zero.

       -o option
              true if option named option is on.  option may be a single char-
              acter, in which case it is a single letter  option  name.   (See
              the section `Specifying Options'.)

       -p file
              true if file exists and is a FIFO special file (named pipe).

       -r file
              true if file exists and is readable by current process.

       -s file
              true if file exists and has size greater than zero.

       -t fd  true  if file descriptor number fd is open and associated with a
              terminal device.  (note: fd is not optional)

       -u file
              true if file exists and has its setuid bit set.

       -w file
              true if file exists and is writable by current process.

       -x file
              true if file exists and is executable by  current  process.   If
              file  exists  and  is  a directory, then the current process has
              permission to search in the directory.

       -z string
              true if length of string is zero.

       -L file
              true if file exists and is a symbolic link.

       -O file
              true if file exists and is owned by the  effective  user  ID  of
              this process.

       -G file
              true if file exists and its group matches the effective group ID
              of this process.

       -S file
              true if file exists and is a socket.

       -N file
              true if file exists and its access time is not  newer  than  its
              modification time.

       file1 -nt file2
              true if file1 exists and is newer than file2.

       file1 -ot file2
              true if file1 exists and is older than file2.

       file1 -ef file2
              true if file1 and file2 exist and refer to the same file.

       string = pattern
       string == pattern
              true  if string matches pattern.  The `==' form is the preferred
              one.  The `=' form is for backward compatibility and  should  be
              considered obsolete.

       string != pattern
              true if string does not match pattern.

       string =~ regexp
              true  if  string  matches the regular expression regexp.  If the
              option RE_MATCH_PCRE is set regexp is tested as a  PCRE  regular
              expression  using  the  zsh/pcre  module, else it is tested as a
              POSIX extended regular expression using  the  zsh/regex  module.
              Upon  successful match, some variables will be updated; no vari-
              ables are changed if the matching fails.

              If the option BASH_REMATCH is not set the scalar parameter MATCH
              is set to the substring that matched the pattern and the integer
              parameters MBEGIN and MEND to the index of the  start  and  end,
              respectively,  of  the  match  in string, such that if string is
              contained in variable var the expression `${var[$MBEGIN,$MEND]}'
              is  identical to `$MATCH'.  The setting of the option KSH_ARRAYS
              is respected.  Likewise, the array match  is  set  to  the  sub-
              strings that matched parenthesised subexpressions and the arrays
              mbegin and mend to the indices of the start and  end  positions,
              respectively,  of  the substrings within string.  The arrays are
              not set if there were  no  parenthesised  subexpresssions.   For
              example,  if  the string `a short string' is matched against the
              regular  expression  `s(...)t',  then   (assuming   the   option
              KSH_ARRAYS is not set) MATCH, MBEGIN and MEND are `short', 3 and
              7, respectively, while match, mbegin and mend are  single  entry
              arrays containing the strings `hor', `4' and `6, respectively.

              If  the option BASH_REMATCH is set the array BASH_REMATCH is set
              to the substring that matched the pattern followed by  the  sub-
              strings  that  matched  parenthesised  subexpressions within the
              pattern.

       string1 < string2
              true if string1 comes before string2 based  on  ASCII  value  of
              their characters.

       string1 > string2
              true  if  string1  comes  after  string2 based on ASCII value of
              their characters.

       exp1 -eq exp2
              true if exp1 is numerically equal to exp2.  Note that for purely
              numeric  comparisons use of the ((...)) builtin described in the
              section `ARITHMETIC EVALUATION' is more convenient  than  condi-
              tional expressions.

       exp1 -ne exp2
              true if exp1 is numerically not equal to exp2.

       exp1 -lt exp2
              true if exp1 is numerically less than exp2.

       exp1 -gt exp2
              true if exp1 is numerically greater than exp2.

       exp1 -le exp2
              true if exp1 is numerically less than or equal to exp2.

       exp1 -ge exp2
              true if exp1 is numerically greater than or equal to exp2.

       ( exp )
              true if exp is true.

       ! exp  true if exp is false.

       exp1 && exp2
              true if exp1 and exp2 are both true.

       exp1 || exp2
              true if either exp1 or exp2 is true.

       Normal  shell  expansion  is  performed on the file, string and pattern
       arguments, but the result of each expansion is constrained to be a sin-
       gle  word, similar to the effect of double quotes.  Filename generation
       is not performed on any form of argument to conditions.  However,  pat-
       tern  metacharacters are active for the pattern arguments; the patterns
       are the same as those used for filename generation, see zshexpn(1), but
       there  is  no  special  behaviour  of `/' nor initial dots, and no glob
       qualifiers are allowed.

       In each of the above expressions, if file is of the  form  `/dev/fd/n',
       where  n  is  an  integer, then the test applied to the open file whose
       descriptor number is n, even if the underlying system does not  support
       the /dev/fd directory.

       In  the  forms which do numeric comparison, the expressions exp undergo
       arithmetic expansion as if they were enclosed in $((...)).

       For example, the following:

              [[ ( -f foo || -f bar ) && $report = y* ]] && print File exists.

       tests if either file foo or file bar exists, and if so, if the value of
       the  parameter  report  begins  with  `y'; if the complete condition is
       true, the message `File exists.' is printed.


EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES

       Prompt sequences undergo a special form of  expansion.   This  type  of
       expansion is also available using the -P option to the print builtin.

       If the PROMPT_SUBST option is set, the prompt string is first subjected
       to parameter expansion, command substitution and arithmetic  expansion.
       See zshexpn(1).

       Certain escape sequences may be recognised in the prompt string.

       If  the  PROMPT_BANG  option is set, a `!' in the prompt is replaced by
       the current history event number.  A literal `!'  may  then  be  repre-
       sented as `!!'.

       If  the  PROMPT_PERCENT  option  is  set, certain escape sequences that
       start with `%' are expanded.  Many escapes are  followed  by  a  single
       character,  although  some  of  these take an optional integer argument
       that should appear between the  `%'  and  the  next  character  of  the
       sequence.   More  complicated escape sequences are available to provide
       conditional expansion.



SIMPLE PROMPT ESCAPES

   Special characters
       %%     A `%'.

       %)     A `)'.


   Login information
       %l     The line (tty) the user is logged in on, without `/dev/' prefix.
              If the name starts with `/dev/tty', that prefix is stripped.

       %M     The full machine hostname.

       %m     The hostname up to the first `.'.  An integer may follow the `%'
              to specify how many components  of  the  hostname  are  desired.
              With a negative integer, trailing components of the hostname are
              shown.

       %n     $USERNAME.

       %y     The line (tty) the user is logged in on, without `/dev/' prefix.
              This does not treat `/dev/tty' names specially.


   Shell state
       %#     A  `#'  if  the  shell is running with privileges, a `%' if not.
              Equivalent to `%(!.#.%%)'.  The definition of `privileged',  for
              these  purposes,  is  that either the effective user ID is zero,
              or, if POSIX.1e capabilities are supported, that  at  least  one
              capability  is  raised  in  either  the Effective or Inheritable
              capability vectors.

       %?     The return status of the last command executed just  before  the
              prompt.

       %_     The  status  of the parser, i.e. the shell constructs (like `if'
              and `for') that have been started on the command line. If  given
              an  integer  number  that  many strings will be printed; zero or
              negative or no integer means print as many as there  are.   This
              is most useful in prompts PS2 for continuation lines and PS4 for
              debugging with the XTRACE option; in the  latter  case  it  will
              also work non-interactively.

       %d
       /      Current  working  directory.   If an integer follows the `%', it
              specifies a number of trailing components of the current working
              directory  to show; zero means the whole path.  A negative inte-
              ger specifies leading components, i.e. %-1d specifies the  first
              component.

       %~     As  %d  and %/, but if the current working directory has a named
              directory as its prefix, that part is replaced by a `~' followed
              by  the  name  of  the directory.  If it starts with $HOME, that
              part is replaced by a `~'.

       %h
       %!     Current history event number.

       %i     The line number currently being executed in the script,  sourced
              file,  or  shell  function given by %N.  This is most useful for
              debugging as part of $PS4.

       %I     The line number currently being executed in the file  %x.   This
              is similar to %i, but the line number is always a line number in
              the file where the code was defined, even if the code is a shell
              function.

       %j     The number of jobs.

       %L     The current value of $SHLVL.

       %N     The name of the script, sourced file, or shell function that zsh
              is currently executing, whichever was started most recently.  If
              there is none, this is equivalent to the parameter $0.  An inte-
              ger may follow the `%' to specify a number of trailing path com-
              ponents  to  show; zero means the full path.  A negative integer
              specifies leading components.

       %x     The name of the file containing the source code currently  being
              executed.  This behaves as %N except that function and eval com-
              mand names are not shown,  instead  the  file  where  they  were
              defined.

       %c
       %.
       %C     Trailing component of the current working directory.  An integer
              may follow the `%' to get more than one component.  Unless  `%C'
              is used, tilde contraction is performed first.  These are depre-
              cated as %c and %C are equivalent to %1~ and %1/,  respectively,
              while explicit positive integers have the same effect as for the
              latter two sequences.


   Date and time
       %D     The date in yy-mm-dd format.

       %T     Current time of day, in 24-hour format.

       %t
       %@     Current time of day, in 12-hour, am/pm format.

       %*     Current time of day in 24-hour format, with seconds.

       %w     The date in day-dd format.

       %W     The date in mm/dd/yy format.

       %D{string}
              string is formatted using  the  strftime  function.   See  strf-
       time(3)  for  more details.  Various zsh extensions provide num-
              bers with no leading zero or space if the  number  is  a  single
              digit:

              %f     a day of the month
              %K     the hour of the day on the 24-hour clock
              %L     the hour of the day on the 12-hour clock

              The  GNU extension that a `-' between the % and the format char-
              acter causes a leading zero or space to be stripped  is  handled
              directly  by  the shell for the format characters d, f, H, k, l,
              m, M, S and y; any other format characters are provided to strf-
              time()  with any leading `-', present, so the handling is system
              dependent.  Further GNU extensions are not supported at present.


   Visual effects
       %B (%b)
              Start (stop) boldface mode.

       %E     Clear to end of line.

       %U (%u)
              Start (stop) underline mode.

       %S (%s)
              Start (stop) standout mode.

       %F (%f)
              Start  (stop)  using a different foreground colour, if supported
              by the terminal.  The colour may be specified two  ways:  either
              as  a  numeric  argument,  as normal, or by a sequence in braces
              following the %F, for example %F{red}.  In the latter  case  the
              values  allowed  are  as  described  for  the  fg  zle_highlight
              attribute; see Character Highlighting in zshzle(1).  This  means
              that numeric colours are allowed in the second format also.

       %K (%k)
              Start (stop) using a different bacKground colour.  The syntax is
              identical to that for %F and %f.

       %{...%}
              Include a string as  a  literal  escape  sequence.   The  string
              within  the braces should not change the cursor position.  Brace
              pairs can nest.

              A positive numeric argument between the % and the {  is  treated
              as described for %G below.

       %G     Within  a  %{...%} sequence, include a `glitch': that is, assume
              that a single character width will be output.   This  is  useful
              when  outputting  characters  that otherwise cannot be correctly
              handled by the shell, such as the  alternate  character  set  on
              some  terminals.   The  characters  in  question can be included
              within a %{...%} sequence together with the  appropriate  number
              of  %G  sequences  to  indicate  the  correct width.  An integer
              between the `%' and `G' indicates a character width  other  than
              one.   Hence  %{seq%2G%} outputs seq and assumes it takes up the
              width of two standard characters.

              Multiple uses of %G accumulate in the obvious fashion; the posi-
              tion  of  the %G is unimportant.  Negative integers are not han-
              dled.

              Note that when prompt truncation is in use it  is  advisable  to
              divide  up  output  into  single  characters within each %{...%}
              group so that the correct truncation point can be found.



CONDITIONAL SUBSTRINGS IN PROMPTS

       %v     The value of the first element of  the  psvar  array  parameter.
              Following  the  `%'  with  an  integer gives that element of the
              array.  Negative integers count from the end of the array.

       %(x.true-text.false-text)
              Specifies a ternary expression.  The character following  the  x
              is  arbitrary;  the  same character is used to separate the text
              for the `true' result from that for the  `false'  result.   This
              separator  may  not appear in the true-text, except as part of a
              %-escape sequence.  A `)' may appear in the false-text as  `%)'.
              true-text  and  false-text  may  both contain arbitrarily-nested
              escape sequences, including further ternary expressions.

              The left parenthesis may be preceded or followed by  a  positive
              integer  n,  which defaults to zero.  A negative integer will be
              multiplied by -1.  The test character x may be any of  the  fol-
              lowing:

              !      True if the shell is running with privileges.
              #      True if the effective uid of the current process is n.
              ?      True if the exit status of the last command was n.
              _      True if at least n shell constructs were started.
              C
              /      True if the current absolute path has at least n elements
                     relative to the root directory, hence / is counted  as  0
                     elements.
              c
              .
              ~      True if the current path, with prefix replacement, has at
                     least n elements relative to the root directory, hence  /
                     is counted as 0 elements.
              D      True if the month is equal to n (January = 0).
              d      True if the day of the month is equal to n.
              g      True if the effective gid of the current process is n.
              j      True if the number of jobs is at least n.
              L      True if the SHLVL parameter is at least n.
              l      True  if  at least n characters have already been printed
                     on the current line.
              S      True if the SECONDS parameter is at least n.
              T      True if the time in hours is equal to n.
              t      True if the time in minutes is equal to n.
              v      True if the array psvar has at least n elements.
              V      True  if  element  n  of  the  array  psvar  is  set  and
                     non-empty.
              w      True if the day of the week is equal to n (Sunday = 0).

       %<string<
       %>string>
       %[xstring]
              Specifies  truncation  behaviour for the remainder of the prompt
              string.   The  third,  deprecated,   form   is   equivalent   to
              `%xstringx',  i.e.  x  may be `<' or `>'.  The numeric argument,
              which in the third form may appear immediately  after  the  `[',
              specifies  the  maximum  permitted length of the various strings
              that can be displayed in the prompt.  The string  will  be  dis-
              played  in  place  of  the truncated portion of any string; note
              this does not undergo prompt expansion.

              The forms with `<' truncate at the left of the string,  and  the
              forms  with  `>' truncate at the right of the string.  For exam-
              ple, if  the  current  directory  is  `/home/pike',  the  prompt
              `%8<..<%/'  will expand to `..e/pike'.  In this string, the ter-
              minating character (`<', `>' or `]'), or in fact any  character,
              may be quoted by a preceding `\'; note when using print -P, how-
              ever, that this must be doubled as the string is also subject to
              standard  print  processing,  in  addition  to  any  backslashes
              removed by a double quoted string:  the worst case is  therefore
              `print -P "%<\\\\<<..."'.

              If the string is longer than the specified truncation length, it
              will appear in full, completely replacing the truncated  string.

              The part of the prompt string to be truncated runs to the end of
              the string, or to the end of the next  enclosing  group  of  the
              `%('  construct,  or  to  the next truncation encountered at the
              same grouping level (i.e. truncations inside a  `%('  are  sepa-
              rate), which ever comes first.  In particular, a truncation with
              argument zero (e.g. `%<<') marks the end of  the  range  of  the
              string  to  be truncated while turning off truncation from there
              on. For example, the prompt  '%10<...<%~%<<%#  '  will  print  a
              truncated representation of the current directory, followed by a
              `%' or `#', followed by a space.  Without the `%<<',  those  two
              characters would be included in the string to be truncated.



ZSHEXPN(1)                                                          ZSHEXPN(1)




NAME

       zshexpn - zsh expansion and substitution


DESCRIPTION

       The  following types of expansions are performed in the indicated order
       in five steps:

       History Expansion
              This is performed only in interactive shells.

       Alias Expansion
              Aliases are expanded immediately  before  the  command  line  is
              parsed as explained under Aliasing in zshmisc(1).

       Process Substitution
       Parameter Expansion
       Command Substitution
       Arithmetic Expansion
       Brace Expansion
              These  five  are performed in one step in left-to-right fashion.
              After these expansions, all unquoted occurrences of the  charac-
              ters `\', `'' and `"' are removed.

       Filename Expansion
              If  the  SH_FILE_EXPANSION option is set, the order of expansion
              is modified for compatibility with sh and  ksh.   In  that  case
              filename  expansion  is performed immediately after alias expan-
              sion, preceding the set of five expansions mentioned above.

       Filename Generation
              This expansion, commonly referred to as globbing, is always done
              last.

       The following sections explain the types of expansion in detail.



HISTORY EXPANSION

       History  expansion  allows you to use words from previous command lines
       in the command line you are typing.  This simplifies  spelling  correc-
       tions and the repetition of complicated commands or arguments.  Immedi-
       ately before execution, each command is saved in the history list,  the
       size  of  which  is controlled by the HISTSIZE parameter.  The one most
       recent command is always retained in any case.  Each saved  command  in
       the  history  list  is called a history event and is assigned a number,
       beginning with 1 (one) when the shell starts up.   The  history  number
       that  you  may see in your prompt (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in
       zshmisc(1)) is the number that is to be assigned to the next command.


   Overview
       A history expansion begins with the first character  of  the  histchars
       parameter,  which is `!' by default, and may occur anywhere on the com-
       mand line; history expansions do not nest.  The `!' can be escaped with
       `\' or can be enclosed between a pair of single quotes ('') to suppress
       its special meaning.  Double quotes will not work for this.   Following
       this history character is an optional event designator (see the section
       `Event Designators') and then an optional word designator (the  section
       `Word  Designators');  if  neither  of these designators is present, no
       history expansion occurs.

       Input lines  containing  history  expansions  are  echoed  after  being
       expanded,  but  before  any  other expansions take place and before the
       command is executed.  It is this expanded form that is recorded as  the
       history event for later references.

       By  default, a history reference with no event designator refers to the
       same event as any preceding history reference on that command line;  if
       it  is the only history reference in a command, it refers to the previ-
       ous command.  However, if the option CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY  is  set,  then
       every  history  reference  with no event specification always refers to
       the previous command.

       For example, `!' is the event designator for the previous  command,  so
       `!!:1'  always  refers  to  the first word of the previous command, and
       `!!$' always refers to the last word of  the  previous  command.   With
       CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY set, then `!:1' and `!$' function in the same manner
       as `!!:1' and `!!$', respectively.  Conversely,  if  CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY
       is  unset,  then  `!:1'  and  `!$'  refer  to the first and last words,
       respectively, of the same event referenced by the nearest other history
       reference  preceding them on the current command line, or to the previ-
       ous command if there is no preceding reference.

       The character sequence `^foo^bar' (where `^'  is  actually  the  second
       character of the histchars parameter) repeats the last command, replac-
       ing the string foo with bar.  More precisely, the sequence  `^foo^bar^'
       is synonymous with `!!:s^foo^bar^', hence other modifiers (see the sec-
       tion  `Modifiers')  may  follow  the   final   `^'.    In   particular,
       `^foo^bar^:G' performs a global substitution.

       If  the  shell encounters the character sequence `!"' in the input, the
       history mechanism is temporarily disabled until the current  list  (see
       zshmisc(1))  is  fully parsed.  The `!"' is removed from the input, and
       any subsequent `!' characters have no special significance.

       A less convenient but more comprehensible form of command history  sup-
       port is provided by the fc builtin.

   Event Designators
       An  event designator is a reference to a command-line entry in the his-
       tory list.  In the list below, remember that the initial  `!'  in  each
       item  may  be  changed  to  another  character by setting the histchars
       parameter.

       !      Start a history expansion, except when followed by a blank, new-
              line,  `=' or `('.  If followed immediately by a word designator
              (see the section `Word Designators'), this forms a history  ref-
              erence with no event designator (see the section `Overview').

       !!     Refer  to  the  previous  command.   By  itself,  this expansion
              repeats the previous command.

       !n     Refer to command-line n.

       !-n    Refer to the current command-line minus n.

       !str   Refer to the most recent command starting with str.

       !?str[?]
              Refer to the most recent command containing str.   The  trailing
              `?'  is necessary if this reference is to be followed by a modi-
              fier or followed by any text that is not to be  considered  part
              of str.

       !#     Refer  to the current command line typed in so far.  The line is
              treated as if it were complete up  to  and  including  the  word
              before the one with the `!#' reference.

       !{...} Insulate a history reference from adjacent characters (if neces-
              sary).

   Word Designators
       A word designator indicates which word or words of a given command line
       are to be included in a history reference.  A `:' usually separates the
       event specification from the word designator.  It may be  omitted  only
       if  the  word designator begins with a `^', `$', `*', `-' or `%'.  Word
       designators include:

       0      The first input word (command).
       n      The nth argument.
       ^      The first argument.  That is, 1.
       $      The last argument.
       %      The word matched by (the most recent) ?str search.
       x-y    A range of words; x defaults to 0.
       *      All the arguments, or a null value if there are none.
       x*     Abbreviates `x-$'.
       x-     Like `x*' but omitting word $.

       Note that a `%' word designator works only when used in  one  of  `!%',
       `!:%'  or `!?str?:%', and only when used after a !? expansion (possibly
       in an earlier command).  Anything else results in  an  error,  although
       the error may not be the most obvious one.

   Modifiers
       After  the  optional  word designator, you can add a sequence of one or
       more of the following modifiers, each preceded by a `:'.   These  modi-
       fiers  also  work  on  the  result of filename generation and parameter
       expansion, except where noted.

       a      Turn a file name into an absolute path:   prepends  the  current
              directory, if necessary, and resolves any use of `..' and `.' in
              the path.  Note that the transformation takes place even if  the
              file or any intervening directories do not exist.

       A      As  `a',  but also resolve use of symbolic links where possible.
              Note that resolution of `..' occurs before  resolution  of  sym-
              bolic  links.   This  call is equivalent to a unless your system
              has the realpath system call (modern systems do).

       c      Resolve a command name into an absolute path  by  searching  the
              command path given by the PATH variable.  This does not work for
              commands containing directory parts.  Note also that  this  does
              not  usually  work as a glob qualifier unless a file of the same
              name is found in the current directory.

       e      Remove all but the part of the filename extension following  the
              `.';  see  the  definition  of  the  filename  extension  in the
              description of the r modifier below.   Note  that  according  to
              that definition the result will be empty if the string ends with
              a `.'.

       h      Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving  the  head.   This
              works like `dirname'.

       l      Convert the words to all lowercase.

       p      Print  the  new  command but do not execute it.  Only works with
              history expansion.

       q      Quote the substituted  words,  escaping  further  substitutions.
              Works with history expansion and parameter expansion, though for
              parameters it is only useful if the  resulting  text  is  to  be
              re-evaluated such as by eval.

       Q      Remove one level of quotes from the substituted words.

       r      Remove a filename extension leaving the root name.  Strings with
              no filename extension are not altered.  A filename extension  is
              a `.' followed by any number of characters (including zero) that
              are neither `.' nor `/' and that continue  to  the  end  of  the
              string.  For example, the extension of `foo.orig.c' is `.c', and
              `dir.c/foo' has no extension.

       s/l/r[/]
              Substitute r for l as described below.  The substitution is done
              only  for  the  first string that matches l.  For arrays and for
              filename generation, this applies to each word of  the  expanded
              text.  See below for further notes on substitutions.

              The  forms  `gs/l/r' and `s/l/r/:G' perform global substitution,
              i.e. substitute every occurrence of r for l.  Note that the g or
              :G must appear in exactly the position shown.

              See further notes on this form of substitution below.

       &      Repeat  the  previous  s  substitution.  Like s, may be preceded
              immediately by a g.  In parameter expansion the  &  must  appear
              inside braces, and in filename generation it must be quoted with
              a backslash.

       t      Remove all leading pathname components, leaving the tail.   This
              works like `basename'.

       u      Convert the words to all uppercase.

       x      Like  q, but break into words at whitespace.  Does not work with
              parameter expansion.

       The s/l/r/ substitution works as follows.   By  default  the  left-hand
       side  of  substitutions  are  not patterns, but character strings.  Any
       character can be used as the delimiter in place of  `/'.   A  backslash
       quotes   the   delimiter   character.    The   character  `&',  in  the
       right-hand-side r, is replaced by the text from the  left-hand-side  l.
       The  `&'  can  be  quoted with a backslash.  A null l uses the previous
       string either from the previous l or from the contextual scan string  s
       from  `!?s'.  You can omit the rightmost delimiter if a newline immedi-
       ately follows r; the rightmost `?' in a context scan can  similarly  be
       omitted.  Note the same record of the last l and r is maintained across
       all forms of expansion.

       Note that if a `&' is used within glob qualifers an extra backslash  is
       needed as a & is a special character in this case.

       If  the  option HIST_SUBST_PATTERN is set, l is treated as a pattern of
       the usual form described in  the  section  FILENAME  GENERATION  below.
       This can be used in all the places where modifiers are available; note,
       however, that in globbing qualifiers parameter substitution has already
       taken  place,  so parameters in the replacement string should be quoted
       to ensure they are replaced at the correct time.  Note also  that  com-
       plicated  patterns  used  in  globbing qualifiers may need the extended
       glob qualifier notation (#q:s/.../.../) in order for the shell to  rec-
       ognize the expression as a glob qualifier.  Further, note that bad pat-
       terns in the substitution are not subject to the NO_BAD_PATTERN  option
       so will cause an error.

       When  HIST_SUBST_PATTERN  is set, l may start with a # to indicate that
       the pattern must match at the start of the string  to  be  substituted,
       and a % may appear at the start or after an # to indicate that the pat-
       tern must match at the end of the string to be substituted.  The % or #
       may be quoted with two backslashes.

       For  example,  the following piece of filename generation code with the
       EXTENDED_GLOB option:

              print *.c(#q:s/#%(#b)s(*).c/'S${match[1]}.C'/)

       takes the expansion of *.c and  applies  the  glob  qualifiers  in  the
       (#q...)  expression, which consists of a substitution modifier anchored
       to the start and end of each word (#%).  This turns  on  backreferences
       ((#b)),  so  that  the  parenthesised subexpression is available in the
       replacement string as ${match[1]}.  The replacement string is quoted so
       that the parameter is not substituted before the start of filename gen-
       eration.

       The following f, F, w and W modifiers work only with  parameter  expan-
       sion and filename generation.  They are listed here to provide a single
       point of reference for all modifiers.

       f      Repeats the immediately (without  a  colon)  following  modifier
              until the resulting word doesn't change any more.

       F:expr:
              Like  f,  but repeats only n times if the expression expr evalu-
              ates to n.  Any character can be used instead  of  the  `:';  if
              `(',  `[',  or `{' is used as the opening delimiter, the closing
              delimiter should be ')', `]', or `}', respectively.

       w      Makes the immediately following modifier work on  each  word  in
              the string.

       W:sep: Like  w  but  words are considered to be the parts of the string
              that are separated by sep. Any character can be used instead  of
              the `:'; opening parentheses are handled specially, see above.


PROCESS SUBSTITUTION

       Each  part  of  a  command  argument  that  takes  the  form `<(list)',
       `>(list)' or `=(list)' is subject to process substitution.  The expres-
       sion  may be preceded or followed by other strings except that, to pre-
       vent clashes with commonly occurring strings  and  patterns,  the  last
       form  must  occur at the start of a command argument, and the forms are
       only expanded when  first  parsing  command  or  assignment  arguments.
       Process  substitutions  may be used following redirection operators; in
       this case, the substitution must appear with no trailing string.

       In the case of the < or > forms, the shell runs the commands in list as
       a  subprocess of the job executing the shell command line.  If the sys-
       tem supports the /dev/fd mechanism, the command argument is the name of
       the  device  file corresponding to a file descriptor; otherwise, if the
       system supports named pipes (FIFOs), the command  argument  will  be  a
       named  pipe.   If the form with > is selected then writing on this spe-
       cial file will provide input for list.  If < is  used,  then  the  file
       passed  as  an  argument  will  be  connected to the output of the list
       process.  For example,

              paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) |
              tee >(process1) >(process2) >/dev/null

       cuts fields 1 and 3 from the files file1 and file2 respectively, pastes
       the  results  together,  and  sends  it  to  the processes process1 and
       process2.

       If =(...) is used instead of <(...), then the file passed as  an  argu-
       ment  will be the name of a temporary file containing the output of the
       list process.  This may be used instead of the <  form  for  a  program
       that expects to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the input file.

       There is an optimisation for substitutions of the form =(<<<arg), where
       arg is a single-word argument to the here-string redirection <<<.  This
       form produces a file name containing the value of arg after any substi-
       tutions have been performed.  This is handled entirely within the  cur-
       rent  shell.   This  is  effectively  the  reverse  of the special form
       $(<arg) which treats arg as a file name and replaces it with the file's
       contents.

       The = form is useful as both the /dev/fd and the named pipe implementa-
       tion of <(...) have drawbacks.  In the former case, some programmes may
       automatically  close  the  file descriptor in question before examining
       the file on the command line, particularly if  this  is  necessary  for
       security  reasons such as when the programme is running setuid.  In the
       second case, if the programme does not actually open the file, the sub-
       shell  attempting  to read from or write to the pipe will (in a typical
       implementation, different operating systems may have  different  behav-
       iour)  block for ever and have to be killed explicitly.  In both cases,
       the shell actually supplies the information using a pipe, so that  pro-
       grammes  that expect to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the file will not work.

       Also note that the previous example can be  more  compactly  and  effi-
       ciently written (provided the MULTIOS option is set) as:

              paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) \
              > >(process1) > >(process2)

       The  shell  uses  pipes  instead  of  FIFOs to implement the latter two
       process substitutions in the above example.

       There is an additional problem with >(process); when this  is  attached
       to  an  external command, the parent shell does not wait for process to
       finish and hence an immediately following command cannot  rely  on  the
       results  being  complete.   The  problem  and  solution are the same as
       described in the section MULTIOS in zshmisc(1).  Hence in a  simplified
       version of the example above:

              paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) > >(process)

       (note that no MULTIOS are involved), process will be run asynchronously
       as far as the parent shell is concerned.  The workaround is:

              { paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) } > >(process)

       The extra processes here are spawned from the parent shell  which  will
       wait for their completion.

       Another problem arises any time a job with a substitution that requires
       a temporary file is disowned by the shell,  including  the  case  where
       `&!'  or `&|' appears at the end of a command containing a subsitution.
       In that case the temporary file will not be cleaned up as the shell  no
       longer  has  any memory of the job.  A workaround is to use a subshell,
       for example,

              (mycmd =(myoutput)) &!

       as the forked subshell will wait for the command to finish then  remove
       the temporary file.

       A  general  workaround  to ensure a process substitution endures for an
       appropriate length of time is to pass it as a parameter to an anonymous
       shell  function  (a  piece  of  shell code that is run immediately with
       function scope).  For example, this code:

              () {
                 print File $1:
                 cat $1
              } =(print This be the verse)

       outputs something resembling the following

              File /tmp/zsh6nU0kS:
              This be the verse

       The temporary file created by the process substitution will be  deleted
       when the function exits.



PARAMETER EXPANSION

       The  character `$' is used to introduce parameter expansions.  See zsh-
       param(1) for a description of parameters, including arrays, associative
       arrays, and subscript notation to access individual array elements.

       Note  in  particular the fact that words of unquoted parameters are not
       automatically split on whitespace unless the  option  SH_WORD_SPLIT  is
       set;  see references to this option below for more details.  This is an
       important difference from other shells.

       In the expansions discussed below that require a pattern, the  form  of
       the  pattern  is the same as that used for filename generation; see the
       section `Filename Generation'.  Note that these  patterns,  along  with
       the  replacement  text  of any substitutions, are themselves subject to
       parameter expansion, command substitution,  and  arithmetic  expansion.
       In  addition to the following operations, the colon modifiers described
       in the section `Modifiers' in the section `History  Expansion'  can  be
       applied:   for example, ${i:s/foo/bar/} performs string substitution on
       the expansion of parameter $i.

       ${name}
              The value, if any, of the parameter name  is  substituted.   The
              braces are required if the expansion is to be followed by a let-
              ter, digit, or underscore that is not to be interpreted as  part
              of  name.   In  addition, more complicated forms of substitution
              usually require the braces to be present; exceptions, which only
              apply  if  the  option  KSH_ARRAYS is not set, are a single sub-
              script or any colon modifiers appearing after the name,  or  any
              of the characters `^', `=', `~', `#' or `+' appearing before the
              name, all of which work with or without braces.

              If name is an array parameter, and the KSH_ARRAYS option is  not
              set,  then the value of each element of name is substituted, one
              element per word.  Otherwise, the expansion results in one  word
              only;  with  KSH_ARRAYS,  this is the first element of an array.
              No  field  splitting  is  done  on   the   result   unless   the
              SH_WORD_SPLIT   option  is  set.   See  also  the  flags  =  and
              s:string:.

       ${+name}
              If name is the name of a set parameter `1' is substituted,  oth-
              erwise `0' is substituted.

       ${name-word}
       ${name:-word}
              If  name is set, or in the second form is non-null, then substi-
              tute its value; otherwise substitute word.  In the  second  form
              name may be omitted, in which case word is always substituted.

       ${name+word}
       ${name:+word}
              If  name is set, or in the second form is non-null, then substi-
              tute word; otherwise substitute nothing.

       ${name=word}
       ${name:=word}
       ${name::=word}
              In the first form, if name is unset then set it to word; in  the
              second  form,  if name is unset or null then set it to word; and
              in the third form, unconditionally set name  to  word.   In  all
              forms, the value of the parameter is then substituted.

       ${name?word}
       ${name:?word}
              In the first form, if name is set, or in the second form if name
              is both set and non-null, then substitute its value;  otherwise,
              print  word and exit from the shell.  Interactive shells instead
              return to the prompt.  If word is omitted, then a standard  mes-
              sage is printed.

       In  any of the above expressions that test a variable and substitute an
       alternate word, note that you can use standard  shell  quoting  in  the
       word   value   to  selectively  override  the  splitting  done  by  the
       SH_WORD_SPLIT option and the = flag, but not splitting by the s:string:
       flag.

       In  the  following expressions, when name is an array and the substitu-
       tion is not quoted, or if the `(@)' flag or the name[@] syntax is used,
       matching and replacement is performed on each array element separately.

       ${name#pattern}
       ${name##pattern}
              If the pattern matches the beginning of the value of name,  then
              substitute  the  value of name with the matched portion deleted;
              otherwise, just substitute the value  of  name.   In  the  first
              form,  the smallest matching pattern is preferred; in the second
              form, the largest matching pattern is preferred.

       ${name%pattern}
       ${name%%pattern}
              If the pattern matches the end of the value of name,  then  sub-
              stitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted; oth-
              erwise, just substitute the value of name.  In the  first  form,
              the  smallest matching pattern is preferred; in the second form,
              the largest matching pattern is preferred.

       ${name:#pattern}
              If the pattern matches the value of name,  then  substitute  the
              empty  string; otherwise, just substitute the value of name.  If
              name is an array the matching array elements  are  removed  (use
              the `(M)' flag to remove the non-matched elements).

       ${name:|arrayname}
              If  arrayname is the name (N.B., not contents) of an array vari-
              able, then any elements contained in arrayname are removed  from
              the substitution of name.  If the substitution is scalar, either
              because name is a scalar variable or the expression  is  quoted,
              the  elements of arrayname are instead tested against the entire
              expression.

       ${name:*arrayname}
              Similar to the preceding subsitution, but in the opposite sense,
              so that entries present in both the original substitution and as
              elements of arrayname are retained and others removed.

       ${name:offset}
       ${name:offset:length}
              This syntax gives effects similar to parameter  subscripting  in
              the  form $name[start,end], but is compatible with other shells;
              note that both offset and  length  are  interpreted  differently
              from the components of a subscript.

              If offset is non-negative, then if the variable name is a scalar
              substitute the contents  starting  offset  characters  from  the
              first  character  of the string, and if name is an array substi-
              tute elements starting offset elements from the  first  element.
              If length is given, substitute that many characters or elements,
              otherwise the entire rest of the scalar or array.

              A positive offset is always treated as the offset of a character
              or  element  in  name from the first character or element of the
              array (this is different from native  zsh  subscript  notation).
              Hence  0  refers to the first character or element regardless of
              the setting of the option KSH_ARRAYS.

              A negative offset counts backwards from the end of the scalar or
              array,  so that -1 corresponds to the last character or element,
              and so on.

              When positive, length counts from the offset position toward the
              end  of  the scalar or array.  When negative, length counts back
              from the end.  If this results in a position smaller  than  off-
              set, a diagnostic is printed and nothing is substituted.

              The option MULTIBYTE is obeyed, i.e. the offset and length count
              multibyte characters where appropriate.

              offset and length undergo the same set of shell substitutions as
              for  scalar  assignment;  in  addition, they are then subject to
              arithmetic evaluation.  Hence, for example

                     print ${foo:3}
                     print ${foo: 1 + 2}
                     print ${foo:$(( 1 + 2))}
                     print ${foo:$(echo 1 + 2)}

              all have the same effect, extracting the string starting at  the
              fourth  character  of  $foo  if  the  substution would otherwise
              return a scalar, or the array starting at the fourth element  if
              $foo   would  return  an  array.   Note  that  with  the  option
              KSH_ARRAYS $foo always returns a scalar (regardless of  the  use
              of  the  offset syntax) and a form such as $foo[*]:3 is required
              to extract elements of an array named foo.

              If offset is negative, the - may not  appear  immediately  after
              the  : as this indicates the ${name:-word} form of substitution.
              Instead, a space may be inserted  before  the  -.   Furthermore,
              neither offset nor length may begin with an alphabetic character
              or & as these are used to indicate history-style modifiers.   To
              substitute  a value from a variable, the recommended approach is
              to precede it with a $ as this signifies the intention  (parame-
              ter substitution can easily be rendered unreadable); however, as
              arithmetic substitution  is  performed,  the  expression  ${var:
              offs} does work, retrieving the offset from $offs.

              For  further  compatibility with other shells there is a special
              case for array offset 0.  This usually  accesses  to  the  first
              element  of  the array.  However, if the substitution refers the
              positional parameter array, e.g. $@ or $*, then offset 0 instead
              refers to $0, offset 1 refers to $1, and so on.  In other words,
              the  positional  parameter  array  is  effectively  extended  by
              prepending  $0.  Hence ${*:0:1} substitutes $0 and ${*:1:1} sub-
              stitutes $1.

       ${name/pattern/repl}
       ${name//pattern/repl}
              Replace the longest possible match of pattern in  the  expansion
              of  parameter name by string repl.  The first form replaces just
              the first occurrence, the second  form  all  occurrences.   Both
              pattern  and  repl are subject to double-quoted substitution, so
              that expressions like ${name/$opat/$npat} will  work,  but  note
              the  usual rule that pattern characters in $opat are not treated
              specially unless either the option GLOB_SUBST is set,  or  $opat
              is instead substituted as ${~opat}.

              The pattern may begin with a `#', in which case the pattern must
              match at the start of the string, or `%', in which case it  must
              match  at  the end of the string, or `#%' in which case the pat-
              tern must match the entire string.  The repl  may  be  an  empty
              string,  in  which  case  the final `/' may also be omitted.  To
              quote the final `/' in other cases it should be  preceded  by  a
              single backslash; this is not necessary if the `/' occurs inside
              a substituted parameter.  Note also that the `#',  `%'  and  `#%
              are  not  active  if  they occur inside a substituted parameter,
              even at the start.

              The first `/' may be preceded by a `:', in which case the  match
              will  only succeed if it matches the entire word.  Note also the
              effect of the I and S parameter expansion flags below;  however,
              the flags M, R, B, E and N are not useful.

              For example,

                     foo="twinkle twinkle little star" sub="t*e" rep="spy"
                     print ${foo//${~sub}/$rep}
                     print ${(S)foo//${~sub}/$rep}

              Here, the `~' ensures that the text of $sub is treated as a pat-
              tern rather than a plain string.  In the first case, the longest
              match for t*e is substituted and the result is `spy star', while
              in the second case, the  shortest  matches  are  taken  and  the
              result is `spy spy lispy star'.

       ${#spec}
              If spec is one of the above substitutions, substitute the length
              in characters of the result instead of the  result  itself.   If
              spec  is  an array expression, substitute the number of elements
              of the result.  Note that `^', `=', and `~', below, must  appear
              to the left of `#' when these forms are combined.

       ${^spec}
              Turn  on  the RC_EXPAND_PARAM option for the evaluation of spec;
              if the `^' is doubled, turn it off.  When this  option  is  set,
              array expansions of the form foo${xx}bar, where the parameter xx
              is set to  (a  b  c),  are  substituted  with  `fooabar  foobbar
              foocbar'  instead  of  the  default `fooa b cbar'.  Note that an
              empty array will therefore cause all arguments to be removed.

              Internally, each such expansion is converted into the equivalent
              list    for    brace    expansion.     E.g.,   ${^var}   becomes
              {$var[1],$var[2],...}, and is processed as described in the sec-
              tion  `Brace  Expansion'  below.   If  word splitting is also in
              effect the $var[N] may themselves be split into  different  list
              elements.

       ${=spec}
              Perform  word splitting using the rules for SH_WORD_SPLIT during
              the evaluation of spec, but regardless of whether the  parameter
              appears  in  double  quotes; if the `=' is doubled, turn it off.
              This forces parameter expansions to be split into separate words
              before  substitution, using IFS as a delimiter.  This is done by
              default in most other shells.

              Note that splitting is applied to word in the  assignment  forms
              of  spec  before  the  assignment  to  name  is performed.  This
              affects the result of array assignments with the A flag.

       ${~spec}
              Turn on the GLOB_SUBST option for the evaluation of spec; if the
              `~'  is  doubled,  turn  it  off.   When this option is set, the
              string resulting from the expansion will  be  interpreted  as  a
              pattern anywhere that is possible, such as in filename expansion
              and filename generation and pattern-matching contexts  like  the
              right hand side of the `=' and `!=' operators in conditions.

              In  nested  substitutions, note that the effect of the ~ applies
              to the result of the current level of substitution.  A surround-
              ing  pattern  operation on the result may cancel it.  Hence, for
              example, if the parameter foo is set to  *,  ${~foo//\*/*.c}  is
              substituted  by  the pattern *.c, which may be expanded by file-
              name  generation,  but  ${${~foo}//\*/*.c}  substitutes  to  the
              string *.c, which will not be further expanded.

       If  a ${...} type parameter expression or a $(...) type command substi-
       tution is used in place of name above, it is  expanded  first  and  the
       result is used as if it were the value of name.  Thus it is possible to
       perform nested operations:  ${${foo#head}%tail} substitutes  the  value
       of  $foo  with both `head' and `tail' deleted.  The form with $(...) is
       often useful in combination with the  flags  described  next;  see  the
       examples  below.   Each  name or nested ${...} in a parameter expansion
       may also be followed by a subscript expression as  described  in  Array
       Parameters in zshparam(1).

       Note  that double quotes may appear around nested expressions, in which
       case  only  the  part  inside  is  treated  as  quoted;  for   example,
       ${(f)"$(foo)"}  quotes  the  result  of $(foo), but the flag `(f)' (see
       below) is applied using the rules for unquoted expansions.   Note  fur-
       ther that quotes are themselves nested in this context; for example, in
       "${(@f)"$(foo)"}", there are two sets of quotes,  one  surrounding  the
       whole  expression,  the  other  (redundant)  surrounding  the $(foo) as
       before.


   Parameter Expansion Flags
       If the opening brace is directly followed by  an  opening  parenthesis,
       the  string  up  to the matching closing parenthesis will be taken as a
       list of flags.  In cases where repeating a flag is meaningful, the rep-
       etitions need not be consecutive; for example, `(q%q%q)' means the same
       thing as the more readable `(%%qqq)'.  The  following  flags  are  sup-
       ported:

       #      Evaluate  the  resulting words as numeric expressions and output
              the characters corresponding to  the  resulting  integer.   Note
              that  this  form  is entirely distinct from use of the # without
              parentheses.

              If the MULTIBYTE option is set and the number  is  greater  than
              127  (i.e.  not  an  ASCII character) it is treated as a Unicode
              character.

       %      Expand all % escapes in the resulting words in the same  way  as
              in prompts (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)). If
              this flag is given twice, full prompt expansion is done  on  the
              resulting words, depending on the setting of the PROMPT_PERCENT,
              PROMPT_SUBST and PROMPT_BANG options.

       @      In double quotes, array elements are put  into  separate  words.
              E.g.,   `"${(@)foo}"'   is   equivalent   to  `"${foo[@]}"'  and
              `"${(@)foo[1,2]}"' is the same as `"$foo[1]"  "$foo[2]"'.   This
              is  distinct  from field splitting by the f, s or z flags, which
              still applies within each array element.

       A      Create an array parameter with  `${...=...}',  `${...:=...}'  or
              `${...::=...}'.   If  this flag is repeated (as in `AA'), create
              an associative array parameter.  Assignment is made before sort-
              ing  or  padding.   The name part may be a subscripted range for
              ordinary arrays; the word part must be converted  to  an  array,
              for example by using `${(AA)=name=...}' to activate field split-
              ting, when creating an associative array.

       a      Sort in array index  order;  when  combined  with  `O'  sort  in
              reverse  array  index order.  Note that `a' is therefore equiva-
              lent to the default but `Oa' is useful for obtaining an  array's
              elements in reverse order.

       c      With ${#name}, count the total number of characters in an array,
              as if the elements were concatenated with spaces between them.

       C      Capitalize the resulting words.  `Words' in this case refers  to
              sequences  of  alphanumeric characters separated by non-alphanu-
              merics, not to words that result from field splitting.

       D      Assume the string or  array  elements  contain  directories  and
              attempt  to  substitute the leading part of these by names.  The
              remainder of the path (the whole of it if the leading  part  was
              not  subsituted)  is then quoted so that the whole string can be
              used as a shell argument.  This is the reverse of `~'  substitu-
              tion:  see the section FILENAME EXPANSION below.

       e      Perform parameter expansion, command substitution and arithmetic
              expansion on the result. Such expansions can be nested  but  too
              deep recursion may have unpredictable effects.

       f      Split  the result of the expansion at newlines. This is a short-
              hand for `ps:\n:'.

       F      Join the words of arrays together using newline as a  separator.
              This is a shorthand for `pj:\n:'.

       g:opts:
              Process  escape  sequences like the echo builtin when no options
              are given (g::).  With the o option, octal escapes don't take  a
              leading  zero.   With the c option, sequences like `^X' are also
              processed.  With the e  option,  processes  `\M-t'  and  similar
              sequences  like  the  print  builtin.   With both of the o and e
              options, behaves like the print builtin except that in  none  of
              these modes is `\c' interpreted.

       i      Sort case-insensitively.  May be combined with `n' or `O'.

       k      If  name  refers  to  an  associative array, substitute the keys
              (element names) rather than the values of  the  elements.   Used
              with  subscripts  (including  ordinary arrays), force indices or
              keys to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to val-
              ues.   However,  this  flag  may  not be combined with subscript
              ranges.

       L      Convert all letters in the result to lower case.

       n      Sort decimal integers numerically; if the first differing  char-
              acters  of  two test strings are not digits, sorting is lexical.
              Integers with more initial zeroes are sorted before  those  with
              fewer  or  none.   Hence  the  array `foo1 foo02 foo2 foo3 foo20
              foo23' is sorted into the order shown.  May be combined with `i'
              or `O'.

       o      Sort  the resulting words in ascending order; if this appears on
              its own the sorting is lexical and  case-sensitive  (unless  the
              locale renders it case-insensitive).  Sorting in ascending order
              is the default for other forms of sorting, so this is ignored if
              combined with `a', `i' or `n'.

       O      Sort  the  resulting words in descending order; `O' without `a',
              `i' or `n' sorts in reverse lexical order.  May be combined with
              `a', `i' or `n' to reverse the order of sorting.

       P      This forces the value of the parameter name to be interpreted as
              a further parameter name, whose value will be used where  appro-
              priate.   Note  that flags set with one of the typeset family of
              commands (in particular case transformations) are not applied to
              the value of name used in this fashion.

              If  used  with  a  nested parameter or command substitution, the
              result of that will be taken as a parameter  name  in  the  same
              way.   For  example,  if  you  have `foo=bar' and `bar=baz', the
              strings ${(P)foo}, ${(P)${foo}}, and ${(P)$(echo bar)}  will  be
              expanded to `baz'.

       q      Quote  characters that are special to the shell in the resulting
              words with backslashes; unprintable or  invalid  characters  are
              quoted  using  the  $'\NNN'  form, with separate quotes for each
              octet.

              If this flag is given twice, the resulting words are  quoted  in
              single  quotes  and  if  it  is given three times, the words are
              quoted in double quotes; in these forms no special  handling  of
              unprintable  or invalid characters is attempted.  If the flag is
              given four times, the words are quoted in single quotes preceded
              by  a  $.  Note that in all three of these forms quoting is done
              unconditionally, even if  this  does  not  change  the  way  the
              resulting string would be interpreted by the shell.

              If a q- is given (only a single q may appear), a minimal form of
              single quoting is used that only quotes the string if needed  to
              protect  special characters.  Typically this form gives the most
              readable output.

       Q      Remove one level of quotes from the resulting words.

       t      Use a string describing the type  of  the  parameter  where  the
              value  of  the  parameter would usually appear. This string con-
              sists of keywords separated by hyphens (`-'). The first  keyword
              in  the  string  describes  the  main  type,  it  can  be one of
              `scalar', `array',  `integer',  `float'  or  `association'.  The
              other keywords describe the type in more detail:

              local  for local parameters

              left   for left justified parameters

              right_blanks
                     for right justified parameters with leading blanks

              right_zeros
                     for right justified parameters with leading zeros

              lower  for parameters whose value is converted to all lower case
                     when it is expanded

              upper  for parameters whose value is converted to all upper case
                     when it is expanded

              readonly
                     for readonly parameters

              tag    for tagged parameters

              export for exported parameters

              unique for arrays which keep only the first occurrence of dupli-
                     cated values

              hide   for parameters with the `hide' flag

              special
                     for special parameters defined by the shell

       u      Expand only the first occurrence of each unique word.

       U      Convert all letters in the result to upper case.

       v      Used with k, substitute (as two consecutive words) both the  key
              and the value of each associative array element.  Used with sub-
              scripts, force values to be substituted even  if  the  subscript
              form refers to indices or keys.

       V      Make any special characters in the resulting words visible.

       w      With  ${#name}, count words in arrays or strings; the s flag may
              be used to set a word delimiter.

       W      Similar to w  with  the  difference  that  empty  words  between
              repeated delimiters are also counted.

       X      With  this  flag,  parsing  errors occurring with the Q, e and #
              flags or the pattern matching forms  such  as  `${name#pattern}'
              are reported.  Without the flag, errors are silently ignored.

       z      Split the result of the expansion into words using shell parsing
              to find the words, i.e. taking into account any quoting  in  the
              value.   Comments  are  not  treated  specially  but as ordinary
              strings, similar to interactive shells with the INTERACTIVE_COM-
              MENTS  option  unset  (however, see the Z flag below for related
              options)

              Note that this is done very late,  even  later  than  the  `(s)'
              flag.  So to access single words in the result use nested expan-
              sions as in `${${(z)foo}[2]}'. Likewise, to remove the quotes in
              the resulting words use `${(Q)${(z)foo}}'.

       0      Split  the  result  of  the  expansion on null bytes.  This is a
              shorthand for `ps:\0:'.

       The following flags (except p) are followed by one or more arguments as
       shown.  Any character, or the matching pairs `(...)', `{...}', `[...]',
       or `<...>', may be used in place of a colon  as  delimiters,  but  note
       that when a flag takes more than one argument, a matched pair of delim-
       iters must surround each argument.

       p      Recognize the same escape sequences  as  the  print  builtin  in
              string arguments to any of the flags described below that follow
              this argument.

       ~      Force string arguments to any of the  flags  below  that  follow
              within  the parentheses to be treated as patterns.  Compare with
              a ~ outside parentheses, which  forces  the  entire  substituted
              string to be treated as a pattern.  Hence, for example,
              [[ "?" = ${(~j.|.)array} ]]
       with  the  EXTENDED_GLOB option set succeeds if and only if $array con-
       tains the string `?' as an element.  The argument may  be  repeated  to
       toggle the behaviour; its effect only lasts to the end of the parenthe-
       sised group.

       j:string:
              Join the words of arrays together using string as  a  separator.
              Note  that  this  occurs before field splitting by the s:string:
              flag or the SH_WORD_SPLIT option.

       l:expr::string1::string2:
              Pad the resulting words on the left.  Each word  will  be  trun-
              cated if required and placed in a field expr characters wide.

              The arguments :string1: and :string2: are optional; neither, the
              first, or both may be given.  Note that the same pairs of delim-
              iters  must  be used for each of the three arguments.  The space
              to the left will be filled with string1 (concatenated  as  often
              as  needed)  or spaces if string1 is not given.  If both string1
              and string2 are given, string2 is inserted once directly to  the
              left  of  each  word,  truncated if necessary, before string1 is
              used to produce any remaining padding.

              If the MULTIBYTE option is in effect, the flag  m  may  also  be
              given,  in which case widths will be used for the calculation of
              padding; otherwise individual multibyte characters  are  treated
              as occupying one unit of width.

              If  the  MULTIBYTE  option  is  not  in effect, each byte in the
              string is treated as occupying one unit of width.

              Control characters are always assumed to be one unit wide;  this
              allows  the  mechanism  to be used for generating repetitions of
              control characters.

       m      Only useful together with one of the flags l or r or with the  #
              length operator when the MULTIBYTE option is in effect.  Use the
              character width reported by the system in calculating  how  much
              of  the  string it occupies or the overall length of the string.
              Most printable characters have a width of one unit, however cer-
              tain  Asian character sets and certain special effects use wider
              characters; combining characters have zero width.  Non-printable
              characters are arbitrarily counted as zero width; how they would
              actually be displayed will vary.

              If the m is repeated, the character either counts  zero  (if  it
              has zero width), else one.  For printable character strings this
              has the effect of counting the number of glyphs  (visibly  sepa-
              rate characters), except for the case where combining characters
              themselves have non-zero width (true in certain alphabets).

       r:expr::string1::string2:
              As l, but pad the words on the right and insert string2  immedi-
              ately to the right of the string to be padded.

              Left  and  right padding may be used together.  In this case the
              strategy is to apply left padding to the  first  half  width  of
              each  of  the  resulting  words, and right padding to the second
              half.  If the string to be padded has odd width the  extra  pad-
              ding is applied on the left.

       s:string:
              Force  field  splitting  at  the  separator string.  Note that a
              string of two or more characters means that  all  of  them  must
              match  in  sequence;  this  differs from the treatment of two or
              more characters in the IFS parameter.  See also the =  flag  and
              the  SH_WORD_SPLIT option.  An empty string may also be given in
              which case every character will be a separate element.

              For historical reasons, the usual  behaviour  that  empty  array
              elements  are  retained  inside  double  quotes  is disabled for
              arrays generated by splitting; hence the following:

                     line="one::three"
                     print -l "${(s.:.)line}"

              produces two lines of output for one and three  and  elides  the
              empty  field.  To override this behaviour, supply the "(@)" flag
              as well, i.e.  "${(@s.:.)line}".

       Z:opts:
              As z but takes a combination of option letters between a follow-
              ing pair of delimiter characters.  With no options the effect is
              identical to z.  (Z+c+) causes comments to be parsed as a string
              and retained; any field in the resulting array beginning with an
              unquoted comment character is a comment.  (Z+C+) causes comments
              to  be  parsed  and removed.  The rule for comments is standard:
              anything between a word starting with  the  third  character  of
              $HISTCHARS,  default  #,  up  to  the next newline is a comment.
              (Z+n+) causes unquoted newlines to be treated as ordinary white-
              space,  else  they  are treated as if they are shell code delim-
              iters and converted to semicolons.  Options are combined  within
              the same set of delimiters, e.g. (Z+Cn+).

       _:flags:
              The  underscore (_) flag is reserved for future use.  As of this
              revision of zsh, there are no valid flags; anything following an
              underscore,  other  than an empty pair of delimiters, is treated
              as an error, and the flag itself has no effect.

       The following flags are meaningful with the  ${...#...}  or  ${...%...}
       forms.  The S and I flags may also be used with the ${.../...} forms.

       S      Search  substrings  as  well as beginnings or ends; with # start
              from the beginning and with % start from the end of the  string.
              With  substitution  via  ${.../...}  or  ${...//...},  specifies
              non-greedy matching, i.e. that the shortest instead of the long-
              est match should be replaced.

       I:expr:
              Search  the  exprth  match  (where  expr evaluates to a number).
              This only applies when searching for substrings, either with the
              S  flag,  or  with  ${.../...} (only the exprth match is substi-
              tuted) or ${...//...} (all matches from the exprth on  are  sub-
              stituted).  The default is to take the first match.

              The  exprth  match  is  counted such that there is either one or
              zero matches from each starting position in the string, although
              for  global  substitution  matches overlapping previous replace-
              ments are ignored.  With the ${...%...} and  ${...%%...}  forms,
              the starting position for the match moves backwards from the end
              as the index increases, while with the other forms it moves for-
              ward from the start.

              Hence with the string
                     which switch is the right switch for Ipswich?
              substitutions  of  the form ${(SI:N:)string#w*ch} as N increases
              from 1 will match  and  remove  `which',  `witch',  `witch'  and
              `wich';  the form using `##' will match and remove `which switch
              is the right switch for Ipswich', `witch is the right switch for
              Ipswich',  `witch  for  Ipswich'  and `wich'. The form using `%'
              will remove the same matches as for `#', but in  reverse  order,
              and the form using `%%' will remove the same matches as for `##'
              in reverse order.

       B      Include the index of the beginning of the match in the result.

       E      Include the index of the end of the match in the result.

       M      Include the matched portion in the result.

       N      Include the length of the match in the result.

       R      Include the unmatched portion in the result (the Rest).


   Rules
       Here is a summary of the rules  for  substitution;  this  assumes  that
       braces are present around the substitution, i.e. ${...}.  Some particu-
       lar examples are given below.  Note  that  the  Zsh  Development  Group
       accepts  no  responsibility for any brain damage which may occur during
       the reading of the following rules.

       1. Nested substitution
              If multiple nested ${...} forms  are  present,  substitution  is
              performed  from the inside outwards.  At each level, the substi-
              tution takes account of whether the current value is a scalar or
              an  array,  whether  the whole substitution is in double quotes,
              and what flags are supplied to the current  level  of  substitu-
              tion,  just  as  if  the nested substitution were the outermost.
              The flags are not propagated up to enclosing substitutions;  the
              nested  substitution  will return either a scalar or an array as
              determined by the flags, possibly adjusted for quoting.  All the
              following  steps  take  place  where applicable at all levels of
              substitution.  Note that, unless the `(P)' flag is present,  the
              flags  and  any  subscripts  apply  directly to the value of the
              nested  substitution;  for  example,  the  expansion   ${${foo}}
              behaves exactly the same as ${foo}.

              At  each  nested  level  of  substitution, the substituted words
              undergo all forms of single-word substitution (i.e. not filename
              generation),  including  command substitution, arithmetic expan-
              sion and filename expansion (i.e. leading ~ and =).   Thus,  for
              example,  ${${:-=cat}:h}  expands to the directory where the cat
              program resides.  (Explanation: the internal substitution has no
              parameter  but  a default value =cat, which is expanded by file-
              name expansion to a  full  path;  the  outer  substitution  then
              applies  the  modifier  :h  and  takes the directory part of the
              path.)

       2. Internal parameter flags
              Any parameter flags set by one of the  typeset  family  of  com-
              mands,  in particular the L, R, Z, u and l flags for padding and
              capitalization, are applied directly  to  the  parameter  value.
              Note  these flags are options to the command, e.g. `typeset -Z';
              they are not the same as the flags used within parameter substi-
              tutions.

       3. Parameter subscripting
              If the value is a raw parameter reference with a subscript, such
              as ${var[3]}, the effect of subscripting is applied directly  to
              the  parameter.   Subscripts are evaluated left to right; subse-
              quent subscripts apply to the scalar or array value  yielded  by
              the  previous  subscript.  Thus if var is an array, ${var[1][2]}
              is the second character of the first word, but ${var[2,4][2]} is
              the entire third word (the second word of the range of words two
              through four of the original array).  Any number  of  subscripts
              may appear.

       4. Parameter name replacement
              The  effect  of any (P) flag, which treats the value so far as a
              parameter name and replaces it with the corresponding value,  is
              applied.

       5. Double-quoted joining
              If  the  value after this process is an array, and the substitu-
              tion appears in double quotes, and no (@) flag is present at the
              current  level, the words of the value are joined with the first
              character of the parameter $IFS, by  default  a  space,  between
              each  word  (single  word  arrays are not modified).  If the (j)
              flag is present, that is used for joining instead of $IFS.

       6. Nested subscripting
              Any remaining subscripts (i.e. of  a  nested  substitution)  are
              evaluated  at this point, based on whether the value is an array
              or a scalar.  As with 3., multiple subscripts can appear.   Note
              that  ${foo[2,4][2]} is thus equivalent to ${${foo[2,4]}[2]} and
              also to "${${(@)foo[2,4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution  returns
              an  array  in  both  cases), but not to "${${foo[2,4]}[2]}" (the
              nested substitution returns a scalar because of the quotes).

       7. Modifiers
              Any modifiers, as specified by a trailing `#', `%', `/'  (possi-
              bly  doubled) or by a set of modifiers of the form :... (see the
              section `Modifiers' in the  section  `History  Expansion'),  are
              applied to the words of the value at this level.

       8. Character evaluation
              Any  (#)  flag  is applied, evaluating the result so far numeri-
              cally as a character.

       9. Length
              Any initial # modifier, i.e. in the form  ${#var},  is  used  to
              evaluate the length of the expression so far.

       10. Forced joining
              If  the  `(j)'  flag is present, or no `(j)' flag is present but
              the string is to be split as given by rule 11., and joining  did
              not  take  place  at  step 5., any words in the value are joined
              together using the given string or the first character  of  $IFS
              if  none.  Note that the `(F)' flag implicitly supplies a string
              for joining in this manner.

       11. Simple word splitting
              If one of the `(s)' or `(f)' flags are present, or the `=' spec-
              ifier  was  present  (e.g. ${=var}), the word is split on occur-
              rences of the specified string, or (for = with  neither  of  the
              two flags present) any of the characters in $IFS.

              If  no `(s)', `(f)' or `=' was given, but the word is not quoted
              and the option SH_WORD_SPLIT is set, the word is split on occur-
              rences  of  any of the characters in $IFS.  Note this step, too,
              takes place at all levels of a nested substitution.

       12. Case modification
              Any case modification from one of the flags (L), (U) or  (C)  is
              applied.

       13. Escape sequence replacement
              First any replacements from the (g) flag are performed, then any
              prompt-style formatting from the (%) family of flags is applied.

       14. Quote application
              Any  quoting or unquoting using (q) and (Q) and related flags is
              applied.

       15. Directory naming
              Any directory name substitution using (D) flag is applied.

       16. Visibility enhancement
              Any modifications to make characters visible using the (V)  flag
              are applied.

       17. Lexical word splitting
              If  the  '(z)'  flag  or  one  of the forms of the '(Z)' flag is
              present, the word is split as if it were a shell  command  line,
              so  that  quotation  marks  and other metacharacters are used to
              decide what constitutes a word.  Note this form of splitting  is
              entirely  distinct  from that described by rule 11.: it does not
              use $IFS, and does not cause forced joining.

       18. Uniqueness
              If the result is an array and the `(u)' flag was present, dupli-
              cate elements are removed from the array.

       19. Ordering
              If  the  result  is still an array and one of the `(o)' or `(O)'
              flags was present, the array is reordered.

       20. Re-evaluation
              Any `(e)' flag is  applied  to  the  value,  forcing  it  to  be
              re-examined  for  new parameter substitutions, but also for com-
              mand and arithmetic substitutions.

       21. Padding
              Any padding of the value by the `(l.fill.)' or `(r.fill.)' flags
              is applied.

       22. Semantic joining
              In  contexts where expansion semantics requires a single word to
              result, all words are rejoined with the first character  of  IFS
              between.   So  in  `${(P)${(f)lines}}'  the value of ${lines} is
              split at newlines, but then must be joined again  before  the  P
              flag can be applied.

              If a single word is not required, this rule is skipped.

       23. Empty argument removal
              If  the  substitution  does  not  appear  in  double quotes, any
              resulting zero-length argument, whether from a scalar or an ele-
              ment  of an array, is elided from the list of arguments inserted
              into the command line.

              Strictly speaking, the removal happens later as the same happens
              with other forms of substitution; the point to note here is sim-
              ply that it occurs after any of the above parameter  operations.


   Examples
       The  flag  f  is  useful  to split a double-quoted substitution line by
       line.  For example, ${(f)"$(<file)"} substitutes the contents  of  file
       divided  so  that each line is an element of the resulting array.  Com-
       pare this with the effect of $(<file) alone, which divides the file  up
       by words, or the same inside double quotes, which makes the entire con-
       tent of the file a single string.

       The following illustrates the rules for  nested  parameter  expansions.
       Suppose that $foo contains the array (bar baz):

       "${(@)${foo}[1]}"
              This  produces  the  result  b.   First,  the inner substitution
              "${foo}", which has no array (@) flag, produces  a  single  word
              result "bar baz".  The outer substitution "${(@)...[1]}" detects
              that this is a scalar, so that (despite the `(@)' flag) the sub-
              script picks the first character.

       "${${(@)foo}[1]}"
              This produces the result `bar'.  In this case, the inner substi-
              tution "${(@)foo}" produces the array `(bar  baz)'.   The  outer
              substitution "${...[1]}" detects that this is an array and picks
              the first word.  This is similar to the simple case "${foo[1]}".

       As an example of the rules for word splitting and joining, suppose $foo
       contains the array `(ax1 bx1)'.  Then

       ${(s/x/)foo}
              produces the words `a', `1 b' and `1'.

       ${(j/x/s/x/)foo}
              produces `a', `1', `b' and `1'.

       ${(s/x/)foo%%1*}
              produces `a' and ` b' (note the extra space).   As  substitution
              occurs  before either joining or splitting, the operation  first
              generates the modified array (ax bx), which is  joined  to  give
              "ax  bx",  and  then  split to give `a', ` b' and `'.  The final
              empty string will then be elided, as it is not in double quotes.



COMMAND SUBSTITUTION

       A  command  enclosed  in  parentheses  preceded  by a dollar sign, like
       `$(...)', or quoted with grave accents, like ``...`', is replaced  with
       its  standard  output, with any trailing newlines deleted.  If the sub-
       stitution is not enclosed in double quotes, the output is  broken  into
       words  using  the  IFS parameter.  The substitution `$(cat foo)' may be
       replaced by the equivalent but faster `$(<foo)'.  In  either  case,  if
       the  option GLOB_SUBST is set, the output is eligible for filename gen-
       eration.


ARITHMETIC EXPANSION

       A string of the form `$[exp]' or `$((exp))'  is  substituted  with  the
       value  of the arithmetic expression exp.  exp is subjected to parameter
       expansion, command substitution and arithmetic expansion before  it  is
       evaluated.  See the section `Arithmetic Evaluation'.


BRACE EXPANSION

       A  string  of the form `foo{xx,yy,zz}bar' is expanded to the individual
       words `fooxxbar', `fooyybar' and `foozzbar'.   Left-to-right  order  is
       preserved.   This  construct  may  be  nested.  Commas may be quoted in
       order to include them literally in a word.

       An expression of the form `{n1..n2}', where n1 and n2 are integers,  is
       expanded to every number between n1 and n2 inclusive.  If either number
       begins with a zero, all the resulting numbers will be padded with lead-
       ing  zeroes to that minimum width, but for negative numbers the - char-
       acter is also included in the width.  If the numbers are in  decreasing
       order the resulting sequence will also be in decreasing order.

       An  expression  of  the  form  `{n1..n2..n3}', where n1, n2, and n3 are
       integers, is expanded as above, but only  every  n3th  number  starting
       from n1 is output.  If n3 is negative the numbers are output in reverse
       order, this is slightly different from simply swapping n1 and n2 in the
       case  that  the  step n3 doesn't evenly divide the range.  Zero padding
       can be specified in any of the three  numbers,  specifying  it  in  the
       third  can  be  useful to pad for example `{-99..100..01}' which is not
       possible to specify by putting a 0 on either of the first  two  numbers
       (i.e. pad to two characters).

       If  a  brace  expression  matches  none  of the above forms, it is left
       unchanged, unless the option  BRACE_CCL  (an  abbreviation  for  `brace
       character  class')  is  set.  In that case, it is expanded to a list of
       the individual characters between the braces sorted into the  order  of
       the characters in the ASCII character set (multibyte characters are not
       currently handled).  The syntax is similar to  a  [...]  expression  in
       filename  generation:  `-'  is  treated  specially to denote a range of
       characters, but `^' or `!' as the first character is treated  normally.
       For  example, `{abcdef0-9}' expands to 16 words 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b
       c d e f.

       Note that brace expansion is not part  of  filename  generation  (glob-
       bing);  an  expression  such  as */{foo,bar} is split into two separate
       words */foo and */bar before filename generation takes place.  In  par-
       ticular,  note  that  this  is  liable to produce a `no match' error if
       either of the two expressions does not match; this is to be  contrasted
       with  */(foo|bar),  which  is treated as a single pattern but otherwise
       has similar effects.

       To combine brace expansion with array expansion, see the ${^spec}  form
       described in the section Parameter Expansion above.



FILENAME EXPANSION

       Each  word  is checked to see if it begins with an unquoted `~'.  If it
       does, then the word up to a `/', or the end of the word if there is  no
       `/',  is  checked  to  see  if it can be substituted in one of the ways
       described here.  If so, then  the  `~'  and  the  checked  portion  are
       replaced with the appropriate substitute value.

       A `~' by itself is replaced by the value of $HOME.  A `~' followed by a
       `+' or a `-' is replaced by  current  or  previous  working  directory,
       respectively.

       A  `~'  followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that posi-
       tion in the directory stack.  `~0' is equivalent to `~+', and  `~1'  is
       the  top  of  the  stack.  `~+' followed by a number is replaced by the
       directory at that position in the directory stack.  `~+0' is equivalent
       to  `~+', and `~+1' is the top of the stack.  `~-' followed by a number
       is replaced by the directory that many positions from the bottom of the
       stack.   `~-0'  is  the  bottom  of  the stack.  The PUSHD_MINUS option
       exchanges the effects of `~+' and `~-' where they  are  followed  by  a
       number.


   Dynamic named directories
       If  the  function  zsh_directory_name  exists,  or  the  shell variable
       zsh_directory_name_functions exists and contains an array  of  function
       names,  then the functions are used to implement dynamic directory nam-
       ing.  The functions are tried in order until one returns  status  zero,
       so it is important that functions test whether they can handle the case
       in question and return an appropriate status.

       A `~' followed by a  string  namstr  in  unquoted  square  brackets  is
       treated  specially  as  a  dynamic directory name.  Note that the first
       unquoted closing square bracket always terminates  namstr.   The  shell
       function  is  passed two arguments: the string n (for name) and namstr.
       It should either set the array reply to a single element which  is  the
       directory  corresponding  to the name and return status zero (executing
       an assignment as the last  statement  is  usually  sufficient),  or  it
       should return status non-zero.  In the former case the element of reply
       is used as the directory; in the latter case the substitution is deemed
       to  have  failed.  If all functions fail and the option NOMATCH is set,
       an error results.

       The functions defined as above are also used to see if a directory  can
       be turned into a name, for example when printing the directory stack or
       when expanding %~ in prompts.  In this case each function is passed two
       arguments:  the  string d (for directory) and the candidate for dynamic
       naming.  The function should either  return  non-zero  status,  if  the
       directory  cannot  be named by the function, or it should set the array
       reply to consist of two elements: the first is the dynamic name for the
       directory (as would appear within `~[...]'), and the second is the pre-
       fix length of the directory to be replaced.  For example, if the  trial
       directory   is   /home/myname/src/zsh   and   the   dynamic   name  for
       /home/myname/src (which has 16 characters) is s, then the function sets

              reply=(s 16)

       The  directory  name so returned is compared with possible static names
       for parts of the directory path, as described below; it is used if  the
       prefix  length  matched (16 in the example) is longer than that matched
       by any static name.

       It is not a requirement that a function implements both n and d  calls;
       for  example,  it  might  be  appropriate  for certain dynamic forms of
       expansion not to be contracted to names.  In that case  any  call  with
       the first argument d should cause a non-zero status to be returned.

       The  completion system calls `zsh_directory_name c' followed by equiva-
       lent calls to elements of the array zsh_directory_name_functions, if it
       exists,  in  order to complete dynamic names for directories.  The code
       for this should be as for any other completion function as described in
       zshcompsys(1).

       As a working example, here is a function that expands any dynamic names
       beginning with the string p: to directories  below  /home/pws/perforce.
       In  this  simple  case a static name for the directory would be just as
       effective.

              zsh_directory_name() {
                emulate -L zsh
                setopt extendedglob
                local -a match mbegin mend
                if [[ $1 = d ]]; then
                  # turn the directory into a name
                  if [[ $2 = (#b)(/home/pws/perforce/)([^/]##)* ]]; then
                    typeset -ga reply
                    reply=(p:$match[2] $(( ${#match[1]} + ${#match[2]} )) )
                  else
                    return 1
                  fi
                elif [[ $1 = n ]]; then
                  # turn the name into a directory
                  [[ $2 != (#b)p:(?*) ]] && return 1
                  typeset -ga reply
                  reply=(/home/pws/perforce/$match[1])
                elif [[ $1 = c ]]; then
                  # complete names
                  local expl
                  local -a dirs
                  dirs=(/home/pws/perforce/*(/:t))
                  dirs=(p:${^dirs})
                  _wanted dynamic-dirs expl 'dynamic directory' compadd -S\] -a dirs
                  return
                else
                  return 1
                fi
                return 0
              }


   Static named directories
       A `~' followed by anything not already covered consisting of any number
       of  alphanumeric  characters  or underscore (`_'), hyphen (`-'), or dot
       (`.') is looked up as a named directory, and replaced by the  value  of
       that  named  directory  if found.  Named directories are typically home
       directories for users on the system.  They may also be defined  if  the
       text  after the `~' is the name of a string shell parameter whose value
       begins with a `/'.  Note that trailing slashes will be removed from the
       path  to the directory (though the original parameter is not modified).

       It is also possible to define directory names using the  -d  option  to
       the hash builtin.

       In  certain  circumstances  (in  prompts, for instance), when the shell
       prints a path, the path is checked to see if it has a  named  directory
       as  its  prefix.  If so, then the prefix portion is replaced with a `~'
       followed by the name of the directory.  The shortest way  of  referring
       to  the  directory is used, with ties broken in favour of using a named
       directory, except when the directory is / itself.  The parameters  $PWD
       and $OLDPWD are never abbreviated in this fashion.


   `=' expansion
       If a word begins with an unquoted `=' and the EQUALS option is set, the
       remainder of the word is taken as the name of a command.  If a  command
       exists  by  that name, the word is replaced by the full pathname of the
       command.


   Notes
       Filename expansion is performed on the right hand side of  a  parameter
       assignment,  including  those  appearing  after commands of the typeset
       family.  In this case, the  right  hand  side  will  be  treated  as  a
       colon-separated list in the manner of the PATH parameter, so that a `~'
       or an `=' following a `:' is eligible for expansion.  All  such  behav-
       iour  can be disabled by quoting the `~', the `=', or the whole expres-
       sion (but not simply the colon); the EQUALS option is also respected.

       If the option MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST is set, any unquoted shell argument  in
       the form `identifier=expression' becomes eligible for file expansion as
       described in the  previous  paragraph.   Quoting  the  first  `='  also
       inhibits this.



FILENAME GENERATION

       If  a  word contains an unquoted instance of one of the characters `*',
       `(', `|', `<', `[', or `?', it is regarded as a  pattern  for  filename
       generation,  unless  the  GLOB  option  is unset.  If the EXTENDED_GLOB
       option is set, the `^' and `#' characters also denote a pattern; other-
       wise they are not treated specially by the shell.

       The  word  is  replaced  with a list of sorted filenames that match the
       pattern.  If no matching pattern is found, the  shell  gives  an  error
       message,  unless the NULL_GLOB option is set, in which case the word is
       deleted; or unless the NOMATCH option is unset, in which case the  word
       is left unchanged.

       In  filename  generation, the character `/' must be matched explicitly;
       also, a `.' must be matched explicitly at the beginning of a pattern or
       after  a  `/', unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set.  No filename genera-
       tion pattern matches the files `.' or `..'.  In other instances of pat-
       tern matching, the `/' and `.' are not treated specially.

   Glob Operators
       *      Matches any string, including the null string.

       ?      Matches any character.

       [...]  Matches  any  of  the enclosed characters.  Ranges of characters
              can be specified by separating two characters by a `-'.   A  `-'
              or  `]' may be matched by including it as the first character in
              the list.  There are also several named classes  of  characters,
              in  the  form `[:name:]' with the following meanings.  The first
              set use the macros provided by the operating system to test  for
              the  given  character  combinations, including any modifications
              due to local language settings, see ctype(3):

              [:alnum:]
                     The character is alphanumeric

              [:alpha:]
                     The character is alphabetic

              [:ascii:]
                     The character is 7-bit, i.e. is a  single-byte  character
                     without the top bit set.

              [:blank:]
                     The character is either space or tab

              [:cntrl:]
                     The character is a control character

              [:digit:]
                     The character is a decimal digit

              [:graph:]
                     The  character is a printable character other than white-
                     space

              [:lower:]
                     The character is a lowercase letter

              [:print:]
                     The character is printable

              [:punct:]
                     The character is printable but neither  alphanumeric  nor
                     whitespace

              [:space:]
                     The character is whitespace

              [:upper:]
                     The character is an uppercase letter

              [:xdigit:]
                     The character is a hexadecimal digit

              Another  set of named classes is handled internally by the shell
              and is not sensitive to the locale:

              [:IDENT:]
                     The character is allowed to form part of a shell  identi-
                     fier, such as a parameter name

              [:IFS:]
                     The  character  is used as an input field separator, i.e.
                     is contained in the IFS parameter

              [:IFSSPACE:]
                     The character is an IFS white space  character;  see  the
                     documentation for IFS in the zshparam(1) manual page.

              [:WORD:]
                     The  character is treated as part of a word; this test is
                     sensitive to the value of the WORDCHARS parameter

              Note that the square brackets are additional to those  enclosing
              the  whole  set  of characters, so to test for a single alphanu-
              meric character you need `[[:alnum:]]'.   Named  character  sets
              can be used alongside other types, e.g. `[[:alpha:]0-9]'.

       [^...]
       [!...] Like [...], except that it matches any character which is not in
              the given set.

       <[x]-[y]>
              Matches any number in the range x to y,  inclusive.   Either  of
              the  numbers  may be omitted to make the range open-ended; hence
              `<->' matches any number.  To match individual digits, the [...]
              form is more efficient.

              Be  careful  when  using other wildcards adjacent to patterns of
              this form; for example, <0-9>* will actually  match  any  number
              whatsoever  at  the  start of the string, since the `<0-9>' will
              match the first digit, and the `*' will match any others.   This
              is  a  trap  for the unwary, but is in fact an inevitable conse-
              quence of the rule that the longest possible match  always  suc-
              ceeds.   Expressions  such  as  `<0-9>[^[:digit:]]*' can be used
              instead.

       (...)  Matches the enclosed pattern.  This is used  for  grouping.   If
              the  KSH_GLOB  option  is  set, then a `@', `*', `+', `?' or `!'
              immediately preceding the `(' is treated specially, as  detailed
              below.  The  option SH_GLOB prevents bare parentheses from being
              used in this way, though the KSH_GLOB option is still available.

              Note  that  grouping cannot extend over multiple directories: it
              is an error to have a `/' within a group (this only applies  for
              patterns  used in filename generation).  There is one exception:
              a group of the form (pat/)# appearing as a complete path segment
              can match a sequence of directories.  For example, foo/(a*/)#bar
              matches foo/bar, foo/any/bar, foo/any/anyother/bar, and so on.

       x|y    Matches either x or y.  This operator has lower precedence  than
              any  other.   The  `|'  character must be within parentheses, to
              avoid interpretation as a pipeline.

       ^x     (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.)  Matches anything except the
              pattern x.  This has a higher precedence than `/', so `^foo/bar'
              will search directories in `.' except `./foo' for a  file  named
              `bar'.

       x~y    (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.)  Match anything that matches
              the pattern x but does not match y.  This has  lower  precedence
              than  any  operator except `|', so `*/*~foo/bar' will search for
              all files in all directories in `.'  and then exclude  `foo/bar'
              if there was such a match.  Multiple patterns can be excluded by
              `foo~bar~baz'.  In the exclusion pattern (y), `/'  and  `.'  are
              not treated specially the way they usually are in globbing.

       x#     (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.)  Matches zero or more occur-
              rences of the pattern x.  This  operator  has  high  precedence;
              `12#'  is  equivalent to `1(2#)', rather than `(12)#'.  It is an
              error for an unquoted `#' to follow something  which  cannot  be
              repeated;  this includes an empty string, a pattern already fol-
              lowed by `##', or parentheses when part of  a  KSH_GLOB  pattern
              (for  example,  `!(foo)#'  is  invalid  and  must be replaced by
              `*(!(foo))').

       x##    (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.)  Matches one or more  occur-
              rences  of  the  pattern  x.  This operator has high precedence;
              `12##' is equivalent to `1(2##)', rather than `(12)##'.  No more
              than  two  active `#' characters may appear together.  (Note the
              potential clash with glob qualifiers in the form `1(2##)'  which
              should therefore be avoided.)

   ksh-like Glob Operators
       If  the KSH_GLOB option is set, the effects of parentheses can be modi-
       fied by a preceding `@', `*', `+', `?' or `!'.  This character need not
       be unquoted to have special effects, but the `(' must be.

       @(...) Match the pattern in the parentheses.  (Like `(...)'.)

       *(...) Match any number of occurrences.  (Like `(...)#'.)

       +(...) Match at least one occurrence.  (Like `(...)##'.)

       ?(...) Match zero or one occurrence.  (Like `(|...)'.)

       !(...) Match   anything  but  the  expression  in  parentheses.   (Like
              `(^(...))'.)

   Precedence
       The precedence of the operators given above is (highest) `^', `/', `~',
       `|'  (lowest);  the remaining operators are simply treated from left to
       right as part of a string, with `#' and `##' applying to  the  shortest
       possible  preceding unit (i.e. a character, `?', `[...]', `<...>', or a
       parenthesised expression).  As mentioned above, a `/' used as a  direc-
       tory  separator  may not appear inside parentheses, while a `|' must do
       so; in patterns used in other contexts than  filename  generation  (for
       example,  in  case statements and tests within `[[...]]'), a `/' is not
       special; and `/' is also not special  after  a  `~'  appearing  outside
       parentheses in a filename pattern.

   Globbing Flags
       There  are various flags which affect any text to their right up to the
       end of the enclosing group or to the end of the pattern;  they  require
       the  EXTENDED_GLOB  option. All take the form (#X) where X may have one
       of the following forms:

       i      Case insensitive:  upper or lower case characters in the pattern
              match upper or lower case characters.

       l      Lower  case  characters in the pattern match upper or lower case
              characters; upper case characters  in  the  pattern  still  only
              match upper case characters.

       I      Case  sensitive:  locally negates the effect of i or l from that
              point on.

       b      Activate backreferences for parenthesised groups in the pattern;
              this  does not work in filename generation.  When a pattern with
              a set of active parentheses is matched, the strings  matched  by
              the  groups  are  stored in the array $match, the indices of the
              beginning of the matched parentheses in the array  $mbegin,  and
              the  indices  of the end in the array $mend, with the first ele-
              ment of each array  corresponding  to  the  first  parenthesised
              group, and so on.  These arrays are not otherwise special to the
              shell.  The indices use the same convention  as  does  parameter
              substitution,  so that elements of $mend and $mbegin may be used
              in subscripts; the KSH_ARRAYS  option  is  respected.   Sets  of
              globbing flags are not considered parenthesised groups; only the
              first nine active parentheses can be referenced.

              For example,

                     foo="a string with a message"
                     if [[ $foo = (a|an)' '(#b)(*)' '* ]]; then
                       print ${foo[$mbegin[1],$mend[1]]}
                     fi

              prints `string with a'.  Note  that  the  first  parenthesis  is
              before the (#b) and does not create a backreference.

              Backreferences  work  with  all  forms of pattern matching other
              than filename generation, but note that when performing  matches
              on  an  entire array, such as ${array#pattern}, or a global sub-
              stitution, such as ${param//pat/repl}, only  the  data  for  the
              last  match  remains  available.  In the case of global replace-
              ments this may still be useful.  See the example for the m  flag
              below.

              The  numbering  of  backreferences strictly follows the order of
              the opening parentheses  from  left  to  right  in  the  pattern
              string,  although  sets of parentheses may be nested.  There are
              special rules for parentheses followed by `#' or `##'.  Only the
              last match of the parenthesis is remembered: for example, in `[[
              abab =  (#b)([ab])#  ]]',  only  the  final  `b'  is  stored  in
              match[1].   Thus extra parentheses may be necessary to match the
              complete segment: for example, use  `X((ab|cd)#)Y'  to  match  a
              whole  string  of either `ab' or `cd' between `X' and `Y', using
              the value of $match[1] rather than $match[2].

              If the match fails none of the parameters is altered, so in some
              cases  it  may  be  necessary to initialise them beforehand.  If
              some of the backreferences fail to match  --  which  happens  if
              they are in an alternate branch which fails to match, or if they
              are followed by # and matched zero times  --  then  the  matched
              string is set to the empty string, and the start and end indices
              are set to -1.

              Pattern matching with backreferences  is  slightly  slower  than
              without.

       B      Deactivate  backreferences,  negating  the  effect of the b flag
              from that point on.

       cN,M   The flag (#cN,M) can be used anywhere that the # or ## operators
              can  be  used  except in the expressions `(*/)#' and `(*/)##' in
              filename generation, where `/' has special meaning; it cannot be
              combined  with  other  globbing  flags  and  a bad pattern error
              occurs if it is misplaced.  It is equivalent to the  form  {N,M}
              in  regular  expressions.   The  previous  character or group is
              required to match between N and M times,  inclusive.   The  form
              (#cN) requires exactly N matches; (#c,M) is equivalent to speci-
              fying N as 0; (#cN,) specifies that there is no maximum limit on
              the number of matches.

       m      Set  references to the match data for the entire string matched;
              this is similar to backreferencing and does not work in filename
              generation.   The  flag must be in effect at the end of the pat-
              tern, i.e. not local to a group. The parameters $MATCH,  $MBEGIN
              and  $MEND  will be set to the string matched and to the indices
              of the beginning and end of the string, respectively.   This  is
              most  useful in parameter substitutions, as otherwise the string
              matched is obvious.

              For example,

                     arr=(veldt jynx grimps waqf zho buck)
                     print ${arr//(#m)[aeiou]/${(U)MATCH}}

              forces all the matches (i.e. all vowels) into uppercase,  print-
              ing `vEldt jynx grImps wAqf zhO bUck'.

              Unlike backreferences, there is no speed penalty for using match
              references, other than the extra substitutions required for  the
              replacement strings in cases such as the example shown.

       M      Deactivate the m flag, hence no references to match data will be
              created.

       anum   Approximate matching: num  errors  are  allowed  in  the  string
              matched by the pattern.  The rules for this are described in the
              next subsection.

       s, e   Unlike the other flags, these have only a local effect, and each
              must  appear  on  its own:  `(#s)' and `(#e)' are the only valid
              forms.  The `(#s)' flag succeeds only at the start of  the  test
              string, and the `(#e)' flag succeeds only at the end of the test
              string; they correspond to  `^'  and  `$'  in  standard  regular
              expressions.  They are useful for matching path segments in pat-
              terns other than those in filename generation (where  path  seg-
              ments  are  in  any  case  treated  separately).   For  example,
              `*((#s)|/)test((#e)|/)*' matches a path segment `test' in any of
              the   following   strings:   test,  test/at/start,  at/end/test,
              in/test/middle.

              Another  use  is  in   parameter   substitution;   for   example
              `${array/(#s)A*Z(#e)}'  will  remove  only  elements of an array
              which match the complete pattern `A*Z'.  There are other ways of
              performing many operations of this type, however the combination
              of the substitution operations `/' and `//' with the `(#s)'  and
              `(#e)' flags provides a single simple and memorable method.

              Note that assertions of the form `(^(#s))' also work, i.e. match
              anywhere except at the start of the string, although this  actu-
              ally  means  `anything except a zero-length portion at the start
              of  the  string';  you  need  to  use  `(""~(#s))'  to  match  a
              zero-length portion of the string not at the start.

       q      A  `q' and everything up to the closing parenthesis of the glob-
              bing flags are ignored by the pattern matching  code.   This  is
              intended  to support the use of glob qualifiers, see below.  The
              result is that the pattern `(#b)(*).c(#q.)' can be used both for
              globbing and for matching against a string.  In the former case,
              the `(#q.)' will be treated as a glob qualifier and  the  `(#b)'
              will  not be useful, while in the latter case the `(#b)' is use-
              ful for backreferences and the `(#q.)' will  be  ignored.   Note
              that colon modifiers in the glob qualifiers are also not applied
              in ordinary pattern matching.

       u      Respect the current locale in determining the presence of multi-
              byte  characters  in  a pattern, provided the shell was compiled
              with MULTIBYTE_SUPPORT.  This overrides  the  MULTIBYTE  option;
              the  default  behaviour  is  taken  from the option.  Compare U.
              (Mnemonic: typically multibyte characters are  from  Unicode  in
              the UTF-8 encoding, although any extension of ASCII supported by
              the system library may be used.)

       U      All characters are considered to be a  single  byte  long.   The
              opposite of u.  This overrides the MULTIBYTE option.

       For  example,  the  test  string  fooxx  can  be matched by the pattern
       (#i)FOOXX, but not by (#l)FOOXX,  (#i)FOO(#I)XX  or  ((#i)FOOX)X.   The
       string  (#ia2)readme specifies case-insensitive matching of readme with
       up to two errors.

       When using the ksh syntax for grouping both KSH_GLOB and  EXTENDED_GLOB
       must  be  set  and  the left parenthesis should be preceded by @.  Note
       also that the flags do not affect letters inside [...] groups, in other
       words  (#i)[a-z]  still  matches only lowercase letters.  Finally, note
       that when examining whole paths case-insensitively every directory must
       be  searched  for  all files which match, so that a pattern of the form
       (#i)/foo/bar/... is potentially slow.


   Approximate Matching
       When matching approximately, the shell keeps  a  count  of  the  errors
       found,  which  cannot exceed the number specified in the (#anum) flags.
       Four types of error are recognised:

       1.     Different characters, as in fooxbar and fooybar.

       2.     Transposition of characters, as in banana and abnana.

       3.     A character missing in the target string, as  with  the  pattern
              road and target string rod.

       4.     An extra character appearing in the target string, as with stove
              and strove.

       Thus, the pattern (#a3)abcd matches dcba, with the errors occurring  by
       using  the first rule twice and the second once, grouping the string as
       [d][cb][a] and [a][bc][d].

       Non-literal parts of the pattern must match exactly, including  charac-
       ters  in  character  ranges:  hence (#a1)???  matches strings of length
       four, by applying rule 4 to an empty  part  of  the  pattern,  but  not
       strings  of  length  two, since all the ? must match.  Other characters
       which must match exactly are initial  dots  in  filenames  (unless  the
       GLOB_DOTS option is set), and all slashes in filenames, so that a/bc is
       two errors from ab/c (the slash cannot be transposed with another char-
       acter).   Similarly,  errors  are counted separately for non-contiguous
       strings in the pattern, so that (ab|cd)ef is two errors from aebf.

       When using exclusion  via  the  ~  operator,  approximate  matching  is
       treated entirely separately for the excluded part and must be activated
       separately.  Thus, (#a1)README~READ_ME matches READ.ME but not READ_ME,
       as  the  trailing  READ_ME  is matched without approximation.  However,
       (#a1)README~(#a1)READ_ME does not match any pattern of the form READ?ME
       as all such forms are now excluded.

       Apart  from exclusions, there is only one overall error count; however,
       the maximum errors allowed may be altered  locally,  and  this  can  be
       delimited  by  grouping.  For example, (#a1)cat((#a0)dog)fox allows one
       error in total, which may not occur in the dog section, and the pattern
       (#a1)cat(#a0)dog(#a1)fox  is  equivalent.  Note that the point at which
       an error is first found is the crucial one for establishing whether  to
       use   approximation;  for  example,  (#a1)abc(#a0)xyz  will  not  match
       abcdxyz, because the error occurs at the `x',  where  approximation  is
       turned off.

       Entire   path   segments   may   be   matched  approximately,  so  that
       `(#a1)/foo/d/is/available/at/the/bar' allows one error in any path seg-
       ment.   This  is  much  less efficient than without the (#a1), however,
       since every directory in the  path  must  be  scanned  for  a  possible
       approximate  match.   It is best to place the (#a1) after any path seg-
       ments which are known to be correct.


   Recursive Globbing
       A pathname component of the form `(foo/)#' matches a path consisting of
       zero or more directories matching the pattern foo.

       As  a  shorthand, `**/' is equivalent to `(*/)#'; note that this there-
       fore matches files in the current directory as well as  subdirectories.
       Thus:

              ls (*/)#bar

       or

              ls **/bar

       does  a  recursive  directory search for files named `bar' (potentially
       including the file `bar' in the current directory).  This form does not
       follow  symbolic links; the alternative form `***/' does, but is other-
       wise identical.  Neither of these can be combined with other  forms  of
       globbing  within the same path segment; in that case, the `*' operators
       revert to their usual effect.

   Glob Qualifiers
       Patterns used for filename generation may end in a list  of  qualifiers
       enclosed  in  parentheses.  The qualifiers specify which filenames that
       otherwise match the given pattern will  be  inserted  in  the  argument
       list.

       If the option BARE_GLOB_QUAL is set, then a trailing set of parentheses
       containing no `|' or `(' characters (or `~' if it is special) is  taken
       as  a set of glob qualifiers.  A glob subexpression that would normally
       be taken as glob qualifiers, for example `(^x)', can be  forced  to  be
       treated  as  part  of  the glob pattern by doubling the parentheses, in
       this case producing `((^x))'.

       If the option EXTENDED_GLOB is set, a different syntax for glob  quali-
       fiers  is  available,  namely  `(#qx)'  where x is any of the same glob
       qualifiers used in the other format.  The qualifiers must still  appear
       at  the  end  of  the pattern.  However, with this syntax multiple glob
       qualifiers may be chained together.  They are treated as a logical  AND
       of  the  individual sets of flags.  Also, as the syntax is unambiguous,
       the expression will be treated as glob  qualifiers  just  as  long  any
       parentheses contained within it are balanced; appearance of `|', `(' or
       `~' does not negate the effect.  Note that qualifiers  will  be  recog-
       nised  in  this form even if a bare glob qualifier exists at the end of
       the pattern, for example `*(#q*)(.)' will recognise executable  regular
       files if both options are set; however, mixed syntax should probably be
       avoided for the sake of clarity.

       A qualifier may be any one of the following:

       /      directories

       F      `full' (i.e. non-empty) directories.   Note  that  the  opposite
              sense (^F) expands to empty directories and all non-directories.
              Use (/^F) for empty directories.

       .      plain files

       @      symbolic links

       =      sockets

       p      named pipes (FIFOs)

       *      executable plain files (0100)

       %      device files (character or block special)

       %b     block special files

       %c     character special files

       r      owner-readable files (0400)

       w      owner-writable files (0200)

       x      owner-executable files (0100)

       A      group-readable files (0040)

       I      group-writable files (0020)

       E      group-executable files (0010)

       R      world-readable files (0004)

       W      world-writable files (0002)

       X      world-executable files (0001)

       s      setuid files (04000)

       S      setgid files (02000)

       t      files with the sticky bit (01000)

       fspec  files with access rights matching spec. This spec may be a octal
              number optionally preceded by a `=', a `+', or a `-'. If none of
              these characters is given, the behavior is the same as for  `='.
              The octal number describes the mode bits to be expected, if com-
              bined with a `=', the value  given  must  match  the  file-modes
              exactly,  with a `+', at least the bits in the given number must
              be set in the file-modes, and with a `-', the bits in the number
              must  not be set. Giving a `?' instead of a octal digit anywhere
              in the  number  ensures  that  the  corresponding  bits  in  the
              file-modes  are  not checked, this is only useful in combination
              with `='.

              If the qualifier `f' is followed by any other character anything
              up  to the next matching character (`[', `{', and `<' match `]',
              `}', and `>' respectively, any other character  matches  itself)
              is  taken  as a list of comma-separated sub-specs. Each sub-spec
              may be either an octal number as described above or  a  list  of
              any of the characters `u', `g', `o', and `a', followed by a `=',
              a `+', or a `-', followed by a list of  any  of  the  characters
              `r',  `w',  `x', `s', and `t', or an octal digit. The first list
              of characters specify which access rights are to be checked.  If
              a  `u'  is given, those for the owner of the file are used, if a
              `g' is given, those of the group are checked,  a  `o'  means  to
              test  those  of  other users, and the `a' says to test all three
              groups. The `=', `+', and `-' again says how the modes are to be
              checked  and  have  the  same meaning as described for the first
              form above. The second list of  characters  finally  says  which
              access  rights  are to be expected: `r' for read access, `w' for
              write access, `x' for the right  to  execute  the  file  (or  to
              search a directory), `s' for the setuid and setgid bits, and `t'
              for the sticky bit.

              Thus, `*(f70?)' gives the files for which the  owner  has  read,
              write, and execute permission, and for which other group members
              have no rights, independent of the permissions for other  users.
              The  pattern `*(f-100)' gives all files for which the owner does
              not have execute permission,  and  `*(f:gu+w,o-rx:)'  gives  the
              files  for  which  the  owner and the other members of the group
              have at least write permission, and for which other users  don't
              have read or execute permission.

       estring
       +cmd   The string will be executed as shell code.  The filename will be
              included in the list if and only if the code returns a zero sta-
              tus (usually the status of the last command).

              In  the  first  form,  the first character after the `e' will be
              used as a separator and anything up to the next matching separa-
              tor  will  be taken  as the string; `[', `{', and `<' match `]',
              `}', and `>', respectively, while any  other  character  matches
              itself.  Note  that  expansions  must be quoted in the string to
              prevent them  from  being  expanded  before  globbing  is  done.
              string  is  then executed as shell code.  The string globqual is
              appended to the array zsh_eval_context the  duration  of  execu-
              tion.

              During  the  execution  of  string  the filename currently being
              tested is available in the parameter REPLY; the parameter may be
              altered  to a string to be inserted into the list instead of the
              original filename.  In addition, the parameter reply may be  set
              to an array or a string, which overrides the value of REPLY.  If
              set to an array, the latter is inserted into  the  command  line
              word by word.

              For   example,  suppose  a  directory  contains  a  single  file
              `lonely'.  Then the  expression  `*(e:'reply=(${REPLY}{1,2})':)'
              will cause the words `lonely1' and `lonely2' to be inserted into
              the command line.  Note the quoting of string.

              The form +cmd has the same  effect,  but  no  delimiters  appear
              around  cmd.   Instead,  cmd is taken as the longest sequence of
              characters following the + that are alphanumeric or  underscore.
              Typically cmd will be the name of a shell function that contains
              the appropriate test.  For example,

                     nt() { [[ $REPLY -nt $NTREF ]] }
                     NTREF=reffile
                     ls -l *(+nt)

              lists all files in the directory that have  been  modified  more
              recently than reffile.

       ddev   files on the device dev

       l[-|+]ct
              files having a link count less than ct (-), greater than ct (+),
              or equal to ct

       U      files owned by the effective user ID

       G      files owned by the effective group ID

       uid    files owned by user ID id if that is a  number.   Otherwise,  id
              specifies a user name: the character after the `u' will be taken
              as a separator and the string between it and the  next  matching
              separator will be taken as a user name.  The starting separators
              `[', `{', and `<' match the final separators `]', `}', and  `>',
              respectively;  any other character matches itself.  The selected
              files are those owned by this user.  For  example,  `u:foo:'  or
              `u[foo]' selects files owned by user `foo'.

       gid    like uid but with group IDs or names

       a[Mwhms][-|+]n
              files  accessed  exactly  n days ago.  Files accessed within the
              last n days are selected using a  negative  value  for  n  (-n).
              Files accessed more than n days ago are selected by a positive n
              value (+n).  Optional unit specifiers `M', `w', `h', `m' or  `s'
              (e.g.  `ah5') cause the check to be performed with months (of 30
              days), weeks, hours, minutes or seconds instead of days, respec-
              tively.  An explicit `d' for days is also allowed.

              Any  fractional  part  of the difference between the access time
              and the current part in the appropriate units is ignored in  the
              comparison.   For  instance,  `echo  *(ah-5)'  would  echo files
              accessed within the last five hours, while `echo *(ah+5)'  would
              echo  files  accessed  at least six hours ago, as times strictly
              between five and six hours are treated as five hours.

       m[Mwhms][-|+]n
              like the file access qualifier, except that  it  uses  the  file
              modification time.

       c[Mwhms][-|+]n
              like  the  file  access  qualifier, except that it uses the file
              inode change time.

       L[+|-]n
              files less than n bytes (-), more than n bytes (+), or exactly n
              bytes in length.

              If  this flag is directly followed by a `k' (`K'), `m' (`M'), or
              `p' (`P') (e.g. `Lk-50') the check is performed with  kilobytes,
              megabytes,  or  blocks  (of  512 bytes) instead.  In this case a
              file is regarded as "exactly" the size if the file size  rounded
              up  to  the next unit is equal to the test size.  Hence `*(Lm1)'
              matches files from 1 byte up to 1 Megabyte inclusive.  Note also
              that  the  set  of files "less than" the test size only includes
              files that would not match the equality  test;  hence  `*(Lm-1)'
              only matches files of zero size.

       ^      negates all qualifiers following it

       -      toggles  between  making  the  qualifiers work on symbolic links
              (the default) and the files they point to

       M      sets the MARK_DIRS option for the current pattern

       T      appends a trailing qualifier mark to the filenames, analogous to
              the LIST_TYPES option, for the current pattern (overrides M)

       N      sets the NULL_GLOB option for the current pattern

       D      sets the GLOB_DOTS option for the current pattern

       n      sets the NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT option for the current pattern

       oc     specifies how the names of the files should be sorted. If c is n
              they are sorted by name (the default);  if  it  is  L  they  are
              sorted  depending  on  the size (length) of the files; if l they
              are sorted by the number of links; if a, m, or c they are sorted
              by  the  time  of the last access, modification, or inode change
              respectively; if d, files in subdirectories appear before  those
              in  the current directory at each level of the search -- this is
              best combined with other criteria, for example `odon' to sort on
              names  for  files within the same directory; if N, no sorting is
              performed.  Note that a, m, and c compare the  age  against  the
              current  time,  hence the first name in the list is the youngest
              file. Also note  that  the  modifiers  ^  and  -  are  used,  so
              `*(^-oL)'  gives  a  list  of  all  files sorted by file size in
              descending order, following any symbolic links.   Unless  oN  is
              used, multiple order specifiers may occur to resolve ties.

              oe  and  o+  are  special cases; they are each followed by shell
              code, delimited as for the e glob qualifier and the + glob qual-
              ifier  respectively  (see above).  The code is executed for each
              matched file with the parameter REPLY set to  the  name  of  the
              file  on  entry  and globsort appended to zsh_eval_context.  The
              code should modify the parameter  REPLY  in  some  fashion.   On
              return,  the  value of the parameter is used instead of the file
              name as the string on which to sort.  Unlike other  sort  opera-
              tors,  oe and o+ may be repeated, but note that the maximum num-
              ber of sort operators of any kind that may appear  in  any  glob
              expression is 12.

       Oc     like  `o',  but  sorts in descending order; i.e. `*(^oc)' is the
              same as `*(Oc)' and `*(^Oc)' is the same as `*(oc)';  `Od'  puts
              files in the current directory before those in subdirectories at
              each level of the search.

       [beg[,end]]
              specifies which of the matched filenames should be  included  in
              the  returned  list.  The  syntax  is the same as for array sub-
              scripts. beg and the optional end may  be  mathematical  expres-
              sions. As in parameter subscripting they may be negative to make
              them count from the last  match  backward.  E.g.:  `*(-OL[1,3])'
              gives a list of the names of the three largest files.

       Pstring
              The  string  will  be prepended to each glob match as a separate
              word.  string is delimited in the same way as arguments to the e
              glob  qualifier described above.  The qualifier can be repeated;
              the words are prepended separately so that the resulting command
              line contains the words in the same order they were given in the
              list of glob qualifiers.

              A typical use for this is to prepend an option before all occur-
              rences  of a file name; for example, the pattern `*(P:-f:)' pro-
              duces the command line arguments `-f file1 -f file2 ...'

       More than one of these lists can be combined, separated by commas.  The
       whole  list  matches  if at least one of the sublists matches (they are
       `or'ed, the qualifiers in the sublists are `and'ed).  Some  qualifiers,
       however,  affect  all  matches generated, independent of the sublist in
       which they are given.  These are the qualifiers  `M',  `T',  `N',  `D',
       `n', `o', `O' and the subscripts given in brackets (`[...]').

       If  a  `:' appears in a qualifier list, the remainder of the expression
       in parenthesis is interpreted as a modifier  (see  the  section  `Modi-
       fiers'  in  the  section  `History  Expansion').  Each modifier must be
       introduced by a separate `:'.  Note also that the result after  modifi-
       cation  does not have to be an existing file.  The name of any existing
       file can be followed by a modifier of  the  form  `(:..)'  even  if  no
       actual  filename  generation is performed, although note that the pres-
       ence of the parentheses causes the entire expression to be subjected to
       any global pattern matching options such as NULL_GLOB. Thus:

              ls *(-/)

       lists all directories and symbolic links that point to directories, and

              ls *(%W)

       lists all world-writable device files in the current directory, and

              ls *(W,X)

       lists all files in the current directory  that  are  world-writable  or
       world-executable, and

              echo /tmp/foo*(u0^@:t)

       outputs  the basename of all root-owned files beginning with the string
       `foo' in /tmp, ignoring symlinks, and

              ls *.*~(lex|parse).[ch](^D^l1)

       lists all files having a link count of one whose names  contain  a  dot
       (but  not  those  starting  with  a  dot, since GLOB_DOTS is explicitly
       switched off) except for lex.c, lex.h, parse.c and parse.h.

              print b*.pro(#q:s/pro/shmo/)(#q.:s/builtin/shmiltin/)

       demonstrates how colon modifiers and other qualifiers  may  be  chained
       together.   The ordinary qualifier `.' is applied first, then the colon
       modifiers in order from left to right.  So if EXTENDED_GLOB is set  and
       the  base  pattern matches the regular file builtin.pro, the shell will
       print `shmiltin.shmo'.



ZSHPARAM(1)                                                        ZSHPARAM(1)




NAME

       zshparam - zsh parameters


DESCRIPTION

       A parameter has a name, a value, and a number of  attributes.   A  name
       may  be any sequence of alphanumeric characters and underscores, or the
       single characters `*', `@', `#', `?', `-', `$', or `!'.  The value  may
       be  a scalar (a string), an integer, an array (indexed numerically), or
       an associative array (an unordered set of name-value pairs, indexed  by
       name).   To  declare  the type of a parameter, or to assign a scalar or
       integer value to a parameter, use the typeset builtin.

       The value of a scalar or integer parameter  may  also  be  assigned  by
       writing:

              name=value

       If  the integer attribute, -i, is set for name, the value is subject to
       arithmetic evaluation.  Furthermore, by  replacing  `='  with  `+=',  a
       parameter  can be added or appended to.  See the section `Array Parame-
       ters' for additional forms of assignment.

       To refer to the value of a parameter, write `$name' or `${name}'.   See
       Parameter Expansion in zshexpn(1) for complete details.

       In  the  parameter lists that follow, the mark `<S>' indicates that the
       parameter is  special.   Special  parameters  cannot  have  their  type
       changed or their readonly attribute turned off, and if a special param-
       eter is unset, then later recreated, the  special  properties  will  be
       retained.   `<Z>'  indicates that the parameter does not exist when the
       shell initializes in sh or ksh emulation mode.


ARRAY PARAMETERS

       To assign an array value, write one of:

              set -A name value ...
              name=(value ...)

       If no parameter name exists, an ordinary array  parameter  is  created.
       If  the  parameter name exists and is a scalar, it is replaced by a new
       array.  Ordinary array parameters may also be explicitly declared with:

              typeset -a name

       Associative arrays must be declared before assignment, by using:

              typeset -A name

       When  name refers to an associative array, the list in an assignment is
       interpreted as alternating keys and values:

              set -A name key value ...
              name=(key value ...)

       Every key must have a value in this case.  Note that  this  assigns  to
       the entire array, deleting any elements that do not appear in the list.

       To create an empty array (including associative arrays), use one of:

              set -A name
              name=()


   Array Subscripts
       Individual elements of an array may be selected using a  subscript.   A
       subscript of the form `[exp]' selects the single element exp, where exp
       is an arithmetic expression which will be subject to arithmetic  expan-
       sion as if it were surrounded by `$((...))'.  The elements are numbered
       beginning with 1, unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is  set  in  which  case
       they are numbered from zero.

       Subscripts  may be used inside braces used to delimit a parameter name,
       thus `${foo[2]}' is equivalent to `$foo[2]'.  If the KSH_ARRAYS  option
       is  set,  the  braced  form  is  the  only one that works, as bracketed
       expressions otherwise are not treated as subscripts.

       If the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set, then by  default  accesses  to  an
       array  element  with a subscript that evaluates to zero return an empty
       string, while an attempt to write such an  element  is  treated  as  an
       error.  For backward compatibility the KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT option can be
       set to cause subscript values  0  and  1  to  be  equivalent;  see  the
       description of the option in zshoptions(1).

       The  same  subscripting  syntax  is used for associative arrays, except
       that no arithmetic expansion is applied to exp.  However,  the  parsing
       rules  for  arithmetic  expressions  still apply, which affects the way
       that certain special characters must be protected from  interpretation.
       See Subscript Parsing below for details.

       A  subscript of the form `[*]' or `[@]' evaluates to all elements of an
       array; there is no difference between the two except when  they  appear
       within  double  quotes.   `"$foo[*]"'  evaluates  to  `"$foo[1] $foo[2]
       ..."', whereas `"$foo[@]"' evaluates to `"$foo[1]" "$foo[2]" ...'.  For
       associative  arrays,  `[*]'  or `[@]' evaluate to all the values, in no
       particular order.  Note that this does not substitute the keys; see the
       documentation  for the `k' flag under Parameter Expansion Flags in zsh-
       expn(1) for complete details.  When an array parameter is referenced as
       `$name'  (with  no  subscript)  it  evaluates to `$name[*]', unless the
       KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case  it  evaluates  to  `${name[0]}'
       (for  an  associative array, this means the value of the key `0', which
       may not exist even if there are values for other keys).

       A subscript of the form `[exp1,exp2]' selects all elements in the range
       exp1  to  exp2, inclusive. (Associative arrays are unordered, and so do
       not support ranges.) If one of the subscripts evaluates to  a  negative
       number, say -n, then the nth element from the end of the array is used.
       Thus `$foo[-3]' is the third element from the end of the array foo, and
       `$foo[1,-1]' is the same as `$foo[*]'.

       Subscripting  may  also be performed on non-array values, in which case
       the subscripts specify a substring to be extracted.   For  example,  if
       FOO is set to `foobar', then `echo $FOO[2,5]' prints `ooba'.


   Array Element Assignment
       A subscript may be used on the left side of an assignment like so:

              name[exp]=value

       In  this  form  of  assignment the element or range specified by exp is
       replaced by the expression on the right side.  An  array  (but  not  an
       associative  array) may be created by assignment to a range or element.
       Arrays do not nest, so assigning a parenthesized list of values  to  an
       element  or range changes the number of elements in the array, shifting
       the other elements to accommodate the new values.  (This  is  not  sup-
       ported for associative arrays.)

       This syntax also works as an argument to the typeset command:

              typeset "name[exp]"=value

       The  value  may  not  be  a  parenthesized list in this case; only sin-
       gle-element assignments may be made with typeset.  Note that quotes are
       necessary  in  this case to prevent the brackets from being interpreted
       as filename generation operators.  The noglob precommand modifier could
       be used instead.

       To delete an element of an ordinary array, assign `()' to that element.
       To delete an element of an associative array, use the unset command:

              unset "name[exp]"


   Subscript Flags
       If the opening bracket, or the comma  in  a  range,  in  any  subscript
       expression  is  directly followed by an opening parenthesis, the string
       up to the matching closing one is considered to be a list of flags,  as
       in `name[(flags)exp]'.

       The  flags s, n and b take an argument; the delimiter is shown below as
       `:', but  any  character,  or  the  matching  pairs  `(...)',  `{...}',
       `[...]',  or  `<...>',  may  be used, but note that `<...>' can only be
       used if the subscript is inside a double quoted expression or a parame-
       ter  substitution  enclosed  in  braces  as otherwise the expression is
       interpreted as a redirection.

       The flags currently understood are:

       w      If the parameter subscripted is a scalar then  this  flag  makes
              subscripting  work  on words instead of characters.  The default
              word separator is whitespace.  This flag may not  be  used  with
              the i or I flag.

       s:string:
              This  gives  the string that separates words (for use with the w
              flag).  The delimiter character : is arbitrary; see above.

       p      Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in  the
              string argument of a subsequent `s' flag.

       f      If  the  parameter  subscripted is a scalar then this flag makes
              subscripting work on lines instead of characters, i.e. with ele-
              ments separated by newlines.  This is a shorthand for `pws:\n:'.

       r      Reverse subscripting: if this flag is given, the exp is taken as
              a  pattern  and  the result is the first matching array element,
              substring or word (if the parameter is an  array,  if  it  is  a
              scalar,  or if it is a scalar and the `w' flag is given, respec-
              tively).  The subscript used is the number of the matching  ele-
              ment,  so  that  pairs of subscripts such as `$foo[(r)??,3]' and
              `$foo[(r)??,(r)f*]' are possible if  the  parameter  is  not  an
              associative  array.   If  the parameter is an associative array,
              only the value part of each pair is compared to the pattern, and
              the result is that value.

              If  a  search  through an ordinary array failed, the search sets
              the subscript to one past  the  end  of  the  array,  and  hence
              ${array[(r)pattern]} will substitute the empty string.  Thus the
              success of a search can be tested by using  the  (i)  flag,  for
              example (assuming the option KSH_ARRAYS is not in effect):

                     [[ ${array[(i)pattern]} -le ${#array} ]]

              If KSH_ARRAYS is in effect, the -le should be replaced by -lt.

       R      Like  `r',  but  gives  the last match.  For associative arrays,
              gives all possible matches. May be used for assigning  to  ordi-
              nary  array  elements,  but  not  for  assigning  to associative
              arrays.  On failure, for normal arrays this has  the  effect  of
              returning  the  element  corresponding  to  subscript 0; this is
              empty unless one of the options KSH_ARRAYS or KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT
              is in effect.

              Note that in subscripts with both `r' and `R' pattern characters
              are active  even  if  they  were  substituted  for  a  parameter
              (regardless  of  the  setting  of GLOB_SUBST which controls this
              feature in normal pattern matching).  The flag `e' can be  added
              to  inhibit  pattern  matching.   As  this flag does not inhibit
              other forms of substitution, care is  still  required;  using  a
              parameter to hold the key has the desired effect:

                     key2='original key'
                     print ${array[(Re)$key2]}

       i      Like `r', but gives the index of the match instead; this may not
              be combined with a second argument.  On  the  left  side  of  an
              assignment,  behaves  like `r'.  For associative arrays, the key
              part of each pair is compared to  the  pattern,  and  the  first
              matching  key  found  is the result.  On failure substitutes the
              length of the array plus one, as discussed under the description
              of `r', or the empty string for an associative array.

       I      Like `i', but gives the index of the last match, or all possible
              matching keys in an associative array.  On  failure  substitutes
              0,  or  the empty string for an associative array.  This flag is
              best when testing for values or keys that do not exist.

       k      If used in a subscript on an associative array, this flag causes
              the  keys  to  be interpreted as patterns, and returns the value
              for the first key found where exp is matched by the  key.   Note
              this  could be any such key as no ordering of associative arrays
              is defined.  This flag does not work on  the  left  side  of  an
              assignment  to an associative array element.  If used on another
              type of parameter, this behaves like `r'.

       K      On an associative array this is like `k' but returns all  values
              where  exp is matched by the keys.  On other types of parameters
              this has the same effect as `R'.

       n:expr:
              If combined with `r', `R', `i' or `I', makes them give  the  nth
              or  nth  last  match  (if  expr  evaluates  to n).  This flag is
              ignored when the array is associative.  The delimiter  character
              : is arbitrary; see above.

       b:expr:
              If  combined  with `r', `R', `i' or `I', makes them begin at the
              nth or nth last element, word, or character (if  expr  evaluates
              to n).  This flag is ignored when the array is associative.  The
              delimiter character : is arbitrary; see above.

       e      This flag causes any pattern matching that would be performed on
              the  subscript  to  use  plain  string  matching instead.  Hence
              `${array[(re)*]}' matches only the array element whose value  is
              *.  Note that other forms of substitution such as parameter sub-
              stitution are not inhibited.

              This flag can also be used to force * or @ to be interpreted  as
              a  single  key rather than as a reference to all values.  It may
              be used for either purpose on the left side of an assignment.

       See Parameter Expansion  Flags  (zshexpn(1))  for  additional  ways  to
       manipulate the results of array subscripting.


   Subscript Parsing
       This  discussion applies mainly to associative array key strings and to
       patterns used for reverse subscripting (the `r', `R', `i', etc. flags),
       but  it  may also affect parameter substitutions that appear as part of
       an arithmetic expression in an ordinary subscript.

       It is possible to avoid the use of subscripts in assignments  to  asso-
       ciative array elements by using the syntax:

                 aa+=('key with "*strange*" characters' 'value string')

       This  adds  a new key/value pair if the key is not already present, and
       replaces the value for the existing key if it is.

       The basic rule to remember when writing a subscript expression is  that
       all  text between the opening `[' and the closing `]' is interpreted as
       if it were in double quotes (see zshmisc(1)).  However,  unlike  double
       quotes  which  normally  cannot  nest, subscript expressions may appear
       inside double-quoted strings or inside other subscript expressions  (or
       both!), so the rules have two important differences.

       The first difference is that brackets (`[' and `]') must appear as bal-
       anced pairs in a subscript expression unless they  are  preceded  by  a
       backslash  (`\').  Therefore, within a subscript expression (and unlike
       true double-quoting) the sequence `\[' becomes `[', and similarly  `\]'
       becomes  `]'.  This applies even in cases where a backslash is not nor-
       mally required; for example, the pattern `[^[]' (to match any character
       other than an open bracket) should be written `[^\[]' in a reverse-sub-
       script pattern.  However, note that `\[^\[\]' and even `\[^[]' mean the
       same  thing,  because  backslashes are always stripped when they appear
       before brackets!

       The same rule applies to parentheses (`(' and `)') and braces (`{'  and
       `}'):  they must appear either in balanced pairs or preceded by a back-
       slash, and backslashes that protect parentheses or braces  are  removed
       during parsing.  This is because parameter expansions may be surrounded
       by balanced braces, and subscript  flags  are  introduced  by  balanced
       parentheses.

       The  second  difference is that a double-quote (`"') may appear as part
       of a subscript expression without being preceded by  a  backslash,  and
       therefore  that the two characters `\"' remain as two characters in the
       subscript (in true double-quoting, `\"' becomes `"').  However, because
       of the standard shell quoting rules, any double-quotes that appear must
       occur in balanced pairs unless preceded by a backslash.  This makes  it
       more  difficult  to  write  a subscript expression that contains an odd
       number of double-quote characters, but the reason for  this  difference
       is  so  that  when  a  subscript  expression  appears  inside true dou-
       ble-quotes, one can still write `\"' (rather than `\\\"') for `"'.

       To use an odd number of double quotes as a key in  an  assignment,  use
       the typeset builtin and an enclosing pair of double quotes; to refer to
       the value of that key, again use double quotes:

              typeset -A aa
              typeset "aa[one\"two\"three\"quotes]"=QQQ
              print "$aa[one\"two\"three\"quotes]"

       It is important to note that the quoting rules do  not  change  when  a
       parameter expansion with a subscript is nested inside another subscript
       expression.  That is, it is not necessary to use additional backslashes
       within the inner subscript expression; they are removed only once, from
       the innermost subscript outwards.  Parameters are  also  expanded  from
       the innermost subscript first, as each expansion is encountered left to
       right in the outer expression.

       A further complication arises from a way in which subscript parsing  is
       not  different  from  double quote parsing.  As in true double-quoting,
       the sequences `\*', and `\@' remain as two characters when they  appear
       in  a subscript expression.  To use a literal `*' or `@' as an associa-
       tive array key, the `e' flag must be used:

              typeset -A aa
              aa[(e)*]=star
              print $aa[(e)*]

       A last detail must be considered  when  reverse  subscripting  is  per-
       formed.   Parameters  appearing  in  the subscript expression are first
       expanded and then the complete expression is interpreted as a  pattern.
       This has two effects: first, parameters behave as if GLOB_SUBST were on
       (and it cannot be turned  off);  second,  backslashes  are  interpreted
       twice, once when parsing the array subscript and again when parsing the
       pattern.  In a reverse subscript, it's  necessary  to  use  four  back-
       slashes  to cause a single backslash to match literally in the pattern.
       For complex patterns, it is often easiest to assign the desired pattern
       to  a  parameter  and  then  refer  to that parameter in the subscript,
       because then the backslashes, brackets,  parentheses,  etc.,  are  seen
       only  when the complete expression is converted to a pattern.  To match
       the value of a parameter literally in a reverse subscript, rather  than
       as  a  pattern, use `${(q)name}' (see zshexpn(1)) to quote the expanded
       value.

       Note that the `k' and `K' flags are reverse subscripting for  an  ordi-
       nary  array, but are not reverse subscripting for an associative array!
       (For an associative array, the keys in the array itself are interpreted
       as  patterns  by  those  flags; the subscript is a plain string in that
       case.)

       One final note, not directly related to subscripting: the numeric names
       of positional parameters (described below) are parsed specially, so for
       example `$2foo' is equivalent to `${2}foo'.   Therefore,  to  use  sub-
       script  syntax  to extract a substring from a positional parameter, the
       expansion must be surrounded by braces; for example, `${2[3,5]}' evalu-
       ates  to  the  third  through fifth characters of the second positional
       parameter, but `$2[3,5]' is the entire  second  parameter  concatenated
       with the filename generation pattern `[3,5]'.



POSITIONAL PARAMETERS

       The  positional parameters provide access to the command-line arguments
       of a shell function, shell script, or the shell itself; see the section
       `Invocation', and also the section `Functions'.  The parameter n, where
       n is a number, is the nth positional parameter.  The  parameters  *,  @
       and  argv  are  arrays  containing  all the positional parameters; thus
       `$argv[n]', etc., is equivalent to simply `$n'.

       Positional parameters may be changed after the shell or function starts
       by  using the set builtin, by assigning to the argv array, or by direct
       assignment of the form `n=value' where n is the  number  of  the  posi-
       tional  parameter to be changed.  This also creates (with empty values)
       any of the positions from 1 to n that do not already have values.  Note
       that, because the positional parameters form an array, an array assign-
       ment of the form `n=(value ...)' is allowed,  and  has  the  effect  of
       shifting  all  the  values at positions greater than n by as many posi-
       tions as necessary to accommodate the new values.



LOCAL PARAMETERS

       Shell function executions delimit scopes for shell parameters.  (Param-
       eters  are  dynamically scoped.)  The typeset builtin, and its alterna-
       tive forms declare, integer, local and readonly (but not  export),  can
       be used to declare a parameter as being local to the innermost scope.

       When a parameter is read or assigned to, the innermost existing parame-
       ter of that name is used.  (That is,  the  local  parameter  hides  any
       less-local parameter.)  However, assigning to a non-existent parameter,
       or declaring a new parameter with export, causes it to  be  created  in
       the outermost scope.

       Local parameters disappear when their scope ends.  unset can be used to
       delete a parameter while it is still in scope; any outer  parameter  of
       the same name remains hidden.

       Special  parameters  may  also be made local; they retain their special
       attributes unless either the existing or  the  newly-created  parameter
       has  the  -h (hide) attribute.  This may have unexpected effects: there
       is no default value, so if there is no  assignment  at  the  point  the
       variable  is  made  local, it will be set to an empty value (or zero in
       the case of integers).  The following:

              typeset PATH=/new/directory:$PATH

       is valid for temporarily allowing the shell or programmes  called  from
       it to find the programs in /new/directory inside a function.

       Note  that  the restriction in older versions of zsh that local parame-
       ters were never exported has been removed.



PARAMETERS SET BY THE SHELL

       The following parameters are automatically set by the shell:

       ! <S>  The process ID of the last command  started  in  the  background
              with &, or put into the background with the bg builtin.

       # <S>  The  number of positional parameters in decimal.  Note that some
              confusion may occur with the syntax  $#param  which  substitutes
              the  length of param.  Use ${#} to resolve ambiguities.  In par-
              ticular, the sequence `$#-...' in an  arithmetic  expression  is
              interpreted as the length of the parameter -, q.v.

       ARGC <S> <Z>
              Same as #.

       $ <S>  The  process  ID  of  this  shell.  Note that this indicates the
              original shell started by invoking  zsh;  all  processes  forked
              from  the  shells  without executing a new program, such as sub-
              shells started by (...), substitute the same value.

       - <S>  Flags supplied to the shell on  invocation  or  by  the  set  or
              setopt commands.

       * <S>  An array containing the positional parameters.

       argv <S> <Z>
              Same  as  *.   Assigning  to  argv  changes the local positional
              parameters, but argv is not itself a local parameter.   Deleting
              argv  with unset in any function deletes it everywhere, although
              only the innermost positional parameter array is deleted  (so  *
              and @ in other scopes are not affected).

       @ <S>  Same as argv[@], even when argv is not set.

       ? <S>  The exit status returned by the last command.

       0 <S>  The  name  used  to  invoke  the  current  shell.   If the FUNC-
              TION_ARGZERO option is set, this is  set  temporarily  within  a
              shell function to the name of the function, and within a sourced
              script to the name of the script.

       status <S> <Z>
              Same as ?.

       pipestatus <S> <Z>
              An array containing the exit statuses returned by  all  commands
              in the last pipeline.

       _ <S>  The last argument of the previous command.  Also, this parameter
              is set in the environment of every command executed to the  full
              pathname of the command.

       CPUTYPE
              The  machine  type  (microprocessor  class or machine model), as
              determined at run time.

       EGID <S>
              The effective group ID of the shell process.  If you have suffi-
              cient  privileges,  you may change the effective group ID of the
              shell process by assigning to this  parameter.   Also  (assuming
              sufficient  privileges),  you  may start a single command with a
              different effective group ID by `(EGID=gid; command)'

       EUID <S>
              The effective user ID of the shell process.  If you have  suffi-
              cient  privileges,  you  may change the effective user ID of the
              shell process by assigning to this  parameter.   Also  (assuming
              sufficient  privileges),  you  may start a single command with a
              different effective user ID by `(EUID=uid; command)'

       ERRNO <S>
              The value of errno (see errno(3)) as set by  the  most  recently
              failed  system  call.   This  value  is  system dependent and is
              intended for debugging purposes.  It is  also  useful  with  the
              zsh/system  module  which  allows the number to be turned into a
              name or message.

       GID <S>
              The real group ID of the shell process.  If you have  sufficient
              privileges,  you may change the group ID of the shell process by
              assigning to this parameter.  Also (assuming  sufficient  privi-
              leges),  you  may start a single command under a different group
              ID by `(GID=gid; command)'

       HISTCMD
              The current history line number  in  an  interactive  shell,  in
              other words the line number for the command that caused $HISTCMD
              to be read.

       HOST   The current hostname.

       LINENO <S>
              The line number of the current line within the  current  script,
              sourced  file,  or  shell function being executed, whichever was
              started most recently.  Note that in the case of shell functions
              the  line  number  refers  to the function as it appeared in the
              original definition, not necessarily as displayed by  the  func-
              tions builtin.

       LOGNAME
              If  the  corresponding variable is not set in the environment of
              the shell, it is initialized to the login name corresponding  to
              the current login session. This parameter is exported by default
              but this can be disabled using the typeset builtin.

       MACHTYPE
              The machine type (microprocessor class  or  machine  model),  as
              determined at compile time.

       OLDPWD The previous working directory.  This is set when the shell ini-
              tializes and whenever the directory changes.

       OPTARG <S>
              The value of the last option argument processed by  the  getopts
              command.

       OPTIND <S>
              The  index  of the last option argument processed by the getopts
              command.

       OSTYPE The operating system, as determined at compile time.

       PPID <S>
              The process ID of the parent of the shell.  As for $$, the value
              indicates  the  parent of the original shell and does not change
              in subshells.

       PWD    The present working directory.  This is set when the shell  ini-
              tializes and whenever the directory changes.

       RANDOM <S>
              A  pseudo-random  integer  from 0 to 32767, newly generated each
              time this parameter is referenced.  The random number  generator
              can be seeded by assigning a numeric value to RANDOM.

              The   values   of   RANDOM   form   an  intentionally-repeatable
              pseudo-random sequence; subshells  that  reference  RANDOM  will
              result  in  identical  pseudo-random  values unless the value of
              RANDOM is referenced or seeded in the parent  shell  in  between
              subshell invocations.

       SECONDS <S>
              The number of seconds since shell invocation.  If this parameter
              is assigned a value, then the value returned upon reference will
              be  the value that was assigned plus the number of seconds since
              the assignment.

              Unlike other special parameters, the type of the SECONDS parame-
              ter  can be changed using the typeset command.  Only integer and
              one of the floating  point  types  are  allowed.   For  example,
              `typeset -F SECONDS' causes the value to be reported as a float-
              ing point number.  The value is available to  microsecond  accu-
              racy, although the shell may show more or fewer digits depending
              on the use of typeset.  See the documentation  for  the  builtin
              typeset in zshbuiltins(1) for more details.

       SHLVL <S>
              Incremented by one each time a new shell is started.

       signals
              An array containing the names of the signals.

       TRY_BLOCK_ERROR <S>
              In an always block, indicates whether the preceding list of code
              caused an error.  The value is 1 to indicate an error, 0  other-
              wise.   It may be reset, clearing the error condition.  See Com-
              plex Commands in zshmisc(1)

       TTY    The name of the tty associated with the shell, if any.

       TTYIDLE <S>
              The idle time of the tty associated with the shell in seconds or
              -1 if there is no such tty.

       UID <S>
              The  real  user ID of the shell process.  If you have sufficient
              privileges, you may change the user ID of the shell by assigning
              to  this  parameter.  Also (assuming sufficient privileges), you
              may start  a  single  command  under  a  different  user  ID  by
              `(UID=uid; command)'

       USERNAME <S>
              The  username  corresponding  to  the  real user ID of the shell
              process.  If you have sufficient privileges, you may change  the
              username  (and  also  the  user ID and group ID) of the shell by
              assigning to this parameter.  Also (assuming  sufficient  privi-
              leges),  you  may start a single command under a different user-
              name (and user ID and group  ID)  by  `(USERNAME=username;  com-
              mand)'

       VENDOR The vendor, as determined at compile time.

       zsh_eval_context <S> <Z> (ZSH_EVAL_CONTEXT <S>)
              An  array (colon-separated list) indicating the context of shell
              code that is being run.  Each time a piece of shell code that is
              stored  within  the  shell  is  executed a string is temporarily
              appended to the array to indicate the type of operation that  is
              being performed.  Read in order the array gives an indication of
              the stack of operations being performed with the most  immediate
              context last.

              Note  that  the  variable does not give information on syntactic
              context such as pipelines or subshells.   Use  $ZSH_SUBSHELL  to
              detect subshells.

              The context is one of the following:
              cmdarg Code  specified by the -c option to the command line that
                     invoked the shell.

              cmdsubst
                     Command substitution using the `...` or $(...) construct.

              equalsubst
                     File substitution using the =(...) construct.

              eval   Code executed by the eval builtin.

              evalautofunc
                     Code executed with the KSH_AUTOLOAD mechanism in order to
                     define an autoloaded function.

              fc     Code from the shell history executed by the -e option  to
                     the fc builtin.

              file   Lines  of code being read directly from a file, for exam-
                     ple by the source builtin.

              filecode
                     Lines of code being read from  a  .zwc  file  instead  of
                     directly from the source file.

              globqual
                     Code executed by the e or + glob qualifier.

              globsort
                     Code executed to order files by the o glob qualifier.

              insubst
                     File substitution using the <(...) construct.

              loadautofunc
                     Code  read  directly  from a file to define an autoloaded
                     function.

              outsubst
                     File substitution using the >(...) construct.

              sched  Code executed by the sched builtin.

              shfunc A shell function.

              stty   Code passed to stty by  the  STTY  environment  variable.
                     Normally  this  is  passed  directly to the system's stty
                     command, so this value is unlikely to be  seen  in  prac-
                     tice.

              style  Code  executed as part of a style retrieved by the zstyle
                     builtin from the zsh/zutil module.

              toplevel
                     The highest execution level of a  script  or  interactive
                     shell.

              trap   Code  executed  as  a  trap  defined by the trap builtin.
                     Traps defined as functions have the context  shfunc.   As
                     traps  are asynchronous they may have a different hierar-
                     chy from other code.

              zpty   Code executed by the zpty builtin from the zsh/zpty  mod-
                     ule.

              zregexparse-guard
                     Code  executed as a guard by the zregexparse command from
                     the zsh/zutil module.

              zregexparse-action
                     Code executed as an action  by  the  zregexparse  command
                     from the zsh/zutil module.

       ZSH_NAME
              Expands  to  the  basename  of  the  command used to invoke this
              instance of zsh.

       ZSH_PATCHLEVEL
              The revision string for the version number of the ChangeLog file
              in  the  zsh distribution.  This is most useful in order to keep
              track of  versions  of  the  shell  during  development  between
              releases;  hence most users should not use it and should instead
              rely on $ZSH_VERSION.

       zsh_scheduled_events
              See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ZSH_SUBSHELL
              Readonly integer.  Initially zero,  incremented  each  time  the
              shell  forks  to  create  a  subshell for executing code.  Hence
              `(print $ZSH_SUBSHELL)' and `print $(print $ZSH_SUBSHELL)'  out-
              put 1, while `( (print $ZSH_SUBSHELL) )' outputs 2.

       ZSH_VERSION
              The version number of the release of zsh.


PARAMETERS USED BY THE SHELL

       The following parameters are used by the shell.

       In  cases  where  there are two parameters with an upper- and lowercase
       form of the same name, such as path and PATH, the lowercase form is  an
       array and the uppercase form is a scalar with the elements of the array
       joined together by colons.  These are similar to tied  parameters  cre-
       ated  via `typeset -T'.  The normal use for the colon-separated form is
       for exporting to the environment, while the array  form  is  easier  to
       manipulate  within  the  shell.  Note that unsetting either of the pair
       will unset the other; they retain their special properties when  recre-
       ated, and recreating one of the pair will recreate the other.

       ARGV0  If  exported,  its value is used as the argv[0] of external com-
              mands.  Usually used in constructs like `ARGV0=emacs nethack'.

       BAUD   The rate in bits per second at which data reaches the  terminal.
              The line editor will use this value in order to compensate for a
              slow terminal by delaying updates to the  display  until  neces-
              sary.   If  the parameter is unset or the value is zero the com-
              pensation mechanism is turned off.  The parameter is not set  by
              default.

              This parameter may be profitably set in some circumstances, e.g.
              for slow modems dialing into a communications server,  or  on  a
              slow  wide  area  network.  It should be set to the baud rate of
              the slowest part of the link for best performance.

       cdpath <S> <Z> (CDPATH <S>)
              An array (colon-separated list) of  directories  specifying  the
              search path for the cd command.

       COLUMNS <S>
              The  number  of  columns  for  this  terminal session.  Used for
              printing select lists and for the line editor.

       CORRECT_IGNORE
              If set, is treated as a pattern during spelling correction.  Any
              potential  correction  that matches the pattern is ignored.  For
              example, if the value is `_*' then completion functions  (which,
              by  convention,  have  names  beginning  with `_') will never be
              offered as spelling corrections.  The pattern does not apply  to
              the  correction  of  file  names,  as applied by the CORRECT_ALL
              option (so with the example just given files beginning with  `_'
              in the current directory would still be completed).

       DIRSTACKSIZE
              The  maximum size of the directory stack, by default there is no
              limit.  If the stack gets larger than this, it will be truncated
              automatically.  This is useful with the AUTO_PUSHD option.

       ENV    If the ENV environment variable is set when zsh is invoked as sh
              or ksh, $ENV is sourced after the profile scripts.  The value of
              ENV  is  subjected to parameter expansion, command substitution,
              and arithmetic expansion before being interpreted as a pathname.
              Note that ENV is not used unless zsh is emulating sh or ksh.

       FCEDIT The  default  editor  for the fc builtin.  If FCEDIT is not set,
              the parameter EDITOR is used; if  that  is  not  set  either,  a
              builtin default, usually vi, is used.

       fignore <S> <Z> (FIGNORE <S>)
              An array (colon separated list) containing the suffixes of files
              to be ignored during filename completion.  However,  if  comple-
              tion only generates files with suffixes in this list, then these
              files are completed anyway.

       fpath <S> <Z> (FPATH <S>)
              An array (colon separated list) of  directories  specifying  the
              search  path  for  function  definitions.  This path is searched
              when a function with the -u attribute is referenced.  If an exe-
              cutable  file is found, then it is read and executed in the cur-
              rent environment.

       histchars <S>
              Three characters used by the shell's history and lexical  analy-
              sis  mechanism.  The first character signals the start of a his-
              tory expansion (default `!').  The second character signals  the
              start  of a quick history substitution (default `^').  The third
              character is the comment character (default `#').

              The characters must be in the ASCII character set;  any  attempt
              to  set  histchars to characters with a locale-dependent meaning
              will be rejected with an error message.

       HISTCHARS <S> <Z>
              Same as histchars.  (Deprecated.)

       HISTFILE
              The file to save the history in when an interactive shell exits.
              If unset, the history is not saved.

       HISTSIZE <S>
              The  maximum  number  of  events  stored in the internal history
              list.  If you use  the  HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST  option,  setting
              this  value larger than the SAVEHIST size will give you the dif-
              ference as a cushion for saving duplicated history events.

       HOME <S>
              The default argument for the cd command.  This is not set  auto-
              matically  by  the  shell in sh, ksh or csh emulation, but it is
              typically present in the environment anyway, and if  it  becomes
              set it has its usual special behaviour.

       IFS <S>
              Internal  field  separators  (by default space, tab, newline and
              NUL), that are used to separate words which result from  command
              or  parameter expansion and words read by the read builtin.  Any
              characters from the set space, tab and newline  that  appear  in
              the IFS are called IFS white space.  One or more IFS white space
              characters or one non-IFS white space  character  together  with
              any  adjacent  IFS white space character delimit a field.  If an
              IFS white space character appears  twice  consecutively  in  the
              IFS,  this  character  is treated as if it were not an IFS white
              space character.

              If the parameter is unset, the default is used.  Note this has a
              different  effect from setting the parameter to an empty string.

       KEYBOARD_HACK
              This variable defines a character to be removed from the end  of
              the  command  line  before  interpreting  it (interactive shells
              only). It is intended to fix the problem with keys placed annoy-
              ingly  close  to  return and replaces the SUNKEYBOARDHACK option
              which did this for backquotes only.  Should the chosen character
              be one of singlequote, doublequote or backquote, there must also
              be an odd number of them on the command line for the last one to
              be removed.

              For  backward  compabitility,  if  the SUNKEYBOARDHACK option is
              explicitly set, the value of KEYBOARD_HACK reverts to backquote.
              If  the  option  is  explicitly  unset,  this variable is set to
              empty.

       KEYTIMEOUT
              The time the shell waits, in hundredths of seconds, for  another
              key  to be pressed when reading bound multi-character sequences.

       LANG <S>
              This variable determines the locale category  for  any  category
              not specifically selected via a variable starting with `LC_'.

       LC_ALL <S>
              This variable overrides the value of the `LANG' variable and the
              value of any of the other variables starting with `LC_'.

       LC_COLLATE <S>
              This variable determines the locale category for character  col-
              lation  information within ranges in glob brackets and for sort-
              ing.

       LC_CTYPE <S>
              This variable determines the locale category for character  han-
              dling  functions.   If  the  MULTIBYTE  option is in effect this
              variable or LANG should contain a value that reflects the  char-
              acter  set  in  use,  even if it is a single-byte character set,
              unless only the 7-bit subset (ASCII) is used.  For  example,  if
              the  character  set  is  ISO-8859-1,  a  suitable value might be
              en_US.iso88591 (certain Linux distributions) or  en_US.ISO8859-1
              (MacOS).

       LC_MESSAGES <S>
              This  variable  determines the language in which messages should
              be written.  Note that zsh does not use message catalogs.

       LC_NUMERIC <S>
              This variable affects the decimal point character and  thousands
              separator character for the formatted input/output functions and
              string conversion functions.  Note that zsh ignores this setting
              when parsing floating point mathematical expressions.

       LC_TIME <S>
              This  variable  determines the locale category for date and time
              formatting in prompt escape sequences.

       LINES <S>
              The number of lines for this terminal session.  Used for  print-
              ing select lists and for the line editor.

       LISTMAX
              In the line editor, the number of matches to list without asking
              first. If the value is negative, the list will be  shown  if  it
              spans  at most as many lines as given by the absolute value.  If
              set to zero, the shell asks only if the top of the listing would
              scroll off the screen.

       LOGCHECK
              The interval in seconds between checks for login/logout activity
              using the watch parameter.

       MAIL   If this parameter is set and mailpath  is  not  set,  the  shell
              looks for mail in the specified file.

       MAILCHECK
              The interval in seconds between checks for new mail.

       mailpath <S> <Z> (MAILPATH <S>)
              An  array  (colon-separated  list) of filenames to check for new
              mail.  Each filename can be followed by a `?' and a message that
              will  be printed.  The message will undergo parameter expansion,
              command substitution and arithmetic expansion with the  variable
              $_  defined  as  the  name  of  the  file that has changed.  The
              default message is `You have new mail'.   If  an  element  is  a
              directory  instead  of  a  file the shell will recursively check
              every file in every subdirectory of the element.

       manpath <S> <Z> (MANPATH <S> <Z>)
              An array (colon-separated list) whose value is not used  by  the
              shell.   The manpath array can be useful, however, since setting
              it also sets MANPATH, and vice versa.

       match
       mbegin
       mend   Arrays set by the shell when the b globbing flag is used in pat-
              tern matches.  See the subsection Globbing flags in the documen-
              tation for Filename Generation in zshexpn(1).

       MATCH
       MBEGIN
       MEND   Set by the shell when the m globbing flag  is  used  in  pattern
              matches.  See the subsection Globbing flags in the documentation
              for Filename Generation in zshexpn(1).

       module_path <S> <Z> (MODULE_PATH <S>)
              An array (colon-separated list)  of  directories  that  zmodload
              searches  for dynamically loadable modules.  This is initialized
              to a standard  pathname,  usually  `/usr/local/lib/zsh/$ZSH_VER-
              SION'.   (The  `/usr/local/lib' part varies from installation to
              installation.)  For security reasons, any value set in the envi-
              ronment when the shell is started will be ignored.

              These parameters only exist if the installation supports dynamic
              module loading.

       NULLCMD <S>
              The command name to assume if a redirection is specified with no
              command.   Defaults to cat.  For sh/ksh behavior, change this to
              :.  For csh-like behavior, unset this parameter; the shell  will
              print an error message if null commands are entered.

       path <S> <Z> (PATH <S>)
              An  array  (colon-separated  list)  of directories to search for
              commands.  When this parameter is set, each directory is scanned
              and all files found are put in a hash table.

       POSTEDIT <S>
              This  string  is output whenever the line editor exits.  It usu-
              ally contains termcap strings to reset the terminal.

       PROMPT <S> <Z>
       PROMPT2 <S> <Z>
       PROMPT3 <S> <Z>
       PROMPT4 <S> <Z>
              Same as PS1, PS2, PS3 and PS4, respectively.

       prompt <S> <Z>
              Same as PS1.

       PROMPT_EOL_MARK
              When  the  PROMPT_CR  and  PROMPT_SP  options   are   set,   the
              PROMPT_EOL_MARK  parameter  can be used to customize how the end
              of partial lines are shown.   This  parameter  undergoes  prompt
              expansion,  with the PROMPT_PERCENT option set.  If not set, the
              default behavior is equivalent to the value `%B%S%#%s%b'.

       PS1 <S>
              The primary prompt string, printed before a command is read.  It
              undergoes  a  special  form of expansion before being displayed;
              see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).  The default is
              `%m%# '.

       PS2 <S>
              The secondary prompt, printed when the shell needs more informa-
              tion to complete a command.  It is expanded in the same  way  as
              PS1.  The default is `%_> ', which displays any shell constructs
              or quotation marks which are currently being processed.

       PS3 <S>
              Selection prompt used within a select loop.  It is  expanded  in
              the same way as PS1.  The default is `?# '.

       PS4 <S>
              The  execution  trace prompt.  Default is `+%N:%i> ', which dis-
              plays the name of the current shell structure and the line  num-
              ber within it.  In sh or ksh emulation, the default is `+ '.

       psvar <S> <Z> (PSVAR <S>)
              An  array  (colon-separated list) whose first nine values can be
              used in PROMPT strings.  Setting psvar also sets PSVAR, and vice
              versa.

       READNULLCMD <S>
              The  command  name  to  assume  if a single input redirection is
              specified with no command.  Defaults to more.

       REPORTTIME
              If nonnegative, commands whose combined user and  system  execu-
              tion  times  (measured  in  seconds) are greater than this value
              have timing statistics printed for them.  Output  is  suppressed
              for  commands executed within the line editor, including comple-
              tion; commands explicitly marked with  the  time  keyword  still
              cause the summary to be printed in this case.

       REPLY  This  parameter  is reserved by convention to pass string values
              between shell scripts and shell builtins in situations  where  a
              function call or redirection are impossible or undesirable.  The
              read builtin and the select complex command may set  REPLY,  and
              filename generation both sets and examines its value when evalu-
              ating certain expressions.  Some modules also employ  REPLY  for
              similar purposes.

       reply  As REPLY, but for array values rather than strings.

       RPROMPT <S>
       RPS1 <S>
              This  prompt  is  displayed on the right-hand side of the screen
              when the primary prompt is being displayed on  the  left.   This
              does  not  work  if  the  SINGLE_LINE_ZLE  option is set.  It is
              expanded in the same way as PS1.

       RPROMPT2 <S>
       RPS2 <S>
              This prompt is displayed on the right-hand side  of  the  screen
              when  the secondary prompt is being displayed on the left.  This
              does not work if the  SINGLE_LINE_ZLE  option  is  set.   It  is
              expanded in the same way as PS2.

       SAVEHIST
              The  maximum  number  of  history  events to save in the history
              file.

       SPROMPT <S>
              The prompt used for  spelling  correction.   The  sequence  `%R'
              expands  to  the  string which presumably needs spelling correc-
              tion, and `%r' expands to the proposed  correction.   All  other
              prompt escapes are also allowed.

       STTY   If  this  parameter is set in a command's environment, the shell
              runs the stty command with the value of this parameter as  argu-
              ments  in order to set up the terminal before executing the com-
              mand. The modes apply only to the command, and are reset when it
              finishes  or  is suspended. If the command is suspended and con-
              tinued later with the fg or wait builtins it will see the  modes
              specified  by  STTY,  as if it were not suspended.  This (inten-
              tionally) does not apply if the command is continued  via  `kill
              -CONT'.   STTY  is  ignored  if  the command is run in the back-
              ground, or if it is in the environment  of  the  shell  but  not
              explicitly  assigned  to  in the input line. This avoids running
              stty at every external command  by  accidentally  exporting  it.
              Also  note that STTY should not be used for window size specifi-
              cations; these will not be local to the command.

       TERM <S>
              The type of terminal in use.  This is used when looking up term-
              cap  sequences.  An assignment to TERM causes zsh to re-initial-
              ize the terminal, even if  the  value  does  not  change  (e.g.,
              `TERM=$TERM').   It is necessary to make such an assignment upon
              any change to the terminal definition database or terminal  type
              in order for the new settings to take effect.

       TERMINFO <S>
              A  reference  to a compiled description of the terminal, used by
              the `terminfo' library when the system has it; see  terminfo(5).
              If set, this causes the shell to reinitialise the terminal, mak-
              ing the workaround `TERM=$TERM' unnecessary.

       TIMEFMT
              The format of process time reports with the time  keyword.   The
              default is `%J  %U user %S system %P cpu %*E total'.  Recognizes
              the following escape sequences, although not all may  be  avail-
              able on all systems, and some that are available may not be use-
              ful:

              %%     A `%'.
              %U     CPU seconds spent in user mode.
              %S     CPU seconds spent in kernel mode.
              %E     Elapsed time in seconds.
              %P     The CPU percentage, computed as (100*%U+%S)/%E.
              %W     Number of times the process was swapped.
              %X     The average amount in (shared) text space used  in  kilo-
                     bytes.
              %D     The average amount in (unshared) data/stack space used in
                     kilobytes.
              %K     The total space used (%X+%D) in kilobytes.
              %M     The  maximum memory the process had in use at any time in
                     megabytes.
              %F     The  number  of  major  page  faults  (page  needed to be
                     brought from disk).
              %R     The number of minor page faults.
              %I     The number of input operations.
              %O     The number of output operations.
              %r     The number of socket messages received.
              %s     The number of socket messages sent.
              %k     The number of signals received.
              %w     Number of voluntary context switches (waits).
              %c     Number of involuntary context switches.
              %J     The name of this job.

              A star may be inserted between the percent sign and flags print-
              ing  time.   This cause the time to be printed in `hh:mm:ss.ttt'
              format (hours and minutes are  only  printed  if  they  are  not
              zero).

       TMOUT  If  this  parameter  is  nonzero, the shell will receive an ALRM
              signal if a command is not entered within the  specified  number
              of  seconds  after  issuing  a  prompt.  If  there  is a trap on
              SIGALRM, it will be executed and a new alarm is scheduled  using
              the  value  of the TMOUT parameter after executing the trap.  If
              no trap is set, and the idle time of the terminal  is  not  less
              than  the  value of the TMOUT parameter, zsh terminates.  Other-
              wise a new alarm is scheduled to TMOUT seconds  after  the  last
              keypress.

       TMPPREFIX
              A  pathname  prefix  which  the shell will use for all temporary
              files.  Note that this should include an initial  part  for  the
              file  name  as  well  as  any  directory  names.  The default is
              `/tmp/zsh'.

       watch <S> <Z> (WATCH <S>)
              An  array  (colon-separated  list)  of  login/logout  events  to
              report.   If  it  contains  the  single  word  `all',  then  all
              login/logout events are reported.  If  it  contains  the  single
              word  `notme', then all events are reported as with `all' except
              $USERNAME.  An entry in this list may consist of a username,  an
              `@'  followed by a remote hostname, and a `%' followed by a line
              (tty).  Any or all of these components  may  be  present  in  an
              entry;  if  a  login/logout  event  matches  all  of them, it is
              reported.

       WATCHFMT
              The format of login/logout reports if  the  watch  parameter  is
              set.  Default is `%n has %a %l from %m'.  Recognizes the follow-
              ing escape sequences:

              %n     The name of the user that logged in/out.

              %a     The observed action, i.e. "logged on" or "logged off".

              %l     The line (tty) the user is logged in on.

              %M     The full hostname of the remote host.

              %m     The hostname up to the first `.'.  If only the IP address
                     is  available  or  the utmp field contains the name of an
                     X-windows display, the whole name is printed.

                     NOTE: The `%m' and `%M' escapes will work only  if  there
                     is a host name field in the utmp on your machine.  Other-
                     wise they are treated as ordinary strings.

              %S (%s)
                     Start (stop) standout mode.

              %U (%u)
                     Start (stop) underline mode.

              %B (%b)
                     Start (stop) boldface mode.

              %t
              %@     The time, in 12-hour, am/pm format.

              %T     The time, in 24-hour format.

              %w     The date in `day-dd' format.

              %W     The date in `mm/dd/yy' format.

              %D     The date in `yy-mm-dd' format.

              %(x:true-text:false-text)
                     Specifies a ternary expression.  The character  following
                     the  x  is arbitrary; the same character is used to sepa-
                     rate the text for the "true" result  from  that  for  the
                     "false"  result.  Both the separator and the right paren-
                     thesis may be escaped with a backslash.  Ternary  expres-
                     sions may be nested.

                     The  test  character x may be any one of `l', `n', `m' or
                     `M', which indicate a `true' result if the  corresponding
                     escape sequence would return a non-empty value; or it may
                     be `a', which indicates a `true' result  if  the  watched
                     user  has  logged  in,  or  `false' if he has logged out.
                     Other characters evaluate to neither true nor false;  the
                     entire expression is omitted in this case.

                     If  the result is `true', then the true-text is formatted
                     according  to  the  rules  above  and  printed,  and  the
                     false-text  is  skipped.   If  `false',  the true-text is
                     skipped and the  false-text  is  formatted  and  printed.
                     Either  or  both  of  the branches may be empty, but both
                     separators must be present in any case.

       WORDCHARS <S>
              A list of non-alphanumeric characters considered part of a  word
              by the line editor.

       ZBEEP  If set, this gives a string of characters, which can use all the
              same codes as the bindkey command as described  in  the  zsh/zle
              module entry in zshmodules(1), that will be output to the termi-
              nal instead of beeping.  This may have a visible instead  of  an
              audible  effect;  for  example,  the  string `\e[?5h\e[?5l' on a
              vt100 or xterm will have the effect of flashing reverse video on
              and  off  (if  you usually use reverse video, you should use the
              string `\e[?5l\e[?5h' instead).  This takes precedence over  the
              NOBEEP option.

       ZDOTDIR
              The  directory  to search for shell startup files (.zshrc, etc),
              if not $HOME.

       ZLE_LINE_ABORTED
              This parameter is set by the line editor when an  error  occurs.
              It  contains  the line that was being edited at the point of the
              error.  `print -zr -- $ZLE_LINE_ABORTED' can be used to  recover
              the line.  Only the most recent line of this kind is remembered.

       ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS
       ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS
              These parameters are used by the line editor.  In  certain  cir-
              cumstances suffixes (typically space or slash) added by the com-
              pletion system will be removed automatically, either because the
              next editing command was not an insertable character, or because
              the character was marked as requiring the suffix to be  removed.

              These  variables  can  contain  the sets of characters that will
              cause the suffix to be removed.  If  ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS  is
              set,  those  characters  will cause the suffix to be removed; if
              ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS is set, those characters will  cause  the
              suffix to be removed and replaced by a space.

              If  ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS is not set, the default behaviour is
              equivalent to:

                     ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS=$' \t\n;&|'

              If ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS is set but is  empty,  no  characters
              have  this  behaviour.  ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS takes precedence,
              so that the following:

                     ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS=$'&|'

              causes the characters `&' and `|' to remove the  suffix  but  to
              replace it with a space.

              To   illustrate   the   difference,   suppose  that  the  option
              AUTO_REMOVE_SLASH is in effect and the directory  DIR  has  just
              been  completed,  with  an  appended /, following which the user
              types `&'.  The default result is `DIR&'.  With  ZLE_REMOVE_SUF-
              FIX_CHARS  set  but without including `&' the result is `DIR/&'.
              With ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS set to include  `&'  the  result  is
              `DIR &'.

              Note  that  certain  completions  may  provide  their own suffix
              removal or replacement  behaviour  which  overrides  the  values
              described here.  See the completion system documentation in zsh-
       compsys(1).



ZSHOPTIONS(1)                                                    ZSHOPTIONS(1)




NAME

       zshoptions - zsh options


SPECIFYING OPTIONS

       Options are primarily referred to by name.  These names are case insen-
       sitive and underscores are ignored.  For example, `allexport' is equiv-
       alent to `A__lleXP_ort'.

       The sense of an option name may be inverted by preceding it with  `no',
       so  `setopt  No_Beep' is equivalent to `unsetopt beep'.  This inversion
       can only be done once, so `nonobeep' is not a synonym for `beep'.  Sim-
       ilarly,  `tify'  is  not  a  synonym  for  `nonotify' (the inversion of
       `notify').

       Some options also have one or more single letter names.  There are  two
       sets of single letter options: one used by default, and another used to
       emulate sh/ksh (used when the SH_OPTION_LETTERS option  is  set).   The
       single  letter  options  can be used on the shell command line, or with
       the set, setopt and unsetopt builtins, as normal Unix options  preceded
       by `-'.

       The  sense  of  the  single letter options may be inverted by using `+'
       instead of `-'.  Some of the single letter option  names  refer  to  an
       option  being  off,  in which case the inversion of that name refers to
       the option being on.  For example, `+n' is the short  name  of  `exec',
       and `-n' is the short name of its inversion, `noexec'.

       In  strings  of single letter options supplied to the shell at startup,
       trailing whitespace will be ignored; for example the  string  `-f     '
       will  be treated just as `-f', but the string `-f i' is an error.  This
       is because many systems which implement the `#!' mechanism for  calling
       scripts do not strip trailing whitespace.



DESCRIPTION OF OPTIONS

       In  the  following  list,  options set by default in all emulations are
       marked <D>; those set by default only in csh, ksh, sh,  or  zsh  emula-
       tions  are  marked  <C>,  <K>,  <S>,  <Z> as appropriate.  When listing
       options (by `setopt', `unsetopt', `set -o' or `set +o'),  those  turned
       on  by  default  appear  in the list prefixed with `no'.  Hence (unless
       KSH_OPTION_PRINT is set), `setopt' shows all options whose settings are
       changed from the default.


   Changing Directories
       AUTO_CD (-J)
              If  a  command is issued that can't be executed as a normal com-
              mand, and the command is the name of a directory, perform the cd
              command to that directory.

       AUTO_PUSHD (-N)
              Make cd push the old directory onto the directory stack.

       CDABLE_VARS (-T)
              If  the  argument  to  a  cd  command (or an implied cd with the
              AUTO_CD option set) is not a directory, and does not begin  with
              a  slash, try to expand the expression as if it were preceded by
              a `~' (see the section `Filename Expansion').

       CHASE_DOTS
              When changing to a directory  containing  a  path  segment  `..'
              which  would otherwise be treated as canceling the previous seg-
              ment in the path (in other words, `foo/..' would be removed from
              the  path,  or  if  `..' is the first part of the path, the last
              part of the current working directory would be removed), instead
              resolve  the  path  to  the  physical directory.  This option is
              overridden by CHASE_LINKS.

              For example,  suppose  /foo/bar  is  a  link  to  the  directory
              /alt/rod.   Without this option set, `cd /foo/bar/..' changes to
              /foo; with it set, it changes to /alt.  The same applies if  the
              current  directory  is  /foo/bar and `cd ..' is used.  Note that
              all other symbolic links in the path will also be resolved.

       CHASE_LINKS (-w)
              Resolve symbolic links to their true values when changing direc-
              tory.   This also has the effect of CHASE_DOTS, i.e. a `..' path
              segment will be treated as referring  to  the  physical  parent,
              even if the preceding path segment is a symbolic link.

       POSIX_CD
              Modifies  the  behaviour of cd, chdir and pushd commands to make
              them more compatible with the POSIX standard. The behaviour with
              the  option  unset  is described in the documentation for the cd
              builtin in zshbuiltins(1).  If the option is set, the shell does
              not test for directories beneath the local directory (`.') until
              after all directories in cdpath have been tested.

              Also, if the option is set, the conditions under which the shell
              prints  the new directory after changing to it are modified.  It
              is no longer restricted to interactive shells (although printing
              of  the  directory stack with pushd is still limited to interac-
              tive shells); and any use of a component of CDPATH, including  a
              `.'  but  excluding an empty component that is otherwise treated
              as `.', causes the directory to be printed.

       PUSHD_IGNORE_DUPS
              Don't push multiple copies of the same directory onto the direc-
              tory stack.

       PUSHD_MINUS
              Exchanges the meanings of `+' and `-' when used with a number to
              specify a directory in the stack.

       PUSHD_SILENT (-E)
              Do not print the directory stack after pushd or popd.

       PUSHD_TO_HOME (-D)
              Have pushd with no arguments act like `pushd $HOME'.


   Completion
       ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT <D>
              If unset, key functions that list completions try to  return  to
              the  last prompt if given a numeric argument. If set these func-
              tions try to return to the last prompt if given no numeric argu-
              ment.

       ALWAYS_TO_END
              If  a completion is performed with the cursor within a word, and
              a full completion is inserted, the cursor is moved to the end of
              the  word.   That is, the cursor is moved to the end of the word
              if either a single match is inserted or menu completion is  per-
              formed.

       AUTO_LIST (-9) <D>
              Automatically list choices on an ambiguous completion.

       AUTO_MENU <D>
              Automatically  use  menu completion after the second consecutive
              request for completion, for example  by  pressing  the  tab  key
              repeatedly. This option is overridden by MENU_COMPLETE.

       AUTO_NAME_DIRS
              Any  parameter  that  is set to the absolute name of a directory
              immediately becomes a name for that directory, that will be used
              by  the `%~' and related prompt sequences, and will be available
              when completion is performed on a word starting with `~'.  (Oth-
              erwise,  the parameter must be used in the form `~param' first.)

       AUTO_PARAM_KEYS <D>
              If a parameter name was  completed  and  a  following  character
              (normally  a space) automatically inserted, and the next charac-
              ter typed is one of those that have to come directly  after  the
              name (like `}', `:', etc.), the automatically added character is
              deleted, so that the character typed comes immediately after the
              parameter  name.   Completion  in  a brace expansion is affected
              similarly: the added character is a `,', which will  be  removed
              if `}' is typed next.

       AUTO_PARAM_SLASH <D>
              If  a  parameter  is  completed  whose  content is the name of a
              directory, then add a trailing slash instead of a space.

       AUTO_REMOVE_SLASH <D>
              When the last character resulting from a completion is  a  slash
              and  the next character typed is a word delimiter, a slash, or a
              character that ends a command (such as a semicolon or an  amper-
              sand), remove the slash.

       BASH_AUTO_LIST
              On  an ambiguous completion, automatically list choices when the
              completion function is called twice in succession.   This  takes
              precedence  over  AUTO_LIST.   The  setting of LIST_AMBIGUOUS is
              respected.  If AUTO_MENU is set, the menu  behaviour  will  then
              start  with  the third press.  Note that this will not work with
              MENU_COMPLETE, since repeated completion calls immediately cycle
              through the list in that case.

       COMPLETE_ALIASES
              Prevents  aliases on the command line from being internally sub-
              stituted before completion is attempted.  The effect is to  make
              the alias a distinct command for completion purposes.

       COMPLETE_IN_WORD
              If unset, the cursor is set to the end of the word if completion
              is started. Otherwise it stays there and completion is done from
              both ends.

       GLOB_COMPLETE
              When  the current word has a glob pattern, do not insert all the
              words resulting from the expansion but generate matches  as  for
              completion  and  cycle  through  them  like  MENU_COMPLETE.  The
              matches are generated as if a `*' was added to the  end  of  the
              word,  or  inserted  at the cursor when COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set.
              This actually uses pattern matching, not globbing, so  it  works
              not only for files but for any completion, such as options, user
              names, etc.

              Note that when the pattern matcher  is  used,  matching  control
              (for  example,  case-insensitive or anchored matching) cannot be
              used.  This limitation only applies when the current  word  con-
              tains a pattern; simply turning on the GLOB_COMPLETE option does
              not have this effect.

       HASH_LIST_ALL <D>
              Whenever  a  command  completion  or  spelling   correction   is
              attempted,  make  sure  the entire command path is hashed first.
              This makes the first completion slower but avoids false  reports
              of spelling errors.

       LIST_AMBIGUOUS <D>
              This  option works when AUTO_LIST or BASH_AUTO_LIST is also set.
              If there is an unambiguous prefix to insert on the command line,
              that is done without a completion list being displayed; in other
              words, auto-listing behaviour  only  takes  place  when  nothing
              would  be  inserted.   In the case of BASH_AUTO_LIST, this means
              that the list will be delayed to the third call of the function.

       LIST_BEEP <D>
              Beep  on  an ambiguous completion.  More accurately, this forces
              the completion widgets to return status 1 on an  ambiguous  com-
              pletion,  which  causes  the shell to beep if the option BEEP is
              also set; this may be modified if completion is  called  from  a
              user-defined widget.

       LIST_PACKED
              Try  to  make the completion list smaller (occupying less lines)
              by printing the matches in columns with different widths.

       LIST_ROWS_FIRST
              Lay out the matches in  completion  lists  sorted  horizontally,
              that  is, the second match is to the right of the first one, not
              under it as usual.

       LIST_TYPES (-X) <D>
              When listing files that are possible completions, show the  type
              of each file with a trailing identifying mark.

       MENU_COMPLETE (-Y)
              On  an ambiguous completion, instead of listing possibilities or
              beeping, insert the first match immediately.  Then when  comple-
              tion  is  requested again, remove the first match and insert the
              second match, etc.  When there are no more matches, go  back  to
              the  first one again.  reverse-menu-complete may be used to loop
              through the list in the other direction. This  option  overrides
              AUTO_MENU.

       REC_EXACT (-S)
              In  completion, recognize exact matches even if they are ambigu-
              ous.


   Expansion and Globbing
       BAD_PATTERN (+2) <C> <Z>
              If a pattern for filename generation is badly formed,  print  an
              error  message.   (If  this option is unset, the pattern will be
              left unchanged.)

       BARE_GLOB_QUAL <Z>
              In a glob pattern, treat a trailing  set  of  parentheses  as  a
              qualifier  list,  if it contains no `|', `(' or (if special) `~'
              characters.  See the section `Filename Generation'.

       BRACE_CCL
              Expand expressions in braces which would not  otherwise  undergo
              brace  expansion  to a lexically ordered list of all the charac-
              ters.  See the section `Brace Expansion'.

       CASE_GLOB <D>
              Make globbing (filename generation)  sensitive  to  case.   Note
              that  other  uses  of patterns are always sensitive to case.  If
              the option is unset, the presence of any character which is spe-
              cial  to  filename generation will cause case-insensitive match-
              ing.  For example, cvs(/) can match the directory CVS  owing  to
              the   presence   of   the   globbing  flag  (unless  the  option
              BARE_GLOB_QUAL is unset).

       CASE_MATCH <D>
              Make regular expressions using the zsh/regex  module  (including
              matches with =~) sensitive to case.

       CSH_NULL_GLOB <C>
              If  a pattern for filename generation has no matches, delete the
              pattern from the argument list; do not report  an  error  unless
              all  the  patterns  in  a  command  have  no matches.  Overrides
              NOMATCH.

       EQUALS <Z>
              Perform = filename expansion.  (See the section `Filename Expan-
              sion'.)

       EXTENDED_GLOB
              Treat  the  `#',  `~' and `^' characters as part of patterns for
              filename generation, etc.  (An initial unquoted `~' always  pro-
              duces named directory expansion.)

       GLOB (+F, ksh: +f) <D>
              Perform filename generation (globbing).  (See the section `File-
              name Generation'.)

       GLOB_ASSIGN <C>
              If this option is set, filename generation  (globbing)  is  per-
              formed on the right hand side of scalar parameter assignments of
              the form `name=pattern (e.g. `foo=*').  If the result  has  more
              than  one  word  the  parameter  will become an array with those
              words as arguments. This option is provided for  backwards  com-
              patibility  only: globbing is always performed on the right hand
              side of array  assignments  of  the  form  `name=(value)'  (e.g.
              `foo=(*)')  and  this form is recommended for clarity; with this
              option set, it is not possible to  predict  whether  the  result
              will be an array or a scalar.

       GLOB_DOTS (-4)
              Do not require a leading `.' in a filename to be matched explic-
              itly.

       GLOB_SUBST <C> <K> <S>
              Treat any characters resulting from parameter expansion as being
              eligible  for  file  expansion  and filename generation, and any
              characters resulting from command substitution as being eligible
              for  filename generation.  Braces (and commas in between) do not
              become eligible for expansion.

       HIST_SUBST_PATTERN
              Substitutions using the :s and :&  history  modifiers  are  per-
              formed  with  pattern matching instead of string matching.  This
              occurs wherever history  modifiers  are  valid,  including  glob
              qualifiers  and  parameters.   See the section Modifiers in zsh-
       expn(1).

       IGNORE_BRACES (-I) <S>
              Do not perform brace expansion.   For  historical  reasons  this
              also includes the effect of the IGNORE_CLOSE_BRACES option.

       IGNORE_CLOSE_BRACES
              When  neither this option nor IGNORE_BRACES is set, a sole close
              brace character `}' is syntactically significant at any point on
              a  command  line.  This has the effect that no semicolon or new-
              line is necessary before the brace  terminating  a  function  or
              current  shell  construct.  When either option is set, a closing
              brace is syntactically significant  only  in  command  position.
              Unlike  IGNORE_BRACES, this option does not disable brace expan-
              sion.

              For example, with both options unset a function may  be  defined
              in the following fashion:

                     args() { echo $# }

              while  if either option is set, this does not work and something
              equivalent to the following is required:

                     args() { echo $#; }


       KSH_GLOB <K>
              In  pattern  matching,  the  interpretation  of  parentheses  is
              affected by a preceding `@', `*', `+', `?' or `!'.  See the sec-
              tion `Filename Generation'.

       MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST
              All unquoted arguments of the form `anything=expression' appear-
              ing  after  the  command  name have filename expansion (that is,
              where expression has a leading `~' or `=') performed on  expres-
              sion  as if it were a parameter assignment.  The argument is not
              otherwise treated specially; it is passed to the  command  as  a
              single argument, and not used as an actual parameter assignment.
              For example, in echo  foo=~/bar:~/rod,  both  occurrences  of  ~
              would  be  replaced.  Note that this happens anyway with typeset
              and similar statements.

              This option respects the setting of the KSH_TYPESET option.   In
              other  words,  if  both options are in effect, arguments looking
              like assignments will not undergo word splitting.

       MARK_DIRS (-8, ksh: -X)
              Append a trailing `/' to  all  directory  names  resulting  from
              filename generation (globbing).

       MULTIBYTE <C> <K> <Z>
              Respect  multibyte  characters when found in strings.  When this
              option is set, strings are examined using the system library  to
              determine how many bytes form a character, depending on the cur-
              rent locale.  This affects the way  characters  are  counted  in
              pattern matching, parameter values and various delimiters.

              The  option  is  on  by  default  if the shell was compiled with
              MULTIBYTE_SUPPORT except in sh emulation; otherwise it is off by
              default  and  has no effect if turned on.  The mode is off in sh
              emulation for compatibility but for interactive use may need  to
              be turned on if the terminal interprets multibyte characters.

              If the option is off a single byte is always treated as a single
              character.   This  setting  is  designed  purely  for  examining
              strings  known to contain raw bytes or other values that may not
              be characters in the current locale.  It  is  not  necessary  to
              unset  the  option merely because the character set for the cur-
              rent locale does not contain multibyte characters.

              The option does not affect the  shell's  editor,   which  always
              uses  the  locale  to  determine  multibyte characters.  This is
              because the character set displayed by the terminal emulator  is
              independent of shell settings.

       NOMATCH (+3) <C> <Z>
              If  a  pattern  for filename generation has no matches, print an
              error, instead of leaving it unchanged  in  the  argument  list.
              This also applies to file expansion of an initial `~' or `='.

       NULL_GLOB (-G)
              If  a pattern for filename generation has no matches, delete the
              pattern from the argument list instead of  reporting  an  error.
              Overrides NOMATCH.

       NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT
              If  numeric  filenames are matched by a filename generation pat-
              tern, sort the filenames numerically rather  than  lexicographi-
              cally.

       RC_EXPAND_PARAM (-P)
              Array  expansions of the form `foo${xx}bar', where the parameter
              xx is set to (a b c),  are  substituted  with  `fooabar  foobbar
              foocbar'  instead  of  the  default `fooa b cbar'.  Note that an
              empty array will therefore cause all arguments to be removed.

       REMATCH_PCRE <Z>
              If set, regular expression matching with the  =~  operator  will
              use  Perl-Compatible  Regular Expressions from the PCRE library,
              if available.  If not set,  regular  expressions  will  use  the
              extended regexp syntax provided by the system libraries.

       SH_GLOB <K> <S>
              Disables  the special meaning of `(', `|', `)' and '<' for glob-
              bing the result of parameter and command substitutions,  and  in
              some  other places where the shell accepts patterns.  If SH_GLOB
              is set but KSH_GLOB is not, the shell allows the  interpretation
              of  subshell  expressions  enclosed in parentheses in some cases
              where there is no space before  the  opening  parenthesis,  e.g.
              !(true)  is  interpreted  as  if there were a space after the !.
              This option is set by default if zsh is invoked as sh or ksh.

       UNSET (+u, ksh: +u) <K> <S> <Z>
              Treat unset parameters as if they were empty when  substituting.
              Otherwise they are treated as an error.

       WARN_CREATE_GLOBAL
              Print  a warning message when a global parameter is created in a
              function by an assignment.  This often indicates that a  parame-
              ter  has  not  been  declared  local  when  it should have been.
              Parameters explicitly declared global  from  within  a  function
              using  typeset -g do not cause a warning.  Note that there is no
              warning when a local parameter is assigned to in a nested  func-
              tion, which may also indicate an error.


   History
       APPEND_HISTORY <D>
              If  this  is set, zsh sessions will append their history list to
              the history file, rather than replace it. Thus, multiple  paral-
              lel  zsh  sessions will all have the new entries from their his-
              tory lists added to the history file, in  the  order  that  they
              exit.  The file will still be periodically re-written to trim it
              when the number of lines grows 20% beyond the value specified by
              $SAVEHIST (see also the HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY option).

       BANG_HIST (+K) <C> <Z>
              Perform textual history expansion, csh-style, treating the char-
              acter `!' specially.

       EXTENDED_HISTORY <C>
              Save each command's beginning timestamp (in  seconds  since  the
              epoch)  and  the duration (in seconds) to the history file.  The
              format of this prefixed data is:

              `: <beginning time>:<elapsed seconds>;<command>'.

       HIST_ALLOW_CLOBBER
              Add `|' to output redirections in the history.  This allows his-
              tory references to clobber files even when CLOBBER is unset.

       HIST_BEEP <D>
              Beep  when  an  attempt  is made to access a history entry which
              isn't there.

       HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST
              If the internal history needs to be trimmed to add  the  current
              command  line, setting this option will cause the oldest history
              event that has a duplicate to be lost  before  losing  a  unique
              event  from  the  list.   You should be sure to set the value of
              HISTSIZE to a larger number than SAVEHIST in order to  give  you
              some  room for the duplicated events, otherwise this option will
              behave just like HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS once the history fills  up
              with unique events.

       HIST_FCNTL_LOCK
              When  writing  out  the history file, by default zsh uses ad-hoc
              file locking to avoid known problems with locking on some  oper-
              ating systems.  With this option locking is done by means of the
              system's fcntl call, where this method is available.  On  recent
              operating  systems  this may provide better performance, in par-
              ticular avoiding history corruption when  files  are  stored  on
              NFS.

       HIST_FIND_NO_DUPS
              When  searching  for  history entries in the line editor, do not
              display duplicates of a  line  previously  found,  even  if  the
              duplicates are not contiguous.

       HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS
              If a new command line being added to the history list duplicates
              an older one, the older command is removed from the  list  (even
              if it is not the previous event).

       HIST_IGNORE_DUPS (-h)
              Do  not  enter  command  lines into the history list if they are
              duplicates of the previous event.

       HIST_IGNORE_SPACE (-g)
              Remove command lines from the history list when the first  char-
              acter  on  the  line  is  a  space,  or when one of the expanded
              aliases contains a leading  space.   Only  normal  aliases  (not
              global  or  suffix  aliases) have this behaviour.  Note that the
              command lingers in the internal history until the  next  command
              is  entered before it vanishes, allowing you to briefly reuse or
              edit the line.  If you want to make it vanish right away without
              entering another command, type a space and press return.

       HIST_LEX_WORDS
              By  default,  shell  history that is read in from files is split
              into words on all white space.  This means that  arguments  with
              quoted  whitespace  are  not  correctly handled, with the conse-
              quence that references to words in history lines that have  been
              read  from  a  file may be inaccurate.  When this option is set,
              words read in from a history file are divided up  in  a  similar
              fashion  to  normal  shell command line handling.  Although this
              produces more accurately delimited words, if  the  size  of  the
              history file is large this can be slow.  Trial and error is nec-
              essary to decide.

       HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS
              Remove function definitions from the history  list.   Note  that
              the function lingers in the internal history until the next com-
              mand is entered before it vanishes, allowing you to briefly  re-
              use or edit the definition.

       HIST_NO_STORE
              Remove  the  history  (fc -l) command from the history list when
              invoked.  Note that the command lingers in the internal  history
              until  the  next command is entered before it vanishes, allowing
              you to briefly reuse or edit the line.

       HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS
              Remove superfluous blanks from each command line being added  to
              the history list.

       HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY <D>
              When  the  history  file  is re-written, we normally write out a
              copy of the file named $HISTFILE.new and then rename it over the
              old  one.  However, if this option is unset, we instead truncate
              the old history file and write out the new version in-place.  If
              one  of  the  history-appending  options is enabled, this option
              only has an effect when the enlarged history file  needs  to  be
              re-written  to  trim  it down to size.  Disable this only if you
              have special needs, as doing so makes it possible to  lose  his-
              tory entries if zsh gets interrupted during the save.

              When  writing  out a copy of the history file, zsh preserves the
              old file's permissions and group information, but will refuse to
              write  out  a  new  file  if  it would change the history file's
              owner.

       HIST_SAVE_NO_DUPS
              When writing out the history file, older commands that duplicate
              newer ones are omitted.

       HIST_VERIFY
              Whenever  the  user  enters a line with history expansion, don't
              execute the line directly; instead,  perform  history  expansion
              and reload the line into the editing buffer.

       INC_APPEND_HISTORY
              This  options  works like APPEND_HISTORY except that new history
              lines are added to the $HISTFILE incrementally (as soon as  they
              are  entered),  rather  than waiting until the shell exits.  The
              file will still be periodically re-written to trim it  when  the
              number  of  lines grows 20% beyond the value specified by $SAVE-
              HIST (see also the HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY option).

       SHARE_HISTORY <K>

              This option both imports new commands from the history file, and
              also  causes  your  typed commands to be appended to the history
              file (the latter is like  specifying  INC_APPEND_HISTORY).   The
              history  lines are also output with timestamps ala EXTENDED_HIS-
              TORY (which makes it easier to find the spot where we  left  off
              reading the file after it gets re-written).

              By  default,  history movement commands visit the imported lines
              as well as the local lines, but you can toggle this on  and  off
              with  the set-local-history zle binding.  It is also possible to
              create a zle widget that will make some commands ignore imported
              commands, and some include them.

              If  you  find  that you want more control over when commands get
              imported,   you   may   wish   to   turn   SHARE_HISTORY    off,
              INC_APPEND_HISTORY  on,  and then manually import commands when-
              ever you need them using `fc -RI'.


   Initialisation
       ALL_EXPORT (-a, ksh: -a)
              All parameters subsequently defined are automatically  exported.

       GLOBAL_EXPORT (<Z>)
              If  this  option  is  set,  passing  the -x flag to the builtins
              declare, float, integer, readonly and typeset  (but  not  local)
              will  also  set  the  -g flag;  hence parameters exported to the
              environment will not be made local to  the  enclosing  function,
              unless they were already or the flag +g is given explicitly.  If
              the option is unset, exported parameters will be made  local  in
              just the same way as any other parameter.

              This  option is set by default for backward compatibility; it is
              not recommended that its behaviour be relied  upon.   Note  that
              the  builtin  export  always  sets both the -x and -g flags, and
              hence its effect extends beyond the scope of the enclosing func-
              tion; this is the most portable way to achieve this behaviour.

       GLOBAL_RCS (-d) <D>
              If  this  option  is  unset,  the  startup  files /etc/zprofile,
              /etc/zshrc, /etc/zlogin and /etc/zlogout will not  be  run.   It
              can  be  disabled  and  re-enabled at any time, including inside
              local startup files (.zshrc, etc.).

       RCS (+f) <D>
              After /etc/zshenv is sourced on  startup,  source  the  .zshenv,
              /etc/zprofile, .zprofile, /etc/zshrc, .zshrc, /etc/zlogin, .zlo-
              gin, and .zlogout files, as described in  the  section  `Files'.
              If  this option is unset, the /etc/zshenv file is still sourced,
              but any of the others will not be; it can be set at any time  to
              prevent  the remaining startup files after the currently execut-
              ing one from being sourced.


   Input/Output
       ALIASES <D>
              Expand aliases.

       CLOBBER (+C, ksh: +C) <D>
              Allows `>' redirection to truncate existing files, and  `>>'  to
              create files.  Otherwise `>!' or `>|' must be used to truncate a
              file, and `>>!' or `>>|' to create a file.

       CORRECT (-0)
              Try to correct the spelling of commands.  Note  that,  when  the
              HASH_LIST_ALL  option is not set or when some directories in the
              path are not readable, this may falsely report  spelling  errors
              the first time some commands are used.

              The  shell  variable  CORRECT_IGNORE  may be set to a pattern to
              match words that will never be offered as corrections.

       CORRECT_ALL (-O)
              Try to correct the spelling of all arguments in a line.

       DVORAK Use the Dvorak keyboard instead of the standard qwerty  keyboard
              as  a  basis for examining spelling mistakes for the CORRECT and
              CORRECT_ALL options and the spell-word editor command.

       FLOW_CONTROL <D>
              If this option is unset,  output  flow  control  via  start/stop
              characters  (usually  assigned  to  ^S/^Q)  is  disabled  in the
              shell's editor.

       IGNORE_EOF (-7)
              Do not exit on end-of-file.  Require the use of exit  or  logout
              instead.   However, ten consecutive EOFs will cause the shell to
              exit anyway, to avoid the shell hanging if its tty goes away.

              Also, if this option is set and the Zsh  Line  Editor  is  used,
              widgets implemented by shell functions can be bound to EOF (nor-
              mally Control-D) without printing the  normal  warning  message.
              This  works only for normal widgets, not for completion widgets.

       INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS (-k) <K> <S>
              Allow comments even in interactive shells.

       HASH_CMDS <D>
              Note the location of each command the first time it is executed.
              Subsequent  invocations  of  the same command will use the saved
              location, avoiding a path search.  If this option is  unset,  no
              path hashing is done at all.  However, when CORRECT is set, com-
              mands whose names do not appear in the functions or aliases hash
              tables  are  hashed in order to avoid reporting them as spelling
              errors.

       HASH_DIRS <D>
              Whenever a command name is hashed, hash the directory containing
              it,  as  well as all directories that occur earlier in the path.
              Has no effect if neither HASH_CMDS nor CORRECT is set.

       HASH_EXECUTABLES_ONLY
              When hashing commands because of HASH_COMMANDS, check  that  the
              file  to  be  hashed  is actually an executable.  This option is
              unset by default as if the path contains a large number of  com-
              mands,  or  consists  of many remote files, the additional tests
              can take a long time.  Trial and error is needed to show if this
              option is beneficial.

       MAIL_WARNING (-U)
              Print  a  warning message if a mail file has been accessed since
              the shell last checked.

       PATH_DIRS (-Q)
              Perform a path search even on  command  names  with  slashes  in
              them.  Thus if `/usr/local/bin' is in the user's path, and he or
              she types `X11/xinit',  the  command  `/usr/local/bin/X11/xinit'
              will  be  executed  (assuming  it  exists).  Commands explicitly
              beginning with `/', `./' or `../' are not subject  to  the  path
              search.  This also applies to the `.' builtin.

              Note  that  subdirectories  of  the current directory are always
              searched for executables specified in  this  form.   This  takes
              place before any search indicated by this option, and regardless
              of whether `.' or the current directory appear  in  the  command
              search path.

       PATH_SCRIPT <K> <S>
              If  this  option  is  not  set,  a  script  passed  as the first
              non-option argument to the shell must contain the  name  of  the
              file  to  open.   If this option is set, and the script does not
              specify a directory path, the script is looked for first in  the
              current  directory,  then  in the command path.  See the section
              INVOCATION in zsh(1).

       PRINT_EIGHT_BIT
              Print eight bit characters literally in completion  lists,  etc.
              This  option  is  not necessary if your system correctly returns
              the printability of eight bit characters (see ctype(3)).

       PRINT_EXIT_VALUE (-1)
              Print the exit value of programs with non-zero exit status.

       RC_QUOTES
              Allow the character sequence `'''  to  signify  a  single  quote
              within  singly  quoted  strings.   Note  this  does not apply in
              quoted strings using the format $'...', where a backslashed sin-
              gle quote can be used.

       RM_STAR_SILENT (-H) <K> <S>
              Do not query the user before executing `rm *' or `rm path/*'.

       RM_STAR_WAIT
              If  querying  the  user  before executing `rm *' or `rm path/*',
              first wait ten seconds and ignore anything typed in  that  time.
              This  avoids  the  problem of reflexively answering `yes' to the
              query when one didn't really mean it.  The wait  and  query  can
              always be avoided by expanding the `*' in ZLE (with tab).

       SHORT_LOOPS <C> <Z>
              Allow  the  short forms of for, repeat, select, if, and function
              constructs.

       SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK (-L)
              If a line ends with a backquote, and there are an odd number  of
              backquotes  on the line, ignore the trailing backquote.  This is
              useful on some keyboards where the return key is too small,  and
              the  backquote  key lies annoyingly close to it.  As an alterna-
              tive the variable KEYBOARD_HACK lets you choose the character to
              be removed.


   Job Control
       AUTO_CONTINUE
              With this option set, stopped jobs that are removed from the job
              table with the disown builtin command are automatically  sent  a
              CONT signal to make them running.

       AUTO_RESUME (-W)
              Treat  single word simple commands without redirection as candi-
              dates for resumption of an existing job.

       BG_NICE (-6) <C> <Z>
              Run all background jobs at a lower priority.  This option is set
              by default.

       CHECK_JOBS <Z>
              Report  the status of background and suspended jobs before exit-
              ing a shell with job control; a second attempt to exit the shell
              will  succeed.   NO_CHECK_JOBS  is best used only in combination
              with NO_HUP, else such jobs will be killed automatically.

              The check is omitted if the commands run from the previous  com-
              mand  line  included  a  `jobs' command, since it is assumed the
              user is aware that there are background or  suspended  jobs.   A
              `jobs' command run from one of the hook functions defined in the
              section SPECIAL FUNCTIONS in zshmisc(1) is not counted for  this
              purpose.

       HUP <Z>
              Send the HUP signal to running jobs when the shell exits.

       LONG_LIST_JOBS (-R)
              List jobs in the long format by default.

       MONITOR (-m, ksh: -m)
              Allow job control.  Set by default in interactive shells.

       NOTIFY (-5, ksh: -b) <Z>
              Report  the  status  of background jobs immediately, rather than
              waiting until just before printing a prompt.

       POSIX_JOBS <K> <S>
              This option makes job control  more  compliant  with  the  POSIX
              standard.

              When the option is not set, the MONITOR option is unset on entry
              to subshells, so that job control is no longer active.  When the
              option  is set, the MONITOR option and job control remain active
              in the subshell, but note that the subshell  has  no  access  to
              jobs in the parent shell.

              When  the option is not set, jobs put in the background or fore-
              ground with bg or fg are displayed  with  the  same  information
              that  would  be  reported by jobs.  When the option is set, only
              the text is  printed.   The  output  from  jobs  itself  is  not
              affected by the option.

              When  the  option  is  not  set, job information from the parent
              shell is saved for output within a subshell (for example, within
              a  pipeline).   When  the  option  is set, the output of jobs is
              empty until a job is started within the subshell.

              When the option is set, it becomes  possible  to  use  the  wait
              builtin  to  wait for the last job started in the background (as
              given by $!) even if that job has already  exited.   This  works
              even  if  the  option is turned on temporarily around the use of
              the wait builtin.


   Prompting
       PROMPT_BANG <K>
              If set, `!' is  treated  specially  in  prompt  expansion.   See
              EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

       PROMPT_CR (+V) <D>
              Print  a  carriage  return  just before printing a prompt in the
              line editor.  This is on by default  as  multi-line  editing  is
              only  possible  if  the editor knows where the start of the line
              appears.

       PROMPT_SP <D>
              Attempt to preserve a partial line (i.e. a line that did not end
              with  a  newline) that would otherwise be covered up by the com-
              mand prompt due to the PROMPT_CR option.   This  works  by  out-
              putting  some  cursor-control  characters, including a series of
              spaces, that should make the terminal wrap to the next line when
              a  partial line is present (note that this is only successful if
              your terminal has automatic margins, which is typical).

              When a partial line is preserved, by default  you  will  see  an
              inverse+bold  character  at  the end of the partial line:  a "%"
              for a normal user or a "#" for root.  If set, the shell  parame-
              ter PROMPT_EOL_MARK can be used to customize how the end of par-
              tial lines are shown.

              NOTE: if the PROMPT_CR option is not set, enabling  this  option
              will have no effect.  This option is on by default.

       PROMPT_PERCENT <C> <Z>
              If  set,  `%'  is  treated  specially  in prompt expansion.  See
              EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

       PROMPT_SUBST <K> <S>
              If set, parameter expansion, command substitution and arithmetic
              expansion   are  performed  in  prompts.   Substitutions  within
              prompts do not affect the command status.

       TRANSIENT_RPROMPT
              Remove any right prompt from display when  accepting  a  command
              line.   This  may  be useful with terminals with other cut/paste
              methods.


   Scripts and Functions
       C_BASES
              Output hexadecimal numbers in the standard C format, for example
              `0xFF' instead of the usual `16#FF'.  If the option OCTAL_ZEROES
              is also set (it is  not  by  default),  octal  numbers  will  be
              treated  similarly  and hence appear as `077' instead of `8#77'.
              This option has no effect on the choice of the output base,  nor
              on  the  output of bases other than hexadecimal and octal.  Note
              that these formats will be understood on input  irrespective  of
              the setting of C_BASES.

       C_PRECEDENCES
              This  alters  the  precedence of arithmetic operators to be more
              like C and other programming languages; the  section  ARITHMETIC
              EVALUATION in zshmisc(1) has an explicit list.

       DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD
              Run  the  DEBUG  trap  before  each command; otherwise it is run
              after each command.  Setting this option mimics the behaviour of
              ksh 93; with the option unset the behaviour is that of ksh 88.

       ERR_EXIT (-e, ksh: -e)
              If  a command has a non-zero exit status, execute the ZERR trap,
              if set, and exit.  This is disabled while running initialization
              scripts.

              The behaviour is also disabled inside DEBUG traps.  In this case
              the option is handled specially: it is unset  on  entry  to  the
              trap.   If  the  option  DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD  is  set,  as it is by
              default, and the option ERR_EXIT is found to have  been  set  on
              exit,  then  the  command for which the DEBUG trap is being exe-
              cuted is skipped.  The option is restored after the trap  exits.

       ERR_RETURN
              If a command has a non-zero exit status, return immediately from
              the enclosing function.  The logic  is  identical  to  that  for
              ERR_EXIT,  except  that an implicit return statement is executed
              instead of an exit.  This will trigger an exit at the  outermost
              level of a non-interactive script.

       EVAL_LINENO <Z>
              If  set, line numbers of expressions evaluated using the builtin
              eval are tracked separately of the enclosing environment.   This
              applies  both to the parameter LINENO and the line number output
              by the prompt escape %i.  If  the  option  is  set,  the  prompt
              escape  %N will output the string `(eval)' instead of the script
              or function name as an indication.   (The two prompt escapes are
              typically used in the parameter PS4 to be output when the option
              XTRACE is set.)  If EVAL_LINENO is unset, the line number of the
              surrounding  script  or  function is retained during the evalua-
              tion.

       EXEC (+n, ksh: +n) <D>
              Do execute commands.  Without this option, commands are read and
              checked for syntax errors, but not executed.  This option cannot
              be turned off in an interactive shell, except when `-n' is  sup-
              plied to the shell at startup.

       FUNCTION_ARGZERO <C> <Z>
              When  executing  a  shell  function or sourcing a script, set $0
              temporarily to the name of the function/script.

       LOCAL_OPTIONS <K>
              If this option is set at the point of return from a shell  func-
              tion, most options (including this one) which were in force upon
              entry to  the  function  are  restored;  options  that  are  not
              restored  are  PRIVILEGED  and RESTRICTED.  Otherwise, only this
              option and the XTRACE and PRINT_EXIT_VALUE options are restored.
              Hence  if this is explicitly unset by a shell function the other
              options in force at the point of return will remain so.  A shell
              function  can  also guarantee itself a known shell configuration
              with a formulation like  `emulate  -L  zsh';  the  -L  activates
              LOCAL_OPTIONS.

       LOCAL_TRAPS <K>
              If  this  option is set when a signal trap is set inside a func-
              tion, then the previous status of the trap for that signal  will
              be restored when the function exits.  Note that this option must
              be set prior to altering  the  trap  behaviour  in  a  function;
              unlike  LOCAL_OPTIONS,  the  value  on exit from the function is
              irrelevant.  However, it does not need  to  be  set  before  any
              global  trap  for  that  to be correctly restored by a function.
              For example,

                     unsetopt localtraps
                     trap - INT
                     fn() { setopt localtraps; trap '' INT; sleep 3; }

              will restore normal handling of SIGINT after the function exits.

       MULTI_FUNC_DEF <Z>
              Allow definitions of multiple functions at once in the form `fn1
              fn2...()'; if the option is not set, this causes a parse  error.
              Definition  of  multiple  functions with the function keyword is
              always allowed.  Multiple function  definitions  are  not  often
              used and can cause obscure errors.

       MULTIOS <Z>
              Perform  implicit  tees  or  cats when multiple redirections are
              attempted (see the section `Redirection').

       OCTAL_ZEROES <S>
              Interpret any integer constant beginning with a 0 as octal,  per
              IEEE  Std 1003.2-1992 (ISO 9945-2:1993).  This is not enabled by
              default as it causes problems with parsing of, for example, date
              and time strings with leading zeroes.

              Sequences  of  digits indicating a numeric base such as the `08'
              component in `08#77' are always interpreted as decimal,  regard-
              less of leading zeroes.

       SOURCE_TRACE
              If  set,  zsh will print an informational message announcing the
              name of each file it loads.  The format of the output is similar
              to  that  for the XTRACE option, with the message <sourcetrace>.
              A file may be loaded by the shell itself when it starts  up  and
              shuts  down  (Startup/Shutdown  Files)  or  by  the  use  of the
              `source' and `dot' builtin commands.

       TYPESET_SILENT
              If this is unset, executing any of the `typeset' family of  com-
              mands with no options and a list of parameters that have no val-
              ues to be assigned but already exist will display the  value  of
              the  parameter.   If  the option is set, they will only be shown
              when parameters are selected with the `-m' option.   The  option
              `-p' is available whether or not the option is set.

       VERBOSE (-v, ksh: -v)
              Print shell input lines as they are read.

       XTRACE (-x, ksh: -x)
              Print  commands  and  their arguments as they are executed.  The
              output is proceded by the value of $PS4, formatted as  described
              in the section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).


   Shell Emulation
       BASH_REMATCH
              When  set,  matches  performed with the =~ operator will set the
              BASH_REMATCH array variable, instead of the  default  MATCH  and
              match  variables.   The  first element of the BASH_REMATCH array
              will contain the entire matched  text  and  subsequent  elements
              will contain extracted substrings.  This option makes more sense
              when KSH_ARRAYS is also set, so that the entire matched  portion
              is  stored  at  index  0  and the first substring is at index 1.
              Without this option, the  MATCH  variable  contains  the  entire
              matched text and the match array variable contains substrings.

       BSD_ECHO <S>
              Make  the  echo builtin compatible with the BSD echo(1) command.
              This disables  backslashed  escape  sequences  in  echo  strings
              unless the -e option is specified.

       CONTINUE_ON_ERROR
              If  a fatal error is encountered (see the section ERRORS in zsh-
       misc(1)), and the code is running in a script,  the  shell  will
              resume  execution at the next statement in the script at the top
              level, in other words outside all functions or shell  constructs
              such  as  loops  and  conditions.   This mimics the behaviour of
              interactive shells, where the shell returns to the  line  editor
              to  read  a new command; it was the normal behaviour in versions
              of zsh before 5.0.1.

       CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY <C>
              A history reference without an event specifier will always refer
              to  the  previous  command.  Without this option, such a history
              reference refers to the same event as the previous history  ref-
              erence, defaulting to the previous command.

       CSH_JUNKIE_LOOPS <C>
              Allow  loop  bodies  to take the form `list; end' instead of `do
              list; done'.

       CSH_JUNKIE_QUOTES <C>
              Changes the rules for single- and double-quoted  text  to  match
              that  of  csh.  These require that embedded newlines be preceded
              by a backslash; unescaped newlines will cause an error  message.
              In  double-quoted  strings, it is made impossible to escape `$',
              ``' or `"' (and `\' itself no longer needs  escaping).   Command
              substitutions are only expanded once, and cannot be nested.

       CSH_NULLCMD <C>
              Do  not  use  the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when running
              redirections with no command.  This make such redirections  fail
              (see the section `Redirection').

       KSH_ARRAYS <K> <S>
              Emulate  ksh  array  handling  as  closely as possible.  If this
              option is set, array elements are numbered from zero,  an  array
              parameter  without subscript refers to the first element instead
              of the whole array, and braces are required to  delimit  a  sub-
              script (`${path[2]}' rather than just `$path[2]').

       KSH_AUTOLOAD <K> <S>
              Emulate  ksh function autoloading.  This means that when a func-
              tion is autoloaded, the corresponding file is  merely  executed,
              and  must define the function itself.  (By default, the function
              is defined to the contents of the file.  However, the most  com-
              mon  ksh-style case - of the file containing only a simple defi-
              nition of the function - is always handled in the ksh-compatible
              manner.)

       KSH_OPTION_PRINT <K>
              Alters the way options settings are printed: instead of separate
              lists of set and unset options, all options  are  shown,  marked
              `on' if they are in the non-default state, `off' otherwise.

       KSH_TYPESET <K>
              Alters  the  way  arguments  to  the typeset family of commands,
              including declare, export, float, integer, local  and  readonly,
              are  processed.   Without  this  option, zsh will perform normal
              word splitting after command and parameter  expansion  in  argu-
              ments  of  an  assignment; with it, word splitting does not take
              place in those cases.

       KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT
              Treat use of a subscript  of  value  zero  in  array  or  string
              expressions  as  a reference to the first element, i.e. the ele-
              ment that usually has the subscript 1.  Ignored if KSH_ARRAYS is
              also set.

              If  neither  this  option  nor KSH_ARRAYS is set, accesses to an
              element of an array or string  with  subscript  zero  return  an
              empty  element  or string, while attempts to set element zero of
              an array or string are treated as an error.   However,  attempts
              to  set  an  otherwise  valid subscript range that includes zero
              will succeed.  For example, if KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT is not set,

                     array[0]=(element)

              is an error, while

                     array[0,1]=(element)

              is not and will replace the first element of the array.

              This option is for compatibility  with  older  versions  of  the
              shell and is not recommended in new code.

       POSIX_ALIASES <K> <S>
              When  this  option is set, reserved words are not candidates for
              alias expansion:  it is still possible to declare any of them as
              an  alias, but the alias will never be expanded.  Reserved words
              are described in the section RESERVED WORDS in zshmisc(1).

              Alias expansion takes place while text is being read; hence when
              this  option is set it does not take effect until the end of any
              function or other piece of shell code parsed as one unit.   Note
              this  may  cause  differences  from  other  shells even when the
              option is in effect.  For example, when running a  command  with
              `zsh  -c',  or even `zsh -o posixaliases -c', the entire command
              argument is parsed as one unit, so aliases  defined  within  the
              argument  are  not  available even in later lines.  If in doubt,
              avoid use of aliases in non-interactive code.

       POSIX_BUILTINS <K> <S>
              When this option is set the command builtin can be used to  exe-
              cute  shell  builtin  commands.  Parameter assignments specified
              before shell functions and special builtins are kept  after  the
              command  completes  unless  the special builtin is prefixed with
              the command builtin.  Special builtins are  .,  :,  break,  con-
              tinue,  declare,  eval,  exit, export, integer, local, readonly,
              return, set, shift, source, times, trap and unset.

              In addition, various error conditions associated with the  above
              builtins  or  exec  cause a non-interactive shell to exit and an
              interactive shell to return to its top-level processing.

       POSIX_IDENTIFIERS <K> <S>
              When this option is set, only the ASCII characters a to z, A  to
              Z,  0  to  9  and  _  may be used in identifiers (names of shell
              parameters and modules).

              When the option is unset  and  multibyte  character  support  is
              enabled  (i.e.  it  is  compiled  in and the option MULTIBYTE is
              set), then additionally any alphanumeric characters in the local
              character set may be used in identifiers.  Note that scripts and
              functions written with this feature are not portable,  and  also
              that  both  options must be set before the script or function is
              parsed; setting them during execution is not sufficient  as  the
              syntax  variable=value  has  already  been  parsed  as a command
              rather than an assignment.

              If multibyte character support is not compiled  into  the  shell
              this  option  is ignored; all octets with the top bit set may be
              used in identifiers.  This is non-standard  but  is  the  tradi-
              tional zsh behaviour.

       POSIX_STRINGS <K> <S>
              This  option affects processing of quoted strings.  Currently it
              only affects the behaviour of null characters, i.e. character  0
              in the portable character set corresponding to US ASCII.

              When  this  option  is  not set, null characters embedded within
              strings of the form $'...' are treated as  ordinary  characters.
              The  entire  string is maintained within the shell and output to
              files where necessary, although owing  to  restrictions  of  the
              library  interface the string is truncated at the null character
              in file names, environment variables, or in arguments to  exter-
              nal programs.

              When  this  option is set, the $'...' expression is truncated at
              the null character.  Note  that  remaining  parts  of  the  same
              string  beyond the termination of the quotes are not trunctated.

              For example, the command line argument a$'b\0c'd is treated with
              the  option off as the characters a, b, null, c, d, and with the
              option on as the characters a, b, d.

       POSIX_TRAPS <K> <S>
              When the is option is set, the usual zsh behaviour of  executing
              traps  for  EXIT on exit from shell functions is suppressed.  In
              that case, manipulating EXIT traps always alters the global trap
              for exiting the shell; the LOCAL_TRAPS option is ignored for the
              EXIT trap.

       SH_FILE_EXPANSION <K> <S>
              Perform filename expansion (e.g., ~ expansion) before  parameter
              expansion,  command substitution, arithmetic expansion and brace
              expansion.  If this option is unset, it is performed after brace
              expansion, so things like `~$USERNAME' and `~{pfalstad,rc}' will
              work.

       SH_NULLCMD <K> <S>
              Do not use the values of  NULLCMD  and  READNULLCMD  when  doing
              redirections, use `:' instead (see the section `Redirection').

       SH_OPTION_LETTERS <K> <S>
              If this option is set the shell tries to interpret single letter
              options (which are used with set  and  setopt)  like  ksh  does.
              This also affects the value of the - special parameter.

       SH_WORD_SPLIT (-y) <K> <S>
              Causes  field  splitting  to  be performed on unquoted parameter
              expansions.  Note that this option has nothing to do  with  word
              splitting.  (See the section `Parameter Expansion'.)

       TRAPS_ASYNC
              While  waiting  for  a  program  to exit, handle signals and run
              traps immediately.  Otherwise the trap  is  run  after  a  child
              process  has  exited.   Note  this  does not affect the point at
              which traps are run for any case other than when  the  shell  is
              waiting for a child process.


   Shell State
       INTERACTIVE (-i, ksh: -i)
              This is an interactive shell.  This option is set upon initiali-
              sation if the standard input is a tty  and  commands  are  being
              read  from  standard input.  (See the discussion of SHIN_STDIN.)
              This heuristic may be overridden by specifying a state for  this
              option  on  the command line.  The value of this option can only
              be changed via flags supplied at invocation of  the  shell.   It
              cannot be changed once zsh is running.

       LOGIN (-l, ksh: -l)
              This  is  a  login shell.  If this option is not explicitly set,
              the shell becomes a login shell if the first  character  of  the
              argv[0] passed to the shell is a `-'.

       PRIVILEGED (-p, ksh: -p)
              Turn  on  privileged  mode.  This  is  enabled  automatically on
              startup if the effective user (group) ID is  not  equal  to  the
              real user (group) ID.  Turning this option off causes the effec-
              tive user and group IDs to be set to the  real  user  and  group
              IDs.  This  option disables sourcing user startup files.  If zsh
              is invoked as `sh' or `ksh' with this option set, /etc/suid_pro-
              file  is  sourced  (after  /etc/profile  on interactive shells).
              Sourcing ~/.profile is disabled and  the  contents  of  the  ENV
              variable  is ignored. This option cannot be changed using the -m
              option of setopt and unsetopt, and changing it inside a function
              always  changes  it  globally  regardless  of  the LOCAL_OPTIONS
              option.

       RESTRICTED (-r)
              Enables restricted mode.  This option cannot  be  changed  using
              unsetopt,  and  setting  it  inside a function always changes it
              globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option.  See  the  sec-
              tion `Restricted Shell'.

       SHIN_STDIN (-s, ksh: -s)
              Commands  are  being read from the standard input.  Commands are
              read from standard input if no command is specified with -c  and
              no  file of commands is specified.  If SHIN_STDIN is set explic-
              itly on the command line, any argument that would otherwise have
              been  taken as a file to run will instead be treated as a normal
              positional parameter.   Note  that  setting  or  unsetting  this
              option on the command line does not necessarily affect the state
              the option will have while the shell is running - that is purely
              an  indicator of whether on not commands are actually being read
              from standard input.  The value  of  this  option  can  only  be
              changed  via flags supplied at invocation of the shell.  It can-
              not be changed once zsh is running.

       SINGLE_COMMAND (-t, ksh: -t)
              If the shell is reading from standard input, it  exits  after  a
              single  command  has  been  executed.  This also makes the shell
              non-interactive, unless the INTERACTIVE option is explicitly set
              on  the  command  line.   The  value  of this option can only be
              changed via flags supplied at invocation of the shell.  It  can-
              not be changed once zsh is running.


   Zle
       BEEP (+B) <D>
              Beep on error in ZLE.

       COMBINING_CHARS
              Assume  that  the  terminal  displays  combining characters cor-
              rectly.  Specifically, if a base alphanumeric character is  fol-
              lowed  by  one or more zero-width punctuation characters, assume
              that the zero-width characters will be  displayed  as  modifica-
              tions to the base character within the same width.  Not all ter-
              minals handle this.  If this option is not set, zero-width char-
              acters are displayed separately with special mark-up.

              If  this  option  is  set, the pattern test [[:WORD:]] matches a
              zero-width punctuation character on the assumption that it  will
              be  used as part of a word in combination with a word character.
              Otherwise the base shell does not  handle  combining  characters
              specially.

       EMACS  If  ZLE  is  loaded,  turning  on this option has the equivalent
              effect of `bindkey -e'.  In addition, the VI  option  is  unset.
              Turning it off has no effect.  The option setting is not guaran-
              teed to reflect the current keymap.  This option is provided for
              compatibility; bindkey is the recommended interface.

       OVERSTRIKE
              Start up the line editor in overstrike mode.

       SINGLE_LINE_ZLE (-M) <K>
              Use single-line command line editing instead of multi-line.

              Note  that  although  this  is on by default in ksh emulation it
              only provides superficial compatibility with the ksh line editor
              and reduces the effectiveness of the zsh line editor.  As it has
              no effect on shell syntax, many users may wish to  disable  this
              option when using ksh emulation interactively.

       VI     If  ZLE  is  loaded,  turning  on this option has the equivalent
              effect of `bindkey -v'.  In addition, the EMACS option is unset.
              Turning it off has no effect.  The option setting is not guaran-
              teed to reflect the current keymap.  This option is provided for
              compatibility; bindkey is the recommended interface.

       ZLE (-Z)
              Use  the  zsh line editor.  Set by default in interactive shells
              connected to a terminal.



OPTION ALIASES

       Some options have alternative names.  These aliases are never used  for
       output,  but  can be used just like normal option names when specifying
       options to the shell.

       BRACE_EXPAND
              NO_IGNORE_BRACES (ksh and bash compatibility)

       DOT_GLOB
              GLOB_DOTS (bash compatibility)

       HASH_ALL
              HASH_CMDS (bash compatibility)

       HIST_APPEND
              APPEND_HISTORY (bash compatibility)

       HIST_EXPAND
              BANG_HIST (bash compatibility)

       LOG    NO_HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS (ksh compatibility)

       MAIL_WARN
              MAIL_WARNING (bash compatibility)

       ONE_CMD
              SINGLE_COMMAND (bash compatibility)

       PHYSICAL
              CHASE_LINKS (ksh and bash compatibility)

       PROMPT_VARS
              PROMPT_SUBST (bash compatibility)

       STDIN  SHIN_STDIN (ksh compatibility)

       TRACK_ALL
              HASH_CMDS (ksh compatibility)


SINGLE LETTER OPTIONS

   Default set
       -0     CORRECT
       -1     PRINT_EXIT_VALUE
       -2     NO_BAD_PATTERN
       -3     NO_NOMATCH
       -4     GLOB_DOTS
       -5     NOTIFY
       -6     BG_NICE
       -7     IGNORE_EOF
       -8     MARK_DIRS
       -9     AUTO_LIST
       -B     NO_BEEP
       -C     NO_CLOBBER
       -D     PUSHD_TO_HOME
       -E     PUSHD_SILENT
       -F     NO_GLOB
       -G     NULL_GLOB
       -H     RM_STAR_SILENT
       -I     IGNORE_BRACES
       -J     AUTO_CD
       -K     NO_BANG_HIST
       -L     SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK
       -M     SINGLE_LINE_ZLE
       -N     AUTO_PUSHD
       -O     CORRECT_ALL
       -P     RC_EXPAND_PARAM
       -Q     PATH_DIRS
       -R     LONG_LIST_JOBS
       -S     REC_EXACT
       -T     CDABLE_VARS
       -U     MAIL_WARNING
       -V     NO_PROMPT_CR
       -W     AUTO_RESUME
       -X     LIST_TYPES
       -Y     MENU_COMPLETE
       -Z     ZLE
       -a     ALL_EXPORT
       -e     ERR_EXIT
       -f     NO_RCS
       -g     HIST_IGNORE_SPACE
       -h     HIST_IGNORE_DUPS
       -i     INTERACTIVE
       -k     INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS
       -l     LOGIN
       -m     MONITOR
       -n     NO_EXEC
       -p     PRIVILEGED
       -r     RESTRICTED
       -s     SHIN_STDIN
       -t     SINGLE_COMMAND
       -u     NO_UNSET
       -v     VERBOSE
       -w     CHASE_LINKS
       -x     XTRACE
       -y     SH_WORD_SPLIT

   sh/ksh emulation set
       -C     NO_CLOBBER
       -T     TRAPS_ASYNC
       -X     MARK_DIRS
       -a     ALL_EXPORT
       -b     NOTIFY
       -e     ERR_EXIT
       -f     NO_GLOB
       -i     INTERACTIVE
       -l     LOGIN
       -m     MONITOR
       -n     NO_EXEC
       -p     PRIVILEGED
       -r     RESTRICTED
       -s     SHIN_STDIN
       -t     SINGLE_COMMAND
       -u     NO_UNSET
       -v     VERBOSE
       -x     XTRACE

   Also note
       -A     Used by set for setting arrays
       -b     Used on the command line to specify end of option processing
       -c     Used on the command line to specify a single command
       -m     Used by setopt for pattern-matching option setting
       -o     Used in all places to allow use of long option names
       -s     Used by set to sort positional parameters



ZSHBUILTINS(1)                                                  ZSHBUILTINS(1)




NAME

       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands


SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

       - simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       . file [ arg ... ]
              Read commands from file and execute them in  the  current  shell
              environment.

              If  file  does  not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the
              shell looks in the components of $path  to  find  the  directory
              containing  file.   Files  in the current directory are not read
              unless  `.'  appears  somewhere  in  $path.   If  a  file  named
              `file.zwc'  is  found,  is  newer than file, and is the compiled
              form (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then  commands
              are read from that file instead of file.

              If  any  arguments  arg  are  given,  they become the positional
              parameters; the old positional parameters are restored when  the
              file is done executing.  If file was not found the return status
              is 127; if file was found  but  contained  a  syntax  error  the
              return  status is 126; else the return status is the exit status
              of the last command executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
              This command does nothing, although normal  argument  expansions
              is performed which may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero
              exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              For each name with a corresponding value, define an  alias  with
              that  value.   A trailing space in value causes the next word to
              be checked for alias expansion.  If  the  -g  flag  is  present,
              define  a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if they
              do not occur in command position.

              If the -s flags is present, define a suffix alias: if  the  com-
              mand  word  on  a command line is in the form `text.name', where
              text is any non-empty string, it is replaced by the text  `value
              text.name'.   Note that name is treated as a literal string, not
              a pattern.  A trailing space in value is  not  special  in  this
              case.  For example,

                     alias -s ps=gv

              will  cause  the command `*.ps' to be expanded to `gv *.ps'.  As
              alias expansion is carried out earlier than globbing, the `*.ps'
              will  then  be  expanded.  Suffix aliases constitute a different
              name space from other aliases (so in the  above  example  it  is
              still  possible  to  create an alias for the command ps) and the
              two sets are never listed together.

              For each name with no value, print the value of  name,  if  any.
              With  no  arguments,  print  all currently defined aliases other
              than suffix aliases.  If the -m flag is given the arguments  are
              taken  as  patterns (they should be quoted to preserve them from
              being interpreted as glob patterns), and  the  aliases  matching
              these  patterns  are  printed.  When printing aliases and one of
              the -g, -r or -s flags is  present,  restrict  the  printing  to
              global, regular or suffix aliases, respectively; a regular alias
              is one which is neither a global nor a suffix alias.   Using `+'
              instead  of  `-',  or  ending the option list with a single `+',
              prevents the values of the aliases from being printed.

              If the -L flag is present, then print each  alias  in  a  manner
              suitable  for  putting  in a startup script.  The exit status is
              nonzero if a name (with no value) is given for  which  no  alias
              has been defined.

              For  more  on  aliases, include common problems, see the section
              ALIASING in zshmisc(1).

       autoload [ {+|-}UXkmtz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
              Equivalent to functions -u, with the exception of -X/+X and  -w.

              The  flag  -X  may be used only inside a shell function, and may
              not be followed by a name.  It causes the calling function to be
              marked for autoloading and then immediately loaded and executed,
              with the current array of positional  parameters  as  arguments.
              This  replaces  the  previous definition of the function.  If no
              function definition is found, an error is printed and the  func-
              tion remains undefined and marked for autoloading.

              The  flag  +X  attempts to load each name as an autoloaded func-
              tion, but does not execute it.  The exit status  is  zero  (suc-
              cess)  if  the function was not previously defined and a defini-
              tion for it was found.  This does not replace any existing defi-
              nition of the function.  The exit status is nonzero (failure) if
              the function was already  defined  or  when  no  definition  was
              found.   In  the  latter case the function remains undefined and
              marked for autoloading.  If ksh-style  autoloading  is  enabled,
              the  function created will contain the contents of the file plus
              a call to the function itself appended to it, thus giving normal
              ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the function.  If
              the -m flag is also given each name is treated as a pattern  and
              all functions already marked for autoload that match the pattern
              are loaded.

              With the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled
              with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are
              marked for autoloading.

              The flags -z and -k mark the function to be autoloaded using the
              zsh  or  ksh  style, as if the option KSH_AUTOLOAD were unset or
              were set, respectively.  The flags override the setting  of  the
              option at the time the function is loaded.

              Note  that  the  autoload command makes no attempt to ensure the
              shell options set during the loading or execution  of  the  file
              have any particular value.  For this, the emulate command can be
              used:

                     emulate zsh -c 'autoload -Uz func'

              arranges that when func is loaded the shell  is  in  native  zsh
              emulation,  and this emulation is also applied when func is run.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
              Put each specified job in the background, or the current job  if
              none is specified.

       bindkey
              See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
              Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.
              If n is specified, then break n levels instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
              Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -qsLP ] old new
       cd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory.  In the  first  form,  change  the
              current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not
              specified.  If arg is `-', change to the previous directory.

              Otherwise, if arg begins with a slash, attempt to change to  the
              directory given by arg.

              If  arg  does  not  begin with a slash, the behaviour depends on
              whether the current directory `.' occurs in the list of directo-
              ries  contained  in the shell parameter cdpath.  If it does not,
              first attempt to change to the directory arg under  the  current
              directory,  and  if that fails but cdpath is set and contains at
              least one element attempt to change to the directory  arg  under
              each  component  of  cdpath  in  turn  until successful.  If `.'
              occurs in cdpath, then cdpath is searched strictly in  order  so
              that `.' is only tried at the appropriate point.

              The  order  of testing cdpath is modified if the option POSIX_CD
              is set, as described in the documentation for the option.

              If no directory is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set,  and  a
              parameter  named  arg  exists  whose  value begins with a slash,
              treat its value as the directory.  In that case,  the  parameter
              is added to the named directory hash table.

              The  second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string
              old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to
              this new directory.

              The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack,
              and changes to that directory.  An argument  of  the  form  `+n'
              identifies  a  stack entry by counting from the left of the list
              shown by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An  argument  of
              the  form `-n' counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option
              is set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If  the  -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd
              and the functions in the array chpwd_functions are  not  called.
              This  is  useful for calls to cd that do not change the environ-
              ment seen by an interactive user.

              If the -s option is specified, cd refuses to change the  current
              directory  if  the  given pathname contains symlinks.  If the -P
              option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links
              are  resolved  to  their true values.  If the -L option is given
              symbolic links are retained in the directory (and not  resolved)
              regardless of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
              The  simple  command  argument  is  taken as an external command
              instead of a  function  or  builtin  and  is  executed.  If  the
              POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also be executed but
              certain special properties of them are suppressed. The  -p  flag
              causes  a  default path to be searched instead of that in $path.
              With the -v flag, command is similar to whence and with  -V,  it
              is equivalent to whence -v.

              See also the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       comparguments
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
              Resume  the  next  iteration of the enclosing for, while, until,
              select or repeat loop.  If n is  specified,  break  out  of  n-1
              loops and resume at the nth enclosing loop.

       declare
              Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
              With  no  arguments,  print the contents of the directory stack.
              Directories are added to this stack with the pushd command,  and
              removed  with  the cd or popd commands.  If arguments are speci-
              fied, load them onto the  directory  stack,  replacing  anything
              that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack.

              -c     clear the directory stack.

              -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~
                     expressions.

              -p     print directory entries one per line.

              -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.


       disable [ -afmrs ] name ...
              Temporarily disable the named hash table elements.  The  default
              is  to  disable  builtin  commands.   This  allows you to use an
              external command with the same name as a builtin  command.   The
              -a  option  causes  disable to act on regular or global aliases.
              The -s option causes disable to act on suffix aliases.   The  -f
              option causes disable to act on shell functions.  The -r options
              causes disable to act on reserved words.  Without arguments  all
              disabled  hash  table elements from the corresponding hash table
              are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken  as  pat-
              terns  (which  should  be quoted to prevent them from undergoing
              filename expansion), and all hash table elements from the corre-
              sponding  hash table matching these patterns are disabled.  Dis-
              abled objects can be enabled with the enable command.

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
              Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will  no
              longer  report their status, and will not complain if you try to
              exit an interactive shell with them running or stopped.   If  no
              job is specified, disown the current job.

              If  the  jobs are currently stopped and the AUTO_CONTINUE option
              is not set, a warning is printed  containing  information  about
              how  to make them running after they have been disowned.  If one
              of the latter two forms is used, the jobs will automatically  be
              made  running,  independent  of the setting of the AUTO_CONTINUE
              option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
              Write each arg on the standard output, with a  space  separating
              each one.  If the -n flag is not present, print a newline at the
              end.  echo recognizes the following escape sequences:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress final newline
              \e     escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0NNN  character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal

              The -E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option,  can  be  used  to  disable
              these escape sequences.  In the latter case, -e flag can be used
              to enable them.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -LR ] [ {zsh|sh|ksh|csh} [ flags ... ] ]
              Without any argument print current emulation mode.

              With single argument set up zsh options to emulate the specified
              shell  as  much  as possible.  csh will never be fully emulated.
              If the argument is not one of the shells listed above, zsh  will
              be used as a default; more precisely, the tests performed on the
              argument are the same as those used to determine  the  emulation
              at  startup based on the shell name, see the section COMPATIBIL-
              ITY in zsh(1) .

              If the emulate command occurs inside a function  that  has  been
              marked  for  execution tracing with functions -t then the xtrace
              option will be turned on regardless of emulation mode  or  other
              options.   Note that code executed inside the function by the .,
              source, or  eval  commands  is  not  considered  to  be  running
              directly  from  the function, hence does not provoke this behav-
              iour.

              If the -R switch is given, all settable  options  are  reset  to
              their  default  value  corresponding  to the specified emulation
              mode, except for  certain  options  describing  the  interactive
              environment;  otherwise,  only  those  options  likely  to cause
              portability problems in scripts and functions are  altered.   If
              the   -L   switch   is  given,  the  options  LOCAL_OPTIONS  and
              LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects of the emu-
              late command and any setopt and trap commands to be local to the
              immediately surrounding shell function, if any;  normally  these
              options are turned off in all emulation modes except ksh. The -L
              switch is mutually exclusive with the use of -c in flags.

              The flags may be any of the invocation-time flags  described  in
              the section INVOCATION in zsh(1), except that `-o EMACS' and `-o
              VI' may not be used.  Flags such as `+r'/`+o RESTRICTED' may  be
              prohibited in some circumstances.

              If -c arg appears in flags, arg is evaluated while the requested
              emulation is temporarily in effect.  In this case the  emulation
              mode  and  all  options  are  restored  to their previous values
              before emulate returns.  The -R switch may precede the  name  of
              the  shell  to  emulate;  note  this has a meaning distinct from
              including -R in flags.

              Use of -c enables `sticky' emulation mode for functions  defined
              within  the evaluated expression:  the emulation mode is associ-
              ated thereafter with the function so that whenever the  function
              is executed the emulation (respecting the -R switch, if present)
              and all options are  set  before  entry  to  the  function,  and
              restored  after exit.  If the function is called when the sticky
              emulation is already in effect, either within an `emulate  shell
              -c'  expression  or within another function with the same sticky
              emulation, entry and exit from the function do not cause options
              to  be  altered  (except  due to standard processing such as the
              LOCAL_OPTIONS option).  This also applies  to  functions  marked
              for autoload within the sticky emulation; the appropriate set of
              options will be applied at the point the function is  loaded  as
              well as when it is run.

              For example:

                     emulate sh -c 'fni() { setopt cshnullglob; }
                     fno() { fni; }'
                     fno

              The  two functions fni and fno are defined with sticky sh emula-
              tion.  fno is then executed,  causing  options  associated  with
              emulations to be set to their values in sh.  fni then calls fno;
              because fno is also marked for sticky sh  emulation,  no  option
              changes  take  place  on  entry  to  or exit from it.  Hence the
              option cshnullglob, turned off by sh emulation, will  be  turned
              on within fni and remain on on return to fno.  On exit from fno,
              the emulation mode and all options will be restored to the state
              they were in before entry to the temporary emulation.

              The documentation above is typically sufficient for the intended
              purpose of executing code designed for other shells in  a  suit-
              able environment.  More detailed rules follow.
              1.     The  sticky  emulation  environment  provided by `emulate
                     shell -c' is identical to that provided  by  entry  to  a
                     function  marked for sticky emulation as a consequence of
                     being defined in such an environment.  Hence,  for  exam-
                     ple,  the  sticky  emulation is inherited by subfunctions
                     defined within functions with sticky emulation.
              2.     No change of options takes place on entry to or exit from
                     functions that are not marked for sticky emulation, other
                     than those that would normally take place, even if  those
                     functions are called within sticky emulation.
              3.     No  special handling is provided for functions marked for
                     autoload nor for functions present in wordcode created by
                     the zcompile command.
              4.     The  presence or absence of the -R switch to emulate cor-
                     responds to different  sticky  emulation  modes,  so  for
                     example  `emulate sh -c', `emulate -R sh -c' and `emulate
                     csh -c' are treated as three distinct sticky  emulations.
              5.     Difference  in  shell options supplied in addition to the
                     basic emulation also mean the sticky emulations are  dif-
                     ferent,  so for example `emulate zsh -c' and `emulate zsh
                     -o cbases -c' are treated as distinct sticky  emulations.

       enable [ -afmrs ] name ...
              Enable  the  named hash table elements, presumably disabled ear-
              lier with disable.  The default is to enable  builtin  commands.
              The -a option causes enable to act on regular or global aliases.
              The -s option causes enable to act on suffix  aliases.   The  -f
              option  causes  enable to act on shell functions.  The -r option
              causes enable to act on reserved words.  Without  arguments  all
              enabled  hash  table  elements from the corresponding hash table
              are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken  as  pat-
              terns  (should  be  quoted) and all hash table elements from the
              corresponding hash table matching these  patterns  are  enabled.
              Enabled  objects  can  be disabled with the disable builtin com-
              mand.

       eval [ arg ... ]
              Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the result-
              ing  command(s) in the current shell process.  The return status
              is the same as if the commands had been executed directly by the
              shell;  if  there  are no args or they contain no commands (i.e.
              are an empty string or whitespace) the return status is zero.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ] simple command
              Replace the current shell with an external command  rather  than
              forking.   With  -c  clear the environment; with -l prepend - to
              the argv[0] string of the command executed (to simulate a  login
              shell); with -a argv0 set the argv[0] string of the command exe-
              cuted.  See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       exit [ n ]
              Exit the shell with the exit status specified by n; if  none  is
              specified,  use  the exit status from the last command executed.
              An EOF condition will also cause the shell to exit,  unless  the
              IGNORE_EOF option is set.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
              The specified names are marked for automatic export to the envi-
              ronment of subsequently executed commands.  Equivalent to  type-
              set -gx.  If a parameter specified does not already exist, it is
              created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.

       fc [ -e ename ] [ -m match ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -l [ -nrdfEiD ] [ -t timefmt ] [ -m match ]
             [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
              Select a range of commands from first to last from  the  history
              list.  The arguments first and last may be specified as a number
              or as a string.  A negative number is used as an offset  to  the
              current  history  event  number.   A  string  specifies the most
              recent event beginning with the given string.  All substitutions
              old=new, if any, are then performed on the commands.

              If  the  -l  flag is given, the resulting commands are listed on
              standard output.  If the -m flag is also given the  first  argu-
              ment  is taken as a pattern (should be quoted) and only the his-
              tory events matching this pattern will be shown.  Otherwise  the
              editor  program ename is invoked on a file containing these his-
              tory events.  If ename is not given, the value of the  parameter
              FCEDIT  is  used;  if that is not set the value of the parameter
              EDITOR is used; if that is not set a  builtin  default,  usually
              `vi'  is  used.   If  ename  is `-', no editor is invoked.  When
              editing is complete, the edited command is executed.

              If first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent
              event), or to -16 if the -l flag is given.  If last is not spec-
              ified, it will be set to first, or to  -1  if  the  -l  flag  is
              given.

              The  flag  -r reverses the order of the commands and the flag -n
              suppresses command numbers when listing.

              Also when listing,
              -d     prints timestamps for each command
              -f     prints full time-date stamps in the US  `MM/DD/YY  hh:mm'
                     format
              -E     prints  full time-date stamps in the European `dd.mm.yyyy
                     hh:mm' format
              -i     prints  full  time-date  stamps  in  ISO8601  `yyyy-mm-dd
                     hh:mm' format
              -t fmt prints  time  and date stamps in the given format; fmt is
                     formatted with the strftime function with the zsh  exten-
                     sions  described  for the %D{string} prompt format in the
                     section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).  The
                     resulting formatted string must be no more than 256 char-
                     acters or will not be printed.
              -D     prints elapsed times; may be combined  with  one  of  the
                     options above.


              `fc  -p'  pushes  the  current  history  list  onto  a stack and
              switches to a new history list.  If the -a option is also speci-
              fied,  this  history  list will be automatically popped when the
              current function scope is exited, which is a much  better  solu-
              tion than creating a trap function to call `fc -P' manually.  If
              no arguments are specified, the  history  list  is  left  empty,
              $HISTFILE  is  unset, and $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are set to their
              default values.  If one argument is given, $HISTFILE is  set  to
              that filename, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are left unchanged, and the
              history file is read in (if it exists)  to  initialize  the  new
              list.   If a second argument is specified, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST
              are instead set to the single specified numeric value.  Finally,
              if a third argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set to a separate
              value from $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these  environment
              values  for  the new history list however you desire in order to
              manipulate the new history list.

              `fc -P' pops the history list back to an older list saved by `fc
              -p'.   The  current  list is saved to its $HISTFILE before it is
              destroyed (assuming that $HISTFILE and $SAVEHIST are set  appro-
              priately,  of  course).  The values of $HISTFILE, $HISTSIZE, and
              $SAVEHIST are restored to the values they had when `fc  -p'  was
              called.   Note  that  this  restoration can conflict with making
              these variables "local", so your best bet is to avoid local dec-
              larations  for  these  variables  in functions that use `fc -p'.
              The one other guaranteed-safe  combination  is  declaring  these
              variables  to be local at the top of your function and using the
              automatic option (-a) with `fc -p'.  Finally, note  that  it  is
              legal to manually pop a push marked for automatic popping if you
              need to do so before the function exits.

              `fc -R' reads the history from the given file,  `fc  -W'  writes
              the  history out to the given file, and `fc -A' appends the his-
              tory out to the given file.  If no filename  is  specified,  the
              $HISTFILE  is  assumed.   If  the -I option is added to -R, only
              those events that are not already contained within the  internal
              history  list are added.  If the -I option is added to -A or -W,
              only  those  events  that  are  new   since   last   incremental
              append/write  to  the history file are appended/written.  In any
              case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
              Bring  each  specified job in turn to the foreground.  If no job
              is specified, resume the current job.

       float [ {+|-}EFHghlprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -E,  except  that  options  irrelevant  to
              floating point numbers are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UXkmtTuz ] [ name ... ]
       functions -M mathfn [ min [ max [ shellfn ] ] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn
              Equivalent  to  typeset -f, with the exception of the -M option.
              Use of the -M option may not be combined with any of the options
              handled by typeset -f.

              functions -M mathfn defines mathfn as the name of a mathematical
              function recognised in all forms  of  arithmetical  expressions;
              see  the  section  `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1).  By
              default mathfn may take any number of comma-separated arguments.
              If  min  is given, it must have exactly min args; if min and max
              are both given, it must have at least min and at most max  args.
              max may be -1 to indicate that there is no upper limit.

              By  default  the  function is implemented by a shell function of
              the same name; if shellfn is specified it gives the name of  the
              corresponding  shell function while mathfn remains the name used
              in arithmetical expressions.  The name of the function in $0  is
              mathfn  (not shellfn as would usually be the case), provided the
              option FUNCTION_ARGZERO is in effect.  The positional parameters
              in  the shell function correspond to the arguments of the mathe-
              matical function call.  The  result  of  the  last  arithmetical
              expression  evaluated inside the shell function (even if it is a
              form that normally only returns a status) gives  the  result  of
              the mathematical function.

              functions -M with no arguments lists all such user-defined func-
              tions in the same form as a  definition.   With  the  additional
              option  -m  and  a list of arguments, all functions whose mathfn
              matches one of the pattern arguments are listed.

              function +M removes the list of mathematical functions; with the
              additional  option  -m the arguments are treated as patterns and
              all functions whose mathfn  matches  the  pattern  are  removed.
              Note  that  the shell function implementing the behaviour is not
              removed (regardless of whether its name coincides with  mathfn).

              For example, the following prints the cube of 3:

                     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
                     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
                     print $(( cube(3) ))

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
              Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell
              parameter name.  Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
              Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are omitted, use
              the  positional parameters.  A valid option argument begins with
              a `+' or a `-'.  An argument not beginning with a `+' or a  `-',
              or  the argument `--', ends the options.  Note that a single `-'
              is not considered a valid option argument.   optstring  contains
              the letters that getopts recognizes.  If a letter is followed by
              a `:', that option requires an argument.   The  options  can  be
              separated from the argument by blanks.

              Each  time  it  is  invoked, getopts places the option letter it
              finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a `+' when arg
              begins  with  a  `+'.   The  index  of the next arg is stored in
              OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

              The first option to be examined may  be  changed  by  explicitly
              assigning  to  OPTIND.  OPTIND has an initial value of 1, and is
              normally reset to 1 upon exit from a shell function.  OPTARG  is
              not  reset  and  retains  its value from the most recent call to
              getopts.  If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset,  it
              remains  unset,  and the index or option argument is not stored.
              The option itself is still stored in name in this case.

              A leading `:' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of
              any  invalid  option  in  OPTARG,  and to set name to `?' for an
              unknown option and to `:' when a required argument  is  missing.
              Otherwise,  getopts sets name to `?' and prints an error message
              when an option is invalid.  The  exit  status  is  nonzero  when
              there are no more options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
              hash  can be used to directly modify the contents of the command
              hash table, and the named directory hash  table.   Normally  one
              would  modify these tables by modifying one's PATH (for the com-
              mand hash table) or by  creating  appropriate  shell  parameters
              (for  the named directory hash table).  The choice of hash table
              to work on is determined by the -d option;  without  the  option
              the  command  hash  table is used, and with the option the named
              directory hash table is used.

              Given no arguments, and  neither  the  -r  or  -f  options,  the
              selected hash table will be listed in full.

              The  -r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied.  It
              will be subsequently rebuilt in  the  normal  fashion.   The  -f
              option  causes the selected hash table to be fully rebuilt imme-
              diately.  For the command hash table this hashes all  the  abso-
              lute  directories  in the PATH, and for the named directory hash
              table this adds all users' home directories.  These two  options
              cannot be used with any arguments.

              The  -m  option  causes  the  arguments  to be taken as patterns
              (which should be quoted) and the  elements  of  the  hash  table
              matching  those  patterns  are printed.  This is the only way to
              display a limited selection of hash table elements.

              For each name with a corresponding  value,  put  `name'  in  the
              selected  hash  table, associating it with the pathname `value'.
              In the command hash table, this means that  whenever  `name'  is
              used  as  a  command argument, the shell will try to execute the
              file given by `value'.  In the named directory hash table,  this
              means that `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

              For  each  name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name
              to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the
              normal  manner  for  that  hash  table.  If an appropriate value
              can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

              The -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are
              added  by explicit specification.  If has no effect if used with
              -f.

              If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed
              in the form of a call to hash.

       history
              Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghilprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent  to  typeset  -i,  except  that options irrelevant to
              integers are not permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
              Lists information about each given job, or all jobs  if  job  is
              omitted.   The  -l flag lists process IDs, and the -p flag lists
              process groups.  If the -r flag is specified only  running  jobs
              will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped jobs are
              shown.  If the -d flag is given, the directory  from  which  the
              job  was  started (which may not be the current directory of the
              job) will also be shown.

              The -Z option replaces  the  shell's  argument  and  environment
              space  with  the  given  string,  truncated if necessary to fit.
              This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings.  This fea-
              ture is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
              Sends  either  SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs
              or processes.  Signals are given by number or by names, with  or
              without  the  `SIG'  prefix.   If  the  signal being sent is not
              `KILL' or `CONT', then the job will be sent a `CONT'  signal  if
              it  is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a job
              not in the job list.  In the second form, kill -l, if sig is not
              specified  the signal names are listed.  Otherwise, for each sig
              that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed.   For
              each  sig  that  is a signal number or a number representing the
              exit status of a process which was terminated or  stopped  by  a
              signal the name of the signal is printed.

              On  some systems, alternative signal names are allowed for a few
              signals.  Typical examples are SIGCHLD and SIGCLD or SIGPOLL and
              SIGIO, assuming they correspond to the same signal number.  kill
              -l will only list the preferred form, however kill -l  alt  will
              show  if  the  alternative  form corresponds to a signal number.
              For example, under Linux kill -l IO and kill -l POLL both output
              29, hence kill -IO and kill -POLL have the same effect.

              Many  systems  will  allow  process IDs to be negative to kill a
              process group or zero to kill the current process group.

       let arg ...
              Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression.  See the  section
              `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1)  for  a  description of
              arithmetic expressions.  The exit status is 0 if  the  value  of
              the  last  expression  is  nonzero, 1 if it is zero, and 2 if an
              error occurred.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
              Set or display resource limits.  Unless the -s  flag  is  given,
              the  limit  applies  only  the  children of the shell.  If -s is
              given without other arguments, the resource limits of  the  cur-
              rent  shell  is set to the previously set resource limits of the
              children.

              If limit is not specified, print the  current  limit  placed  on
              resource,  otherwise  set  the limit to the specified value.  If
              the -h flag is given, use hard limits instead  of  soft  limits.
              If no resource is given, print all limits.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort imme-
              diately if it detects a badly formed argument.  However,  if  it
              fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue try-
              ing to set the remaining limits.

              resource can be one of:

              addressspace
                     Maximum amount of address space used.
              aiomemorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in  RAM  for  AIO  opera-
                     tions.
              aiooperations
                     Maximum number of AIO operations.
              cachedthreads
                     Maximum number of cached threads.
              coredumpsize
                     Maximum size of a core dump.
              cputime
                     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
              datasize
                     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
              descriptors
                     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
              filesize
                     Largest single file allowed.
              maxproc
                     Maximum number of processes.
              maxpthreads
                     Maximum number of threads per process.
              memorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
              memoryuse
                     Maximum resident set size.
              msgqueue
                     Maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues.
              resident
                     Maximum resident set size.
              sigpending
                     Maximum number of pending signals.
              sockbufsize
                     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
              stacksize
                     Maximum stack size for each process.
              vmemorysize
                     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

              Which of these resource limits are available depends on the sys-
              tem.  resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.  It
              can also be an integer, which corresponds to the integer defined
              for the resource by the operating system.

              If argument corresponds to a number which is out of the range of
              the  resources  configured into the shell, the shell will try to
              read or write the limit anyway, and will report an error if this
              fails.   As  the shell does not store such resources internally,
              an attempt to set the limit will fail unless the  -s  option  is
              present.

              limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

              nh     hours
              nk     kilobytes (default)
              nm     megabytes or minutes
              [mm:]ss
                     minutes and seconds

              The  limit  command  is  not  made available by default when the
              shell starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be  made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:limit'.

       local [ {+|-}AEFHUahlprtux ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ] ...
              Same as typeset, except that the options -g, and -f are not per-
              mitted.  In this case the -x option does not force  the  use  of
              -g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions.

       log    List  all users currently logged in who are affected by the cur-
              rent setting of the watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
              Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       popd [ [-q] {+|-}n ]
              Remove an entry from the directory stack, and perform  a  cd  to
              the  new top directory.  With no argument, the current top entry
              is removed.  An argument of the form  `+n'  identifies  a  stack
              entry  by  counting  from the left of the list shown by the dirs
              command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form -n  counts
              from  the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings
              of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook  function  chpwd
              and  the functions in the array $chpwd_functions are not called,
              and the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful  for
              calls  to  popd  that  do  not change the environment seen by an
              interactive user.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsSz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
         [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
              With the `-f' option the arguments are printed as  described  by
              printf.   With  no flags or with the flag `-', the arguments are
              printed on the standard output as described by  echo,  with  the
              following  differences:  the escape sequence `\M-x' metafies the
              character x (sets the highest bit), `\C-x'  produces  a  control
              character  (`\C-@'  and  `\C-?'  give  the  characters  NUL  and
              delete), and `\E' is a synonym for `\e'.  Finally, if not in  an
              escape  sequence, `\' escapes the following character and is not
              printed.

              -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only
                     useful with the -c and -C options.

              -b     Recognize  all the escape sequences defined for the bind-
                     key command, see zshzle(1).

              -c     Print the arguments in columns.  Unless -a is also given,
                     arguments are printed with the row incrementing first.

              -C cols
                     Print  the  arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a is also
                     given, arguments are printed with  the  row  incrementing
                     first.

              -D     Treat  the  arguments  as directory names, replacing pre-
                     fixes with ~ expressions, as appropriate.

              -i     If given together with -o or  -O,  sorting  is  performed
                     case-independently.

              -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spa-
                     ces.

              -m     Take the first argument as a pattern (should be  quoted),
                     and remove it from the argument list together with subse-
                     quent arguments that do not match this pattern.

              -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

              -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

              -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

              -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

              -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

              -P     Perform  prompt  expansion  (see  EXPANSION   OF   PROMPT
                     SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).

              -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

              -R     Emulate  the  BSD  echo  command,  which does not process
                     escape sequences unless the -e flag  is  given.   The  -n
                     flag suppresses the trailing newline.  Only the -e and -n
                     flags are recognized after -R; all  other  arguments  and
                     options are printed.

              -s     Place  the  results in the history list instead of on the
                     standard output.  Each argument to the print  command  is
                     treated  as  a  single word in the history, regardless of
                     its content.

              -S     Place the results in the history list instead of  on  the
                     standard  output.  In this case only a single argument is
                     allowed; it will be split into words as if it were a full
                     shell command line.  The effect is similar to reading the
                     line from a history file with the  HIST_LEX_WORDS  option
                     active.

              -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

              -z     Push  the  arguments onto the editing buffer stack, sepa-
                     rated by spaces.

              If any of `-m', `-o' or `-O' are used in combination  with  `-f'
              and  there  are  no  arguments (after the removal process in the
              case of `-m') then nothing is printed.

       printf format [ arg ... ]
              Print the arguments according to the format specification.  For-
              matting  rules  are  the  same  as  used  in  C. The same escape
              sequences as for echo are recognised in the format. All  C  con-
              version  specifications ending in one of csdiouxXeEfgGn are han-
              dled. In addition to this, `%b' can be used instead of  `%s'  to
              cause escape sequences in the argument to be recognised and `%q'
              can be used to quote the argument in such a way that  allows  it
              to be reused as shell input. With the numeric format specifiers,
              if the corresponding argument starts with a quote character, the
              numeric  value  of the following character is used as the number
              to print otherwise the argument is evaluated  as  an  arithmetic
              expression.  See  the  section  `Arithmetic  Evaluation' in zsh-
       misc(1) for a description of arithmetic expressions. With  `%n',
              the  corresponding  argument  is taken as an identifier which is
              created as an integer parameter.

              Normally, conversion specifications are applied to each argument
              in  order but they can explicitly specify the nth argument is to
              be used by replacing `%' by `%n$' and `*' by `*n$'.  It is  rec-
              ommended  that  you do not mix references of this explicit style
              with the normal style and the handling of such mixed styles  may
              be subject to future change.

              If  arguments  remain unused after formatting, the format string
              is reused until all arguments have been consumed. With the print
              builtin,  this can be suppressed by using the -r option. If more
              arguments are required by the format than have  been  specified,
              the  behaviour  is as if zero or an empty string had been speci-
              fied as the argument.

       pushd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -qsLP ] old new
       pushd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory, and push the old current directory
              onto the directory stack.  In the first form, change the current
              directory to arg.  If arg is not specified, change to the second
              directory  on the stack (that is, exchange the top two entries),
              or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME  option  is  set  or  if
              there  is only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is inter-
              preted as it would be by cd.  The meaning of old and new in  the
              second form is also the same as for cd.

              The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the direc-
              tory list.  An argument of the  form  `+n'  identifies  a  stack
              entry  by  counting  from the left of the list shown by the dirs
              command, starting with zero.   An  argument  of  the  form  `-n'
              counts  from  the  right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the
              meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook  function  chpwd
              and  the functions in the array $chpwd_functions are not called,
              and the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful  for
              calls  to  pushd  that  do not change the environment seen by an
              interactive user.

              If  the  option  -q  is  not  specified  and  the  shell  option
              PUSHD_SILENT  is  not  set,  the directory stack will be printed
              after a pushd is performed.

              The options -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for  the  cd
              builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
              Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
              Print  the  absolute  pathname of the current working directory.
              If the -r or the -P flag is specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option
              is  set  and the -L flag is not given, the printed path will not
              contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.

       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
        [ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
              Read one line and break it into fields using the  characters  in
              $IFS  as  separators, except as noted below.  The first field is
              assigned to the first name, the second field to the second name,
              etc.,  with  leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If name
              is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for  arrays.

              -r     Raw  mode:  a  `\'  at the end of a line does not signify
                     line continuation and backslashes in the line don't quote
                     the following character and are not removed.

              -s     Don't  echo back characters if reading from the terminal.
                     Currently does not work with the -q option.

              -q     Read only one character from the terminal and set name to
                     `y'  if  this  character was `y' or `Y' and to `n' other-
                     wise.  With this flag set the return status is zero  only
                     if the character was `y' or `Y'.  This option may be used
                     with a timeout; if the read times out, or encounters  end
                     of  file,  status  2 is returned.  Input is read from the
                     terminal unless one of -u or -p is present.  This  option
                     may also be used within zle widgets.

              -k [ num ]
                     Read  only  one (or num) characters.  All are assigned to
                     the first name, without word  splitting.   This  flag  is
                     ignored  when -q is present.  Input is read from the ter-
                     minal unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option may
                     also be used within zle widgets.

                     Note  that  despite  the  mnemonic `key' this option does
                     read full characters, which may consist of multiple bytes
                     if the option MULTIBYTE is set.

              -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it
                     to the first  name,  without  word  splitting.   Text  is
                     pushed  onto  the stack with `print -z' or with push-line
                     from the line  editor  (see  zshzle(1)).   This  flag  is
                     ignored when the -k or -q flags are present.

              -e
              -E     The  input  read is printed (echoed) to the standard out-
                     put.  If the -e flag is used, no input is assigned to the
                     parameters.

              -A     The  first  name is taken as the name of an array and all
                     words are assigned to it.

              -c
              -l     These flags are allowed only if called inside a  function
                     used  for  completion (specified with the -K flag to com-
                     pctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words of the current
                     command are read. If the -l flag is given, the whole line
                     is assigned as a scalar.  If both flags are  present,  -l
                     is used and -c is ignored.

              -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on
                     is read.  With -l, the index of the character the  cursor
                     is on is read.  Note that the command name is word number
                     1, not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end  of
                     the  line,  its character index is the length of the line
                     plus one.

              -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

              -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

              -d delim
                     Input is terminated  by  the  first  character  of  delim
                     instead of by newline.

              -t [ num ]
                     Test if input is available before attempting to read.  If
                     num is present, it must begin with a digit  and  will  be
                     evaluated  to  give  a  number of seconds, which may be a
                     floating point number; in this case the read times out if
                     input  is  not available within this time.  If num is not
                     present, it is taken to be zero,  so  that  read  returns
                     immediately  if  no  input  is available.  If no input is
                     available, return status 1 and do not set any  variables.

                     This option is not available when reading from the editor
                     buffer with -z, when called from within  completion  with
                     -c  or  -l,  with  -q which clears the input queue before
                     reading, or within zle where other mechanisms  should  be
                     used to test for input.

                     Note  that  read does not attempt to alter the input pro-
                     cessing mode.  The default mode is  canonical  input,  in
                     which  an entire line is read at a time, so usually `read
                     -t' will not read anything until an entire line has  been
                     typed.   However,  when reading from the terminal with -k
                     input is processed one key at a time; in this case,  only
                     availability  of  the  first character is tested, so that
                     e.g. `read -t -k 2' can still block on the second charac-
                     ter.   Use  two  instances of `read -t -k' if this is not
                     what is wanted.

              If the first argument contains a `?', the remainder of this word
              is used as a prompt on standard error when the shell is interac-
              tive.

              The value (exit status) of read is  1  when  an  end-of-file  is
              encountered,  or when -c or -l is present and the command is not
              called from a compctl function, or as described for -q.   Other-
              wise the value is 0.

              The  behavior  of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u and -z
              flags is undefined.  Presently -q cancels  all  the  others,  -p
              cancels  -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z cancels both -p and
              -u.

              The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
              Same as typeset -r.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
              Causes a shell function or `.' script to return to the  invoking
              script  with the return status specified by n.  If n is omitted,
              the return status is that of the last command executed.

              If return was executed from a trap in a  TRAPNAL  function,  the
              effect  is  different for zero and non-zero return status.  With
              zero status (or after an implicit  return  at  the  end  of  the
              trap),  the shell will return to whatever it was previously pro-
              cessing; with a non-zero status, the shell will behave as inter-
              rupted  except  that  the return status of the trap is retained.
              Note that the numeric value of the signal which caused the  trap
              is  passed  as  the  first  argument,  so  the statement `return
              $((128+$1))' will return the same status as if  the  signal  had
              not been trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).

       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ] [
       arg ... ]
              Set  the options for the shell and/or set the positional parame-
              ters, or declare and set an array.  If the -s option  is  given,
              it  causes the specified arguments to be sorted before assigning
              them to the positional parameters (or to the array name if -A is
              used).   With  +s  sort  arguments in descending order.  For the
              meaning of the other flags, see  zshoptions(1).   Flags  may  be
              specified by name using the -o option. If no option name is sup-
              plied with -o, the current option states are printed:   see  the
              description  of setopt below for more information on the format.
              With +o they are printed in a form that can be used as input  to
              the shell.

              If  the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array containing
              the given args; if no name is specified, all arrays are  printed
              together with their values.

              If  +A  is  used  and name is an array, the given arguments will
              replace the initial elements of that array; if no name is speci-
              fied, all arrays are printed without their values.

              The  behaviour  of arguments after -A name or +A name depends on
              whether the option KSH_ARRAYS is set.  If it  is  not  set,  all
              arguments  following  name  are treated as values for the array,
              regardless of their form.  If the option is set,  normal  option
              processing  continues  at that point; only regular arguments are
              treated as values for the array.  This means that

                     set -A array -x -- foo

              sets array to `-x -- foo' if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the
              array to foo and turns on the option `-x' if it is set.

              If  the  -A  flag is not present, but there are arguments beyond
              the options, the positional parameters are set.  If  the  option
              list  (if  any)  is terminated by `--', and there are no further
              arguments, the positional parameters will be unset.

              If no arguments and no `--' are given, then the names and values
              of  all  parameters  are printed on the standard output.  If the
              only argument is `+', the names of all parameters are printed.

              For historical reasons, `set -' is treated as `set +xv' and `set
              -  args'  as  `set +xv -- args' when in any other emulation mode
              than zsh's native mode.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Set the options for the shell.   All  options  specified  either
              with flags or by name are set.

              If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently
              set are printed.  The form is chosen so as to minimize the  dif-
              ferences from the default options for the current emulation (the
              default emulation being native  zsh,  shown  as  <Z>  in  zshop-
              tions(1)).  Options that are on by default for the emulation are
              shown with the prefix no only  if  they  are  off,  while  other
              options are shown without the prefix no and only if they are on.
              In addition to options changed from the  default  state  by  the
              user,  any  options  activated  automatically  by the shell (for
              example, SHIN_STDIN or INTERACTIVE) will be shown in  the  list.
              The  format  is further modified by the option KSH_OPTION_PRINT,
              however the rationale for choosing options with or  without  the
              no prefix remains the same in this case.

              If  the  -m  flag  is  given the arguments are taken as patterns
              (which should be quoted to protect  them  from  filename  expan-
              sion),  and  all  options with names matching these patterns are
              set.

              Note that a bad option name does not cause execution  of  subse-
              quent  shell  code to be aborted; this is behaviour is different
              from that of `set -o'.  This is because set  is  regarded  as  a
              special builtin by the POSIX standard, but setopt is not.

       shift [ n ] [ name ... ]
              The  positional  parameters  ${n+1}  ...  are renamed to $1 ...,
              where n is an arithmetic expression that defaults to 1.  If  any
              names  are  given  then  the arrays with these names are shifted
              instead of the positional parameters.

       source file [ arg ... ]
              Same as  `.',  except  that  the  current  directory  is  always
              searched  and  is  always  searched first, before directories in
              $path.

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
              Suspend the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until  it
              receives  a  SIGCONT.   Unless the -f option is given, this will
              refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
              Like the system version of test.  Added for  compatibility;  use
              conditional  expressions  instead  (see the section `Conditional
              Expressions').  The main  differences  between  the  conditional
              expression  syntax  and the test and [ builtins are:  these com-
              mands are not handled syntactically, so  for  example  an  empty
              variable  expansion  may cause an argument to be omitted; syntax
              errors cause status 2 to be returned instead of a  shell  error;
              and  arithmetic  operators  expect integer arguments rather than
              arithmetic expressions.

              The command attempts to implement POSIX and its extensions where
              these are specified.  Unfortunately there are intrinsic ambigui-
              ties in the  syntax;  in  particular  there  is  no  distinction
              between  test  operators  and  strings  that resemble them.  The
              standard attempts to resolve these for small  numbers  of  argu-
              ments  (up  to  four);  for five or more arguments compatibility
              cannot be relied on.  Users are urged wherever possible  to  use
              the `[[' test syntax which does not have these ambiguities.

       times  Print  the  accumulated  user and system times for the shell and
              for processes run from the shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
              arg is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect  it  from
              immediate  evaluation by the shell) to be read and executed when
              the shell receives any of the signals specified by one  or  more
              sig  args.  Each sig can be given as a number, or as the name of
              a signal either with or without the string SIG in front (e.g. 1,
              HUP, and SIGHUP are all the same signal).

              If  arg  is  `-',  then the specified signals are reset to their
              defaults, or, if no sig args are present, all traps are reset.

              If arg is an  empty  string,  then  the  specified  signals  are
              ignored by the shell (and by the commands it invokes).

              If  arg  is  omitted but one or more sig args are provided (i.e.
              the first argument is a valid signal number or name), the effect
              is the same as if arg had been specified as `-'.

              The  trap  command  with  no arguments prints a list of commands
              associated with each signal.

              If sig is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command with
              a nonzero exit status.  ERR is an alias for ZERR on systems that
              have no SIGERR signal (this is the usual case).

              If sig is DEBUG then arg will be executed before each command if
              the  option  DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set (as it is by default), else
              after each command.  Here, a `command' is what is described as a
              `sublist'  in the shell grammar, see the section SIMPLE COMMANDS
              & PIPELINES in zshmisc(1).  If DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is  set  various
              additional  features  are  available.   First, it is possible to
              skip the next command by setting the option  ERR_EXIT;  see  the
              description  of the ERR_EXIT option in zshoptions(1).  Also, the
              shell parameter ZSH_DEBUG_CMD is set to the string corresponding
              to  the  command  to  be executed following the trap.  Note that
              this string is reconstructed from the internal  format  and  may
              not be formatted the same way as the original text.  The parame-
              ter is unset after the trap is executed.

              If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement  is  executed  inside
              the  body  of a function, then the command arg is executed after
              the function completes.  The value of $? at the start of  execu-
              tion is the exit status of the shell or the return status of the
              function exiting.  If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is
              not executed inside the body of a function, then the command arg
              is executed when the shell terminates; the trap runs before  any
              zshexit hook functions.

              ZERR, DEBUG, and EXIT traps are not executed inside other traps.
              ZERR and DEBUG traps are  kept  within  subshells,  while  other
              traps are reset.

              Note  that traps defined with the trap builtin are slightly dif-
              ferent from those defined as `TRAPNAL () { ... }', as the latter
              have  their  own function environment (line numbers, local vari-
              ables, etc.) while the former use the environment of the command
              in which they were called.  For example,

                     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

              will  print  the  line number of a command executed after it has
              run, while

                     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

              will always print the number zero.

              Alternative signal names are allowed  as  described  under  kill
              above.   Defining a trap under either name causes any trap under
              an alternative name to be removed.  However, it  is  recommended
              that  for  consistency  users  stick  exclusively to one name or
              another.

       true [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl -fu
              The -f option freezes the tty, and -u unfreezes  it.   When  the
              tty  is  frozen, no changes made to the tty settings by external
              programs will be honored by the shell, except for changes in the
              size  of the screen; the shell will simply reset the settings to
              their previous values as soon as each command exits or  is  sus-
              pended.  Thus, stty and similar programs have no effect when the
              tty is frozen.  Without options it reports whether the  terminal
              is frozen or not.

       type [ -wfpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -v.

       typeset [ {+|-}AEFHUafghklprtuxmz ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Urux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] SCALAR[=value] array [ sep ]
              Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

              A parameter is created for each name that does not already refer
              to one.  When inside a function, a new parameter is created  for
              every  name  (even those that already exist), and is unset again
              when the function completes.  See  `Local  Parameters'  in  zsh-
       param(1).   The  same  rules  apply to special shell parameters,
              which retain their special attributes when made local.

              For each name=value assignment, the parameter  name  is  set  to
              value.  Note that arrays currently cannot be assigned in typeset
              expressions, only  scalars  and  integers.   Unless  the  option
              KSH_TYPESET  is  set, normal expansion rules apply to assignment
              arguments, so value may be split into  separate  words;  if  the
              option  is  set, assignments which can be recognised when expan-
              sion is performed are treated as single words.  For example  the
              command  typeset  vbl=$(echo  one  two) is treated as having one
              argument if KSH_TYPESET is set, but otherwise is treated as hav-
              ing the two arguments vbl=one and two.

              If  the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not set, for each remain-
              ing name that refers to a parameter that is set,  the  name  and
              value of the parameter are printed in the form of an assignment.
              Nothing is printed for newly-created  parameters,  or  when  any
              attribute  flags  listed  below  are  given along with the name.
              Using `+' instead of minus to introduce an  attribute  turns  it
              off.

              If  the -p option is given, parameters and values are printed in
              the form of a typeset command and an assignment (which  will  be
              printed  separately  for arrays and associative arrays), regard-
              less of other flags and options.   Note  that  the  -h  flag  on
              parameters is respected; no value will be shown for these param-
              eters.

              If the -T option is  given,  two  or  three  arguments  must  be
              present (an exception is that zero arguments are allowed to show
              the list of parameters created in this fashion).  The first  two
              are  the name of a scalar and an array parameter (in that order)
              that will be tied together in the manner  of  $PATH  and  $path.
              The  optional  third  argument  is  a single-character separator
              which will be used to join the elements of the array to form the
              scalar;  if  absent,  a  colon is used, as with $PATH.  Only the
              first character of the separator is significant;  any  remaining
              characters  are  ignored.   Only  the  scalar  parameter  may be
              assigned an initial value.  Both the scalar and  the  array  may
              otherwise  be manipulated as normal.  If one is unset, the other
              will automatically be unset too.  There is no way of untying the
              variables  without unsetting them, or converting the type of one
              of them with another typeset command; +T does not work,  assign-
              ing  an  array  to SCALAR is an error, and assigning a scalar to
              array sets it to be a  single-element  array.   Note  that  both
              `typeset  -xT ...' and `export -T ...' work, but only the scalar
              will be marked for export.  Setting the value using  the  scalar
              version  causes  a  split  on  all  separators  (which cannot be
              quoted).  It is possible to use the same two tied variables with
              a  different  separator  character  in  which case the variables
              remain joined as before but the separator is changed.  This flag
              has a different meaning when used with -f; see below.

              The  -g  (global)  flag  is treated specially: it means that any
              resulting parameter will not be restricted to local scope.  Note
              that  this  does not necessarily mean that the parameter will be
              global, as the flag will apply to any existing  parameter  (even
              if unset) from an enclosing function.  This flag does not affect
              the parameter after creation, hence it has no effect when  list-
              ing  existing  parameters,  nor does the flag +g have any effect
              except in combination with -m (see below).

              If no name is present, the names and values  of  all  parameters
              are printed.  In this case the attribute flags restrict the dis-
              play  to  only  those  parameters  that   have   the   specified
              attributes,  and using `+' rather than `-' to introduce the flag
              suppresses printing of the values of parameters when there is no
              parameter  name.  Also, if the last option is the word `+', then
              names are printed but values are not.

              If the -m flag is given the name arguments are taken as patterns
              (which  should be quoted).  With no attribute flags, all parame-
              ters (or functions with the -f flag)  with  matching  names  are
              printed  (the  shell  option  TYPESET_SILENT is not used in this
              case).  Note that -m is ignored if no patterns  are  given.   If
              the  +g  flag is combined with -m, a new local parameter is cre-
              ated for every matching parameter that  is  not  already  local.
              Otherwise  -m  applies  all  other  flags  or assignments to the
              existing parameters.  Except  when  assignments  are  made  with
              name=value,  using  +m  forces  the  matching  parameters  to be
              printed, even inside a function.

              If no attribute flags are given and either no -m flag is present
              or the +m form was used, each parameter name printed is preceded
              by a list of the attributes of that parameter  (array,  associa-
              tion,   exported,  integer,  readonly).   If  +m  is  used  with
              attribute flags, and all those flags are introduced with +,  the
              matching parameter names are printed but their values are not.

              Attribute  flags that transform the final value (-L, -R, -Z, -l,
              u) are only applied to the expanded value  at  the  point  of  a
              parameter  expansion expression using `$'.  They are not applied
              when a parameter is retrieved internally by the  shell  for  any
              purpose.

              The following attribute flags may be specified:

              -A     The  names  refer  to  associative  array parameters; see
                     `Array Parameters' in zshparam(1).

              -L     Left justify and remove leading blanks from value.  If  n
                     is  nonzero,  it defines the width of the field.  If n is
                     zero, the width is determined by the width of  the  value
                     of  the first assignment.  In the case of numeric parame-
                     ters, the length of the complete value  assigned  to  the
                     parameter  is  used to determine the width, not the value
                     that would be output.

                     The width is the count of characters, which may be multi-
                     byte  characters  if  the  MULTIBYTE option is in effect.
                     Note that the screen width of the character is not  taken
                     into  account;  if  this  is  required,  use padding with
                     parameter expansion flags ${(ml...)...} as  described  in
                     `Parameter Expansion Flags' in zshexpn(1).

                     When the parameter is expanded, it is filled on the right
                     with blanks or truncated if necessary to fit  the  field.
                     Note  truncation  can  lead  to  unexpected  results with
                     numeric parameters.  Leading zeros are removed if the  -Z
                     flag is also set.

              -R     Similar  to  -L, except that right justification is used;
                     when the parameter is expanded, the field is left  filled
                     with  blanks  or truncated from the end.  May not be com-
                     bined with the -Z flag.

              -U     For arrays (but not for associative  arrays),  keep  only
                     the  first occurrence of each duplicated value.  This may
                     also be set for colon-separated special  parameters  like
                     PATH  or FIGNORE, etc.  This flag has a different meaning
                     when used with -f; see below.

              -Z     Specially handled if set along with the -L flag.   Other-
                     wise,  similar  to -R, except that leading zeros are used
                     for padding instead of  blanks  if  the  first  non-blank
                     character  is  a digit.  Numeric parameters are specially
                     handled:  they  are  always  eligible  for  padding  with
                     zeroes,  and  the  zeroes  are inserted at an appropriate
                     place in the output.

              -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array  parameter
                     may be created this way, but it may not be assigned to in
                     the typeset statement.  When displaying, both normal  and
                     associative arrays are shown.

              -f     The  names refer to functions rather than parameters.  No
                     assignments can be made, and the only other  valid  flags
                     are -t, -T, -k, -u, -U and -z.  The flag -t turns on exe-
                     cution tracing for this function; the flag  -T  does  the
                     same,  but  turns off tracing on any function called from
                     the present one, unless that function also has the -t  or
                     -T  flag.   The  -u and -U flags cause the function to be
                     marked for autoloading; -U also causes alias expansion to
                     be  suppressed  when  the  function is loaded.  The fpath
                     parameter will be searched to find the  function  defini-
                     tion  when the function is first referenced; see the sec-
                     tion `Functions'. The -k and -z flags make  the  function
                     be   loaded  using  ksh-style  or  zsh-style  autoloading
                     respectively. If neither is given,  the  setting  of  the
                     KSH_AUTOLOAD   option  determines  how  the  function  is
                     loaded.

              -h     Hide: only useful for special  parameters  (those  marked
                     `<S>' in the table in zshparam(1)), and for local parame-
                     ters with the same name as a  special  parameter,  though
                     harmless  for  others.   A  special  parameter  with this
                     attribute will not retain its special  effect  when  made
                     local.  Thus after `typeset -h PATH', a function contain-
                     ing `typeset PATH' will create an ordinary local  parame-
                     ter  without the usual behaviour of PATH.  Alternatively,
                     the local parameter may itself be given  this  attribute;
                     hence  inside  a  function  `typeset  -h PATH' creates an
                     ordinary local parameter and the special  PATH  parameter
                     is not altered in any way.  It is also possible to create
                     a local parameter using `typeset +h special',  where  the
                     local  copy of special will retain its special properties
                     regardless of having the -h  attribute.   Global  special
                     parameters  loaded from shell modules (currently those in
                     zsh/mapfile and zsh/parameter)  are  automatically  given
                     the -h attribute to avoid name clashes.

              -H     Hide  value:  specifies that typeset will not display the
                     value of the parameter when listing parameters; the  dis-
                     play for such parameters is always as if the `+' flag had
                     been given.  Use of the parameter is  in  other  respects
                     normal, and the option does not apply if the parameter is
                     specified by name, or by  pattern  with  the  -m  option.
                     This   is  on  by  default  for  the  parameters  in  the
                     zsh/parameter and zsh/mapfile  modules.   Note,  however,
                     that  unlike the -h flag this is also useful for non-spe-
                     cial parameters.

              -i     Use an internal integer representation.  If n is  nonzero
                     it  defines  the  output arithmetic base, otherwise it is
                     determined by the first assignment.  Bases from 2  to  36
                     inclusive are allowed.

              -E     Use an internal double-precision floating point represen-
                     tation.  On output the variable will be converted to sci-
                     entific  notation.  If n is nonzero it defines the number
                     of significant figures to display; the default is ten.

              -F     Use an internal double-precision floating point represen-
                     tation.   On  output  the  variable  will be converted to
                     fixed-point decimal notation.  If n is nonzero it defines
                     the  number of digits to display after the decimal point;
                     the default is ten.

              -l     Convert the result to lower case whenever  the  parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted when assigned.

              -r     The  given  names are marked readonly.  Note that if name
                     is a special parameter, the  readonly  attribute  can  be
                     turned on, but cannot then be turned off.

              -t     Tags  the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning
                     to the shell.  This flag has  a  different  meaning  when
                     used with -f; see above.

              -u     Convert  the  result to upper case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted  when  assigned.
                     This  flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see
                     above.

              -x     Mark for automatic export to the  environment  of  subse-
                     quently  executed  commands.  If the option GLOBAL_EXPORT
                     is set, this implies the option -g,  unless  +g  is  also
                     explicitly  given;  in  other  words the parameter is not
                     made local to the enclosing function.  This is  for  com-
                     patibility with previous versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ [ -SHacdfilmnpqrstvx | -N resource [ limit ] ... ]
              Set  or  display  resource limits of the shell and the processes
              started by the shell.  The value of limit can be a number in the
              unit  specified  below  or  one of the values `unlimited', which
              removes the limit on the resource, or  `hard',  which  uses  the
              current value of the hard limit on the resource.

              By  default, only soft limits are manipulated. If the -H flag is
              given use hard limits instead of soft limits.  If the -S flag is
              given together with the -H flag set both hard and soft limits.

              If no options are used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.

              If limit is omitted the current value of the specified resources
              are printed.  When more than one resource value is printed,  the
              limit name and unit is printed before each value.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort imme-
              diately if it detects a badly formed argument.  However,  if  it
              fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue try-
              ing to set the remaining limits.

              Not all the following resources are supported  on  all  systems.
              Running ulimit -a will show which are supported.

              -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
              -b     Socket buffer size in bytes (N.B. not kilobytes)
              -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
              -d     Kilobytes on the size of the data segment.
              -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
              -i     The number of pending signals.
              -l     Kilobytes on the size of locked-in memory.
              -m     Kilobytes on the size of physical memory.
              -n     open file descriptors.
              -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
              -s     Kilobytes on the size of the stack.
              -t     CPU seconds to be used.
              -r     The number of simultaneous threads available to the user.
              -u     The number of processes available to the user.
              -v     Kilobytes on the size of virtual memory.  On some systems
                     this refers to the limit called `address space'.
              -x     The number of locks on files.

              A  resource  may  also  be  specified by integer in the form `-N
              resource', where resource corresponds to the integer defined for
              the  resource  by the operating system.  This may be used to set
              the limits for resources known to the shell which do not  corre-
              spond to option letters.  Such limits will be shown by number in
              the output of `ulimit -a'.

              The number may alternatively be out of the range of limits  com-
              piled  into  the shell.  The shell will try to read or write the
              limit anyway, and will report an error if this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
              The umask is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or
              a  symbolic value as described in chmod(1).  If mask is omitted,
              the current value is printed.  The -S option causes the mask  to
              be  printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask is printed
              as an octal number.  Note that in the symbolic form the  permis-
              sions you specify are those which are to be allowed (not denied)
              to the users specified.

       unalias
              Same as unhash -a.

       unfunction
              Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
              Remove the element named name from an internal hash table.   The
              default  is remove elements from the command hash table.  The -a
              option causes unhash to remove regular or global  aliases;  note
              when  removing a global aliases that the argument must be quoted
              to prevent it from being expanded before  being  passed  to  the
              command.   The -s option causes unhash to remove suffix aliases.
              The -f option causes unhash to remove shell functions.   The  -d
              options  causes  unhash  to remove named directories.  If the -m
              flag is given the arguments are taken  as  patterns  (should  be
              quoted)  and  all  elements of the corresponding hash table with
              matching names will be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
              The resource limit for each resource is set to the  hard  limit.
              If  the  -h  flag  is given and the shell has appropriate privi-
              leges, the hard resource limit for  each  resource  is  removed.
              The  resources  of  the shell process are only changed if the -s
              flag is given.

              The unlimit command is not made available by  default  when  the
              shell  starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits  b:unlimit'.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
              Each  named  parameter  is unset.  Local parameters remain local
              even if unset; they appear unset within scope, but the  previous
              value will still reappear when the scope ends.

              Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset
              by using subscript syntax on name, which should  be  quoted  (or
              the  entire  command  prefixed  with noglob) to protect the sub-
              script from filename generation.

              If the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as  patterns
              (should  be  quoted)  and all parameters with matching names are
              unset.  Note that this cannot be used when unsetting associative
              array  elements, as the subscript will be treated as part of the
              pattern.

              The -v flag specifies that name refers to  parameters.  This  is
              the default behaviour.

              unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Unset  the  options for the shell.  All options specified either
              with flags or by name are unset.  If no arguments are  supplied,
              the names of all options currently unset are printed.  If the -m
              flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which  should
              be  quoted  to preserve them from being interpreted as glob pat-
              terns), and all options with names matching these  patterns  are
              unset.

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
              Wait  for  the specified jobs or processes.  If job is not given
              then all currently active child processes are waited for.   Each
              job can be either a job specification or the process ID of a job
              in the job table.  The exit status from this command is that  of
              the job waited for.

       whence [ -vcwfpams ] name ...
              For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a
              command name.

              -v     Produce a more verbose report.

              -c     Print the results  in  a  csh-like  format.   This  takes
                     precedence over -v.

              -w     For  each  name,  print `name: word' where word is one of
                     alias, builtin, command, function,  hashed,  reserved  or
                     none,  according  as  name  corresponds  to  an  alias, a
                     built-in command, an external command, a shell  function,
                     a command defined with the hash builtin, a reserved word,
                     or is not recognised.  This takes precedence over -v  and
                     -c.

              -f     Causes  the contents of a shell function to be displayed,
                     which would otherwise not happen unless the -c flag  were
                     used.

              -p     Do  a  path  search  for  name  even  if  it is an alias,
                     reserved word, shell function or builtin.

              -a     Do a search for all occurrences of  name  throughout  the
                     command  path.   Normally  only  the  first occurrence is
                     printed.

              -m     The arguments are taken as patterns (should  be  quoted),
                     and  the information is displayed for each command match-
                     ing one of these patterns.

              -s     If a pathname contains symlinks, print  the  symlink-free
                     pathname as well.

       where [ -wpms ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
              This  builtin  command  can  be  used  to  compile  functions or
              scripts, storing the compiled form in a  file,  and  to  examine
              files   containing   the  compiled  form.   This  allows  faster
              autoloading of functions and execution of  scripts  by  avoiding
              parsing of the text when the files are read.

              The first form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a com-
              piled file.  If only the file argument is given, the output file
              has the name `file.zwc' and will be placed in the same directory
              as the file.  The shell will load the compiled file  instead  of
              the  normal  function  file when the function is autoloaded; see
              the section `Autoloading Functions' in zshmisc(1) for a descrip-
              tion  of  how  autoloaded functions are searched.  The extension
              .zwc stands for `zsh word code'.

              If there is at least one name argument, all the named files  are
              compiled  into  the output file given as the first argument.  If
              file does not end  in  .zwc,  this  extension  is  automatically
              appended.   Files  containing  multiple  compiled  functions are
              called `digest' files, and are intended to be used  as  elements
              of the FPATH/fpath special array.

              The  second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the compiled
              definitions for all the named functions into file.  For -c,  the
              names  must  be  functions  currently  defined in the shell, not
              those marked for  autoloading.   Undefined  functions  that  are
              marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in
              which case the fpath is searched and the contents of the defini-
              tion  files  for  those  functions,  if found, are compiled into
              file.  If both -c and -a are given, names of both defined  func-
              tions  and  functions  marked  for autoloading may be given.  In
              either case, the functions in files written with the  -c  or  -a
              option  will  be  autoloaded  as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option were
              unset.

              The reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with
              different  options is that some definition files for autoloading
              define multiple functions, including the function with the  same
              name  as the file, and, at the end, call that function.  In such
              cases the output of `zcompile -c' does  not  include  the  addi-
              tional  functions defined in the file, and any other initializa-
              tion code in the file is lost.  Using `zcompile -a' captures all
              this extra information.

              If  the  -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names are used
              as patterns and all functions whose names  match  one  of  these
              patterns  will  be written. If no name is given, the definitions
              of all functions currently defined or marked as autoloaded  will
              be written.

              The  third  form,  with the -t option, examines an existing com-
              piled file.  Without further arguments, the names of the  origi-
              nal files compiled into it are listed.  The first line of output
              shows the version of the shell which compiled the file  and  how
              the file will be used (i.e. by reading it directly or by mapping
              it into memory).  With arguments,  nothing  is  output  and  the
              return  status  is set to zero if definitions for all names were
              found in the compiled file, and non-zero if the  definition  for
              at least one name was not found.

              Other options:

              -U     Aliases  are not expanded when compiling the named files.

              -R     When the compiled file is read, its contents  are  copied
                     into  the  shell's memory, rather than memory-mapped (see
                     -M).  This happens automatically on systems that  do  not
                     support memory mapping.

                     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions,
                     it is often desirable to use this option;  otherwise  the
                     whole  file, including the code to define functions which
                     have already been defined,  will  remain  mapped,  conse-
                     quently wasting memory.

              -M     The  compiled file is mapped into the shell's memory when
                     read. This is done in such a way that multiple  instances
                     of  the  shell  running  on the same host will share this
                     mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is given, the zcompile
                     builtin  decides what to do based on the size of the com-
                     piled file.

              -k
              -z     These options are used when the  compiled  file  contains
                     functions which are to be autoloaded. If -z is given, the
                     function will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option
                     is  not  set,  even if it is set at the time the compiled
                     file is read, while if the -k is given, the function will
                     be  loaded as if KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  These options also
                     take precedence over any -k or -z  options  specified  to
                     the  autoload  builtin.  If  neither  of these options is
                     given, the function will be loaded as determined  by  the
                     setting  of  the KSH_AUTOLOAD option at the time the com-
                     piled file is read.

                     These options may also appear as many times as  necessary
                     between  the listed names to specify the loading style of
                     all following functions, up to the next -k or -z.

                     The created file always contains two versions of the com-
                     piled  format,  one  for  big-endian machines and one for
                     small-endian machines.  The upshot of this  is  that  the
                     compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or
                     mapped, only one half of the file is actually  used  (and
                     mapped).

       zformat
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -F [ -lLme -P param ] module [+-]feature...
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
              Performs operations relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading
              of modules while the shell is running (`dynamical  loading')  is
              not  available on all operating systems, or on all installations
              on a particular operating system, although the zmodload  command
              itself is always available and can be used to manipulate modules
              built into versions of the shell  executable  without  dynamical
              loading.

              Without  arguments the names of all currently loaded binary mod-
              ules are printed.  The -L option causes this list to be  in  the
              form  of  a  series  of zmodload commands.  Forms with arguments
              are:

              zmodload [ -i ] name ...
              zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
                     In the simplest case, zmodload  loads  a  binary  module.
                     The  module  must  be in a file with a name consisting of
                     the specified name followed by a standard suffix, usually
                     `.so'  (`.sl'  on  HPUX).   If the module to be loaded is
                     already loaded the duplicate module is ignored.  If zmod-
                     load  detects an inconsistency, such as an invalid module
                     name or circular dependency list, the current code  block
                     is aborted.   Hence `zmodload module 2>/dev/null' is suf-
                     ficient to test whether a module is available.  If it  is
                     available, the module is loaded if necessary, while if it
                     is not available, non-zero status is  silently  returned.
                     The  option  -i  is accepted for compatibility but has no
                     effect.

                     The named module is searched for in the same way  a  com-
                     mand  is,  using $module_path instead of $path.  However,
                     the path search is performed even when  the  module  name
                     contains  a  `/', which it usually does.  There is no way
                     to prevent the path search.

                     If the module supports  features  (see  below),  zmodload
                     tries  to  enable all features when loading a module.  If
                     the module was successfully loaded but not  all  features
                     could be enabled, zmodload returns status 2.

                     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must be
                     given that was given when the module was loaded,  but  it
                     is not necessary for the module to exist in the file sys-
                     tem.  The -i option suppresses the error if the module is
                     already unloaded (or was never loaded).

                     Each  module has a boot and a cleanup function.  The mod-
                     ule will not be loaded if its boot function fails.  Simi-
                     larly  a module can only be unloaded if its cleanup func-
                     tion runs successfully.

              zmodload -F [ -almLe -P param ] module [+-]feature...
                     zmodload -F allows more selective control over  the  fea-
                     tures  provided  by  modules.  With no options apart from
                     -F, the module named module is  loaded,  if  it  was  not
                     already  loaded,  and  the list of features is set to the
                     required state.  If no features are specified, the module
                     is loaded, if it was not already loaded, but the state of
                     features is unchanged.  Each feature may be preceded by a
                     +  to  turn the feature on, or - to turn it off; the + is
                     assumed if neither character is present.  Any feature not
                     explicitly mentioned is left in its current state; if the
                     module was not previously loaded this means any such fea-
                     tures will remain disabled.  The return status is zero if
                     all features were set, 1 if the module  failed  to  load,
                     and  2  if some features could not be set (for example, a
                     parameter couldn't be added because there was a different
                     parameter of the same name) but the module was loaded.

                     The  standard  features are builtins, conditions, parame-
                     ters and math functions; these are indicated by the  pre-
                     fix  `b:',  `c:'  (`C:' for an infix condition), `p:' and
                     `f:', respectively, followed by the name that the  corre-
                     sponding  feature  would have in the shell.  For example,
                     `b:strftime'  indicates  a  builtin  named  strftime  and
                     p:EPOCHSECONDS  indicates a parameter named EPOCHSECONDS.
                     The module may provide other (`abstract') features of its
                     own as indicated by its documentation; these have no pre-
                     fix.

                     With -l or  -L,  features  provided  by  the  module  are
                     listed.   With -l alone, a list of features together with
                     their states is shown, one feature  per  line.   With  -L
                     alone,  a  zmodload  -F  command that would cause enabled
                     features of the module to be turned on  is  shown.   With
                     -lL,  a zmodload -F command that would cause all the fea-
                     tures to be set to their current state is shown.  If  one
                     of  these  combinations is given the option -P param then
                     the parameter param is  set  to  an  array  of  features,
                     either features together with their state or (if -L alone
                     is given) enabled features.

                     With the option -L the module name may be omitted; then a
                     list  of  all  enabled features for all modules providing
                     features is printed in the form of zmodload -F  commands.
                     If  -l  is also given, the state of both enabled and dis-
                     abled features is output in that form.

                     A set of features may be provided together with -l or  -L
                     and  a  module name; in that case only the state of those
                     features is considered.  Each feature may be preceded  by
                     +  or  -  but  the character has no effect.  If no set of
                     features is provided, all features are considered.

                     With -e, the command  first  tests  that  the  module  is
                     loaded;  if it is not, status 1 is returned.  If the mod-
                     ule is loaded, the list of features given as an  argument
                     is  examined.  Any feature given with no prefix is simply
                     tested to see if the  module  provides  it;  any  feature
                     given  with  a  prefix + or - is tested to see if is pro-
                     vided and in the given state.  If the tests on  all  fea-
                     tures  in  the  list  succeed, status 0 is returned, else
                     status 1.

                     With -m, each entry in the  given  list  of  features  is
                     taken as a pattern to be matched against the list of fea-
                     tures provided by the module.  An initial + or - must  be
                     given  explicitly.   This may not be combined with the -a
                     option as autoloads must be specified explicitly.

                     With -a,  the  given  list  of  features  is  marked  for
                     autoload  from the specified module, which may not yet be
                     loaded.  An optional +  may  appear  before  the  feature
                     name.   If  the  feature is prefixed with -, any existing
                     autoload is removed.  The options -l and -L may  be  used
                     to list autoloads.  Autoloading is specific to individual
                     features; when the module is loaded  only  the  requested
                     feature  is  enabled.  Autoload requests are preserved if
                     the module is subsequently  unloaded  until  an  explicit
                     `zmodload  -Fa  module -feature' is issued.  It is not an
                     error to request an autoload for a feature  of  a  module
                     that is already loaded.

                     When  the  module  is  loaded  each  autoload  is checked
                     against the features actually provided by the module;  if
                     the  feature  is  not  provided  the  autoload request is
                     deleted.  A warning message is output; if the  module  is
                     being  loaded  to  provide  a different feature, and that
                     autoload is successful, there is no effect on the  status
                     of  the current command.  If the module is already loaded
                     at the time when zmodload -Fa is run, an error message is
                     printed and status 1 returned.

                     zmodload  -Fa  can  be  used  with  the -l, -L, -e and -P
                     options  for  listing  and  testing  the   existence   of
                     autoloadable  features.  In this case -l is ignored if -L
                     is specified.  zmodload -FaL with no  module  name  lists
                     autoloads for all modules.

                     Note  that  only standard features as described above can
                     be autoloaded; other features require the  module  to  be
                     loaded before enabling.

              zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
              zmodload -d name dep ...
              zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
                     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.
                     The modules named in the second and subsequent  arguments
                     will be loaded before the module named in the first argu-
                     ment.

                     With -d and one argument, all dependencies for that  mod-
                     ule  are  listed.   With  -d and no arguments, all module
                     dependencies are listed.  This listing is by default in a
                     Makefile-like  format.  The -L option changes this format
                     to a list of zmodload -d commands.

                     If -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If
                     only  one  argument  is  given, all dependencies for that
                     module are removed.

              zmodload -ab [ -L ]
              zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
                     The -ab option defines autoloaded builtins.   It  defines
                     the  specified  builtins.   When any of those builtins is
                     called, the module specified in  the  first  argument  is
                     loaded  and  all  its features are enabled (for selective
                     control of features use `zmodload  -F  -a'  as  described
                     above).   If  only  the  name  is  given,  one builtin is
                     defined, with the same name as the module.  -i suppresses
                     the   error   if   the  builtin  is  already  defined  or
                     autoloaded, but not if another builtin of the  same  name
                     is already defined.

                     With  -ab  and  no arguments, all autoloaded builtins are
                     listed, with the module  name  (if  different)  shown  in
                     parentheses  after  the  builtin  name.   The  -L  option
                     changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

                     If -b is used together with the  -u  option,  it  removes
                     builtins  previously defined with -ab.  This is only pos-
                     sible if the builtin is not yet  loaded.   -i  suppresses
                     the  error  if  the  builtin is already removed (or never
                     existed).

                     Autoload requests are retained if the  module  is  subse-
                     quently unloaded until an explicit `zmodload -ub builtin'
                     is issued.

              zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
              zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
              zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
                     The -ac option is used  to  define  autoloaded  condition
                     codes.  The cond strings give the names of the conditions
                     defined by the module. The optional -I option is used  to
                     define  infix condition names. Without this option prefix
                     condition names are defined.

                     If given no condition names, all defined names are listed
                     (as  a  series  of  zmodload commands if the -L option is
                     given).

                     The -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded  condi-
                     tions.

              zmodload -ap [ -L ]
              zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
              zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
                     The  -p  option  is like the -b and -c options, but makes
                     zmodload work on autoloaded parameters instead.

              zmodload -af [ -L ]
              zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
              zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
                     The -f option is like the -b, -p,  and  -c  options,  but
                     makes zmodload work on autoloaded math functions instead.

              zmodload -a [ -L ]
              zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
                     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

              zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
                     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules;
                     if  the  -A  option  is also given, module aliases corre-
                     sponding to loaded modules are also shown.  If  arguments
                     are  provided,  nothing  is printed; the return status is
                     set to zero if all strings given as arguments  are  names
                     of loaded modules and to one if at least on string is not
                     the name of a loaded module.  This can be  used  to  test
                     for  the  availability  of things implemented by modules.
                     In this case, any aliases are automatically resolved  and
                     the -A flag is not used.

              zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
                     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given,
                     define modalias to be an alias for the module module.  If
                     the  module  modalias  is  ever  subsequently  requested,
                     either via a call to zmodload or  implicitly,  the  shell
                     will  attempt  to  load module instead.  If module is not
                     given, show the definition of modalias.  If no  arguments
                     are  given,  list all defined module aliases.  When list-
                     ing, if the -L flag was also given, list  the  definition
                     as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

                     The  existence of aliases for modules is completely inde-
                     pendent of whether the name resolved is  actually  loaded
                     as  a module: while the alias exists, loading and unload-
                     ing the module under  any  alias  has  exactly  the  same
                     effect  as  using  the resolved name, and does not affect
                     the connection between the alias and  the  resolved  name
                     which can be removed either by zmodload -R or by redefin-
                     ing the alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where  the  first
                     resolved  name  is  itself an alias) are valid so long as
                     these are not circular.  As the  aliases  take  the  same
                     format as module names, they may include path separators:
                     in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the
                     path  named to exist as the alias will be resolved first.
                     For example, `any/old/alias' is always a valid alias.

                     Dependencies added to aliased modules are actually  added
                     to  the  resolved  module;  these  remain if the alias is
                     removed.  It is valid to create an alias  whose  name  is
                     one of the standard shell modules and which resolves to a
                     different module.  However, if a module has dependencies,
                     it  will  not  be  possible  to use the module name as an
                     alias as the module will already be marked as a  loadable
                     module in its own right.

                     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload
                     command anywhere module  names  are  required.   However,
                     aliases will not be shown in lists of loaded modules with
                     a bare `zmodload'.

              zmodload -R modalias ...
                     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as
                     a module alias via zmodload -A, delete the alias.  If any
                     was not defined, an error is caused and the remainder  of
                     the line is ignored.

              Note  that  zsh  makes  no distinction between modules that were
              linked into the shell and modules that are  loaded  dynamically.
              In both cases this builtin command has to be used to make avail-
              able the builtins and other things defined  by  modules  (unless
              the  module  is  autoloaded  on these definitions). This is true
              even for systems that don't support dynamic loading of  modules.

       zparseopts
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
              See the section `The zsh/net/socket Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section `The zsh/net/tcp Module' in zshmodules(1).



ZSHZLE(1)                                                            ZSHZLE(1)




NAME

       zshzle - zsh command line editor


DESCRIPTION

       If the ZLE option is set (which it is by default in interactive shells)
       and the shell input is attached to the terminal, the user  is  able  to
       edit command lines.

       There  are  two  display  modes.   The  first,  multiline  mode, is the
       default.  It only works if the TERM parameter is set to a valid  termi-
       nal type that can move the cursor up.  The second, single line mode, is
       used if TERM is invalid or incapable of moving the cursor up, or if the
       SINGLE_LINE_ZLE  option  is set.  This mode is similar to ksh, and uses
       no termcap sequences.  If TERM is "emacs", the ZLE option will be unset
       by default.

       The  parameters BAUD, COLUMNS, and LINES are also used by the line edi-
       tor.  See Parameters Used By The Shell in zshparam(1).

       The parameter zle_highlight is also used by the line editor; see  Char-
       acter  Highlighting  below.  Highlighting of special characters and the
       region between the cursor and the mark (as set with set-mark-command in
       Emacs  mode)  is  enabled  by  default; consult this reference for more
       information.  Irascible conservatives will wish to know that all  high-
       lighting may be disabled by the following setting:

              zle_highlight=(none)




KEYMAPS

       A  keymap  in  ZLE contains a set of bindings between key sequences and
       ZLE commands.  The empty key sequence cannot be bound.

       There can be any number of keymaps at any time, and each keymap has one
       or  more names.  If all of a keymap's names are deleted, it disappears.
       bindkey can be used to manipulate keymap names.

       Initially, there are six keymaps:

       emacs  EMACS emulation
       viins  vi emulation - insert mode
       vicmd  vi emulation - command mode
       isearch
              incremental search mode
       command
              read a command name
       .safe  fallback keymap

       The `.safe' keymap is special.  It can never be altered, and  the  name
       can  never be removed.  However, it can be linked to other names, which
       can be removed.  In the future other  special  keymaps  may  be  added;
       users  should  avoid  using  names  beginning  with  `.'  for their own
       keymaps.

       In addition to these names, either `emacs' or `viins' is also linked to
       the  name `main'.  If one of the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables
       contain the string `vi' when the  shell  starts  up  then  it  will  be
       `viins',  otherwise  it  will  be `emacs'.  bindkey's -e and -v options
       provide a convenient way to override this default choice.

       When the editor starts up, it will select the `main' keymap.   If  that
       keymap doesn't exist, it will use `.safe' instead.

       In  the `.safe' keymap, each single key is bound to self-insert, except
       for ^J (line feed) and ^M (return)  which  are  bound  to  accept-line.
       This is deliberately not pleasant to use; if you are using it, it means
       you deleted the main keymap, and you should put it back.

   Reading Commands
       When ZLE is reading a command from the terminal, it may read a sequence
       that  is  bound  to some command and is also a prefix of a longer bound
       string.  In this case ZLE will wait a certain time to see if more char-
       acters are typed, and if not (or they don't match any longer string) it
       will execute the binding.  This timeout is defined  by  the  KEYTIMEOUT
       parameter;  its  default is 0.4 sec.  There is no timeout if the prefix
       string is not itself bound to a command.

       The key timeout is also applied when ZLE is reading the  bytes  from  a
       multibyte  character  string when it is in the appropriate mode.  (This
       requires that the shell was compiled with multibyte mode enabled; typi-
       cally  also the locale has characters with the UTF-8 encoding, although
       any multibyte encoding known to the operating system is supported.)  If
       the  second or a subsequent byte is not read within the timeout period,
       the shell acts as if ? were typed and resets the input state.

       As well as ZLE commands, key sequences can be bound to  other  strings,
       by  using  `bindkey -s'.  When such a sequence is read, the replacement
       string is pushed back as input, and the command reading process  starts
       again  using  these fake keystrokes.  This input can itself invoke fur-
       ther replacement strings, but in order to detect loops the process will
       be stopped if there are twenty such replacements without a real command
       being read.

       A key sequence typed by the user can be turned into a command name  for
       use  in  user-defined  widgets  with the read-command widget, described
       below.



ZLE BUILTINS

       The ZLE module contains three related  builtin  commands.  The  bindkey
       command manipulates keymaps and key bindings; the vared command invokes
       ZLE on the value of a shell parameter; and the zle command  manipulates
       editing  widgets  and  allows  command line access to ZLE commands from
       within shell functions.

       bindkey [ options ] -l [ -L ] [ keymap ... ]
       bindkey [ options ] -d
       bindkey [ options ] -D keymap ...
       bindkey [ options ] -A old-keymap new-keymap
       bindkey [ options ] -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
       bindkey [ options ] -m
       bindkey [ options ] -r in-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] -s in-string out-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] in-string command ...
       bindkey [ options ] [ in-string ]
              bindkey's options can be divided into three  categories:  keymap
              selection for the current command, operation selection, and oth-
              ers.  The keymap selection options are:

              -e     Selects keymap `emacs' for any operations by the  current
                     command,  and  also links `emacs' to `main' so that it is
                     selected by default the next time the editor starts.

              -v     Selects keymap `viins' for any operations by the  current
                     command,  and  also links `viins' to `main' so that it is
                     selected by default the next time the editor starts.

              -a     Selects keymap `vicmd' for any operations by the  current
                     command.

              -M keymap
                     The  keymap  specifies a keymap name that is selected for
                     any operations by the current command.

              If a keymap selection is required and none of the options  above
              are  used,  the  `main'  keymap is used.  Some operations do not
              permit a keymap to be selected, namely:

              -l     List all existing keymap  names;  if  any  arguments  are
                     given, list just those keymaps.

                     If  the -L option is also used, list in the form of bind-
                     key commands to create or link the keymaps.  `bindkey -lL
                     main' shows which keymap is linked to `main', if any, and
                     hence if the standard emacs or vi emulation is in effect.
                     This  option  does  not  show the .safe keymap because it
                     cannot be created in that fashion;  however,  neither  is
                     `bindkey  -lL .safe' reported as an error, it simply out-
                     puts nothing.

              -d     Delete all existing keymaps  and  reset  to  the  default
                     state.

              -D keymap ...
                     Delete the named keymaps.

              -A old-keymap new-keymap
                     Make the new-keymap name an alias for old-keymap, so that
                     both names refer to the  same  keymap.   The  names  have
                     equal  standing; if either is deleted, the other remains.
                     If there is already a keymap with the new-keymap name, it
                     is deleted.

              -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
                     Create  a  new  keymap,  named  new-keymap.   If a keymap
                     already has that name, it is deleted.  If  an  old-keymap
                     name  is  given,  the  new  keymap is initialized to be a
                     duplicate of it, otherwise the new keymap will be  empty.

              To  use  a  newly  created  keymap, it should be linked to main.
              Hence the sequence of commands to create and use  a  new  keymap
              `mymap'   initialized  from  the  emacs  keymap  (which  remains
              unchanged) is:

                     bindkey -N mymap emacs
                     bindkey -A mymap main

              Note that while `bindkey -A newmap main' will work  when  newmap
              is emacs or viins, it will not work for vicmd, as switching from
              vi insert to command mode becomes impossible.

              The following operations act on the `main' keymap if  no  keymap
              selection option was given:

              -m     Add the built-in set of meta-key bindings to the selected
                     keymap.   Only  keys  that  are  unbound  or   bound   to
                     self-insert are affected.

              -r in-string ...
                     Unbind  the  specified in-strings in the selected keymap.
                     This is exactly equivalent  to  binding  the  strings  to
                     undefined-key.

                     When -R is also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

                     When -p is also used, the  in-strings  specify  prefixes.
                     Any binding that has the given in-string as a prefix, not
                     including the binding for the in-string itself,  if  any,
                     will be removed.  For example,

                            bindkey -rpM viins '^['

                     will  remove  all bindings in the vi-insert keymap begin-
                     ning with an escape character (probably cursor keys), but
                     leave the binding for the escape character itself (proba-
                     bly vi-cmd-mode).  This is incompatible with  the  option
                     -R.

              -s in-string out-string ...
                     Bind  each  in-string to each out-string.  When in-string
                     is typed, out-string will be pushed back and  treated  as
                     input  to  the line editor.  When -R is also used, inter-
                     pret the in-strings as ranges.

              in-string command ...
                     Bind each in-string to each command.  When  -R  is  used,
                     interpret the in-strings as ranges.

              [ in-string ]
                     List  key  bindings.   If  an in-string is specified, the
                     binding of that string in the  selected  keymap  is  dis-
                     played.   Otherwise,  all  key  bindings  in the selected
                     keymap are displayed.  (As a special case, if the  -e  or
                     -v  option  is  used alone, the keymap is not displayed -
                     the implicit linking of keymaps is the  only  thing  that
                     happens.)

                     When  the  option  -p  is  used,  the  in-string  must be
                     present.  The listing shows all bindings which  have  the
                     given  key  sequence as a prefix, not including any bind-
                     ings for the key sequence itself.

                     When the -L option is used, the list is in  the  form  of
                     bindkey commands to create the key bindings.

       When  the  -R  option is used as noted above, a valid range consists of
       two characters, with an optional  `-'  between  them.   All  characters
       between the two specified, inclusive, are bound as specified.

       For  either in-string or out-string, the following escape sequences are
       recognised:

       \a     bell character
       \b     backspace
       \e, \E escape
       \f     form feed
       \n     linefeed (newline)
       \r     carriage return
       \t     horizontal tab
       \v     vertical tab
       \NNN   character code in octal
       \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
       \M[-]X character with meta bit set
       \C[-]X control character
       ^X     control character

       In all other cases, `\' escapes the  following  character.   Delete  is
       written  as  `^?'.   Note  that `\M^?' and `^\M?' are not the same, and
       that (unlike emacs), the bindings `\M-X' and `\eX'  are  entirely  dis-
       tinct,  although  they are initialized to the same bindings by `bindkey
       -m'.

       vared [ -Aache ] [ -p prompt ] [ -r rprompt ]
         [ -M main-keymap ] [ -m vicmd-keymap ]
         [ -t tty ] name
              The value of the parameter name is loaded into the edit  buffer,
              and  the line editor is invoked.  When the editor exits, name is
              set to the string value returned by the  editor.   When  the  -c
              flag  is  given,  the parameter is created if it doesn't already
              exist.  The -a flag may be given with  -c  to  create  an  array
              parameter,  or  the  -A flag to create an associative array.  If
              the type of an existing parameter does not match the type to  be
              created, the parameter is unset and recreated.

              If an array or array slice is being edited, separator characters
              as defined in $IFS will be shown quoted  with  a  backslash,  as
              will  backslashes  themselves.  Conversely, when the edited text
              is split into an array, a backslash quotes an  immediately  fol-
              lowing  separator  character or backslash; no other special han-
              dling of backslashes, or any handling of quotes, is performed.

              Individual elements  of  existing  array  or  associative  array
              parameters may be edited by using subscript syntax on name.  New
              elements are created automatically, even without -c.

              If the -p flag is given, the following string will be  taken  as
              the prompt to display at the left.  If the -r flag is given, the
              following string gives the prompt to display at the  right.   If
              the  -h flag is specified, the history can be accessed from ZLE.
              If the -e flag is given, typing ^D (Control-D) on an empty  line
              causes vared to exit immediately with a non-zero return value.

              The  -M  option gives a keymap to link to the main keymap during
              editing, and the -m option gives a keymap to link to  the  vicmd
              keymap during editing.  For vi-style editing, this allows a pair
              of keymaps to override viins and vicmd.  For  emacs-style  edit-
              ing,  only  -M is normally needed but the -m option may still be
              used.  On exit, the previous keymaps will be restored.

              If `-t tty' is given, tty is the name of a terminal device to be
              used  instead of the default /dev/tty.  If tty does not refer to
              a terminal an error is reported.

       zle
       zle -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ... ]
       zle -D widget ...
       zle -A old-widget new-widget
       zle -N widget [ function ]
       zle -C widget completion-widget function
       zle -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
       zle -M string
       zle -U string
       zle -K keymap
       zle -F [ -L ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
       zle -I
       zle -T [ tc function | -r tc | -L ]
       zle widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
              The zle builtin performs a number of different actions  concern-
              ing ZLE.

              With no options and no arguments, only the return status will be
              set.  It is zero if ZLE is currently active and widgets could be
              invoked using this builtin command and non-zero otherwise.  Note
              that even if non-zero status  is  returned,  zle  may  still  be
              active  as  part  of  the completion system; this does not allow
              direct calls to ZLE widgets.

              Otherwise, which operation it performs depends on its options:

              -l [ -L | -a ]
                     List all existing user-defined widgets.  If the -L option
                     is  used,  list in the form of zle commands to create the
                     widgets.

                     When combined with the -a option, all  widget  names  are
                     listed,  including  the builtin ones. In this case the -L
                     option is ignored.

                     If at least one string is given, and -a is present or  -L
                     is  not used, nothing will be printed.  The return status
                     will be zero if all strings are names of existing widgets
                     and  non-zero  if  at least one string is not a name of a
                     defined widget.  If -a is also present, all widget  names
                     are  used  for  the comparison including builtin widgets,
                     else only user-defined widgets are used.

                     If at least one string is present and the  -L  option  is
                     used, user-defined widgets matching any string are listed
                     in the form of zle commands to create the widgets.

              -D widget ...
                     Delete the named widgets.

              -A old-widget new-widget
                     Make the new-widget name an alias for old-widget, so that
                     both  names  refer  to  the  same widget.  The names have
                     equal standing; if either is deleted, the other  remains.
                     If there is already a widget with the new-widget name, it
                     is deleted.

              -N widget [ function ]
                     Create a user-defined widget.  If there is already a wid-
                     get with the specified name, it is overwritten.  When the
                     new widget is invoked from within the editor, the  speci-
                     fied  shell  function  is called.  If no function name is
                     specified, it defaults to the same name  as  the  widget.
                     For  further information, see the section Widgets in zsh-
       zle(1).

              -C widget completion-widget function
                     Create a user-defined completion widget named widget. The
                     completion  widget  will behave like the built-in comple-
                     tion-widget whose name is given as completion-widget.  To
                     generate  the  completions,  the  shell function function
                     will be called.  For further  information,  see  zshcomp-
       wid(1).

              -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
                     Redisplay  the  command  line;  this is to be called from
                     within a user-defined widget to allow changes  to  become
                     visible.   If  a  display-string  is given and not empty,
                     this is shown in the status line (immediately  below  the
                     line being edited).

                     If  the  optional strings are given they are listed below
                     the prompt in  the  same  way  as  completion  lists  are
                     printed.  If  no  strings  are given but the -c option is
                     used such a list is cleared.

                     Note that this option is only useful for widgets that  do
                     not  exit  immediately after using it because the strings
                     displayed will be erased immediately  after  return  from
                     the widget.

                     This  command  can  safely be called outside user defined
                     widgets; if zle is active, the display will be refreshed,
                     while  if  zle  is not active, the command has no effect.
                     In this case there will usually be no other arguments.

                     The status is zero if zle was active, else one.

              -M string
                     As with the -R option, the string will be displayed below
                     the  command  line; unlike the -R option, the string will
                     not be put into the  status  line  but  will  instead  be
                     printed  normally  below the prompt.  This means that the
                     string will still be displayed after the  widget  returns
                     (until it is overwritten by subsequent commands).

              -U string
                     This  pushes  the characters in the string onto the input
                     stack of ZLE.  After the widget currently  executed  fin-
                     ishes  ZLE will behave as if the characters in the string
                     were typed by the user.

                     As ZLE uses a stack, if this option  is  used  repeatedly
                     the  last  string pushed onto the stack will be processed
                     first.  However, the characters in each  string  will  be
                     processed  in  the  order  in  which  they  appear in the
                     string.

              -K keymap
                     Selects the keymap named keymap.  An error  message  will
                     be displayed if there is no such keymap.

                     This  keymap selection affects the interpretation of fol-
                     lowing keystrokes within this  invocation  of  ZLE.   Any
                     following  invocation  (e.g., the next command line) will
                     start as usual with the `main' keymap selected.

              -F [ -L ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
                     Only available if your system supports one of the  `poll'
                     or `select' system calls; most modern systems do.

                     Installs handler (the name of a shell function) to handle
                     input from file descriptor fd.  When zle is attempting to
                     read data, it will examine both the terminal and the list
                     of handled fd's.  If data becomes available on a  handled
                     fd,  zle will call handler with the fd which is ready for
                     reading as the only argument.  If  the  handler  produces
                     output  to  the  terminal, it should call `zle -I' before
                     doing so (see below).  The handler should not attempt  to
                     read  from  the terminal.  Note that zle makes no attempt
                     to check  whether  this  fd  is  actually  readable  when
                     installing  the  handler.   The  user must make their own
                     arrangements for handling the file descriptor when zle is
                     not active.

                     Any  number  of  handlers for any number of readable file
                     descriptors may be installed.  Installing a  handler  for
                     an  fd  which is already handled causes the existing han-
                     dler to be replaced.

                     If no handler is given, but an fd is present, any handler
                     for  that fd is removed.  If there is none, an error mes-
                     sage is printed and status 1 is returned.

                     If no arguments are given, or the -L option is  supplied,
                     a  list  of  handlers  is  printed in a form which can be
                     stored for later execution.

                     An fd (but not a handler) may optionally  be  given  with
                     the  -L  option; in this case, the function will list the
                     handler if any, else silently return status 1.

                     Note that this feature should be used with care.   Activ-
                     ity  on one of the fd's which is not properly handled can
                     cause the terminal to become unusable.

                     Here is a simple example of using this feature.   A  con-
                     nection  to  a  remote TCP port is created using the ztcp
                     command; see the description of the zsh/net/tcp module in
                     zshmodules(1).   Then a handler is installed which simply
                     prints out any data which  arrives  on  this  connection.
                     Note that `select' will indicate that the file descriptor
                     needs handling if the remote side has closed the  connec-
                     tion; we handle that by testing for a failed read.
                            if ztcp pwspc 2811; then
                              tcpfd=$REPLY
                              handler() {
                                zle -I
                                local line
                                if ! read -r line <&$1; then
                                  # select marks this fd if we reach EOF,
                                  # so handle this specially.
                                  print "[Read on fd $1 failed, removing.]" >&2
                                  zle -F $1
                                  return 1
                                fi
                                print -r - $line
                              }
                              zle -F $tcpfd handler
                            fi

              -I     Unusually,  this  option  is most useful outside ordinary
                     widget functions, though it may be used within if  normal
                     output  to  the terminal is required.  It invalidates the
                     current zle display in preparation for output;  typically
                     this  will  be from a trap function.  It has no effect if
                     zle is not active.  When a trap exits, the  shell  checks
                     to  see if the display needs restoring, hence the follow-
                     ing will print output in such a way as not to disturb the
                     line being edited:

                            TRAPUSR1() {
                                # Invalidate zle display
                              [[ -o zle ]] && zle -I
                                # Show output
                              print Hello
                            }

                     In  general,  the  trap function may need to test whether
                     zle is active before using this method (as shown  in  the
                     example),  since  the  zsh/zle  module  may  not  even be
                     loaded; if it is not, the command can be skipped.

                     It is possible to call `zle -I' several times before con-
                     trol  is returned to the editor; the display will only be
                     invalidated the first time to minimise disruption.

                     Note that there are normally better ways of  manipulating
                     the  display  from  within zle widgets; see, for example,
                     `zle -R' above.

                     The returned status is zero if zle was invalidated,  even
                     though  this may have been by a previous call to `zle -I'
                     or by a system notification.  To test if a zle widget may
                     be  called  at  this point, execute zle with no arguments
                     and examine the return status.

              -T     This is used to add, list or remove internal  transforma-
                     tions on the processing performed by the line editor.  It
                     is typically used only for debugging or  testing  and  is
                     therefore of little interest to the general user.

                     `zle  -T  transformation  func'  specifies that the given
                     transformation (see below) is effected by shell  function
                     func.

                     `zle -Tr transformation' removes the given transformation
                     if it was present (it is not an error if none was).

                     `zle -TL' can be used to list  all  transformations  cur-
                     rently in operation.

                     Currently  the  only  transformation is tc.  This is used
                     instead of outputting  termcap  codes  to  the  terminal.
                     When  the  transformation is in operation the shell func-
                     tion is passed the termcap code that would be  output  as
                     its  first  argument; if the operation required a numeric
                     argument, that is passed as a second argument.  The func-
                     tion  should  set  the shell variable REPLY to the trans-
                     formed termcap code.  Typically this is used  to  produce
                     some  simply  formatted  version of the code and optional
                     argument for debugging or testing.  Note that this trans-
                     formation is not applied to other non-printing characters
                     such as carriage returns and newlines.

              widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
                     Invoke the specified widget.  This can only be done  when
                     ZLE   is   active;   normally   this  will  be  within  a
                     user-defined widget.

                     With the options -n and -N, the current  numerical  argu-
                     ment  will  be  saved and then restored after the call to
                     widget; `-n num' sets the numerical argument  temporarily
                     to  num,  while  `-N'  sets it to the default, i.e. as if
                     there were none.

                     With the option -K, keymap will be used  as  the  current
                     keymap  during the execution of the widget.  The previous
                     keymap will be restored when the widget exits.

                     Normally, calling a widget in this way does not  set  the
                     special  parameter WIDGET and related parameters, so that
                     the environment appears as if the top-level widget called
                     by  the user were still active.  With the option -w, WID-
                     GET and related parameters are set to reflect the  widget
                     being executed by the zle call.

                     Any  further arguments will be passed to the widget; note
                     that as standard argument handling is performed, any gen-
                     eral  argument list should be preceded by --.  If it is a
                     shell function,  these  are  passed  down  as  positional
                     parameters; for builtin widgets it is up to the widget in
                     question what it does with them.  Currently arguments are
                     only handled by the incremental-search commands, the his-
                     tory-search-forward and -backward and  the  corresponding
                     functions prefixed by vi-, and by universal-argument.  No
                     error is flagged if the command does not  use  the  argu-
                     ments, or only uses some of them.

                     The  return status reflects the success or failure of the
                     operation carried out by  the  widget,  or  if  it  is  a
                     user-defined  widget the return status of the shell func-
                     tion.

                     A non-zero return status causes the shell  to  beep  when
                     the  widget  exits,  unless the BEEP options was unset or
                     the widget was called via the zle  command.   Thus  if  a
                     user defined widget requires an immediate beep, it should
                     call the beep widget directly.



WIDGETS

       All actions in the editor are performed by `widgets'.  A  widget's  job
       is  simply  to  perform  some  small action.  The ZLE commands that key
       sequences in keymaps are bound to are in fact widgets.  Widgets can  be
       user-defined or built in.

       The  standard  widgets  built  into  ZLE are listed in Standard Widgets
       below.  Other built-in widgets can be defined  by  other  modules  (see
       zshmodules(1)).  Each built-in widget has two names: its normal canoni-
       cal name, and the same name preceded by a `.'.  The `.'  name  is  spe-
       cial: it can't be rebound to a different widget.  This makes the widget
       available even when its usual name has been redefined.

       User-defined widgets are defined using `zle  -N',  and  implemented  as
       shell  functions.  When the widget is executed, the corresponding shell
       function is executed, and can perform editing (or other)  actions.   It
       is recommended that user-defined widgets should not have names starting
       with `.'.


USER-DEFINED WIDGETS

       User-defined widgets, being implemented as shell functions, can execute
       any  normal  shell  command.   They can also run other widgets (whether
       built-in or user-defined) using the zle builtin command.  The  standard
       input of the function is closed to prevent external commands from unin-
       tentionally blocking ZLE by reading from the terminal, but read  -k  or
       read  -q can be used to read characters.  Finally, they can examine and
       edit the ZLE buffer being edited by reading  and  setting  the  special
       parameters described below.

       These  special parameters are always available in widget functions, but
       are not in any way special outside ZLE.  If they have some normal value
       outside  ZLE,  that  value is temporarily inaccessible, but will return
       when the widget function exits.  These special parameters in fact  have
       local scope, like parameters created in a function using local.

       Inside  completion  widgets and traps called while ZLE is active, these
       parameters are available read-only.

       BUFFER (scalar)
              The entire contents of the edit buffer.  If it  is  written  to,
              the  cursor remains at the same offset, unless that would put it
              outside the buffer.

       BUFFERLINES (integer)
              The number of screen lines needed for the edit buffer  currently
              displayed  on  screen (i.e. without any changes to the preceding
              parameters done after the last redisplay); read-only.

       CONTEXT (scalar)
              The context in which zle was called to read a  line;  read-only.
              One of the values:
       start  The start of a command line (at prompt PS1).

       cont   A continuation to a command line (at prompt PS2).

       select In a select loop.

       vared  Editing a variable in vared.

       CURSOR (integer)
              The  offset  of  the cursor, within the edit buffer.  This is in
              the  range  0  to  $#BUFFER,  and  is  by  definition  equal  to
              $#LBUFFER.   Attempts to move the cursor outside the buffer will
              result in the cursor being moved to the appropriate end  of  the
              buffer.

       CUTBUFFER (scalar)
              The  last item cut using one of the `kill-' commands; the string
              which the next yank would insert in the line.  Later entries  in
              the  kill ring are in the array killring.  Note that the command
              `zle copy-region-as-kill string' can be used to set the text  of
              the  cut buffer from a shell function and cycle the kill ring in
              the same way as interactively killing text.

       HISTNO (integer)
              The current history number.  Setting this has the same effect as
              moving  up  or  down in the history to the corresponding history
              line.  An attempt to set it is ignored if the line is not stored
              in  the  history.   Note  this  is not the same as the parameter
              HISTCMD, which always gives the number of the history line being
              added  to  the  main shell's history.  HISTNO refers to the line
              being retrieved within zle.

       KEYMAP (scalar)
              The name of the currently selected keymap; read-only.

       KEYS (scalar)
              The keys typed to invoke  this  widget,  as  a  literal  string;
              read-only.

       killring (array)
              The  array  of  previously  killed items, with the most recently
              killed first.  This gives the items that would be retrieved by a
              yank-pop  in  the  same  order.   Note,  however,  that the most
              recently killed item is in $CUTBUFFER; $killring shows the array
              of previous entries.

              The  default size for the kill ring is eight, however the length
              may be changed by normal array operations.  Any empty string  in
              the kill ring is ignored by the yank-pop command, hence the size
              of the array effectively sets the maximum  length  of  the  kill
              ring,  while  the  number  of non-zero strings gives the current
              length, both as seen by the user at the command line.

       LASTABORTEDSEARCH (scalar)
              The last search string used by an interactive  search  that  was
              aborted by the user (status 3 returned by the search widget).

       LASTSEARCH (scalar)
              The last search string used by an interactive search; read-only.
              This is set even if the search failed (status 0, 1 or 2 returned
              by the search widget), but not if it was aborted by the user.

       LASTWIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the last widget that was executed; read-only.

       LBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to the left of the cursor posi-
              tion.  If it is assigned to, only that part  of  the  buffer  is
              replaced,  and  the  cursor remains between the new $LBUFFER and
              the old $RBUFFER.

       MARK (integer)
              Like CURSOR, but for the mark.

       NUMERIC (integer)
              The numeric argument. If no numeric  argument  was  given,  this
              parameter  is  unset. When this is set inside a widget function,
              builtin widgets called with the zle builtin command will use the
              value assigned. If it is unset inside a widget function, builtin
              widgets called behave as if no numeric argument was given.

       PENDING (integer)
              The number of bytes pending for input, i.e. the number of  bytes
              which  have  already  been typed and can immediately be read. On
              systems where the shell is not able  to  get  this  information,
              this parameter will always have a value of zero.  Read-only.

       PREBUFFER (scalar)
              In  a  multi-line  input at the secondary prompt, this read-only
              parameter contains the contents of the lines before the one  the
              cursor is currently in.

       PREDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text  to  be  displayed  before  the  start of the editable text
              buffer.  This does not have to be a complete line; to display  a
              complete  line, a newline must be appended explicitly.  The text
              is reset on each new invocation (but not  recursive  invocation)
              of zle.

       POSTDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text  to be displayed after the end of the editable text buffer.
              This does not have to be a complete line; to display a  complete
              line, a newline must be prepended explicitly.  The text is reset
              on each new invocation (but not recursive invocation) of zle.

       RBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to  the  right  of  the  cursor
              position.  If it is assigned to, only that part of the buffer is
              replaced, and the cursor remains between the  old  $LBUFFER  and
              the new $RBUFFER.

       REGION_ACTIVE (integer)
              Indicates if the region is currently active.  It can be assigned
              0 or 1 to deactivate and activate the region  respectively;  see
              Character Highlighting below.

       region_highlight (array)
              Each element of this array may be set to a string that describes
              highlighting for an arbitrary region of the  command  line  that
              will  take effect the next time the command line is redisplayed.
              Highlighting of the non-editable parts of the  command  line  in
              PREDISPLAY  and  POSTDISPLAY  are  possible, but note that the P
              flag is needed for character indexing to include PREDISPLAY.

              Each string consists of the following parts:

              Optionally, a `P' to signify that the start and end offset that
                     follow include any string set by the  PREDISPLAY  special
                     parameter; this is needed if the predisplay string itself
                     is to be highlighted.  Whitespace may follow the `P'.
              A start offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.
              An end offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.
              A highlight specification in the same format as
                     used for contexts in  the  parameter  zle_highlight,  see
                     Character  Highlighting  below;  for example, standout or
                     fg=red,bold.

              For example,

                     region_highlight=("P0 20 bold")

              specifies that the first twenty characters of the text including
              any predisplay string should be highlighted in bold.

              Note that the effect of region_highlight is not saved and disap-
              pears as soon as the line is accepted.

       UNDO_CHANGE_NO (integer)
              A number representing the state of the undo history.   The  only
              use  of  this  is  passing  as an argument to the undo widget in
              order to undo back to the recorded point.  Read-only.

       WIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the widget currently being executed; read-only.

       WIDGETFUNC (scalar)
              The name of the shell function that implements a widget  defined
              with  either  zle -N or zle -C.  In the former case, this is the
              second argument to the zle -N command that defined  the  widget,
              or  the  first argument if there was no second argument.  In the
              latter case this is the third argument to  the  zle  -C  command
              that defined the widget.  Read-only.

       WIDGETSTYLE (scalar)
              Describes  the  implementation behind the completion widget cur-
              rently being executed; the second argument that followed zle  -C
              when the widget was defined.  This is the name of a builtin com-
              pletion widget.  For widgets defined with zle -N this is set  to
              the empty string.  Read-only.

       ZLE_STATE (scalar)
              Contains  a  set of space-separated words that describe the cur-
              rent zle state.

              Currently, the states shown are the insert mode as  set  by  the
              overwrite-mode  or  vi-replace  widgets and whether history com-
              mands  will  visit  imported  entries  as  controlled   by   the
              set-local-history widget.  The string contains `insert' if char-
              acters to be inserted on the command line move existing  charac-
              ters  to  the  right or `overwrite' if characters to be inserted
              overwrite existing characters.  It  contains  `localhistory'  if
              only  local  history commands will be visited or `globalhistory'
              if imported history commands will also be visited.

              The substrings are sorted in alphabetical order so that  if  you
              want  to test for two specific substrings in a future-proof way,
              you can do match by doing:

                     if [[ $ZLE_STATE == *insert*globalhistory* ]]; then ...; fi


   Special Widgets
       There are a few user-defined widgets which are special  to  the  shell.
       If they do not exist, no special action is taken.  The environment pro-
       vided is identical to that for any other editing widget.

       zle-isearch-exit
              Executed at the end of incremental search at the point where the
              isearch    prompt    is   removed   from   the   display.    See
              zle-isearch-update for an example.

       zle-isearch-update
              Executed within incremental search when the display is about  to
              be  redrawn.   Additional  output  below  the incremental search
              prompt can be generated by using `zle  -M'  within  the  widget.
              For example,

                     zle-isearch-update() { zle -M "Line $HISTNO"; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-update

              Note  the  line  output  by `zle -M' is not deleted on exit from
              incremental search.  This can be done  from  a  zle-isearch-exit
              widget:

                     zle-isearch-exit() { zle -M ""; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-exit

       zle-line-init
              Executed  every  time  the  line editor is started to read a new
              line of input.  The following example puts the line editor  into
              vi command mode when it starts up.

                     zle-line-init() { zle -K vicmd; }
                     zle -N zle-line-init

              (The command inside the function sets the keymap directly; it is
              equivalent to zle vi-cmd-mode.)

       zle-line-finish
              This is similar to zle-line-init but is executed every time  the
              line editor has finished reading a line of input.

       zle-history-line-set
              Executed when the history line changes.

       zle-keymap-select
              Executed every time the keymap changes, i.e. the special parame-
              ter KEYMAP is set to a different value, while the line editor is
              active.   Initialising  the  keymap  when the line editor starts
              does not cause the widget to be called.

              The value $KEYMAP within the function reflects the  new  keymap.
              The old keymap is passed as the sole argument.

              This  can  be used for detecting switches between the vi command
              (vicmd) and insert (usually main) keymaps.



STANDARD WIDGETS

       The following is a list of all the standard widgets, and their  default
       bindings  in  emacs  mode,  vi  command  mode  and  vi insert mode (the
       `emacs', `vicmd' and `viins' keymaps, respectively).

       Note that cursor keys are bound to movement keys in all three  keymaps;
       the  shell assumes that the cursor keys send the key sequences reported
       by the  terminal-handling  library  (termcap  or  terminfo).   The  key
       sequences  shown  in  the  list are those based on the VT100, common on
       many modern terminals, but in fact these are not necessarily bound.  In
       the  case  of  the  viins  keymap,  the initial escape character of the
       sequences serves also to return to the vicmd keymap: whether this  hap-
       pens is determined by the KEYTIMEOUT parameter, see zshparam(1).

   Movement
       vi-backward-blank-word (unbound) (B) (unbound)
              Move  backward  one word, where a word is defined as a series of
              non-blank characters.

       backward-char (^B ESC-[D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move backward one character.

       vi-backward-char (unbound) (^H h ^?) (ESC-[D)
              Move backward one character, without changing lines.

       backward-word (ESC-B ESC-b) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       emacs-backward-word
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       vi-backward-word (unbound) (b) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word, vi-style.

       beginning-of-line (^A) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the  beginning
              of the line, move to the beginning of the previous line, if any.

       vi-beginning-of-line
              Move to the beginning of the line, without changing lines.

       end-of-line (^E) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the line,
              move to the end of the next line, if any.

       vi-end-of-line (unbound) ($) (unbound)
              Move  to  the  end of the line.  If an argument is given to this
              command, the cursor will be moved to the end of the line  (argu-
              ment - 1) lines down.

       vi-forward-blank-word (unbound) (W) (unbound)
              Move  forward  one  word, where a word is defined as a series of
              non-blank characters.

       vi-forward-blank-word-end (unbound) (E) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the current word, or, if at the  end  of  the
              current  word,  to  the  end  of  the next word, where a word is
              defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       forward-char (^F ESC-[C) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-forward-char (unbound) (space l) (ESC-[C)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-find-next-char (^X^F) (f) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the next  occur-
              rence of it in the line.

       vi-find-next-char-skip (unbound) (t) (unbound)
              Read  a  character  from  the keyboard, and move to the position
              just before the next occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char (unbound) (F) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and  move  to  the  previous
              occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char-skip (unbound) (T) (unbound)
              Read  a  character  from  the keyboard, and move to the position
              just after the previous occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-first-non-blank (unbound) (^) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character in the line.

       vi-forward-word (unbound) (w) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, vi-style.

       forward-word (ESC-F ESC-f) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the next word.  The editor's idea of  a
              word is specified with the WORDCHARS parameter.

       emacs-forward-word
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-forward-word-end (unbound) (e) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-goto-column (ESC-|) (|) (unbound)
              Move to the column specified by the numeric argument.

       vi-goto-mark (unbound) (`) (unbound)
              Move to the specified mark.

       vi-goto-mark-line (unbound) (') (unbound)
              Move to beginning of the line containing the specified mark.

       vi-repeat-find (unbound) (;) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command.

       vi-rev-repeat-find (unbound) (,) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command in the opposite direction.

   History Control
       beginning-of-buffer-or-history (ESC-<) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move  to  the beginning of the buffer, or if already there, move
              to the first event in the history list.

       beginning-of-line-hist
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the  beginning
              of the buffer, move to the previous history line.

       beginning-of-history
              Move to the first event in the history list.

       down-line-or-history (^N ESC-[B) (j) (ESC-[B)
              Move  down  a  line  in  the buffer, or if already at the bottom
              line, move to the next event in the history list.

       vi-down-line-or-history (unbound) (+) (unbound)
              Move down a line in the buffer, or  if  already  at  the  bottom
              line,  move to the next event in the history list.  Then move to
              the first non-blank character on the line.

       down-line-or-search
              Move down a line in the buffer, or  if  already  at  the  bottom
              line,  search  forward  in the history for a line beginning with
              the first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first  argument  is  taken  as  the  string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       down-history (unbound) (^N) (unbound)
              Move to the next event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-backward
              Search backward in the history for a  line  beginning  with  the
              current  line  up  to the cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its
              original position.

       end-of-buffer-or-history (ESC->) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the buffer, or if already there, move to  the
              last event in the history list.

       end-of-line-hist
              Move  to  the  end  of  the  line.  If already at the end of the
              buffer, move to the next history line.

       end-of-history
              Move to the last event in the history list.

       vi-fetch-history (unbound) (G) (unbound)
              Fetch the history line specified by the numeric argument.   This
              defaults  to  the  current history line (i.e. the one that isn't
              history yet).

       history-incremental-search-backward (^R ^Xr) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search backward  incrementally  for  a  specified  string.   The
              search  is  case-insensitive  if the search string does not have
              uppercase letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string
              may  begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the
              line.  When called from a user-defined function returns the fol-
              lowing  statuses:  0,  if the search succeeded; 1, if the search
              failed; 2, if the search term was  a  bad  pattern;  3,  if  the
              search was aborted by the send-break command.

              A  restricted  set  of  editing  functions  is  available in the
              mini-buffer.  Keys are looked up in the special isearch  keymap,
              and  if not found there in the main keymap (note that by default
              the isearch keymap is empty).  An interrupt signal,  as  defined
              by  the  stty  setting,  will stop the search and go back to the
              original line.  An undefined key  will  have  the  same  effect.
              Note  that  the  following  always  perform the same task within
              incremental searches and cannot be replaced by user defined wid-
              gets,  nor  can the set of functions be extended.  The supported
              functions are:

              accept-and-hold
              accept-and-infer-next-history
              accept-line
              accept-line-and-down-history
                     Perform the  usual  function  after  exiting  incremental
                     search.  The command line displayed is executed.

              backward-delete-char
              vi-backward-delete-char
                     Back  up  one place in the search history.  If the search
                     has been repeated this does not immediately erase a char-
                     acter in the minibuffer.

              accept-search
                     Exit  incremental  search, retaining the command line but
                     performing no further action.  Note that this function is
                     not  bound by default and has no effect outside incremen-
                     tal search.

              backward-delete-word
              backward-kill-word
              vi-backward-kill-word
                     Back up one character  in  the  minibuffer;  if  multiple
                     searches  have  been  performed  since  the character was
                     inserted the search history is rewound to the point  just
                     before  the  character  was  entered.  Hence this has the
                     effect of repeating backward-delete-char.

              clear-screen
                     Clear the screen, remaining in incremental search mode.

              history-incremental-search-backward
                     Find  the  next  occurrence  of  the  contents   of   the
                     mini-buffer.

              history-incremental-search-forward
                     Invert the sense of the search.

              magic-space
                     Inserts a non-magical space.

              quoted-insert
              vi-quoted-insert
                     Quote the character to insert into the minibuffer.

              redisplay
                     Redisplay  the  command  line,  remaining  in incremental
                     search mode.

              vi-cmd-mode
                     Toggle between the `main' and `vicmd' keymaps; the `main'
                     keymap (insert mode) will be selected initially.

              vi-repeat-search
              vi-rev-repeat-search
                     Repeat  the search.  The direction of the search is indi-
                     cated in the mini-buffer.

              Any character that is not bound to one of the  above  functions,
              or  self-insert or self-insert-unmeta, will cause the mode to be
              exited.  The character is then looked up  and  executed  in  the
              keymap in effect at that point.

              When  called  from  a  widget  function  by the zle command, the
              incremental search commands can take a  string  argument.   This
              will  be  treated  as  a string of keys, as for arguments to the
              bindkey command, and used as initial input for the command.  Any
              characters  in  the  string  which are unused by the incremental
              search will be silently ignored.  For example,

                     zle history-incremental-search-backward forceps

              will search backwards for forceps, leaving the  minibuffer  con-
              taining the string `forceps'.

       history-incremental-search-forward (^S ^Xs) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search forward incrementally for a specified string.  The search
              is case-insensitive if the search string does not have uppercase
              letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string may begin
              with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.  The
              functions  available in the mini-buffer are the same as for his-
              tory-incremental-search-backward.

       history-incremental-pattern-search-backward
       history-incremental-pattern-search-forward
              These widgets behave similarly to the corresponding widgets with
              no  -pattern, but the search string typed by the user is treated
              as a pattern, respecting the current  settings  of  the  various
              options  affecting pattern matching.  See FILENAME GENERATION in
              zshexpn(1) for a description of patterns.  If no  numeric  argu-
              ment  was given lowercase letters in the search string may match
              uppercase letters in the history.  The string may begin with `^'
              to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.

              The prompt changes to indicate an invalid pattern; this may sim-
              ply indicate the pattern is not yet complete.

              Note that only  non-overlapping  matches  are  reported,  so  an
              expression  with  wildcards  may  return fewer matches on a line
              than are visible by inspection.

       history-search-backward (ESC-P ESC-p) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search backward in the history for a  line  beginning  with  the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as  the  string  for  which  to  search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-backward (unbound) (/) (unbound)
              Search  backward  in  the  history  for a specified string.  The
              string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the  beginning
              of the line.

              A  restricted  set  of  editing  functions  is  available in the
              mini-buffer.  An interrupt signal, as defined by the  stty  set-
              ting,   will  stop  the  search.  The functions available in the
              mini-buffer  are:  accept-line,  backward-delete-char,  vi-back-
              ward-delete-char,   backward-kill-word,   vi-backward-kill-word,
              clear-screen, redisplay, quoted-insert and vi-quoted-insert.

              vi-cmd-mode is treated the same as accept-line, and  magic-space
              is treated as a space.  Any other character that is not bound to
              self-insert or self-insert-unmeta will beep and be  ignored.  If
              the function is called from vi command mode, the bindings of the
              current insert mode will be used.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first  argument  is  taken  as  the  string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       history-search-forward (ESC-N ESC-n) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search forward in the history for  a  line  beginning  with  the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as  the  string  for  which  to  search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-forward (unbound) (?) (unbound)
              Search  forward  in  the  history  for  a specified string.  The
              string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the  beginning
              of  the line. The functions available in the mini-buffer are the
              same as for vi-history-search-backward.   Argument  handling  is
              also the same as for that command.

       infer-next-history (^X^N) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  in  the history list for a line matching the current one
              and fetch the event following it.

       insert-last-word (ESC-_ ESC-.) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the last word from the previous history event at the cur-
              sor  position.   If a positive numeric argument is given, insert
              that word from the end of the previous history  event.   If  the
              argument  is  zero  or  negative  insert that word from the left
              (zero inserts the previous command word).  Repeating  this  com-
              mand replaces the word just inserted with the last word from the
              history event prior to the one just used; numeric arguments  can
              be used in the same way to pick a word from that event.

              When  called  from  a shell function invoked from a user-defined
              widget, the command can take one to three arguments.  The  first
              argument  specifies a history offset which applies to successive
              calls to this widget: if it is  -1,  the  default  behaviour  is
              used,  while  if  it  is  1, successive calls will move forwards
              through the history.  The value 0 can be used to  indicate  that
              the  history line examined by the previous execution of the com-
              mand will be reexamined.  Note that negative numbers  should  be
              preceded  by  a  `--'  argument  to  avoid  confusing  them with
              options.

              If two arguments are given, the second specifies the word on the
              command  line  in normal array index notation (as a more natural
              alternative to the prefix argument).  Hence 1 is the first word,
              and -1 (the default) is the last word.

              If  a  third  argument is given, its value is ignored, but it is
              used to signify that the history offset is relative to the  cur-
              rent history line, rather than the one remembered after the pre-
              vious invocations of insert-last-word.

              For example, the default behaviour of the command corresponds to

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 -1

              while the command

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 1 -

              always  copies the first word of the line in the history immedi-
              ately before the line being edited.  This has  the  side  effect
              that  later  invocations  of the widget will be relative to that
              line.

       vi-repeat-search (unbound) (n) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search.

       vi-rev-repeat-search (unbound) (N) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search, but in reverse.

       up-line-or-history (^P ESC-[A) (k) (ESC-[A)
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already  at  the  top  line,
              move to the previous event in the history list.

       vi-up-line-or-history (unbound) (-) (unbound)
              Move  up  a  line  in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              move to the previous event in the history list.   Then  move  to
              the first non-blank character on the line.

       up-line-or-search
              Move  up  a  line  in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              search backward in the history for a  line  beginning  with  the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as  the  string  for  which  to  search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       up-history (unbound) (^P) (unbound)
              Move to the previous event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-forward
              Search forward in the history for a line beginning with the cur-
              rent line up to the cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its orig-
              inal position.

       set-local-history
              By  default,  history movement commands visit the imported lines
              as well as the local lines. This widget lets you toggle this  on
              and  off,  or  set  it  with the numeric argument. Zero for both
              local and imported lines and nonzero for only local lines.

   Modifying Text
       vi-add-eol (unbound) (A) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-add-next (unbound) (a) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode after the  current  cursor  position,  without
              changing lines.

       backward-delete-char (^H ^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-delete-char (unbound) (X) (^H)
              Delete  the character behind the cursor, without changing lines.
              If in insert mode, this won't delete past the point where insert
              mode was last entered.

       backward-delete-word
              Delete the word behind the cursor.

       backward-kill-line
              Kill from the beginning of the line to the cursor position.

       backward-kill-word (^W ESC-^H ESC-^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the word behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-kill-word (unbound) (unbound) (^W)
              Kill  the  word  behind the cursor, without going past the point
              where insert mode was last entered.

       capitalize-word (ESC-C ESC-c) (unbound) (unbound)
              Capitalize the current word and move past it.

       vi-change (unbound) (c) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard,  and  kill  from  the
              cursor  position  to  the  endpoint of the movement.  Then enter
              insert mode.  If the command is vi-change,  change  the  current
              line.

       vi-change-eol (unbound) (C) (unbound)
              Kill to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-change-whole-line (unbound) (S) (unbound)
              Kill the current line and enter insert mode.

       copy-region-as-kill (ESC-W ESC-w) (unbound) (unbound)
              Copy the area from the cursor to the mark to the kill buffer.

              If   called  from  a  ZLE  widget  function  in  the  form  `zle
              copy-region-as-kill string' then string will  be  taken  as  the
              text  to  copy to the kill buffer.  The cursor, the mark and the
              text on the command line are not used in this case.

       copy-prev-word (ESC-^_) (unbound) (unbound)
              Duplicate the word to the left of the cursor.

       copy-prev-shell-word
              Like copy-prev-word, but the word is found by using shell  pars-
              ing,  whereas copy-prev-word looks for blanks. This makes a dif-
              ference when the word is quoted and contains spaces.

       vi-delete (unbound) (d) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard,  and  kill  from  the
              cursor position to the endpoint of the movement.  If the command
              is vi-delete, kill the current line.

       delete-char
              Delete the character under the cursor.

       vi-delete-char (unbound) (x) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor, without  going  past  the
              end of the line.

       delete-word
              Delete the current word.

       down-case-word (ESC-L ESC-l) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all lowercase and move past it.

       kill-word (ESC-D ESC-d) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current word.

       gosmacs-transpose-chars
              Exchange the two characters behind the cursor.

       vi-indent (unbound) (>) (unbound)
              Indent a number of lines.

       vi-insert (unbound) (i) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode.

       vi-insert-bol (unbound) (I) (unbound)
              Move  to  the  first  non-blank  character on the line and enter
              insert mode.

       vi-join (^X^J) (J) (unbound)
              Join the current line with the next one.

       kill-line (^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.  If already on  the
              end of the line, kill the newline character.

       vi-kill-line (unbound) (unbound) (^U)
              Kill  from  the  cursor  back  to  wherever insert mode was last
              entered.

       vi-kill-eol (unbound) (D) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.

       kill-region
              Kill from the cursor to the mark.

       kill-buffer (^X^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the entire buffer.

       kill-whole-line (^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current line.

       vi-match-bracket (^X^B) (%) (unbound)
              Move to the bracket character (one of {}, () or []) that matches
              the  one  under  the  cursor.  If the cursor is not on a bracket
              character, move forward without going past the end of  the  line
              to find one, and then go to the matching bracket.

       vi-open-line-above (unbound) (O) (unbound)
              Open a line above the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-open-line-below (unbound) (o) (unbound)
              Open a line below the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-oper-swap-case
              Read  a movement command from the keyboard, and swap the case of
              all characters from the cursor position to the endpoint  of  the
              movement.   If  the  movement command is vi-oper-swap-case, swap
              the case of all characters on the current line.

       overwrite-mode (^X^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Toggle between overwrite mode and insert mode.

       vi-put-before (unbound) (P) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer before  the  cursor.   If
              the  kill  buffer  contains  a  sequence of lines (as opposed to
              characters), paste it above the current line.

       vi-put-after (unbound) (p) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer after the cursor.  If the
              kill  buffer contains a sequence of lines (as opposed to charac-
              ters), paste it below the current line.

       quoted-insert (^V) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the next character typed into the buffer  literally.   An
              interrupt character will not be inserted.

       vi-quoted-insert (unbound) (unbound) (^Q ^V)
              Display  a `^' at the cursor position, and insert the next char-
              acter typed into the buffer literally.  An  interrupt  character
              will not be inserted.

       quote-line (ESC-') (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote  the  current  line;  that  is, put a `'' character at the
              beginning and the end, and convert all `'' characters to `'\'''.

       quote-region (ESC-") (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote the region from the cursor to the mark.

       vi-replace (unbound) (R) (unbound)
              Enter overwrite mode.

       vi-repeat-change (unbound) (.) (unbound)
              Repeat  the last vi mode text modification.  If a count was used
              with the modification, it is remembered.  If a count is given to
              this  command,  it overrides the remembered count, and is remem-
              bered for future uses of this command.  The cut buffer  specifi-
              cation is similarly remembered.

       vi-replace-chars (unbound) (r) (unbound)
              Replace  the  character  under  the cursor with a character read
              from the keyboard.

       self-insert (printable characters) (unbound) (printable characters  and
       some control characters)
              Insert a character into the buffer at the cursor position.

       self-insert-unmeta (ESC-^I ESC-^J ESC-^M) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert a character into the buffer after stripping the meta  bit
              and converting ^M to ^J.

       vi-substitute (unbound) (s) (unbound)
              Substitute the next character(s).

       vi-swap-case (unbound) (~) (unbound)
              Swap  the  case  of the character under the cursor and move past
              it.

       transpose-chars (^T) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the two characters to the left of the cursor if at  end
              of  line,  else exchange the character under the cursor with the
              character to the left.

       transpose-words (ESC-T ESC-t) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the current word with the one before it.

       vi-unindent (unbound) (<) (unbound)
              Unindent a number of lines.

       up-case-word (ESC-U ESC-u) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all caps and move past it.

       yank (^Y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer at the cursor position.

       yank-pop (ESC-y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Remove the text just yanked, rotate the kill-ring  (the  history
              of  previously  killed  text)  and yank the new top.  Only works
              following yank or yank-pop.

       vi-yank (unbound) (y) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and copy  the  region
              from  the  cursor  position to the endpoint of the movement into
              the kill buffer.  If the command is vi-yank,  copy  the  current
              line.

       vi-yank-whole-line (unbound) (Y) (unbound)
              Copy the current line into the kill buffer.

       vi-yank-eol
              Copy  the region from the cursor position to the end of the line
              into the kill buffer.  Arguably, this is what Y should do in vi,
              but it isn't what it actually does.

   Arguments
       digit-argument (ESC-0..ESC-9) (1-9) (unbound)
              Start  a  new  numeric argument, or add to the current one.  See
              also vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line.  This only works if bound to
              a key sequence ending in a decimal digit.

              Inside  a  widget  function,  a call to this function treats the
              last key of the key sequence which  called  the  widget  as  the
              digit.

       neg-argument (ESC--) (unbound) (unbound)
              Changes the sign of the following argument.

       universal-argument
              Multiply  the argument of the next command by 4.  Alternatively,
              if this command is followed by an  integer  (positive  or  nega-
              tive), use that as the argument for the next command.  Thus dig-
              its cannot be repeated using this command.  For example, if this
              command occurs twice, followed immediately by forward-char, move
              forward sixteen spaces; if instead it is followed  by  -2,  then
              forward-char, move backward two spaces.

              Inside  a widget function, if passed an argument, i.e. `zle uni-
              versal-argument num', the numerical argument will be set to num;
              this is equivalent to `NUMERIC=num'.

       argument-base
              Use  the existing numeric argument as a numeric base, which must
              be  in  the  range  2  to  36  inclusive.   Subsequent  use   of
              digit-argument and universal-argument will input a new prefix in
              the given base.  The usual hexadecimal convention is  used:  the
              letter  a or A corresponds to 10, and so on.  Arguments in bases
              requiring digits from 10 upwards  are  more  conveniently  input
              with  universal-argument, since ESC-a etc. are not usually bound
              to digit-argument.

              The function can be  used  with  a  command  argument  inside  a
              user-defined widget.  The following code sets the base to 16 and
              lets the user input a hexadecimal argument until a  key  out  of
              the digit range is typed:

                     zle argument-base 16
                     zle universal-argument

   Completion
       accept-and-menu-complete
              In  a  menu  completion,  insert the current completion into the
              buffer, and advance to the next possible completion.

       complete-word
              Attempt completion on the current word.

       delete-char-or-list (^D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor.  If the cursor is at  the
              end of the line, list possible completions for the current word.

       expand-cmd-path
              Expand the current command to its full pathname.

       expand-or-complete (TAB) (unbound) (TAB)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current  word.   If  that  fails,
              attempt completion.

       expand-or-complete-prefix
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word up to cursor.

       expand-history (ESC-space ESC-!) (unbound) (unbound)
              Perform history expansion on the edit buffer.

       expand-word (^X*) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.

       list-choices (ESC-^D) (^D =) (^D)
              List possible completions for the current word.

       list-expand (^Xg ^XG) (^G) (^G)
              List the expansion of the current word.

       magic-space
              Perform  history  expansion  and insert a space into the buffer.
              This is intended to be bound to space.

       menu-complete
              Like complete-word, except that menu completion  is  used.   See
              the MENU_COMPLETE option.

       menu-expand-or-complete
              Like expand-or-complete, except that menu completion is used.

       reverse-menu-complete
              Perform  menu  completion,  like menu-complete, except that if a
              menu completion is already in progress,  move  to  the  previous
              completion rather than the next.

       end-of-list
              When  a  previous  completion displayed a list below the prompt,
              this widget can be used to move the prompt below the list.

   Miscellaneous
       accept-and-hold (ESC-A ESC-a) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the contents of the buffer on the buffer stack and  execute
              it.

       accept-and-infer-next-history
              Execute  the  contents  of  the buffer.  Then search the history
              list for a line matching the current one and push the event fol-
              lowing onto the buffer stack.

       accept-line (^J ^M) (^J ^M) (^J ^M)
              Finish  editing  the buffer.  Normally this causes the buffer to
              be executed as a shell command.

       accept-line-and-down-history (^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Execute the current line, and push the next history event on the
              buffer stack.

       auto-suffix-remove
              If  the  previous  action added a suffix (space, slash, etc.) to
              the word on the command line, remove it.  Otherwise do  nothing.
              Removing  the  suffix  ends  any  active menu completion or menu
              selection.

              This widget is intended to be called from  user-defined  widgets
              to enforce a desired suffix-removal behavior.

       auto-suffix-retain
              If  the  previous  action added a suffix (space, slash, etc.) to
              the word on the command line, force it to be preserved.   Other-
              wise do nothing.  Retaining the suffix ends any active menu com-
              pletion or menu selection.

              This widget is intended to be called from  user-defined  widgets
              to enforce a desired suffix-preservation behavior.

       beep   Beep, unless the BEEP option is unset.

       vi-cmd-mode (^X^V) (unbound) (^[)
              Enter  command  mode;  that is, select the `vicmd' keymap.  Yes,
              this is bound by default in emacs mode.

       vi-caps-lock-panic
              Hang until any lowercase key is pressed.  This is for  vi  users
              without the mental capacity to keep track of their caps lock key
              (like the author).

       clear-screen (^L ESC-^L) (^L) (^L)
              Clear the screen and redraw the prompt.

       describe-key-briefly
              Reads a key sequence, then prints the  function  bound  to  that
              sequence.

       exchange-point-and-mark (^X^X) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange  the  cursor  position (point) with the position of the
              mark.  Unless a negative prefix argument is  given,  the  region
              between  point  and  mark  is  activated so that it can be high-
              lighted.  If a zero prefix argument  is  given,  the  region  is
              activated but point and mark are not swapped.

       execute-named-cmd (ESC-x) (:) (unbound)
              Read the name of an editor command and execute it.  A restricted
              set of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.   Keys
              are  looked  up  in the special command keymap, and if not found
              there in the main keymap.  An interrupt signal,  as  defined  by
              the  stty  setting, will abort the function.  Note that the fol-
              lowing  always  perform  the   same   task   within   the   exe-
              cuted-named-cmd  environment  and  cannot  be  replaced  by user
              defined widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended.   The
              allowed    functions    are:    backward-delete-char,   vi-back-
              ward-delete-char,   clear-screen,   redisplay,    quoted-insert,
              vi-quoted-insert,   backward-kill-word,   vi-backward-kill-word,
              kill-whole-line, vi-kill-line, backward-kill-line, list-choices,
              delete-char-or-list,  complete-word, accept-line, expand-or-com-
              plete and expand-or-complete-prefix.

              kill-region kills the last word, and vi-cmd-mode is treated  the
              same as accept-line.  The space and tab characters, if not bound
              to one of these functions, will complete the name and then  list
              the  possibilities  if  the  AUTO_LIST option is set.  Any other
              character that is not bound to self-insert or self-insert-unmeta
              will  beep  and  be ignored.  The bindings of the current insert
              mode will be used.

              Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       execute-last-named-cmd (ESC-z) (unbound) (unbound)
              Redo the last function executed with execute-named-cmd.

              Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       get-line (ESC-G ESC-g) (unbound) (unbound)
              Pop the top line off the buffer stack and insert it at the  cur-
              sor position.

       pound-insert (unbound) (#) (unbound)
              If  there  is no # character at the beginning of the buffer, add
              one to the beginning of each line.  If there is one, remove a  #
              from each line that has one.  In either case, accept the current
              line.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for  this  to
              have any usefulness.

       vi-pound-insert
              If there is no # character at the beginning of the current line,
              add one.  If there is one, remove it.  The  INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS
              option must be set for this to have any usefulness.

       push-input
              Push  the  entire  current  multiline  construct onto the buffer
              stack and return to the top-level (PS1) prompt.  If the  current
              parser  construct  is  only  a single line, this is exactly like
              push-line.  Next time the editor starts up  or  is  popped  with
              get-line, the construct will be popped off the top of the buffer
              stack and loaded into the editing buffer.

       push-line (^Q ESC-Q ESC-q) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the current buffer onto the  buffer  stack  and  clear  the
              buffer.   Next  time  the  editor  starts up, the buffer will be
              popped off the top of the buffer stack and loaded into the edit-
              ing buffer.

       push-line-or-edit
              At  the  top-level  (PS1) prompt, equivalent to push-line.  At a
              secondary (PS2) prompt, move the entire current  multiline  con-
              struct  into  the  editor  buffer.   The latter is equivalent to
              push-input followed by get-line.

       read-command
              Only useful from a user-defined widget.   A  keystroke  is  read
              just  as  in  normal operation, but instead of the command being
              executed the name of the  command  that  would  be  executed  is
              stored  in  the  shell parameter REPLY.  This can be used as the
              argument of a future zle command.  If the key  sequence  is  not
              bound, status 1 is returned; typically, however, REPLY is set to
              undefined-key to indicate a useless key sequence.

       recursive-edit
              Only useful from a user-defined widget.  At this  point  in  the
              function,  the  editor regains control until one of the standard
              widgets which would normally cause zle  to  exit  (typically  an
              accept-line  caused  by  hitting  the  return  key) is executed.
              Instead, control returns to the user-defined widget.  The status
              returned  is  non-zero if the return was caused by an error, but
              the function still continues executing and hence  may  tidy  up.
              This makes it safe for the user-defined widget to alter the com-
              mand line or key bindings temporarily.

              The following widget, caps-lock, serves as an example.
                     self-insert-ucase() {
                       LBUFFER+=${(U)KEYS[-1]}
                     }

                     integer stat

                     zle -N self-insert self-insert-ucase
                     zle -A caps-lock save-caps-lock
                     zle -A accept-line caps-lock

                     zle recursive-edit
                     stat=$?

                     zle -A .self-insert self-insert
                     zle -A save-caps-lock caps-lock
                     zle -D save-caps-lock

                     (( stat )) && zle send-break

                     return $stat
              This causes typed  letters  to  be  inserted  capitalised  until
              either  accept-line  (i.e. typically the return key) is typed or
              the caps-lock widget is invoked again; the later is  handled  by
              saving  the  old  definition  of caps-lock as save-caps-lock and
              then rebinding it to invoke accept-line.   Note  that  an  error
              from  the recursive edit is detected as a non-zero return status
              and propagated by using the send-break widget.

       redisplay (unbound) (^R) (^R)
              Redisplays the edit buffer.

       reset-prompt (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Force the prompts on both the left and right of the screen to be
              re-expanded,  then  redisplay  the  edit  buffer.  This reflects
              changes both to the prompt variables themselves and  changes  in
              the  expansion  of  the  values (for example, changes in time or
              directory, or changes to the value of variables referred  to  by
              the prompt).

              Otherwise, the prompt is only expanded each time zle starts, and
              when the display as been interrupted by output from another part
              of  the shell (such as a job notification) which causes the com-
              mand line to be reprinted.

       send-break (^G ESC-^G) (unbound) (unbound)
              Abort the current editor function,  e.g.  execute-named-command,
              or  the editor itself, e.g. if you are in vared. Otherwise abort
              the parsing of the current line; in this case the  aborted  line
              is available in the shell variable ZLE_LINE_ABORTED.

       run-help (ESC-H ESC-h) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push  the  buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command
              `run-help cmd', where cmd is the current command.   run-help  is
              normally aliased to man.

       vi-set-buffer (unbound) (") (unbound)
              Specify a buffer to be used in the following command.  There are
              35 buffers that can be specified: the 26 `named' buffers  "a  to
              "z  and  the  nine `queued' buffers "1 to "9.  The named buffers
              can also be specified as "A to "Z.

              When a buffer is specified for a cut command, the text being cut
              replaces  the  previous  contents of the specified buffer.  If a
              named buffer is specified using a capital, the newly cut text is
              appended to the buffer instead of overwriting it.

              If no buffer is specified for a cut command, "1 is used, and the
              contents of "1 to "8 are each shifted along one buffer; the con-
              tents of "9 is lost.

       vi-set-mark (unbound) (m) (unbound)
              Set the specified mark at the cursor position.

       set-mark-command (^@) (unbound) (unbound)
              Set  the mark at the cursor position.  If called with a negative
              prefix argument, do not set the mark but deactivate  the  region
              so  that  it  is  no  longer highlighted (it is still usable for
              other purposes).  Otherwise the region is marked as active.

       spell-word (ESC-$ ESC-S ESC-s) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt spelling correction on the current word.

       undefined-key
              This command is executed when a key sequence that is  not  bound
              to any command is typed.  By default it beeps.

       undo (^_ ^Xu ^X^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Incrementally undo the last text modification.  When called from
              a user-defined widget, takes an optional argument  indicating  a
              previous   state   of  the  undo  history  as  returned  by  the
              UNDO_CHANGE_NO variable; modifications  are  undone  until  that
              state is reached.

       redo   Incrementally redo undone text modifications.

       vi-undo-change (unbound) (u) (unbound)
              Undo  the last text modification.  If repeated, redo the modifi-
              cation.

       what-cursor-position (^X=) (unbound) (unbound)
              Print the character under the cursor, its code as an octal, dec-
              imal  and hexadecimal number, the current cursor position within
              the buffer and the column of the cursor in the current line.

       where-is
              Read the name of an editor command and print the listing of  key
              sequences  that  invoke the specified command.  A restricted set
              of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.  Keys  are
              looked  up in the special command keymap, and if not found there
              in the main keymap.

       which-command (ESC-?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute  the  command
              `which-command   cmd'.   where   cmd  is  the  current  command.
              which-command is normally aliased to whence.

       vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line (unbound) (0) (unbound)
              If the last command executed was a digit as part of an argument,
              continue the argument.  Otherwise, execute vi-beginning-of-line.



CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING

       The line editor has the ability to highlight characters or  regions  of
       the  line  that  have a particular significance.  This is controlled by
       the array parameter zle_highlight, if it has been set by the user.

       If the parameter contains the single entry  none  all  highlighting  is
       turned off.  Note the parameter is still expected to be an array.

       Otherwise each entry of the array should consist of a word indicating a
       context for highlighting, then a colon, then a comma-separated list  of
       the types of highlighting to apply in that context.

       The contexts available for highlighting are the following:

       default
              Any text within the command line not affected by any other high-
              lighting.  Text outside the editable area of the command line is
              not affected.

       isearch
              When  one  of  the incremental history search widgets is active,
              the area of the command line matched by  the  search  string  or
              pattern.

       region The  region  between the cursor (point) and the mark as set with
              set-mark-command.  The region  is  only  highlighted  if  it  is
              active,    which    is   the   case   if   set-mark-command   or
              exchange-point-and-mark has been called and  the  line  has  not
              been  subsequently  modified.   The region can be deactivated by
              calling set-mark-command with a  negative  prefix  argument,  or
              reactivated  by calling exchange-point-and-mark with a zero pre-
              fix argument.  Note that whether or not the region is active has
              no  effect  on  its  use  within  widgets,  it simply determines
              whether it is highlighted.

       special
              Individual characters that have no direct printable  representa-
              tion  but  are  shown  in  a  special manner by the line editor.
              These characters are described below.

       suffix This context is used  in  completion  for  characters  that  are
              marked  as  suffixes that will be removed if the completion ends
              at that point, the most obvious example being a slash (/)  after
              a directory name.  Note that suffix removal is configurable; the
              circumstances under which the suffix will be removed may  differ
              for different completions.

       zle_highlight  may contain additional fields for controlling how termi-
       nal sequences to change colours are output.  Each of the  following  is
       followed  by a colon and a string in the same form as for key bindings.
       This will not be necessary for the vast majority of  terminals  as  the
       defaults shown in parentheses are widely used.

       fg_start_code (\e[3)
              The  start  of  the  escape  sequence for the foreground colour.
              This is followed by an ASCII digit representing the colour.

       fg_default_code (9)
              The number to use instead of the colour  to  reset  the  default
              foreground colour.

       fg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.

       bg_start_code (\e[4)
              The  start  of  the  escape  sequence for the background colour.
              This is followed by an ASCII digit representing the colour.

       bg_default_code (9)
              The number to use instead of the colour  to  reset  the  default
              background colour.

       bg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the background colour.

       The  available  types of highlighting are the following.  Note that not
       all types of highlighting are available on all terminals:

       none   No highlighting is applied to the given context.  It is not use-
              ful  for  this to appear with other types of highlighting; it is
              used to override a default.

       fg=colour
              The foreground colour should be set to colour, a decimal integer
              or the name of one of the eight most widely-supported colours.

              Not  all  terminals  support this and, of those that do, not all
              provide facilities to test the support, hence  the  user  should
              decide  based  on the terminal type.  Most terminals support the
              colours black, red,  green,  yellow,  blue,  magenta,  cyan  and
              white,  which  can  be set by name.  In addition. default may be
              used to set the terminal's default foreground colour.  Abbrevia-
              tions  are  allowed;  b or bl selects black.  Some terminals may
              generate additional  colours  if  the  bold  attribute  is  also
              present.

              On  recent  terminals and on systems with an up-to-date terminal
              database the number of colours supported may be  tested  by  the
              command  `echotc  Co'; if this succeeds, it indicates a limit on
              the number of colours which will be enforced by the line editor.
              The  number  of  colours is in any case limited to 256 (i.e. the
              range 0 to 255).

              Colour is also known as color.

       bg=colour
              The background colour should be set to colour.  This works simi-
              larly  to  the  foreground  colour, except the background is not
              usually affected by the bold attribute.

       bold   The characters in the given context are shown in  a  bold  font.
              Not all terminals distinguish bold fonts.

       standout
              The  characters in the given context are shown in the terminal's
              standout mode.  The actual effect is specific to  the  terminal;
              on  many terminals it is inverse video.  On some such terminals,
              where the cursor does not blink it appears  with  standout  mode
              negated, making it less than clear where the cursor actually is.
              On such terminals one of the other effects may be preferable for
              highlighting the region and matched search string.

       underline
              The  characters in the given context are shown underlined.  Some
              terminals show the foreground in a different colour instead;  in
              this case whitespace will not be highlighted.

       The  characters  described above as `special' are as follows.  The for-
       matting described here is used irrespective of whether  the  characters
       are highlighted:

       ASCII control characters
              Control  characters in the ASCII range are shown as `^' followed
              by the base character.

       Unprintable multibyte characters
              This item applies to control characters not in the ASCII  range,
              plus other characters as follows.  If the MULTIBYTE option is in
              effect, multibyte characters not in the ASCII character set that
              are reported as having zero width are treated as combining char-
              acters when the option COMBINING_CHARS is on.  If the option  is
              off,  or  if  a character appears where a combining character is
              not valid, the character is treated as unprintable.

              Unprintable multibyte characters are shown as a hexadecimal num-
              ber between angle brackets.  The number is the code point of the
              character in the wide character set; this may or may not be Uni-
              code, depending on the operating system.

       Invalid multibyte characters
              If  the  MULTIBYTE  option  is in effect, any sequence of one or
              more bytes that does not form a valid character in  the  current
              character  set  is  treated as a series of bytes each shown as a
              special character.  This case can be  distinguished  from  other
              unprintable characters as the bytes are represented as two hexa-
              decimal digits between angle brackets, as distinct from the four
              or  eight  digits  that are used for unprintable characters that
              are nonetheless valid in the current character set.

              Not all systems support this: for it to work, the system's  rep-
              resentation of wide characters must be code values from the Uni-
              versal Character Set, as defined by IS0  10646  (also  known  as
              Unicode).

       Wrapped double-width characters
              When  a  double-width character appears in the final column of a
              line, it is instead shown on the next line. The empty space left
              in  the original position is highlighted as a special character.

       If zle_highlight is not set or no value applies to  a  particular  con-
       text, the defaults applied are equivalent to

              zle_highlight=(region:standout special:standout
              suffix:bold isearch:underline)

       i.e. both the region and special characters are shown in standout mode.

       Within widgets, arbitrary regions may be  highlighted  by  setting  the
       special array parameter region_highlight; see above.




ZSHCOMPWID(1)                                                    ZSHCOMPWID(1)




NAME

       zshcompwid - zsh completion widgets


DESCRIPTION

       The shell's programmable completion mechanism can be manipulated in two
       ways; here the low-level features supporting the newer,  function-based
       mechanism  are  defined.   A  complete  set of shell functions based on
       these features is described in zshcompsys(1), and users with no  inter-
       est in adding to that system (or, potentially, writing their own -- see
       dictionary entry for `hubris') should skip the  current  section.   The
       older  system based on the compctl builtin command is described in zsh-
       compctl(1).

       Completion widgets are defined by the -C option to the zle builtin com-
       mand provided by the zsh/zle module (see zshzle(1)). For example,

              zle -C complete expand-or-complete completer

       defines  a widget named `complete'.  The second argument is the name of
       any of the builtin  widgets  that  handle  completions:  complete-word,
       expand-or-complete,      expand-or-complete-prefix,      menu-complete,
       menu-expand-or-complete,   reverse-menu-complete,   list-choices,    or
       delete-char-or-list.  Note that this will still work even if the widget
       in question has been re-bound.

       When this newly defined widget is bound to  a  key  using  the  bindkey
       builtin  command  defined in the zsh/zle module (see zshzle(1)), typing
       that key will call the shell function  `completer'.  This  function  is
       responsible  for  generating  the  possible  matches using the builtins
       described below.  As with other ZLE widgets,  the  function  is  called
       with its standard input closed.

       Once the function returns, the completion code takes over control again
       and treats the matches in the same manner as the specified builtin wid-
       get, in this case expand-or-complete.




COMPLETION SPECIAL PARAMETERS

       The  parameters  ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS and ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS are
       used by the completion mechanism, but are not special.  See  Parameters
       Used By The Shell in zshparam(1).

       Inside  completion  widgets,  and  any functions called from them, some
       parameters have special meaning; outside these functions they  are  not
       special  to  the  shell  in any way.  These parameters are used to pass
       information between the completion code and the completion widget. Some
       of  the builtin commands and the condition codes use or change the cur-
       rent values of these parameters.  Any existing values  will  be  hidden
       during  execution  of  completion  widgets;  except  for compstate, the
       parameters are reset on each function exit (including  nested  function
       calls  from  within  the completion widget) to the values they had when
       the function was entered.

       CURRENT
              This is the number of the current word, i.e. the word the cursor
              is  currently  on  in  the words array.  Note that this value is
              only correct if the ksharrays option is not set.

       IPREFIX
              Initially this will be set to the empty string.  This  parameter
              functions  like  PREFIX; it contains a string which precedes the
              one in PREFIX and is not considered part of the list of matches.
              Typically,  a string is transferred from the beginning of PREFIX
              to the end of IPREFIX, for example:

                     IPREFIX=${PREFIX%%\=*}=
                     PREFIX=${PREFIX#*=}

              causes the part of the prefix up  to  and  including  the  first
              equal  sign not to be treated as part of a matched string.  This
              can be done automatically by the compset builtin, see below.

       ISUFFIX
              As IPREFIX, but for a suffix that should not be considered  part
              of  the matches; note that the ISUFFIX string follows the SUFFIX
              string.

       PREFIX Initially this will be set to the part of the current word  from
              the  beginning  of the word up to the position of the cursor; it
              may be altered to give a common prefix for all matches.

       QIPREFIX
              This parameter is read-only and contains the quoted string up to
              the  word  being  completed.  E.g.  when completing `"foo', this
              parameter contains the double quote. If the -q option of compset
              is used (see below), and the original string was `"foo bar' with
              the cursor on the `bar', this parameter contains `"foo '.

       QISUFFIX
              Like QIPREFIX, but containing the suffix.

       SUFFIX Initially this will be set to the part of the current word  from
              the cursor position to the end; it may be altered to give a com-
              mon suffix for all matches.  It is most useful when  the  option
              COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set, as otherwise the whole word on the com-
              mand line is treated as a prefix.

       compstate
              This is an associative array with various keys and  values  that
              the  completion  code uses to exchange information with the com-
              pletion widget.  The keys are:

              all_quotes
                     The -q option of the compset builtin command (see  below)
                     allows  a quoted string to be broken into separate words;
                     if the cursor is on one of those words, that word will be
                     completed,  possibly  invoking  `compset -q' recursively.
                     With this key it is possible to test the types of  quoted
                     strings  which  are  currently  broken into parts in this
                     fashion.  Its value contains one character for each quot-
                     ing level.  The characters are a single quote or a double
                     quote for strings quoted with these characters, a dollars
                     sign  for  strings quoted with $'...' and a backslash for
                     strings not starting with a quote character.   The  first
                     character  in  the value always corresponds to the inner-
                     most quoting level.

              context
                     This will be set by the completion code  to  the  overall
                     context in which completion is attempted. Possible values
                     are:

                     array_value
                            when completing  inside  the  value  of  an  array
                            parameter assignment; in this case the words array
                            contains the words inside the parentheses.

                     brace_parameter
                            when completing the  name  of  a  parameter  in  a
                            parameter  expansion beginning with ${.  This con-
                            text will also be set  when  completing  parameter
                            flags  following  ${(; the full command line argu-
                            ment is presented and the handler  must  test  the
                            value  to  be  completed to ascertain that this is
                            the case.

                     assign_parameter
                            when completing the  name  of  a  parameter  in  a
                            parameter assignment.

                     command
                            when  completing  for  a normal command (either in
                            command position or for an argument  of  the  com-
                            mand).

                     condition
                            when  completing  inside  a  `[[...]]' conditional
                            expression; in this case the words array  contains
                            only  the words inside the conditional expression.

                     math   when completing in a mathematical environment such
                            as a `((...))' construct.

                     parameter
                            when  completing  the  name  of  a  parameter in a
                            parameter expansion beginning with $ but not ${.

                     redirect
                            when completing after a redirection operator.

                     subscript
                            when completing inside a parameter subscript.

                     value  when completing the value of a  parameter  assign-
                            ment.

              exact  Controls  the behaviour when the REC_EXACT option is set.
                     It will be set to accept  if  an  exact  match  would  be
                     accepted, and will be unset otherwise.

                     If it was set when at least one match equal to the string
                     on the line was generated, the match is accepted.

              exact_string
                     The string of an exact match if one was found,  otherwise
                     unset.

              ignored
                     The  number  of  words  that  were  ignored  because they
                     matched one of the patterns given with the -F  option  to
                     the compadd builtin command.

              insert This  controls  the  manner  in which a match is inserted
                     into the command line.  On entry to the widget  function,
                     if  it is unset the command line is not to be changed; if
                     set to unambiguous, any prefix common to all  matches  is
                     to  be inserted; if set to automenu-unambiguous, the com-
                     mon prefix is to be inserted and the next  invocation  of
                     the completion code may start menu completion (due to the
                     AUTO_MENU option being set); if set to menu  or  automenu
                     menu completion will be started for the matches currently
                     generated (in the latter case this  will  happen  because
                     the  AUTO_MENU  is  set).  The value may also contain the
                     string `tab' when the completion code would normally  not
                     really  do completion, but only insert the TAB character.

                     On exit it may be set to any of the values  above  (where
                     setting  it  to the empty string is the same as unsetting
                     it), or to a number, in which case the match whose number
                     is  given  will be inserted into the command line.  Nega-
                     tive numbers count backward from  the  last  match  (with
                     `-1'  selecting  the  last match) and out-of-range values
                     are wrapped around, so that a value of zero  selects  the
                     last  match and a value one more than the maximum selects
                     the first. Unless the value of this key ends in a  space,
                     the match is inserted as in a menu completion, i.e. with-
                     out automatically appending a space.

                     Both menu and automenu may also specify the number of the
                     match  to  insert,  given  after  a  colon.  For example,
                     `menu:2' says to start menu  completion,  beginning  with
                     the second match.

                     Note  that  a  value containing the substring `tab' makes
                     the matches generated be ignored  and  only  the  TAB  be
                     inserted.

                     Finally,  it  may  also  be  set  to all, which makes all
                     matches generated be inserted into the line.

              insert_positions
                     When the completion system inserts an unambiguous  string
                     into the line, there may be multiple places where charac-
                     ters are missing or where the character inserted  differs
                     from  at least one match.  The value of this key contains
                     a colon separated list of all these positions, as indexes
                     into the command line.

              last_prompt
                     If  this  is  set  to  a non-empty string for every match
                     added, the completion code will move the cursor  back  to
                     the  previous  prompt  after  the list of completions has
                     been displayed.  Initially this is set or unset according
                     to the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option.

              list   This  controls whether or how the list of matches will be
                     displayed.  If it is unset or empty they  will  never  be
                     listed;  if  its value begins with list, they will always
                     be listed; if it begins with autolist or ambiguous,  they
                     will  be  listed  when  the  AUTO_LIST  or LIST_AMBIGUOUS
                     options respectively would normally cause them to be.

                     If the substring force appears in the value,  this  makes
                     the  list  be shown even if there is only one match. Nor-
                     mally, the list would be shown only if there are at least
                     two matches.

                     The   value   contains   the   substring  packed  if  the
                     LIST_PACKED option is set. If this substring is given for
                     all  matches  added  to a group, this group will show the
                     LIST_PACKED  behavior.  The  same   is   done   for   the
                     LIST_ROWS_FIRST option with the substring rows.

                     Finally,  if  the value contains the string explanations,
                     only the explanation strings, if any, will be listed  and
                     if  it  contains  messages, only the messages (added with
                     the -x option of compadd) will be listed.  If it contains
                     both  explanations and messages both kinds of explanation
                     strings will be listed.  It will be set appropriately  on
                     entry to a completion widget and may be changed there.

              list_lines
                     This gives the number of lines that are needed to display
                     the full list of completions.  Note that to calculate the
                     total number of lines to display you need to add the num-
                     ber of lines needed for the command line to  this  value,
                     this is available as the value of the BUFFERLINES special
                     parameter.

              list_max
                     Initially this is set to the value of the LISTMAX parame-
                     ter.   It  may be set to any other value; when the widget
                     exits this value will be used in  the  same  way  as  the
                     value of LISTMAX.

              nmatches
                     The  number of matches generated and accepted by the com-
                     pletion code so far.

              old_insert
                     On entry to the widget this will be set to the number  of
                     the match of an old list of completions that is currently
                     inserted into the command line.  If  no  match  has  been
                     inserted, this is unset.

                     As with old_list, the value of this key will only be used
                     if it is the string keep. If it was set to this value  by
                     the  widget  and there was an old match inserted into the
                     command line, this match will be kept and if the value of
                     the  insert  key  specifies  that another match should be
                     inserted, this will be inserted after the old one.

              old_list
                     This is set to yes if there is still a valid list of com-
                     pletions  from a previous completion at the time the wid-
                     get is invoked.  This will usually be  the  case  if  and
                     only  if  the previous editing operation was a completion
                     widget or one of the builtin  completion  functions.   If
                     there  is  a valid list and it is also currently shown on
                     the screen, the value of this key is shown.

                     After the widget has exited the value of this key is only
                     used  if it was set to keep.  In this case the completion
                     code will continue to use this old list.  If  the  widget
                     generated new matches, they will not be used.

              parameter
                     The  name of the parameter when completing in a subscript
                     or in the value of a parameter assignment.

              pattern_insert
                     Normally this is set to menu, which specifies  that  menu
                     completion  will  be  used  whenever a set of matches was
                     generated using pattern matching.  If it is  set  to  any
                     other non-empty string by the user and menu completion is
                     not selected by other  option  settings,  the  code  will
                     instead  insert  any  common  prefix  for  the  generated
                     matches as with normal completion.

              pattern_match
                     Locally controls the behaviour given by the GLOB_COMPLETE
                     option.   Initially  it  is set to `*' if and only if the
                     option is set.  The completion widget may set it to  this
                     value,  to  an empty string (which has the same effect as
                     unsetting it), or to any other non-empty string.   If  it
                     is non-empty, unquoted metacharacters on the command line
                     will be treated as patterns; if it is `*', then addition-
                     ally a wildcard `*' is assumed at the cursor position; if
                     it is empty or unset, metacharacters will be treated lit-
                     erally.

                     Note that the matcher specifications given to the compadd
                     builtin command  are  not  used  if  this  is  set  to  a
                     non-empty string.

              quote  When  completing  inside quotes, this contains the quota-
                     tion character (i.e. either  a  single  quote,  a  double
                     quote, or a backtick).  Otherwise it is unset.

              quoting
                     When  completing inside single quotes, this is set to the
                     string single; inside double quotes, the  string  double;
                     inside  backticks,  the string backtick.  Otherwise it is
                     unset.

              redirect
                     The redirection operator when completing in a redirection
                     position, i.e. one of <, >, etc.

              restore
                     This  is  set to auto before a function is entered, which
                     forces the special  parameters  mentioned  above  (words,
                     CURRENT,  PREFIX,  IPREFIX,  SUFFIX,  and  ISUFFIX) to be
                     restored to  their  previous  values  when  the  function
                     exits.    If a function unsets it or sets it to any other
                     string, they will not be restored.

              to_end Specifies the occasions on which the cursor is  moved  to
                     the  end  of a string when a match is inserted.  On entry
                     to a widget function, it may be single if this will  hap-
                     pen when a single unambiguous match was inserted or match
                     if it will happen any time a match is inserted (for exam-
                     ple,  by menu completion; this is likely to be the effect
                     of the ALWAYS_TO_END option).

                     On exit, it may be set to single as above.  It  may  also
                     be  set  to  always,  or to the empty string or unset; in
                     those cases the cursor will be moved to the  end  of  the
                     string always or never respectively.  Any other string is
                     treated as match.

              unambiguous
                     This key is read-only and will always be set to the  com-
                     mon  (unambiguous)  prefix the completion code has gener-
                     ated for all matches added so far.

              unambiguous_cursor
                     This gives the position the cursor would be placed at  if
                     the  common  prefix in the unambiguous key were inserted,
                     relative to the value of that key. The  cursor  would  be
                     placed  before the character whose index is given by this
                     key.

              unambiguous_positions
                     This contains all positions where characters in the unam-
                     biguous   string  are  missing  or  where  the  character
                     inserted differs from at least one of the  matches.   The
                     positions  are  given as indexes into the string given by
                     the value of the unambiguous key.

              vared  If completion is called while editing a  line  using  the
                     vared  builtin,  the value of this key is set to the name
                     of the parameter given as an argument to vared.  This key
                     is only set while a vared command is active.

       words  This  array  contains the words present on the command line cur-
              rently being edited.



COMPLETION BUILTIN COMMANDS

       compadd [ -akqQfenUld12C ] [ -F array ]
       [ -P prefix ] [ -S suffix ]
       [ -p hidden-prefix ] [ -s hidden-suffix ]
       [ -i ignored-prefix ] [ -I ignored-suffix ]
       [ -W file-prefix ] [ -d array ]
       [ -J name ] [ -V name ] [ -X explanation ] [ -x message ]
       [ -r remove-chars ] [ -R remove-func ]
       [ -D array ] [ -O array ] [ -A array ]
       [ -E number ]
       [ -M match-spec ] [ -- ] [ words ... ]

              This builtin command can be used to  add  matches  directly  and
              control all the information the completion code stores with each
              possible match. The return status is zero if at least one  match
              was added and non-zero if no matches were added.

              The  completion  code  breaks  the string to complete into seven
              fields in the order:

                     <ipre><apre><hpre><word><hsuf><asuf><isuf>

              The first field is an ignored  prefix  taken  from  the  command
              line,  the  contents  of  the  IPREFIX parameter plus the string
              given with the -i option. With the -U option,  only  the  string
              from the -i option is used. The field <apre> is an optional pre-
              fix string given with the -P option.   The  <hpre>  field  is  a
              string  that is considered part of the match but that should not
              be shown when listing completions, given with the -p option; for
              example,  functions  that do filename generation might specify a
              common path prefix this way.  <word> is the part  of  the  match
              that  should  appear in the list of completions, i.e. one of the
              words given at the end of the compadd command line. The suffixes
              <hsuf>,  <asuf>  and  <isuf>  correspond to the prefixes <hpre>,
              <apre> and <ipre> and are given by the options -s,  -S  and  -I,
              respectively.

              The supported flags are:

              -P prefix
                     This  gives  a  string  to  be  inserted before the given
                     words.  The string given is not considered as part of the
                     match  and  any  shell  metacharacters  in it will not be
                     quoted when the string is inserted.

              -S suffix
                     Like -P, but gives a string  to  be  inserted  after  the
                     match.

              -p hidden-prefix
                     This gives a string that should be inserted into the com-
                     mand line before the match but that should not appear  in
                     the  list of matches. Unless the -U option is given, this
                     string must be matched as part of the string on the  com-
                     mand line.

              -s hidden-suffix
                     Like  `-p', but gives a string to insert after the match.

              -i ignored-prefix
                     This gives a string to insert into the command line  just
                     before  any  string  given with the `-P' option.  Without
                     `-P' the string is inserted before the string given  with
                     `-p' or directly before the match.

              -I ignored-suffix
                     Like -i, but gives an ignored suffix.

              -a     With this flag the words are taken as names of arrays and
                     the possible matches are their values.  If only some ele-
                     ments  of  the arrays are needed, the words may also con-
                     tain subscripts, as in `foo[2,-1]'.

              -k     With this flag the words are taken as names  of  associa-
                     tive  arrays and the possible matches are their keys.  As
                     for -a, the words may  also  contain  subscripts,  as  in
                     `foo[(R)*bar*]'.

              -d array
                     This  adds  per-match  display  strings. The array should
                     contain one element per word given. The  completion  code
                     will  then display the first element instead of the first
                     word, and so on. The array may be given as the name of an
                     array  parameter or directly as a space-separated list of
                     words in parentheses.

                     If there are fewer display strings than words, the  left-
                     over  words  will be displayed unchanged and if there are
                     more display strings than  words,  the  leftover  display
                     strings will be silently ignored.

              -l     This  option only has an effect if used together with the
                     -d option. If it is given, the display strings are listed
                     one per line, not arrayed in columns.

              -o     This  option only has an effect if used together with the
                     -d option.  If it is given, the order of  the  output  is
                     determined  by the match strings;  otherwise it is deter-
                     mined by the display strings (i.e. the strings  given  by
                     the -d option).

              -J name
                     Gives  the  name of the group of matches the words should
                     be stored in.

              -V name
                     Like -J but naming an unsorted group. These are in a dif-
                     ferent name space than groups created with the -J flag.

              -1     If given together with the -V option, makes only consecu-
                     tive duplicates in the group be removed. If combined with
                     the  -J  option,  this  has  no visible effect. Note that
                     groups with and without this flag are in  different  name
                     spaces.

              -2     If  given  together  with  the -J or -V option, makes all
                     duplicates be kept. Again, groups with and  without  this
                     flag are in different name spaces.

              -X explanation
                     The  explanation  string will be printed with the list of
                     matches, above the group currently selected.

              -x message
                     Like -X, but the message will be printed  even  if  there
                     are no matches in the group.

              -q     The suffix given with -S will be automatically removed if
                     the next character typed is a blank or  does  not  insert
                     anything, or if the suffix consists of only one character
                     and the next character typed is the same character.

              -r remove-chars
                     This is a more versatile form of the -q option.  The suf-
                     fix  given with -S or the slash automatically added after
                     completing directories will be automatically  removed  if
                     the  next  character  typed inserts one of the characters
                     given in the remove-chars.  This string is  parsed  as  a
                     characters  class and understands the backslash sequences
                     used by the print command.   For  example,  `-r  "a-z\t"'
                     removes  the suffix if the next character typed inserts a
                     lower case character or a TAB, and  `-r  "^0-9"'  removes
                     the  suffix  if the next character typed inserts anything
                     but a digit. One extra backslash sequence  is  understood
                     in  this  string:  `\-'  stands  for  all characters that
                     insert nothing. Thus `-S "=" -q' is the same as  `-S  "="
                     -r "= \t\n\-"'.

                     This  option may also be used without the -S option; then
                     any automatically added space will be removed when one of
                     the characters in the list is typed.

              -R remove-func
                     This  is another form of the -r option. When a suffix has
                     been inserted and the completion accepted,  the  function
                     remove-func  will  be  called  after  the  next character
                     typed.  It is passed the length of the suffix as an argu-
                     ment  and  can  use  the  special parameters available in
                     ordinary (non-completion) zle widgets (see zshzle(1))  to
                     analyse and modify the command line.

              -f     If  this  flag  is  given,  all of the matches built from
                     words are marked as being the names of files.   They  are
                     not required to be actual filenames, but if they are, and
                     the option LIST_TYPES is set, the  characters  describing
                     the  types  of  the files in the completion lists will be
                     shown. This also forces a slash to be added when the name
                     of a directory is completed.

              -e     This  flag  can  be used to tell the completion code that
                     the matches added are parameter  names  for  a  parameter
                     expansion.   This  will  make  the  AUTO_PARAM_SLASH  and
                     AUTO_PARAM_KEYS options be used for the matches.

              -W file-prefix
                     This string is a pathname that will be prepended to  each
                     of  the  matches  formed by the given words together with
                     any prefix specified by the -p option to form a  complete
                     filename  for  testing.   Hence it is only useful if com-
                     bined with the -f flag, as the tests will  not  otherwise
                     be performed.

              -F array
                     Specifies  an  array  containing patterns. Words matching
                     one of these patterns are ignored, i.e. not considered to
                     be possible matches.

                     The array may be the name of an array parameter or a list
                     of literal patterns enclosed in parentheses  and  quoted,
                     as  in  `-F  "(*?.o  *?.h)"'.  If the name of an array is
                     given, the elements of the array are taken  as  the  pat-
                     terns.

              -Q     This  flag instructs the completion code not to quote any
                     metacharacters in the words when inserting them into  the
                     command line.

              -M match-spec
                     This  gives local match specifications as described below
                     in the section `Completion Matching Control'. This option
                     may   be   given  more  than  once.   In  this  case  all
                     match-specs given are concatenated  with  spaces  between
                     them  to form the specification string to use.  Note that
                     they will only be used if the -U option is not given.

              -n     Specifies that the words added are to be used as possible
                     matches, but are not to appear in the completion listing.

              -U     If this flag is given, all words given will  be  accepted
                     and no matching will be done by the completion code. Nor-
                     mally this is used in  functions  that  do  the  matching
                     themselves.

              -O array
                     If  this  option is given, the words are not added to the
                     set of possible completions.  Instead, matching  is  done
                     as  usual  and  all  of the words given as arguments that
                     match the string on the command line will  be  stored  in
                     the array parameter whose name is given as array.

              -A array
                     As  the  -O  option,  except that instead of those of the
                     words which match being stored in array, the strings gen-
                     erated  internally by the completion code are stored. For
                     example, with a matching specification of `-M  "L:|no="',
                     the string `nof' on the command line and the string `foo'
                     as one of  the  words,  this  option  stores  the  string
                     `nofoo'  in  the  array, whereas the -O option stores the
                     `foo' originally given.

              -D array
                     As with -O, the words are not added to the set of  possi-
                     ble  completions.   Instead,  the  completion  code tests
                     whether each word in turn matches what is  on  the  line.
                     If  the  nth  word does not match, the nth element of the
                     array is removed.  Elements for which  the  corresponding
                     word is matched are retained.

              -C     This  option  adds  a  special match which expands to all
                     other matches when inserted into  the  line,  even  those
                     that  are added after this option is used.  Together with
                     the -d option it is possible to  specify  a  string  that
                     should  be  displayed in the list for this special match.
                     If no string is given, it will be shown as a string  con-
                     taining  the strings that would be inserted for the other
                     matches, truncated to the width of the screen.

              -E     This option adds number empty  matches  after  the  words
                     have  been  added.  An empty match takes up space in com-
                     pletion listings but will never be inserted in  the  line
                     and can't be selected with menu completion or menu selec-
                     tion.  This makes empty matches  only  useful  to  format
                     completion  lists and to make explanatory string be shown
                     in completion lists (since empty  matches  can  be  given
                     display strings with the -d option).  And because all but
                     one empty string would otherwise be removed, this  option
                     implies  the  -V  and  -2 options (even if an explicit -J
                     option is given).

              -
              --     This flag ends the list of flags and options.  All  argu-
                     ments  after  it  will  be  taken  as the words to use as
                     matches even if they begin with hyphens.

              Except for the -M flag, if any of these flags is given more than
              once, the first one (and its argument) will be used.

       compset -p number
       compset -P [ number ] pattern
       compset -s number
       compset -S [ number ] pattern
       compset -n begin [ end ]
       compset -N beg-pat [ end-pat ]
       compset -q
              This  command simplifies modification of the special parameters,
              while its return status allows tests on them to be carried  out.

              The options are:

              -p number
                     If  the  contents  of the PREFIX parameter is longer than
                     number  characters,  the  first  number  characters   are
                     removed  from  it  and  appended  to  the contents of the
                     IPREFIX parameter.

              -P [ number ] pattern
                     If the value of the PREFIX parameter begins with anything
                     that  matches the pattern, the matched portion is removed
                     from PREFIX and appended to IPREFIX.

                     Without the optional number, the longest match is  taken,
                     but if number is given, anything up to the numberth match
                     is moved.  If the number is negative, the numberth  long-
                     est  match  is moved. For example, if PREFIX contains the
                     string `a=b=c', then  compset  -P  '*\='  will  move  the
                     string  `a=b=' into the IPREFIX parameter, but compset -P
                     1 '*\=' will move only the string `a='.

              -s number
                     As -p, but transfer the last number characters  from  the
                     value of SUFFIX to the front of the value of ISUFFIX.

              -S [ number ] pattern
                     As  -P, but match the last portion of SUFFIX and transfer
                     the matched portion to the front of the value of ISUFFIX.

              -n begin [ end ]
                     If  the current word position as specified by the parame-
                     ter CURRENT is greater than or equal to  begin,  anything
                     up  to  the  beginth word is removed from the words array
                     and the value of the parameter CURRENT is decremented  by
                     begin.

                     If  the  optional  end is given, the modification is done
                     only if the current word position is also  less  than  or
                     equal  to  end. In this case, the words from position end
                     onwards are also removed from the words array.

                     Both begin and end may be  negative  to  count  backwards
                     from the last element of the words array.

              -N beg-pat [ end-pat ]
                     If  one of the elements of the words array before the one
                     at the index given by the value of the parameter  CURRENT
                     matches  the  pattern  beg-pat,  all  elements  up to and
                     including the matching one are  removed  from  the  words
                     array and the value of CURRENT is changed to point to the
                     same word in the changed array.

                     If the optional pattern end-pat is also given, and  there
                     is  an  element in the words array matching this pattern,
                     the parameters are modified only if  the  index  of  this
                     word  is higher than the one given by the CURRENT parame-
                     ter (so that the matching word has to be after  the  cur-
                     sor).  In  this  case,  the  words  starting with the one
                     matching end-pat are also removed from the  words  array.
                     If  words  contains no word matching end-pat, the testing
                     and modification is performed as if it were not given.

              -q     The word currently being completed  is  split  on  spaces
                     into  separate  words, respecting the usual shell quoting
                     conventions.  The resulting words are stored in the words
                     array,  and CURRENT, PREFIX, SUFFIX, QIPREFIX, and QISUF-
                     FIX are modified to reflect the word part  that  is  com-
                     pleted.

              In  all  the  above  cases the return status is zero if the test
              succeeded and the parameters were modified and  non-zero  other-
              wise. This allows one to use this builtin in tests such as:

                     if compset -P '*\='; then ...

              This  forces anything up to and including the last equal sign to
              be ignored by the completion code.

       compcall [ -TD ]
              This allows the use of  completions  defined  with  the  compctl
              builtin  from  within  completion  widgets.  The list of matches
              will be generated as if one of the non-widget  completion  func-
              tions  (complete-word,  etc.)  had been called, except that only
              compctls given for specific commands are used. To force the code
              to  try completions defined with the -T option of compctl and/or
              the default completion (whether defined by  compctl  -D  or  the
              builtin  default)  in  the  appropriate places, the -T and/or -D
              flags can be passed to compcall.

              The return status can be used to test if a matching compctl def-
              inition  was  found.  It  is non-zero if a compctl was found and
              zero otherwise.

              Note that this builtin is defined by the zsh/compctl module.



COMPLETION CONDITION CODES

       The following additional condition codes for use within the [[  ...  ]]
       construct  are available in completion widgets.  These work on the spe-
       cial parameters.  All of these tests  can  also  be  performed  by  the
       compset builtin, but in the case of the condition codes the contents of
       the special parameters are not modified.

       -prefix [ number ] pattern
              true if the test for the -P option of compset would succeed.

       -suffix [ number ] pattern
              true if the test for the -S option of compset would succeed.

       -after beg-pat
              true if the test of the -N option with only  the  beg-pat  given
              would succeed.

       -between beg-pat end-pat
              true if the test for the -N option with both patterns would suc-
              ceed.



COMPLETION MATCHING CONTROL

       It is possible by use of the -M option of the compadd  builtin  command
       to  specify  how the characters in the string to be completed (referred
       to here as the command line) map onto the characters  in  the  list  of
       matches  produced by the completion code (referred to here as the trial
       completions). Note that this is not used if the command line contains a
       glob  pattern  and the GLOB_COMPLETE option is set or the pattern_match
       of the compstate special association is set to a non-empty string.

       The match-spec given as the argument to the -M option (see  `Completion
       Builtin  Commands' above) consists of one or more matching descriptions
       separated by whitespace.  Each description consists of  a  letter  fol-
       lowed  by  a  colon  and  then  the patterns describing which character
       sequences on the line match which character sequences in the trial com-
       pletion.   Any  sequence of characters not handled in this fashion must
       match exactly, as usual.

       The forms of match-spec understood are as follows. In  each  case,  the
       form  with  an  upper case initial character retains the string already
       typed on the command line as the final result of completion, while with
       a  lower  case  initial  character  the  string  on the command line is
       changed into the corresponding part of the trial completion.

       m:lpat=tpat
       M:lpat=tpat
              Here, lpat is a pattern that matches on the command line, corre-
              sponding to tpat which matches in the trial completion.

       l:lanchor|lpat=tpat
       L:lanchor|lpat=tpat
       l:lanchor||ranchor=tpat
       L:lanchor||ranchor=tpat
       b:lpat=tpat
       B:lpat=tpat
              These letters are for patterns that are anchored by another pat-
              tern on the left side. Matching for lpat and tpat is  as  for  m
              and  M, but the pattern lpat matched on the command line must be
              preceded by the pattern lanchor.  The lanchor can  be  blank  to
              anchor the match to the start of the command line string; other-
              wise the anchor can occur anywhere, but must match in  both  the
              command line and trial completion strings.

              If  no  lpat  is  given  but  a ranchor is, this matches the gap
              between substrings matched by lanchor and ranchor.  Unlike  lan-
              chor,  the  ranchor  only  needs  to  match the trial completion
              string.

              The b and B forms are similar to l and L with an  empty  anchor,
              but  need to match only the beginning of the trial completion or
              the word on the command line, respectively.

       r:lpat|ranchor=tpat
       R:lpat|ranchor=tpat
       r:lanchor||ranchor=tpat
       R:lanchor||ranchor=tpat
       e:lpat=tpat
       E:lpat=tpat
              As l, L, b and B, with the difference that the command line  and
              trial  completion patterns are anchored on the right side.  Here
              an empty ranchor and the e and E forms force the  match  to  the
              end of the trial completion or command line string.

       Each  lpat,  tpat  or anchor is either an empty string or consists of a
       sequence of literal characters (which may be quoted with a  backslash),
       question marks, character classes, and correspondence classes; ordinary
       shell patterns are not used.  Literal characters match only themselves,
       question marks match any character, and character classes are formed as
       for globbing and match any character in the given set.

       Correspondence classes are defined like character classes, but with two
       differences:  they  are  delimited  by  a  pair  of braces, and negated
       classes are not allowed, so the characters !  and  ^  have  no  special
       meaning  directly  after the opening brace.  They indicate that a range
       of characters on the line match a range of characters in the trial com-
       pletion,  but  (unlike  ordinary character classes) paired according to
       the corresponding position in the sequence.  For example, to  make  any
       ASCII  lower case letter on the line match the corresponding upper case
       letter in the trial completion, you can use  `m:{a-z}={A-Z}'  (however,
       see  below  for  the recommended form for this).  More than one pair of
       classes can occur, in which case the first class before  the  =  corre-
       sponds  to  the  first  after it, and so on.  If one side has more such
       classes than the other side, the superfluous classes behave like normal
       character  classes.   In  anchor  patterns  correspondence classes also
       behave like normal character classes.

       The standard `[:name:]' forms described for  standard  shell  patterns,
       see the section FILENAME GENERATION in zshexpn(1), may appear in corre-
       spondence classes as well as normal character classes.  The  only  spe-
       cial behaviour in correspondence classes is if the form on the left and
       the form on the right are each one of [:upper:], [:lower:].   In  these
       cases  the  character in the word and the character on the line must be
       the same up to a difference in case.  Hence  to  make  any  lower  case
       character  on  the line match the corresponding upper case character in
       the trial completion you can use `m:{[:lower:]}={[:upper:]}'.  Although
       the  matching  system does not yet handle multibyte characters, this is
       likely to be a future extension, at which point this syntax will handle
       arbitrary  alphabets;  hence this form, rather than the use of explicit
       ranges, is the recommended form.  In other cases `[:name:]'  forms  are
       allowed.   If  the  two  forms  on the left and right are the same, the
       characters must match exactly.  In remaining cases,  the  corresponding
       tests  are  applied to both characters, but they are not otherwise con-
       strained; any matching character in one  set  goes  with  any  matching
       character  in  the  other  set:  this is equivalent to the behaviour of
       ordinary character classes.

       The pattern tpat may also be one or two stars, `*' or `**'. This  means
       that the pattern on the command line can match any number of characters
       in the trial completion. In this case the pattern must be anchored  (on
       either  side); in the case of a single star, the anchor then determines
       how much of the trial completion is to be included -- only the  charac-
       ters  up to the next appearance of the anchor will be matched. With two
       stars, substrings matched by the anchor can be matched, too.

       Examples:

       The keys of the options association defined by the parameter module are
       the option names in all-lower-case form, without underscores, and with-
       out the optional no at the beginning even though  the  builtins  setopt
       and  unsetopt  understand  option names with upper case letters, under-
       scores, and the optional no.  The following alters the  matching  rules
       so  that  the  prefix  no and any underscore are ignored when trying to
       match the trial completions generated and upper  case  letters  on  the
       line match the corresponding lower case letters in the words:

              compadd -M 'L:|[nN][oO]= M:_= M:{[:upper:]}={[:lower:]}' - \
                ${(k)options}

       The  first  part says that the pattern `[nN][oO]' at the beginning (the
       empty anchor before the pipe symbol) of the string on the line  matches
       the  empty  string  in the list of words generated by completion, so it
       will be ignored if present. The second part does the same for an under-
       score anywhere in the command line string, and the third part uses cor-
       respondence classes so that any upper case letter on the  line  matches
       the  corresponding  lower case letter in the word. The use of the upper
       case forms of the specification characters (L and  M)  guarantees  that
       what has already been typed on the command line (in particular the pre-
       fix no) will not be deleted.

       Note that the use of L in the first part means  that  it  matches  only
       when  at  the  beginning  of both the command line string and the trial
       completion.  I.e.,  the  string  `_NO_f'  would  not  be  completed  to
       `_NO_foo', nor would `NONO_f' be completed to `NONO_foo' because of the
       leading underscore or the second `NO' on the line which makes the  pat-
       tern  fail  even  though  they  are otherwise ignored. To fix this, one
       would use `B:[nN][oO]=' instead of the first part. As described  above,
       this  matches  at the beginning of the trial completion, independent of
       other characters or substrings at the beginning  of  the  command  line
       word which are ignored by the same or other match-specs.

       The second example makes completion case insensitive.  This is just the
       same as in the option example, except here we wish to retain the  char-
       acters in the list of completions:

              compadd -M 'm:{[:lower:]}={[:upper:]}' ...

       This  makes lower case letters match their upper case counterparts.  To
       make upper case letters match the lower case forms as well:

              compadd -M 'm:{[:lower:][:upper:]}={[:upper:][:lower:]}' ...

       A nice example for the use of * patterns is  partial  word  completion.
       Sometimes  you  would  like  to  make  strings like `c.s.u' complete to
       strings like `comp.source.unix', i.e. the word on the command line con-
       sists of multiple parts, separated by a dot in this example, where each
       part should be completed separately -- note,  however,  that  the  case
       where  each  part of the word, i.e. `comp', `source' and `unix' in this
       example, is to be completed from separate sets of matches is a  differ-
       ent  problem  to be solved by the implementation of the completion wid-
       get.  The example can be handled by:

              compadd -M 'r:|.=* r:|=*' \
                - comp.sources.unix comp.sources.misc ...

       The first specification says that  lpat  is  the  empty  string,  while
       anchor  is  a dot; tpat is *, so this can match anything except for the
       `.' from the anchor in the trial completion word.  So in  `c.s.u',  the
       matcher  sees `c', followed by the empty string, followed by the anchor
       `.', and likewise for the second dot, and replaces  the  empty  strings
       before  the  anchors,  giving `c[omp].s[ources].u[nix]', where the last
       part of the completion is just as normal.

       With the pattern shown above, the string `c.u' could not  be  completed
       to  `comp.sources.unix'  because  the  single  star  means  that no dot
       (matched by the anchor) can be  skipped.  By  using  two  stars  as  in
       `r:|.=**',  however,  `c.u'  could be completed to `comp.sources.unix'.
       This also shows that in some cases, especially if the anchor is a  real
       pattern,  like a character class, the form with two stars may result in
       more matches than one would like.

       The second specification is needed to make this work when the cursor is
       in  the  middle  of  the string on the command line and the option COM-
       PLETE_IN_WORD is set. In this case the completion code  would  normally
       try  to  match  trial  completions that end with the string as typed so
       far, i.e. it will only insert new characters  at  the  cursor  position
       rather  than at the end.  However in our example we would like the code
       to recognise matches which contain extra characters after the string on
       the  line  (the  `nix'  in  the  example).  Hence we say that the empty
       string at the end of the string on the line matches any  characters  at
       the end of the trial completion.

       More generally, the specification

              compadd -M 'r:|[.,_-]=* r:|=*' ...

       allows one to complete words with abbreviations before any of the char-
       acters in the square brackets.  For example, to complete  veryverylong-
       file.c  rather  than veryverylongheader.h with the above in effect, you
       can just type very.c before attempting completion.

       The specifications with both a left and a right anchor  are  useful  to
       complete  partial  words  whose parts are not separated by some special
       character. For example, in some places strings  have  to  be  completed
       that are formed `LikeThis' (i.e. the separate parts are determined by a
       leading upper case letter) or maybe one has to  complete  strings  with
       trailing  numbers.  Here  one  could  use the simple form with only one
       anchor as in:

              compadd -M 'r:|[[:upper:]0-9]=* r:|=*' LikeTHIS FooHoo 5foo123 5bar234

       But with this, the string `H' would neither complete to `FooHoo' nor to
       `LikeTHIS'  because  in  each case there is an upper case letter before
       the `H' and that is matched by the anchor. Likewise, a `2' would not be
       completed.   In   both   cases   this   could   be   changed  by  using
       `r:|[[:upper:]0-9]=**', but then `H' completes to both  `LikeTHIS'  and
       `FooHoo'  and a `2' matches the other strings because characters can be
       inserted before every upper case letter and digit. To  avoid  this  one
       would use:

              compadd -M 'r:[^[:upper:]0-9]||[[:upper:]0-9]=** r:|=*' \
                  LikeTHIS FooHoo foo123 bar234

       By using these two anchors, a `H' matches only upper case `H's that are
       immediately  preceded   by   something   matching   the   left   anchor
       `[^[:upper:]0-9]'.  The effect is, of course, that `H' matches only the
       string `FooHoo', a `2' matches only `bar234' and so on.

       When using the completion system (see zshcompsys(1)), users can  define
       match specifications that are to be used for specific contexts by using
       the matcher and matcher-list styles. The values for the latter will  be
       used everywhere.



COMPLETION WIDGET EXAMPLE

       The first step is to define the widget:

              zle -C complete complete-word complete-files

       Then  the  widget  can be bound to a key using the bindkey builtin com-
       mand:

              bindkey '^X\t' complete

       After that the shell function complete-files will be invoked after typ-
       ing  control-X  and TAB. The function should then generate the matches,
       e.g.:

              complete-files () { compadd - * }

       This function will complete files in the current directory matching the
       current word.



ZSHCOMPSYS(1)                                                    ZSHCOMPSYS(1)




NAME

       zshcompsys - zsh completion system


DESCRIPTION

       This describes the shell code for the `new' completion system, referred
       to as compsys.  It is written in shell functions based on the  features
       described in zshcompwid(1).

       The features are contextual, sensitive to the point at which completion
       is started.  Many completions are already provided.  For this reason, a
       user  can perform a great many tasks without knowing any details beyond
       how to initialize the system, which is described below  in  INITIALIZA-
       TION.

       The context that decides what completion is to be performed may be
       o      an  argument  or option position: these describe the position on
              the command line at which completion is requested.  For  example
              `first  argument  to  rmdir,  the  word  being completed names a
              directory';


       o      a special context, denoting an element in  the  shell's  syntax.
              For  example  `a  word  in  command  position' or `an array sub-
              script'.


       A full context specification  contains  other  elements,  as  we  shall
       describe.

       Besides  commands  names and contexts, the system employs two more con-
       cepts, styles and tags.  These provide ways for the user  to  configure
       the system's behaviour.

       Tags  play  a dual role.  They serve as a classification system for the
       matches, typically indicating a class of object that the user may  need
       to  distinguish.  For example, when completing arguments of the ls com-
       mand the user may prefer to try files before directories,  so  both  of
       these are tags.  They also appear as the rightmost element in a context
       specification.

       Styles modify various operations of the completion system, such as out-
       put formatting, but also what kinds of completers are used (and in what
       order), or which tags are examined.  Styles may  accept  arguments  and
       are  manipulated  using  the  zstyle  command  described in see zshmod-
       ules(1).

       In summary, tags describe what the completion objects  are,  and  style
       how they are to be completed.  At various points of execution, the com-
       pletion system checks what styles and/or tags are defined for the  cur-
       rent  context, and uses that to modify its behavior.  The full descrip-
       tion of context handling, which determines how tags and other  elements
       of the context influence the behaviour of styles, is described below in
       COMPLETION SYSTEM CONFIGURATION.

       When a completion is requested, a dispatcher function  is  called;  see
       the  description  of  _main_complete  in  the list of control functions
       below. This dispatcher decides which function should be called to  pro-
       duce the completions, and calls it. The result is passed to one or more
       completers, functions that implement individual completion  strategies:
       simple  completion, error correction, completion with error correction,
       menu selection, etc.

       More generally, the shell functions contained in the completion  system
       are of two types:
       o      those beginning `comp' are to be called directly; there are only
              a few of these;


       o      those beginning `_' are called  by  the  completion  code.   The
              shell  functions  of this set, which implement completion behav-
              iour and may be bound to keystrokes, are referred  to  as  `wid-
              gets'.  These proliferate as new completions are required.





INITIALIZATION

       If the system was installed completely, it should be enough to call the
       shell function compinit from your initialization  file;  see  the  next
       section.   However,  the  function  compinstall can be run by a user to
       configure various aspects of the completion system.

       Usually, compinstall will insert code into .zshrc, although if that  is
       not  writable  it will save it in another file and tell you that file's
       location.  Note that it is up to you to make sure that the lines  added
       to  .zshrc are actually run; you may, for example, need to move them to
       an earlier place in the file if .zshrc usually returns early.  So  long
       as you keep them all together (including the comment lines at the start
       and finish), you can rerun compinstall and it will correctly locate and
       modify  these lines.  Note, however, that any code you add to this sec-
       tion by hand is likely to be lost if you  rerun  compinstall,  although
       lines using the command `zstyle' should be gracefully handled.

       The  new  code  will  take effect next time you start the shell, or run
       .zshrc by hand; there is also an option to make them take effect  imme-
       diately.   However,  if  compinstall  has removed definitions, you will
       need to restart the shell to see the changes.

       To run compinstall you will need to make sure it is in a directory men-
       tioned in your fpath parameter, which should already be the case if zsh
       was properly configured as long as your startup files do not remove the
       appropriate  directories  from  fpath.   Then  it  must  be  autoloaded
       (`autoload -U compinstall' is recommended).  You can abort the  instal-
       lation any time you are being prompted for information, and your .zshrc
       will not be altered at all; changes only take place right at  the  end,
       where you are specifically asked for confirmation.


   Use of compinit
       This section describes the use of compinit to initialize completion for
       the current session when called directly; if you have  run  compinstall
       it will be called automatically from your .zshrc.

       To  initialize  the system, the function compinit should be in a direc-
       tory mentioned  in  the  fpath  parameter,  and  should  be  autoloaded
       (`autoload  -U  compinit'  is  recommended),  and  then  run  simply as
       `compinit'.  This will define a few utility functions, arrange for  all
       the necessary shell functions to be autoloaded, and will then re-define
       all widgets that do completion to use the new system.  If you  use  the
       menu-select  widget,  which  is  part  of  the zsh/complist module, you
       should make sure that that module is loaded before the call to compinit
       so  that  that  widget  is  also re-defined.  If completion styles (see
       below) are set up  to  perform  expansion  as  well  as  completion  by
       default,  and the TAB key is bound to expand-or-complete, compinit will
       rebind it to complete-word; this is necessary to use the  correct  form
       of expansion.

       Should  you need to use the original completion commands, you can still
       bind keys to the old widgets by putting a `.' in front  of  the  widget
       name, e.g. `.expand-or-complete'.

       To speed up the running of compinit, it can be made to produce a dumped
       configuration that will be read in on future invocations; this  is  the
       default,  but can be turned off by calling compinit with the option -D.
       The dumped file is .zcompdump in the  same  directory  as  the  startup
       files  (i.e.  $ZDOTDIR  or $HOME); alternatively, an explicit file name
       can be given  by  `compinit  -d  dumpfile'.   The  next  invocation  of
       compinit  will  read  the dumped file instead of performing a full ini-
       tialization.

       If the number of completion files changes, compinit will recognise this
       and produce a new dump file.  However, if the name of a function or the
       arguments in the first line of a #compdef function (as described below)
       change,  it is easiest to delete the dump file by hand so that compinit
       will re-create it the next time it is run.  The check performed to  see
       if  there are new functions can be omitted by giving the option -C.  In
       this case the dump file  will  only  be  created  if  there  isn't  one
       already.

       The  dumping  is  actually  done by another function, compdump, but you
       will only need to run this yourself if  you  change  the  configuration
       (e.g.  using  compdef)  and then want to dump the new one.  The name of
       the old dumped file will be remembered for this purpose.

       If the parameter _compdir is set, compinit uses it as a directory where
       completion  functions  can be found; this is only necessary if they are
       not already in the function search path.

       For security reasons compinit also  checks  if  the  completion  system
       would  use  files not owned by root or by the current user, or files in
       directories that are world- or group-writable or that are not owned  by
       root  or  by the current user.  If such files or directories are found,
       compinit will ask if the completion system should really be  used.   To
       avoid  these tests and make all files found be used without asking, use
       the option -u, and to make compinit silently ignore all insecure  files
       and  directories  use  the  option  -i.  This security check is skipped
       entirely when the -C option is given.

       The security check can be retried at any time by running  the  function
       compaudit.   This  is  the  same check used by compinit, but when it is
       executed directly any changes to fpath are made local to  the  function
       so they do not persist.  The directories to be checked may be passed as
       arguments; if none are given, compaudit uses fpath and _compdir to find
       completion  system  directories, adding missing ones to fpath as neces-
       sary.  To force a check of exactly the directories currently  named  in
       fpath,  set  _compdir  to  an  empty string before calling compaudit or
       compinit.

       The function  bashcompinit  provides  compatibility  with  bash's  pro-
       grammable  completion  system.   When run it will define the functions,
       compgen and complete which correspond to the  bash  builtins  with  the
       same  names.  It will then be possible to use completion specifications
       and functions written for bash.


   Autoloaded files
       The convention for autoloaded functions used in completion is that they
       start with an underscore; as already mentioned, the fpath/FPATH parame-
       ter must contain the directory in which they are stored.   If  zsh  was
       properly  installed on your system, then fpath/FPATH automatically con-
       tains the required directories for the standard functions.

       For incomplete installations, if compinit does not  find  enough  files
       beginning with an underscore (fewer than twenty) in the search path, it
       will try to find more by adding the directory _compdir  to  the  search
       path.  If that directory has a subdirectory named Base, all subdirecto-
       ries will be added to the path.  Furthermore, if the subdirectory  Base
       has  a subdirectory named Core, compinit will add all subdirectories of
       the subdirectories is to the path: this allows the functions to  be  in
       the same format as in the zsh source distribution.

       When  compinit  is  run,  it  searches  all  such  files accessible via
       fpath/FPATH and reads the first line of each of them.  This line should
       contain  one  of the tags described below.  Files whose first line does
       not start with one of these tags are not considered to be part  of  the
       completion system and will not be treated specially.

       The tags are:

       #compdef names... [ -[pP] patterns... [ -N names... ] ]
              The  file  will be made autoloadable and the function defined in
              it will be called when completing names, each of which is either
              the name of a command whose arguments are to be completed or one
              of a number of special contexts in the form -context-  described
              below.

              Each  name may also be of the form `cmd=service'.  When complet-
              ing the command cmd, the function typically behaves  as  if  the
              command   (or  special  context)  service  was  being  completed
              instead.  This provides a way of altering the behaviour of func-
              tions that can perform many different completions.  It is imple-
              mented by setting the parameter $service when calling the  func-
              tion;  the  function may choose to interpret this how it wishes,
              and simpler functions will probably ignore it.

              If the #compdef line contains one of the options -p or  -P,  the
              words  following are taken to be patterns.  The function will be
              called when completion is attempted for  a  command  or  context
              that  matches  one  of  the patterns.  The options -p and -P are
              used to specify patterns to be tried before or after other  com-
              pletions  respectively.  Hence -P may be used to specify default
              actions.

              The option -N is used after a list following -p or -P; it speci-
              fies that remaining words no longer define patterns.  It is pos-
              sible to toggle between the three options as many times as  nec-
              essary.

       #compdef -k style key-sequences...
              This  option  creates  a widget behaving like the builtin widget
              style and binds it to the  given  key-sequences,  if  any.   The
              style  must  be  one of the builtin widgets that perform comple-
              tion, namely complete-word, delete-char-or-list,  expand-or-com-
              plete,  expand-or-complete-prefix,  list-choices, menu-complete,
              menu-expand-or-complete,  or  reverse-menu-complete.    If   the
              zsh/complist  module  is  loaded  (see zshmodules(1)) the widget
              menu-select is also available.

              When one of the key-sequences is typed, the function in the file
              will  be  invoked to generate the matches.  Note that a key will
              not be re-bound if it already was (that is, was bound  to  some-
              thing  other  than  undefined-key).   The widget created has the
              same name as the file and can be bound to any other  keys  using
              bindkey as usual.

       #compdef -K widget-name style key-sequences ...
              This  is  similar to -k except that only one key-sequences argu-
              ment may be given for each widget-name style pair.  However, the
              entire  set  of three arguments may be repeated with a different
              set of arguments.  Note in particular that the widget-name  must
              be  distinct  in  each  set.  If it does not begin with `_' this
              will be added.  The widget-name should not clash with  the  name
              of  any existing widget: names based on the name of the function
              are most useful.  For example,

                     #compdef -K _foo_complete complete-word "^X^C" \
                       _foo_list list-choices "^X^D"

              (all on one line) defines a widget _foo_complete for completion,
              bound  to  `^X^C',  and a widget _foo_list for listing, bound to
              `^X^D'.

       #autoload [ options ]
              Functions with the #autoload tag are marked for autoloading  but
              are  not  otherwise treated specially.  Typically they are to be
              called from within one of the completion functions.  Any options
              supplied  will  be passed to the autoload builtin; a typical use
              is +X to force the function to be loaded immediately.  Note that
              the -U and -z flags are always added implicitly.

       The  #  is part of the tag name and no white space is allowed after it.
       The #compdef tags use the compdef function described  below;  the  main
       difference is that the name of the function is supplied implicitly.

       The special contexts for which completion functions can be defined are:

       -array-value-
              The right hand side of an array-assignment (`foo=(...)')

       -brace-parameter-
              The name of a parameter expansion within braces (`${...}')

       -assign-parameter-
              The name of a parameter in an assignment, i.e. on the left  hand
              side of an `='

       -command-
              A word in command position

       -condition-
              A word inside a condition (`[[...]]')

       -default-
              Any word for which no other completion is defined

       -equal-
              A word beginning with an equals sign

       -first-
              This  is  tried before any other completion function.  The func-
              tion called may set the _compskip parameter to  one  of  various
              values:  all:  no further completion is attempted; a string con-
              taining the substring patterns: no pattern completion  functions
              will  be  called;  a string containing default: the function for
              the `-default-'  context  will  not  be  called,  but  functions
              defined for commands will

       -math- Inside mathematical contexts, such as `((...))'

       -parameter-
              The name of a parameter expansion (`$...')

       -redirect-
              The word after a redirection operator.

       -subscript-
              The contents of a parameter subscript.

       -tilde-
              After  an initial tilde (`~'), but before the first slash in the
              word.

       -value-
              On the right hand side of an assignment.

       Default implementations are supplied for each of  these  contexts.   In
       most  cases  the  context  -context-  is implemented by a corresponding
       function _context, for example the context `-tilde-' and  the  function
       `_tilde').

       The contexts -redirect- and -value- allow extra context-specific infor-
       mation.  (Internally, this is handled by the functions for each context
       calling  the function _dispatch.)  The extra information is added sepa-
       rated by commas.

       For the -redirect- context, the extra information is in the form  `-re-
       direct-,op,command',  where  op is the redirection operator and command
       is the name of the command on the line.  If there is no command on  the
       line yet, the command field will be empty.

       For the -value- context, the form is `-value-,name,command', where name
       is the name of the parameter.  In the case of elements of  an  associa-
       tive  array,  for  example  `assoc=(key  <TAB>',  name  is  expanded to
       `name-key'.  In certain special  contexts,  such  as  completing  after
       `make  CFLAGS=',  the  command part gives the name of the command, here
       make; otherwise it is empty.

       It is not necessary to define fully specific completions as  the  func-
       tions  provided  will  try  to  generate  completions  by progressively
       replacing the elements with `-default-'.  For example, when  completing
       after  `foo=<TAB>',  _value will try the names `-value-,foo,' (note the
       empty          command          part),          `-value-,foo,-default-'
       and`-value-,-default-,-default-', in that order, until it finds a func-
       tion to handle the context.

       As an example:

              compdef '_files -g "*.log"' '-redirect-,2>,-default-'

       completes files matching `*.log' after `2> <TAB>' for any command  with
       no more specific handler defined.

       Also:

              compdef _foo -value-,-default-,-default-

       specifies  that  _foo provides completions for the values of parameters
       for which no special function has been defined.  This is  usually  han-
       dled by the function _value itself.

       The  same  lookup  rules  are used when looking up styles (as described
       below); for example

              zstyle ':completion:*:*:-redirect-,2>,*:*' file-patterns '*.log'

       is another way to make  completion  after  `2>  <TAB>'  complete  files
       matching `*.log'.


   Functions
       The  following  function  is  defined  by  compinit  and  may be called
       directly.

       compdef [ -ane ] function names... [ -[pP] patterns... [ -N names...  ]
       ]
       compdef -d names...
       compdef -k [ -an ] function style key-sequences...
       compdef -K [ -an ] function name style key-sequences ...
              The first form defines the function to call  for  completion  in
              the given contexts as described for the #compdef tag above.

              Alternatively,  all  the  arguments  may have the form `cmd=ser-
              vice'.   Here  service  should  already  have  been  defined  by
              `cmd1=service' lines in #compdef files, as described above.  The
              argument for cmd will be completed in the same way as service.

              The function argument may alternatively be a  string  containing
              almost  any  shell  code.  If the string contains an equal sign,
              the above will take precedence.  The option -e may  be  used  to
              specify the first argument is to be evaluated as shell code even
              if it contains an equal sign.  The string will be executed using
              the eval builtin command to generate completions.  This provides
              a way of avoiding having to define a  new  completion  function.
              For  example,  to  complete files ending in `.h' as arguments to
              the command foo:

                     compdef '_files -g "*.h"' foo

              The option -n prevents any completions already defined  for  the
              command or context from being overwritten.

              The  option -d deletes any completion defined for the command or
              contexts listed.

              The names may also contain -p, -P and -N  options  as  described
              for  the #compdef tag.  The effect on the argument list is iden-
              tical, switching between  definitions  of  patterns  tried  ini-
              tially,  patterns  tried  finally,  and normal commands and con-
              texts.

              The parameter $_compskip may be set by any function defined  for
              a  pattern context.  If it is set to a value containing the sub-
              string `patterns' none of the pattern-functions will be  called;
              if it is set to a value containing the substring `all', no other
              function will be called.

              The form with -k defines a widget with  the  same  name  as  the
              function that will be called for each of the key-sequences; this
              is like the #compdef -k tag.  The function should  generate  the
              completions  needed  and  will otherwise behave like the builtin
              widget whose name is given as the style argument.   The  widgets
              usable   for   this   are:  complete-word,  delete-char-or-list,
              expand-or-complete,   expand-or-complete-prefix,   list-choices,
              menu-complete,  menu-expand-or-complete,  and  reverse-menu-com-
              plete, as well as menu-select  if  the  zsh/complist  module  is
              loaded.   The  option  -n  prevents the key being bound if it is
              already to bound to something other than undefined-key.

              The form with -K is similar and defines multiple  widgets  based
              on  the  same  function, each of which requires the set of three
              arguments name, style and key-sequences, where  the  latter  two
              are  as for -k and the first must be a unique widget name begin-
              ning with an underscore.

              Wherever applicable, the -a option makes the function  autoload-
              able, equivalent to autoload -U function.

       The function compdef can be used to associate existing completion func-
       tions with new commands.  For example,

              compdef _pids foo

       uses the function _pids to complete process IDs for the command foo.

       Note also the _gnu_generic function described below, which can be  used
       to complete options for commands that understand the `--help' option.



COMPLETION SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

       This section gives a short overview of how the completion system works,
       and then more detail on how users can configure how  and  when  matches
       are generated.


   Overview
       When  completion is attempted somewhere on the command line the comple-
       tion system first works out the context.  This takes account of a  num-
       ber  of things including the command word (such as `grep' or `zsh') and
       options to which the current word may be an argument (such as the  `-o'
       option to zsh which takes a shell option as an argument).

       This  context information is condensed into a string consisting of mul-
       tiple fields separated by colons, referred to simply as  `the  context'
       in the remainder of the documentation.  This is used to look up styles,
       context-sensitive options that can be used to configure the  completion
       system.   The  context used for lookup may vary during the same call to
       the completion system.

       The context string always consists of a fixed set of fields,  separated
       by  colons and with a leading colon before the first, in the form :com-
       pletion:function:completer:command:argument:tag.  These have  the  fol-
       lowing meaning:

       o      The literal string completion, saying that this style is used by
              the completion system.   This  distinguishes  the  context  from
              those used by, for example, zle widgets and ZFTP functions.


       o      The function, if completion is called from a named widget rather
              than through the normal completion system.   Typically  this  is
              blank,  but  it is set by special widgets such as predict-on and
              the various functions in the Widget directory of  the  distribu-
              tion to the name of that function, often in an abbreviated form.


       o      The completer currently active, the name of the function without
              the  leading  underscore and with other underscores converted to
              hyphens.  A `completer' is in overall control of how  completion
              is  to  be performed; `complete' is the simplest, but other com-
              pleters exist to perform related tasks such as correction, or to
              modify  the  behaviour  of  a  later completer.  See the section
              `Control Functions' below for more information.


       o      The command or a special -context-, just at it appears following
              the  #compdef tag or the compdef function.  Completion functions
              for commands that have sub-commands usually modify this field to
              contain the name of the command followed by a minus sign and the
              sub-command.  For example, the completion function for  the  cvs
              command  sets this field to cvs-add when completing arguments to
              the add subcommand.


       o      The argument; this indicates which command line or option  argu-
              ment  we  are  completing.  For command arguments this generally
              takes the form argument-n, where n is the number  of  the  argu-
              ment, and for arguments to options the form option-opt-n where n
              is the number of the argument to option opt.  However,  this  is
              only  the  case  if  the  command  line  is parsed with standard
              UNIX-style options and arguments, so many completions do not set
              this.


       o      The tag.  As described previously, tags are used to discriminate
              between the types of matches a completion function can  generate
              in  a  certain context.  Any completion function may use any tag
              name it likes, but a list of  the  more  common  ones  is  given
              below.


       The  context  is  gradually put together as the functions are executed,
       starting with the main entry point, which  adds  :completion:  and  the
       function  element  if necessary.  The completer then adds the completer
       element.  The contextual  completion  adds  the  command  and  argument
       options.   Finally,  the  tag is added when the types of completion are
       known.  For example, the context name

              :completion::complete:dvips:option-o-1:files

       says that normal completion was attempted as the first argument to  the
       option -o of the command dvips:

              dvips -o ...

       and the completion function will generate filenames.

       Usually  completion  will  be  tried  for all possible tags in an order
       given by the completion function.  However,  this  can  be  altered  by
       using  the  tag-order style.  Completion is then restricted to the list
       of given tags in the given order.

       The _complete_help bindable command shows all  the  contexts  and  tags
       available  for completion at a particular point.  This provides an easy
       way of finding information for  tag-order  and  other  styles.   It  is
       described in the section `Bindable Commands' below.

       Styles  determine  such  things as how the matches are generated, simi-
       larly to shell options but with much more control.  They can  have  any
       number  of  strings  as  their value.  They are defined with the zstyle
       builtin command (see zshmodules(1)).

       When looking up styles the completion system uses full  context  names,
       including  the tag.  Looking up the value of a style therefore consists
       of two things:  the context, which may be matched as a pattern, and the
       name of the style itself, which must be given exactly.

       For example, many completion functions can generate matches in a simple
       and a verbose form and use the  verbose  style  to  decide  which  form
       should be used.  To make all such functions use the verbose form, put

              zstyle ':completion:*' verbose yes

       in  a startup file (probably .zshrc).  This gives the verbose style the
       value yes in every context inside the completion  system,  unless  that
       context has a more specific definition.  It is best to avoid giving the
       context as `*' in case the style has some meaning outside  the  comple-
       tion system.

       Many  such general purpose styles can be configured simply by using the
       compinstall function.

       A more specific example of the use of the verbose style is by the  com-
       pletion  for  the kill builtin.  If the style is set, the builtin lists
       full job texts and process command lines; otherwise it shows  the  bare
       job numbers and PIDs.  To turn the style off for this use only:

              zstyle ':completion:*:*:kill:*' verbose no

       For  even  more  control,  the  style can use one of the tags `jobs' or
       `processes'.  To turn off verbose display only for jobs:

              zstyle ':completion:*:*:kill:*:jobs' verbose no

       The -e option to zstyle even allows completion function code to  appear
       as  the  argument  to  a style; this requires some understanding of the
       internals of completion functions (see see zshcompwid(1))).  For  exam-
       ple,

              zstyle -e ':completion:*' hosts 'reply=($myhosts)'

       This  forces  the value of the hosts style to be read from the variable
       myhosts each time a host name is needed; this is useful if the value of
       myhosts  can  change  dynamically.  For another useful example, see the
       example in the description of the file-list style below.  This form can
       be slow and should be avoided for commonly examined styles such as menu
       and list-rows-first.

       Note that the order in which styles are defined does  not  matter;  the
       style  mechanism uses the most specific possible match for a particular
       style to determine the set of values.  More precisely, strings are pre-
       ferred  over patterns (for example, `:completion::complete:foo' is more
       specific than `:completion::complete:*'), and longer patterns are  pre-
       ferred over shorter patterns.

       Style  names like those of tags are arbitrary and depend on the comple-
       tion function.  However, the following two sections list  some  of  the
       most common tags and styles.


   Standard Tags
       Some  of  the following are only used when looking up particular styles
       and do not refer to a type of match.

       accounts
              used to look up the users-hosts style

       all-expansions
              used by the _expand completer when adding the single string con-
              taining all possible expansions

       all-files
              for  the  names of all files (as distinct from a particular sub-
              set, see the globbed-files tag).

       arguments
              for arguments to a command

       arrays for names of array parameters

       association-keys
              for keys of associative arrays; used when  completing  inside  a
              subscript to a parameter of this type

       bookmarks
              when  completing  bookmarks (e.g. for URLs and the zftp function
              suite)

       builtins
              for names of builtin commands

       characters
              for single characters in arguments of  commands  such  as  stty.
              Also  used  when  completing  character classes after an opening
              bracket

       colormapids
              for X colormap ids

       colors for color names

       commands
              for names of external commands.  Also used by  complex  commands
              such as cvs when completing names subcommands.

       contexts
              for contexts in arguments to the zstyle builtin command

       corrections
              used  by  the  _approximate and _correct completers for possible
              corrections

       cursors
              for cursor names used by X programs

       default
              used in some contexts to provide a way of  supplying  a  default
              when  more  specific tags are also valid.  Note that this tag is
              used when only the function field of the context name is set

       descriptions
              used when looking up the value of the format style  to  generate
              descriptions for types of matches

       devices
              for names of device special files

       directories
              for  names  of  directories -- local-directories is used instead
              when completing arguments of cd  and  related  builtin  commands
              when the cdpath array is set

       directory-stack
              for entries in the directory stack

       displays
              for X display names

       domains
              for network domains

       expansions
              used  by  the _expand completer for individual words (as opposed
              to the complete set of expansions) resulting from the  expansion
              of a word on the command line

       extensions
              for X server extensions

       file-descriptors
              for numbers of open file descriptors

       files  the generic file-matching tag used by functions completing file-
              names

       fonts  for X font names

       fstypes
              for file system types (e.g. for the mount command)

       functions
              names of functions -- normally shell functions, although certain
              commands may understand other kinds of function

       globbed-files
              for filenames when the name has been generated by pattern match-
              ing

       groups for names of user groups

       history-words
              for words from the history

       hosts  for hostnames

       indexes
              for array indexes

       jobs   for jobs (as listed by the `jobs' builtin)

       interfaces
              for network interfaces

       keymaps
              for names of zsh keymaps

       keysyms
              for names of X keysyms

       libraries
              for names of system libraries

       limits for system limits

       local-directories
              for names of directories that are subdirectories of the  current
              working  directory  when  completing arguments of cd and related
              builtin commands (compare path-directories) -- when  the  cdpath
              array is unset, directories is used instead

       manuals
              for names of manual pages

       mailboxes
              for e-mail folders

       maps   for map names (e.g. NIS maps)

       messages
              used to look up the format style for messages

       modifiers
              for names of X modifiers

       modules
              for modules (e.g. zsh modules)

       my-accounts
              used to look up the users-hosts style

       named-directories
              for  named  directories  (you  wouldn't have guessed that, would
              you?)

       names  for all kinds of names

       newsgroups
              for USENET groups

       nicknames
              for nicknames of NIS maps

       options
              for command options

       original
              used by the _approximate, _correct and _expand  completers  when
              offering the original string as a match

       other-accounts
              used to look up the users-hosts style

       other-files
              for  the names of any non-directory files.  This is used instead
              of all-files when the list-dirs-first style is in effect.

       packages
              for packages (e.g. rpm or installed Debian packages)

       parameters
              for names of parameters

       path-directories
              for names of directories found by  searching  the  cdpath  array
              when  completing  arguments  of  cd and related builtin commands
              (compare local-directories)

       paths  used to look up the values of the  expand,  ambiguous  and  spe-
              cial-dirs styles

       pods   for perl pods (documentation files)

       ports  for communication ports

       prefixes
              for prefixes (like those of a URL)

       printers
              for print queue names

       processes
              for process identifiers

       processes-names
              used  to  look up the command style when generating the names of
              processes for killall

       sequences
              for sequences (e.g. mh sequences)

       sessions
              for sessions in the zftp function suite

       signals
              for signal names

       strings
              for strings (e.g. the replacement strings  for  the  cd  builtin
              command)

       styles for styles used by the zstyle builtin command

       suffixes
              for filename extensions

       tags   for tags (e.g. rpm tags)

       targets
              for makefile targets

       time-zones
              for time zones (e.g. when setting the TZ parameter)

       types  for types of whatever (e.g. address types for the xhost command)

       urls   used to look up the urls and local styles when completing URLs

       users  for usernames

       values for one of a set of values in certain lists

       variant
              used by _pick_variant to look up the command to run when  deter-
              mining  what program is installed for a particular command name.

       visuals
              for X visuals

       warnings
              used to look up the format style for warnings

       widgets
              for zsh widget names

       windows
              for IDs of X windows

       zsh-options
              for shell options


   Standard Styles
       Note that the values of several of these styles represent boolean  val-
       ues.   Any  of the strings `true', `on', `yes', and `1' can be used for
       the value `true' and any of the strings `false', `off', `no',  and  `0'
       for  the  value `false'.  The behavior for any other value is undefined
       except where explicitly mentioned.  The default  value  may  be  either
       true or false if the style is not set.

       Some  of  these  styles  are tested first for every possible tag corre-
       sponding to a type of match, and if no style was found, for the default
       tag.   The  most  notable styles of this type are menu, list-colors and
       styles  controlling  completion  listing  such   as   list-packed   and
       last-prompt.   When tested for the default tag, only the function field
       of the context will be set so that a style using the default  tag  will
       normally be defined along the lines of:

              zstyle ':completion:*:default' menu ...

       accept-exact
              This is tested for the default tag in addition to the tags valid
              for the current context.  If it is set to `true' and any of  the
              trial  matches  is  the  same as the string on the command line,
              this match will immediately be accepted (even if it would other-
              wise be considered ambiguous).

              When  completing  pathnames (where the tag used is `paths') this
              style accepts any number of patterns as the value in addition to
              the  boolean  values.   Pathnames matching one of these patterns
              will be accepted immediately even if the command  line  contains
              some more partially typed pathname components and these match no
              file under the directory accepted.

              This style is also used by the _expand completer  to  decide  if
              words  beginning  with  a tilde or parameter expansion should be
              expanded.  For example, if there are parameters foo and  foobar,
              the  string  `$foo' will only be expanded if accept-exact is set
              to `true'; otherwise the completion system will  be  allowed  to
              complete  $foo  to  $foobar.  If the style is set to `continue',
              _expand will add the expansion as a  match  and  the  completion
              system will also be allowed to continue.

       accept-exact-dirs
              This  is used by filename completion.  Unlike accept-exact it is
              a boolean.  By default, filename completion examines all  compo-
              nents  of  a path to see if there are completions of that compo-
              nent, even if the component matches an existing directory.   For
              example,  when completion after /usr/bin/, the function examines
              possible completions to /usr.

              When this style is true, any prefix of a path  that  matches  an
              existing  directory  is accepted without any attempt to complete
              it further.  Hence, in the given example, the path /usr/bin/  is
              accepted immediately and completion tried in that directory.

              If  you  wish  to  inhibit  this  behaviour  entirely,  set  the
              path-completion style (see below) to false.

       add-space
              This style is used by the _expand completer.  If it is true (the
              default),  a  space  will  be inserted after all words resulting
              from the expansion, or a slash in the case of  directory  names.
              If  the  value is `file', the completer will only add a space to
              names of existing files.  Either a boolean  true  or  the  value
              `file' may be combined with `subst', in which case the completer
              will not add a space to words generated from the expansion of  a
              substitution of the form `$(...)' or `${...}'.

              The  _prefix completer uses this style as a simple boolean value
              to decide if a space should be inserted before the suffix.

       ambiguous
              This applies when completing non-final  components  of  filename
              paths,  in  other  words  those with a trailing slash.  If it is
              set, the cursor is left after  the  first  ambiguous  component,
              even  if  menu completion is in use.  The style is always tested
              with the paths tag.

       assign-list
              When completing after an equals sign that is being treated as an
              assignment,  the  completion  system normally completes only one
              filename.  In some cases the value  may be a list  of  filenames
              separated  by colons, as with PATH and similar parameters.  This
              style can be set to a list of patterns  matching  the  names  of
              such parameters.

              The  default  is  to  complete  lists  when the word on the line
              already contains a colon.

       auto-description
              If set, this style's value will be used as the  description  for
              options  that are not described by the completion functions, but
              that have exactly one argument.  The sequence `%d' in the  value
              will  be replaced by the description for this argument.  Depend-
              ing on personal preferences, it may be useful to set this  style
              to  something  like  `specify: %d'.  Note that this may not work
              for some commands.

       avoid-completer
              This is used by the _all_matches  completer  to  decide  if  the
              string  consisting  of  all  matches should be added to the list
              currently being generated.  Its value is a list of names of com-
              pleters.  If any of these is the name of the completer that gen-
              erated the matches in this completion, the string  will  not  be
              added.

              The  default value for this style is `_expand _old_list _correct
              _approximate', i.e. it  contains  the  completers  for  which  a
              string with all matches will almost never be wanted.

       cache-path
              This  style  defines  the  path where any cache files containing
              dumped completion data  are  stored.   It  defaults  to  `$ZDOT-
              DIR/.zcompcache',  or  `$HOME/.zcompcache'  if  $ZDOTDIR  is not
              defined.  The completion cache  will  not  be  used  unless  the
              use-cache style is set.

       cache-policy
              This  style  defines the function that will be used to determine
              whether a cache  needs  rebuilding.   See  the  section  on  the
              _cache_invalid function below.

       call-command
              This style is used in the function for commands such as make and
              ant where calling the command directly to generate matches  suf-
              fers  problems such as being slow or, as in the case of make can
              potentially cause actions in the makefile to be executed. If  it
              is  set to `true' the command is called to generate matches. The
              default value of this style is `false'.

       command
              In many places, completion functions need to call external  com-
              mands  to  generate  the list of completions.  This style can be
              used to override the command that is called in some such  cases.
              The  elements of the value are joined with spaces to form a com-
              mand line to execute.  The value can also start with  a  hyphen,
              in  which  case the usual command will be added to the end; this
              is most useful for putting `builtin' or `command'  in  front  to
              make  sure  the  appropriate version of a command is called, for
              example to avoid calling a shell function with the same name  as
              an external command.

              As an example, the completion function for process IDs uses this
              style with the processes tag to generate the IDs to complete and
              the  list  of  processes  to  display  (if  the verbose style is
              `true').  The list produced by the command should look like  the
              output  of the ps command.  The first line is not displayed, but
              is searched for the string `PID' (or `pid') to find the position
              of the process IDs in the following lines.  If the line does not
              contain `PID', the first numbers in each of the other lines  are
              taken as the process IDs to complete.

              Note  that  the  completion  function  generally has to call the
              specified command for each attempt to  generate  the  completion
              list.   Hence care should be taken to specify only commands that
              take a short time to run, and in particular to  avoid  any  that
              may never terminate.

       command-path
              This  is  a  list  of directories to search for commands to com-
              plete.  The default for this style is the value of  the  special
              parameter path.

       commands
              This  is  used  by  the function completing sub-commands for the
              system initialisation scripts (residing in /etc/init.d or  some-
              where  not too far away from that).  Its values give the default
              commands to complete for those commands for which the completion
              function isn't able to find them out automatically.  The default
              for this style are the two strings `start' and `stop'.

       complete
              This is used by the _expand_alias function  when  invoked  as  a
              bindable  command.  If set to `true' and the word on the command
              line is not the name of an alias, matching alias names  will  be
              completed.

       complete-options
              This  is  used  by  the  completer for cd, chdir and pushd.  For
              these commands a - is used to introduce a directory stack  entry
              and  completion  of  these  is  far  more common than completing
              options.  Hence unless the value of this style is  true  options
              will  not be completed, even after an initial -.  If it is true,
              options will be completed after an initial - unless there  is  a
              preceding -- on the command line.

       completer
              The  strings  given as the value of this style provide the names
              of the completer functions to use. The available completer func-
              tions are described in the section `Control Functions' below.

              Each  string may be either the name of a completer function or a
              string of the form `function:name'.  In the first case the  com-
              pleter  field  of  the context will contain the name of the com-
              pleter without the leading underscore and with all other  under-
              scores  replaced by hyphens.  In the second case the function is
              the name of the completer to call, but the context will  contain
              the user-defined name in the completer field of the context.  If
              the name starts with a hyphen, the string for the  context  will
              be build from the name of the completer function as in the first
              case with the name appended to it.  For example:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' completer _complete _complete:-foo

              Here, completion will call the _complete completer  twice,  once
              using  `complete' and once using `complete-foo' in the completer
              field of the context.  Normally, using the same  completer  more
              than  once  only makes sense when used with the `functions:name'
              form, because otherwise the context name will be the same in all
              calls to the completer; possible exceptions to this rule are the
              _ignored and _prefix completers.

              The default value for this style is `_complete  _ignored':  only
              completion  will be done, first using the ignored-patterns style
              and the $fignore array and then without ignoring matches.

       condition
              This style is used by the _list completer function to decide  if
              insertion  of  matches  should  be  delayed unconditionally. The
              default is `true'.

       delimiters
              This style is used when adding a delimiter for use with  history
              modifiers  or glob qualifiers that have delimited arguments.  It
              is an array of preferred delimiters to add.  Non-special charac-
              ters are preferred as the completion system may otherwise become
              confused.  The default list is :, +, /, -, %.  The list  may  be
              empty to force a delimiter to be typed.

       disabled
              If  this is set to `true', the _expand_alias completer and bind-
              able command will try to  expand  disabled  aliases,  too.   The
              default is `false'.

       domains
              A  list  of names of network domains for completion.  If this is
              not  set,  domain  names   will   be   taken   from   the   file
              /etc/resolv.conf.

       environ
              The environ style is used when completing for `sudo'.  It is set
              to an array of `VAR=value' assignments to be exported  into  the
              local  environment  before the completion for the target command
              is invoked.
              zstyle ':completion:*:sudo::' environ \
                PATH="/sbin:/usr/sbin:$PATH" HOME="/root"

       expand This style is used when completing strings consisting of  multi-
              ple parts, such as path names.

              If one of its values is the string `prefix', the partially typed
              word from the line will be expanded as far as possible  even  if
              trailing parts cannot be completed.

              If  one of its values is the string `suffix', matching names for
              components after the first ambiguous one  will  also  be  added.
              This  means that the resulting string is the longest unambiguous
              string possible.  However, menu completion can be used to  cycle
              through all matches.

       fake   This  style may be set for any completion context.  It specifies
              additional strings that will always be completed  in  that  con-
              text.  The form of each string is `value:description'; the colon
              and description may be omitted, but any literal colons in  value
              must  be  quoted  with a backslash.  Any description provided is
              shown alongside the value in completion listings.

              It is important to use a sufficiently restrictive  context  when
              specifying  fake  strings.   Note that the styles fake-files and
              fake-parameters  provide  additional  features  when  completing
              files or parameters.

       fake-always
              This  works  identically  to  the  fake  style  except  that the
              ignored-patterns style is not applied to it.  This makes it pos-
              sible  to  override  a  set of matches completely by setting the
              ignored patterns to `*'.

              The following shows a way of supplementing any  tag  with  arbi-
              trary  data,  but  having  it behave for display purposes like a
              separate tag.  In this  example  we  use  the  features  of  the
              tag-order  style  to  divide  the named-directories tag into two
              when performing completion with the standard completer  complete
              for  arguments  of cd.  The tag named-directories-normal behaves
              as normal, but the tag named-directories-mine contains  a  fixed
              set  of  directories.   This  has the effect of adding the match
              group `extra directories' with the given completions.

                     zstyle ':completion::complete:cd:*' tag-order \
                       'named-directories:-mine:extra\ directories
                       named-directories:-normal:named\ directories *'
                     zstyle ':completion::complete:cd:*:named-directories-mine' \
                       fake-always mydir1 mydir2
                     zstyle ':completion::complete:cd:*:named-directories-mine' \
                       ignored-patterns '*'

       fake-files
              This style is used when completing files and looked up without a
              tag.   Its values are of the form `dir:names...'.  This will add
              the names (strings separated by spaces) as possible matches when
              completing  in  the  directory dir, even if no such files really
              exist.  The dir may be a pattern; pattern characters  or  colons
              in  dir  should  be quoted with a backslash to be treated liter-
              ally.

              This can be useful on systems that support special file  systems
              whose  top-level  pathnames  can not be listed or generated with
              glob patterns.  It can also be used for  directories  for  which
              one does not have read permission.

              The  pattern  form can be used to add a certain `magic' entry to
              all directories on a particular file system.

       fake-parameters
              This is used by the completion  function  for  parameter  names.
              Its values are names of parameters that might not yet be set but
              should be completed nonetheless.  Each name may also be followed
              by  a  colon  and  a string specifying the type of the parameter
              (like `scalar', `array' or `integer').  If the  type  is  given,
              the  name  will only be completed if parameters of that type are
              required in the particular context.  Names for which no type  is
              specified will always be completed.

       file-list
              This  style  controls whether files completed using the standard
              builtin mechanism are to be listed with a long list  similar  to
              ls  -l.   Note  that this feature uses the shell module zsh/stat
              for file information; this loads the  builtin  stat  which  will
              replace any external stat executable.  To avoid this the follow-
              ing code can be included in an initialization file:

                     zmodload -i zsh/stat
                     disable stat

              The style may either be set to a true value (or `all'),  or  one
              of  the  values `insert' or `list', indicating that files are to
              be listed in long format in all circumstances, or when  attempt-
              ing  to  insert  a file name, or when listing file names without
              attempting to insert one.

              More generally, the value may be an array of any  of  the  above
              values, optionally followed by =num.  If num is present it gives
              the maximum number of matches for which long listing style  will
              be used.  For example,

                     zstyle ':completion:*' file-list list=20 insert=10

              specifies  that  long  format will be used when listing up to 20
              files or inserting a file with up  to  10  matches  (assuming  a
              listing  is to be shown at all, for example on an ambiguous com-
              pletion), else short format will be used.

                     zstyle -e ':completion:*' file-list '(( ${+NUMERIC} )) && reply=(true)'

              specifies that long format will be used any time a numeric argu-
              ment is supplied, else short format.

       file-patterns
              This  is used by the standard function for completing filenames,
              _files.  If the style is unset up to  three  tags  are  offered,
              `globbed-files',`directories'  and `all-files', depending on the
              types of files  expected by the caller of _files.  The first two
              (`globbed-files'   and   `directories')   are  normally  offered
              together to make it easier to complete files in sub-directories.

              The  file-patterns  style  provides  alternatives to the default
              tags, which are not used.  Its value consists of elements of the
              form  `pattern:tag';  each string may contain any number of such
              specifications separated by spaces.

              The pattern is a pattern that is to be used  to  generate  file-
              names.   Any  occurrence of the sequence `%p' is replaced by any
              pattern(s) passed by the function calling _files.  Colons in the
              pattern  must  be  preceded  by a backslash to make them distin-
              guishable from the colon before the tag.  If more than one  pat-
              tern  is  needed, the patterns can be given inside braces, sepa-
              rated by commas.

              The tags of all strings in the value will be offered  by  _files
              and  used  when  looking  up other styles.  Any tags in the same
              word will be offered at the same time and  before  later  words.
              If no `:tag' is given the `files' tag will be used.

              The  tag  may also be followed by an optional second colon and a
              description, which will be used for the `%d' in the value of the
              format style (if that is set) instead of the default description
              supplied by the completion function.  If the  description  given
              here  contains itself a `%d', that is replaced with the descrip-
              tion supplied by the completion function.

              For example, to make the rm command first complete only names of
              object  files  and  then  the  names of all files if there is no
              matching object file:

                     zstyle ':completion:*:*:rm:*' file-patterns \
                         '*.o:object-files' '%p:all-files'

              To alter the default behaviour of file completion -- offer files
              matching  a  pattern  and directories on the first attempt, then
              all files -- to offer only matching files on the first  attempt,
              then directories, and finally all files:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' file-patterns \
                         '%p:globbed-files' '*(-/):directories' '*:all-files'

              This  works  even  where  there  is  no  special pattern: _files
              matches all files using the pattern `*' at the  first  step  and
              stops  when it sees this pattern.  Note also it will never try a
              pattern more than once for a single completion attempt.

              During the execution of completion functions, the  EXTENDED_GLOB
              option  is  in  effect,  so the characters `#', `~' and `^' have
              special meanings in the patterns.

       file-sort
              The standard filename completion function uses this style  with-
              out  a  tag  to  determine  in  which  order the names should be
              listed; menu completion will cycle  through  them  in  the  same
              order.   The  possible values are: `size' to sort by the size of
              the file; `links' to sort by the number of links  to  the  file;
              `modification' (or `time' or `date') to sort by the last modifi-
              cation time; `access' to sort  by  the  last  access  time;  and
              `inode' (or `change') to sort by the last inode change time.  If
              the style is set to any other value, or is unset, files will  be
              sorted alphabetically by name.  If the value contains the string
              `reverse', sorting is done in the opposite order.  If the  value
              contains the string `follow', timestamps are associated with the
              targets of symbolic links; the default is to use the  timestamps
              of the links themselves.

       filter This is used by the LDAP plugin for e-mail address completion to
              specify the attributes to match against when filtering  entries.
              So  for  example,  if the style is set to `sn', matching is done
              against surnames.  Standard LDAP filtering  is  used  so  normal
              completion  matching is bypassed.  If this style is not set, the
              LDAP plugin is skipped.  You may also need to  set  the  command
              style to specify how to connect to your LDAP server.

       force-list
              This forces a list of completions to be shown at any point where
              listing is done, even in cases where the list would  usually  be
              suppressed.   For  example,  normally  the list is only shown if
              there are at least two different matches.  By setting this style
              to  `always',  the  list  will always be shown, even if there is
              only a single match that  will  immediately  be  accepted.   The
              style  may  also be set to a number.  In this case the list will
              be shown if there are at least that many matches, even  if  they
              would all insert the same string.

              This style is tested for the default tag as well as for each tag
              valid for the current completion.   Hence  the  listing  can  be
              forced only for certain types of match.

       format If  this is set for the descriptions tag, its value is used as a
              string to  display  above  matches  in  completion  lists.   The
              sequence  `%d'  in  this  string  will  be replaced with a short
              description of what these matches are.   This  string  may  also
              contain the following sequences to specify output attributes, as
              described in the section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES  in  zsh-
       misc(1): `%B', `%S', `%U', `%F', `%K' and their lower case coun-
              terparts, as well as `%{...%}'.  `%F', `%K' and  `%{...%}'  take
              arguments  in  the same form as prompt expansion.  Note that the
              %G sequence is not available; an argument to `%{' should be used
              instead.

              The  style is tested with each tag valid for the current comple-
              tion before it is tested for the descriptions tag.   Hence  dif-
              ferent  format  strings  can  be  defined for different types of
              match.

              Note  also  that  some  completer  functions  define  additional
              `%'-sequences.   These are described for the completer functions
              that make use of them.

              Some completion functions display  messages  that  may  be  cus-
              tomised  by  setting this style for the messages tag.  Here, the
              `%d' is replaced with a message given by  the  completion  func-
              tion.

              Finally,  the  format string is looked up with the warnings tag,
              for use when no matches could be generated at all.  In this case
              the  `%d' is replaced with the descriptions for the matches that
              were  expected  separated  by  spaces.   The  sequence  `%D'  is
              replaced with the same descriptions separated by newlines.

              It  is  possible to use printf-style field width specifiers with
              `%d' and similar escape sequences.  This is handled by the zfor-
              mat  builtin  command  from  the  zsh/zutil  module, see zshmod-
       ules(1).

       glob   This is used by the _expand completer.  If it is set  to  `true'
              (the default), globbing will be attempted on the words resulting
              from a previous substitution (see the substitute style) or  else
              the original string from the line.

       global If  this  is set to `true' (the default), the _expand_alias com-
              pleter and bindable command will try to expand global aliases.

       group-name
              The completion system can  group  different  types  of  matches,
              which  appear in separate lists.  This style can be used to give
              the names of groups for particular tags.  For example,  in  com-
              mand  position  the completion system generates names of builtin
              and external commands, names of  aliases,  shell  functions  and
              parameters  and reserved words as possible completions.  To have
              the external commands and shell functions listed separately:

                     zstyle ':completion:*:*:-command-:*:commands' group-name commands
                     zstyle ':completion:*:*:-command-:*:functions' group-name functions

              As a consequence, any match with the same tag will be  displayed
              in the same group.

              If  the  name  given is the empty string the name of the tag for
              the matches will be used as the name of the group.  So, to  have
              all  different  types  of  matches displayed separately, one can
              just set:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' group-name ''

              All matches for which no group name is defined will be put in  a
              group named -default-.

       group-order
              This  style is additional to the group-name style to specify the
              order for display of the groups defined by that  style  (compare
              tag-order,  which  determines  which completions appear at all).
              The groups named are shown in the given order; any other  groups
              are shown in the order defined by the completion function.

              For  example, to have names of builtin commands, shell functions
              and external commands appear in that order  when  completing  in
              command position:

                     zstyle ':completion:*:*:-command-:*' group-order \
                            builtins functions commands

       groups A list of names of UNIX groups.  If this is not set, group names
              are taken from the YP database or the file `/etc/group'.

       hidden If this is set to true, matches for the given context  will  not
              be listed, although any description for the matches set with the
              format style will be shown.  If it is set to `all', not even the
              description will be displayed.

              Note that the matches will still be completed; they are just not
              shown in the list.  To avoid having matches considered as possi-
              ble  completions  at all, the tag-order style can be modified as
              described below.

       hosts  A list of names of hosts that should be completed.  If  this  is
              not set, hostnames are taken from the file `/etc/hosts'.

       hosts-ports
              This style is used by commands that need or accept hostnames and
              network ports.  The strings in the value should be of  the  form
              `host:port'.   Valid  ports  are  determined  by the presence of
              hostnames; multiple ports for the same host may appear.

       ignore-line
              This is tested for each tag valid for  the  current  completion.
              If  it  is  set to `true', none of the words that are already on
              the line will be considered as possible completions.  If  it  is
              set  to `current', the word the cursor is on will not be consid-
              ered as a possible completion.   The  value  `current-shown'  is
              similar but only applies if the list of completions is currently
              shown on the screen.  Finally, if the style is set  to  `other',
              all  words  on  the  line  except  for  the  current one will be
              excluded from the possible completions.

              The values `current' and `current-shown'  are  a  bit  like  the
              opposite  of  the accept-exact style:  only strings with missing
              characters will be completed.

              Note that you almost certainly don't want to set this to  `true'
              or  `other' for a general context such as `:completion:*'.  This
              is because it would disallow completion of, for example, options
              multiple  times  even  if  the  command  in question accepts the
              option more than once.

       ignore-parents
              The style is tested without a tag  by  the  function  completing
              pathnames  in  order to determine whether to ignore the names of
              directories already mentioned in the current word, or  the  name
              of the current working directory.  The value must include one or
              both of the following strings:

              parent The name of any directory whose path is already contained
                     in  the  word  on the line is ignored.  For example, when
                     completing after foo/../, the directory foo will  not  be
                     considered a valid completion.

              pwd    The  name  of  the  current working directory will not be
                     completed; hence, for example, completion after ../  will
                     not use the name of the current directory.

              In addition, the value may include one or both of:

              ..     Ignore  the  specified  directories only when the word on
                     the line contains the substring `../'.

              directory
                     Ignore the  specified  directories  only  when  names  of
                     directories  are  completed, not when completing names of
                     files.

              Excluded values act in  a  similar  fashion  to  values  of  the
              ignored-patterns style, so they can be restored to consideration
              by the _ignored completer.

       extra-verbose
              If set, the completion listing is more verbose at the cost of  a
              probable  decrease  in completion speed.  Completion performance
              will suffer if this style is set to `true'.

       ignored-patterns
              A list of patterns; any trial completion  matching  one  of  the
              patterns will be excluded from consideration.  The _ignored com-
              pleter can appear in the  list  of  completers  to  restore  the
              ignored  matches.   This  is  a more configurable version of the
              shell parameter $fignore.

              Note that the EXTENDED_GLOB option is set during  the  execution
              of completion functions, so the characters `#', `~' and `^' have
              special meanings in the patterns.

       insert This style is used  by  the  _all_matches  completer  to  decide
              whether  to  insert  the  list  of  all  matches unconditionally
              instead of adding the list as another match.

       insert-ids
              When completing process IDs, for example  as  arguments  to  the
              kill and wait builtins the name of a command may be converted to
              the appropriate process ID.  A problem arises when  the  process
              name  typed  is not unique.  By default (or if this style is set
              explicitly to `menu') the name will be converted immediately  to
              a  set  of  possible IDs, and menu completion will be started to
              cycle through them.

              If the value of the style is `single', the shell will wait until
              the user has typed enough to make the command unique before con-
              verting the name to an ID; attempts at completion will be unsuc-
              cessful  until  that  point.   If the value is any other string,
              menu completion will be started when the  string  typed  by  the
              user  is longer than the common prefix to the corresponding IDs.

       insert-tab
              If this is set to `true', the completion system  will  insert  a
              TAB  character  (assuming  that  was  used  to start completion)
              instead of performing completion  when  there  is  no  non-blank
              character  to  the left of the cursor.  If it is set to `false',
              completion will be done even there.

              The value may also contain the substrings  `pending'  or  `pend-
              ing=val'.   In  this  case, the typed character will be inserted
              instead of starting completion when there is  unprocessed  input
              pending.   If  a  val  is  given, completion will not be done if
              there are at least that many characters  of  unprocessed  input.
              This  is  often  useful when pasting characters into a terminal.
              Note however, that it relies on the $PENDING  special  parameter
              from  the zsh/zle module being set properly which is not guaran-
              teed on all platforms.

              The default value of this style is `true' except for  completion
              within vared builtin command where it is `false'.

       insert-unambiguous
              This  is  used by the _match and _approximate completers.  These
              completers are often used with menu completion  since  the  word
              typed may bear little resemblance to the final completion.  How-
              ever, if this style is `true', the  completer  will  start  menu
              completion  only  if it could find no unambiguous initial string
              at least as long as the original string typed by the user.

              In the case of the _approximate completer, the  completer  field
              in  the context will already have been set to one of correct-num
              or approximate-num, where num is the number of errors that  were
              accepted.

              In  the  case of the _match completer, the style may also be set
              to the string `pattern'.  Then the pattern on the line  is  left
              unchanged if it does not match unambiguously.

       keep-prefix
              This  style  is used by the _expand completer.  If it is `true',
              the completer will try to keep a prefix containing  a  tilde  or
              parameter  expansion.   Hence,  for  example,  the string `~/f*'
              would be expanded to `~/foo' instead  of  `/home/user/foo'.   If
              the  style  is  set  to `changed' (the default), the prefix will
              only be left unchanged if there were other changes  between  the
              expanded words and the original word from the command line.  Any
              other value forces the prefix to be expanded unconditionally.

              The behaviour of expand when this style  is  true  is  to  cause
              _expand  to  give  up  when a single expansion with the restored
              prefix is the same as the original;  hence  any  remaining  com-
              pleters may be called.

       last-prompt
              This  is  a more flexible form of the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option.
              If it is true, the completion system will try to return the cur-
              sor  to  the previous command line after displaying a completion
              list.  It is tested for all tags valid for the  current  comple-
              tion,  then  the  default tag.  The cursor will be moved back to
              the previous line if this style  is  `true'  for  all  types  of
              match.   Note  that unlike the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option this is
              independent of the numeric prefix argument.

       known-hosts-files
              This style should contain a list of files  to  search  for  host
              names  and (if the use-ip style is set) IP addresses in a format
              compatible with ssh known_hosts files.  If it is  not  set,  the
              files  /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and ~/.ssh/known_hosts are used.

       list   This style is used by the _history_complete_word  bindable  com-
              mand.  If it is set to `true' it has no effect.  If it is set to
              `false' matches will not be listed.  This overrides the  setting
              of  the  options  controlling  listing  behaviour, in particular
              AUTO_LIST.  The context  always  starts  with  `:completion:his-
              tory-words'.

       list-colors
              If  the zsh/complist module is loaded, this style can be used to
              set color specifications.  This mechanism replaces  the  use  of
              the  ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters described in the sec-
              tion `The zsh/complist Module' in zshmodules(1), but the  syntax
              is the same.

              If  this  style  is  set for the default tag, the strings in the
              value are taken as specifications that are  to  be  used  every-
              where.  If it is set for other tags, the specifications are used
              only for matches of the type described by the tag.  For this  to
              work  best, the group-name style must be set to an empty string.

              In addition to setting styles for specific tags, it is also pos-
              sible  to use group names specified explicitly by the group-name
              tag together with the `(group)' syntax allowed by the ZLS_COLORS
              and ZLS_COLOURS parameters and simply using the default tag.

              It  is  possible  to use any color specifications already set up
              for the GNU version of the ls command:

                     zstyle ':completion:*:default' list-colors ${(s.:.)LS_COLORS}

              The default colors are the same as for the GNU  ls  command  and
              can  be  obtained  by setting the style to an empty string (i.e.
              '').

       list-dirs-first
              This is used by file completion.  If set, directories to be com-
              pleted  are  listed  separately  from  and before completion for
              other files, regardless of tag ordering.  In addition,  the  tag
              other-files  is  used  in  place  of all-files for the remaining
              files, to indicate that no directories are presented  with  that
              tag.

       list-grouped
              If  this  style  is  `true' (the default), the completion system
              will try to make certain completion  listings  more  compact  by
              grouping  matches.   For example, options for commands that have
              the same description (shown when the verbose  style  is  set  to
              `true')  will appear as a single entry.  However, menu selection
              can be used to cycle through all the matches.

       list-packed
              This is tested for each tag valid in the current context as well
              as  the  default tag.  If it is set to `true', the corresponding
              matches appear in listings as if  the  LIST_PACKED  option  were
              set.  If it is set to `false', they are listed normally.

       list-prompt
              If  this style is set for the default tag, completion lists that
              don't fit on the screen can be scrolled (see the description  of
              the  zsh/complist  module  in zshmodules(1)).  The value, if not
              the empty string, will be displayed after  every  screenful  and
              the  shell  will  prompt for a key press; if the style is set to
              the empty string, a default prompt will be used.

              The value may contain the escape sequences: `%l' or `%L',  which
              will  be  replaced  by the number of the last line displayed and
              the total number of lines; `%m' or `%M', the number of the  last
              match  shown and the total number of matches; and `%p' and `%P',
              `Top' when at the beginning of the list, `Bottom'  when  at  the
              end  and  the position shown as a percentage of the total length
              otherwise.  In each case the form with the uppercase letter will
              be  replaced  by  a  string of fixed width, padded to the  right
              with spaces, while the lowercase form  will  be  replaced  by  a
              variable  width  string.  As in other prompt strings, the escape
              sequences `%S', `%s', `%B', `%b', `%U', `%u'  for  entering  and
              leaving  the  display  modes  standout,  bold and underline, and
              `%F', `%f', `%K', `%k' for changing  the  foreground  background
              colour, are also available, as is the form `%{...%}' for enclos-
              ing escape sequences which display with zero (or, with a numeric
              argument, some other) width.

              After  deleting  this  prompt  the variable LISTPROMPT should be
              unset for the removal to take effect.

       list-rows-first
              This style is tested in the same way as  the  list-packed  style
              and  determines whether matches are to be listed in a rows-first
              fashion as if the LIST_ROWS_FIRST option were set.

       list-suffixes
              This style is used by the function that completes filenames.  If
              it  is  true, and completion is attempted on a string containing
              multiple partially typed pathname components, all ambiguous com-
              ponents will be shown.  Otherwise, completion stops at the first
              ambiguous component.

       list-separator
              The value of this style is used in completion listing  to  sepa-
              rate  the  string  to  complete from a description when possible
              (e.g. when  completing  options).   It  defaults  to  `--'  (two
              hyphens).

       local  This  is for use with functions that complete URLs for which the
              corresponding files are available directly from the file system.
              Its  value should consist of three strings: a hostname, the path
              to the default web pages for the server, and the directory  name
              used by a user placing web pages within their home area.

              For example:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' local toast \
                         /var/http/public/toast public_html

              Completion  after  `http://toast/stuff/'  will look for files in
              the directory  /var/http/public/toast/stuff,   while  completion
              after  `http://toast/~yousir/' will look for files in the direc-
              tory ~yousir/public_html.

       mail-directory
              If set, zsh will assume that mailbox files can be found  in  the
              directory specified.  It defaults to `~/Mail'.

       match-original
              This  is  used  by  the _match completer.  If it is set to only,
              _match will try to generate matches without inserting a  `*'  at
              the  cursor  position.   If set to any other non-empty value, it
              will first try to generate matches without inserting the `*' and
              if  that  yields  no  matches,  it  will  try again with the `*'
              inserted.  If it is unset or set to the empty  string,  matching
              will only be performed with the `*' inserted.

       matcher
              This  style  is tested separately for each tag valid in the cur-
              rent context.  Its value is added to  any  match  specifications
              given  by  the  matcher-list  style.   It  should be in the form
              described in the section `Completion Matching Control'  in  zsh-
       compwid(1).

       matcher-list
              This style can be set to a list of match specifications that are
              to be applied everywhere. Match specifications are described  in
              the section `Completion Matching Control' in zshcompwid(1).  The
              completion system will try them one after another for each  com-
              pleter  selected.   For  example, to try first simple completion
              and, if that generates no matches, case-insensitive completion:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' matcher-list '' 'm:{a-zA-Z}={A-Za-z}'

              By default each specification replaces the  previous  one;  how-
              ever,  if a specification is prefixed with +, it is added to the
              existing list.  Hence it is possible to create increasingly gen-
              eral specifications without repetition:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' matcher-list '' '+m{a-z}={A-Z}' '+m{A-Z}={a-z}'

              It is possible to create match specifications valid for particu-
              lar completers by using the third field  of  the  context.   For
              example,  to  use  the completers _complete and _prefix but only
              allow case-insensitive completion with _complete:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' completer _complete _prefix
                     zstyle ':completion:*:complete:*' matcher-list \
                            '' 'm:{a-zA-Z}={A-Za-z}'

              User-defined names, as explained for the  completer  style,  are
              available.   This  makes  it  possible to try the same completer
              more than once with different match  specifications  each  time.
              For example, to try normal completion without a match specifica-
              tion, then normal  completion  with  case-insensitive  matching,
              then correction, and finally partial-word completion:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' completer _complete _correct _complete:foo
                     zstyle ':completion:*:complete:*' matcher-list \
                         '' 'm:{a-zA-Z}={A-Za-z}'
                     zstyle ':completion:*:foo:*' matcher-list \
                         'm:{a-zA-Z}={A-Za-z} r:|[-_./]=* r:|=*'

              If  the  style is unset in any context no match specification is
              applied.  Note also that some completers such  as  _correct  and
              _approximate  do not use the match specifications at all, though
              these completers will only ever  be  called  once  even  if  the
              matcher-list contains more than one element.

              Where  multiple  specifications are useful, note that the entire
              completion is done for each element of matcher-list,  which  can
              quickly  reduce  the  shell's  performance.   As a rough rule of
              thumb, one to three strings will  give  acceptable  performance.
              On  the other hand, putting multiple space-separated values into
              the same string does not have an appreciable impact  on  perfor-
              mance.

              If  there  is  no current matcher or it is empty, and the option
              NO_CASE_GLOB is in effect, the matching for files  is  performed
              case-insensitively  in  any  case.   However,  any  matcher must
              explicitly  specify  case-insensitive  matching   if   that   is
              required.

       max-errors
              This  is  used  by the _approximate and _correct completer func-
              tions to determine the maximum number of errors to  allow.   The
              completer will try to generate completions by first allowing one
              error, then two errors, and so  on,  until  either  a  match  or
              matches were found or the maximum number of errors given by this
              style has been reached.

              If the value for this style contains the string  `numeric',  the
              completer function will take any numeric argument as the maximum
              number of errors allowed. For example, with

                     zstyle ':completion:*:approximate:::' max-errors 2 numeric

              two errors are allowed if no numeric argument is given, but with
              a  numeric argument of six (as in `ESC-6 TAB'), up to six errors
              are accepted.  Hence with a value of `0 numeric', no  correcting
              completion will be attempted unless a numeric argument is given.

              If the value contains the string  `not-numeric',  the  completer
              will  not  try  to  generate  corrected completions when given a
              numeric argument, so in this case the  number  given  should  be
              greater  than zero.  For example, `2 not-numeric' specifies that
              correcting completion with two errors will usually be performed,
              but  if  a numeric argument is given, correcting completion will
              not be performed.

              The default value for this style is `2 numeric'.

       max-matches-width
              This style is used to determine the trade off between the  width
              of  the  display  used  for matches and the width used for their
              descriptions when the verbose style is  in  effect.   The  value
              gives  the number of display columns to reserve for the matches.
              The default is half the width of the screen.

              This has the most impact when  several  matches  have  the  same
              description  and  so  will  be grouped together.  Increasing the
              style will allow more matches to be grouped together; decreasing
              it will allow more of the description to be visible.

       menu   If  this  is  true in the context of any of the tags defined for
              the current completion menu completion will be used.  The  value
              for  a  specific  tag  will  take  precedence  over that for the
              `default' tag.

              If none of the values found in this way is true but at least one
              is  set  to `auto', the shell behaves as if the AUTO_MENU option
              is set.

              If one of the values is explicitly set to false, menu completion
              will  be  explicitly  turned  off,  overriding the MENU_COMPLETE
              option and other settings.

              In the form `yes=num', where `yes' may be any of the true values
              (`yes', `true', `on' and `1'), menu completion will be turned on
              if there are at least num matches.  In the form `yes=long', menu
              completion  will  be  turned  on if the list does not fit on the
              screen.  This does not activate menu completion  if  the  widget
              normally  only  lists  completions,  but  menu completion can be
              activated in that case with  the  value  `yes=long-list'  (Typi-
              cally, the value `select=long-list' described later is more use-
              ful as it provides control over scrolling.)

              Similarly, with any of the `false' values (as in `no=10'),  menu
              completion will not be used if there are num or more matches.

              The value of this widget also controls menu selection, as imple-
              mented by the zsh/complist module.   The  following  values  may
              appear either alongside or instead of the values above.

              If  the  value contains the string `select', menu selection will
              be started unconditionally.

              In the form `select=num', menu selection will only be started if
              there are at least num matches.  If the values for more than one
              tag provide a number, the smallest number is taken.

              Menu selection can be turned off explicitly by defining a  value
              containing the string`no-select'.

              It  is also possible to start menu selection only if the list of
              matches  does  not  fit  on  the  screen  by  using  the   value
              `select=long'.  To start menu selection even if the current wid-
              get only performs listing, use the value `select=long-list'.

              To turn on menu completion or menu selection when a there are  a
              certain number of matches or the list of matches does not fit on
              the screen, both of `yes=' and `select='  may  be  given  twice,
              once with a number and once with `long' or `long-list'.

              Finally,  it  is  possible to activate two special modes of menu
              selection.  The word `interactive' in the value causes  interac-
              tive  mode  to  be  entered  immediately  when menu selection is
              started; see the description of the zsh/complist module in  zsh-
       modules(1) for a description of interactive mode.  Including the
              string `search' does the same for incremental search  mode.   To
              select   backward   incremental   search,   include  the  string
              `search-backward'.

       muttrc If set, gives the location of the mutt configuration  file.   It
              defaults to `~/.muttrc'.

       numbers
              This is used with the jobs tag.  If it is `true', the shell will
              complete job numbers instead of the shortest unambiguous  prefix
              of  the job command text.  If the value is a number, job numbers
              will only be used if that many words from the  job  descriptions
              are  required to resolve ambiguities.  For example, if the value
              is `1', strings will only be used if  all  jobs  differ  in  the
              first word on their command lines.

       old-list
              This  is  used  by  the  _oldlist  completer.   If  it is set to
              `always', then  standard  widgets  which  perform  listing  will
              retain the current list of matches, however they were generated;
              this can be turned off explicitly with the value `never', giving
              the  behaviour  without the _oldlist completer.  If the style is
              unset, or any other value, then the existing list of completions
              is  displayed if it is not already; otherwise, the standard com-
              pletion list is generated; this  is  the  default  behaviour  of
              _oldlist.   However, if there is an old list and this style con-
              tains the name of the  completer  function  that  generated  the
              list, then the old list will be used even if it was generated by
              a widget which does not do listing.

              For example, suppose you type ^Xc to use the _correct_word  wid-
              get,  which  generates  a list of corrections for the word under
              the cursor.  Usually, typing ^D would generate a  standard  list
              of  completions for the word on the command line, and show that.
              With _oldlist, it will instead  show  the  list  of  corrections
              already generated.

              As  another  example  consider  the  _match  completer: with the
              insert-unambiguous style set to `true' it inserts only a  common
              prefix  string, if there is any.  However, this may remove parts
              of the original pattern, so that further completion  could  pro-
              duce  more  matches  than  on  the  first attempt.  By using the
              _oldlist completer and setting this style to _match, the list of
              matches generated on the first attempt will be used again.

       old-matches
              This  is  used by the _all_matches completer to decide if an old
              list of matches should be used if one exists.  This is  selected
              by  one  of  the  `true' values or by the string `only'.  If the
              value is `only', _all_matches will only  use  an  old  list  and
              won't  have  any  effect  on the list of matches currently being
              generated.

              If this style  is  set  it  is  generally  unwise  to  call  the
              _all_matches completer unconditionally.  One possible use is for
              either this style or the completer style to be defined with  the
              -e option to zstyle to make the style conditional.

       old-menu
              This  is  used  by the _oldlist completer.  It controls how menu
              completion behaves when a completion has already  been  inserted
              and  the  user types a standard completion key such as TAB.  The
              default behaviour of _oldlist is  that  menu  completion  always
              continues  with the existing list of completions.  If this style
              is set to `false', however, a new completion is started  if  the
              old  list  was generated by a different completion command; this
              is the behaviour without the _oldlist completer.

              For example, suppose you type ^Xc to generate a list of  correc-
              tions,  and menu completion is started in one of the usual ways.
              Usually, or with this style set to false,  typing  TAB  at  this
              point would start trying to complete the line as it now appears.
              With _oldlist, it instead continues to cycle through the list of
              corrections.

       original
              This  is  used  by  the  _approximate and _correct completers to
              decide if the original string should be added as a possible com-
              pletion.   Normally, this is done only if there are at least two
              possible corrections, but if this style is set to `true', it  is
              always  added.   Note  that  the style will be examined with the
              completer field in  the  context  name  set  to  correct-num  or
              approximate-num,  where  num  is  the number of errors that were
              accepted.

       packageset
              This style is used  when  completing  arguments  of  the  Debian
              `dpkg' program.  It contains an override for the default package
              set for a given context.  For example,

                     zstyle ':completion:*:complete:dpkg:option--status-1:*' \
                                    packageset avail

              causes available packages, rather than only installed  packages,
              to be completed for `dpkg --status'.

       path   The function that completes color names uses this style with the
              colors tag.  The value should be the pathname of a file contain-
              ing  color  names  in the format of an X11 rgb.txt file.  If the
              style is not set but this file is found in one of various  stan-
              dard locations it will be used as the default.

       path-completion
              This  is used by filename completion.  By default, filename com-
              pletion examines all components of a path to see  if  there  are
              completions  of that component.  For example, /u/b/z can be com-
              pleted to /usr/bin/zsh.  Explicitly setting this style to  false
              inhibits  this  behaviour for path components up to the / before
              the cursor; this overrides the setting of accept-exact-dirs.

              Even with the style set to false, it is still possible  to  com-
              plete  multiple paths by setting the option COMPLETE_IN_WORD and
              moving the cursor back to the first component in the path to  be
              completed.  For example, /u/b/z can be completed to /usr/bin/zsh
              if the cursor is after the /u.

       pine-directory
              If set, specifies the directory containing PINE  mailbox  files.
              There  is no default, since recursively searching this directory
              is inconvenient for anyone who doesn't use PINE.

       ports  A list of Internet service names (network  ports)  to  complete.
              If  this  is  not  set,  service  names  are taken from the file
              `/etc/services'.

       prefix-hidden
              This is used for certain completions which share a  common  pre-
              fix,  for  example command options beginning with dashes.  If it
              is `true', the prefix will not be shown in the list of  matches.

              The default value for this style is `false'.

       prefix-needed
              This  style  is  also relevant for matches with a common prefix.
              If it is set to `true' this common prefix must be typed  by  the
              user to generate the matches.

              The  style  is  applicable  to the options, signals, jobs, func-
              tions, and parameters completion tags.

              For command options, this means that the initial  `-',  `+',  or
              `--'  must  be typed explicitly before option names will be com-
              pleted.

              For signals, an initial `-' is required before signal names will
              be completed.

              For  jobs,  an  initial `%' is required before job names will be
              completed.

              For function and parameter names,  an  initial  `_'  or  `.'  is
              required  before function or parameter names starting with those
              characters will be completed.

              The default value for this style is  `false'  for  function  and
              parameter completions, and  `true' otherwise.

       preserve-prefix
              This style is used when completing path names.  Its value should
              be a pattern matching an initial prefix of the word to  complete
              that  should  be  left  unchanged  under all circumstances.  For
              example, on some Unices an initial `//'  (double  slash)  has  a
              special meaning; setting this style to the string `//' will pre-
              serve it.  As another example, setting this style to `?:/' under
              Cygwin would allow completion after `a:/...' and so on.

       range  This  is  used  by  the _history completer and the _history_com-
              plete_word bindable command to decide which words should be com-
              pleted.

              If  it is a singe number, only the last N words from the history
              will be completed.

              If it is a range of the form `max:slice', the last  slice  words
              will  be  completed;  then  if that yields no matches, the slice
              words before those will be tried and so on.  This process  stops
              either when at least one match was been found, or max words have
              been tried.

              The default is to complete all words from the history at once.

       recursive-files
              If this style is set, its value is an array of  patterns  to  be
              tested  against  `$PWD/':  note the trailing slash, which allows
              directories in the pattern  to  be  delimited  unambiguously  by
              including slashes on both sides.  If an ordinary file completion
              fails and the word on the command  line  does  not  yet  have  a
              directory  part  to  its  name, the style is retrieved using the
              same tag as for the completion just attempted, then the elements
              tested  against  $PWD/  in turn.  If one matches, then the shell
              reattempts completion by prepending the word on the command line
              with  each directory in the expansion of **/*(/) in turn.  Typi-
              cally the elements of the style will be set to restrict the num-
              ber  of directories beneath the current one to a manageable num-
              ber, for example `*/.git/*'.

              For example,

                     zstyle ':completion:*' recursive-files '*/zsh/*'

              If the current directory is  /home/pws/zsh/Src,  then  zle_trTAB
              can be completed to Zle/zle_tricky.c.

       regular
              This  style  is used by the _expand_alias completer and bindable
              command.  If set to `true' (the default), regular  aliases  will
              be  expanded  but  only  in  command  position.  If it is set to
              `false', regular aliases will never be expanded.   If it is  set
              to  `always',  regular  aliases  will be expanded even if not in
              command position.

       rehash If this is set when completing external commands,  the  internal
              list (hash) of commands will be updated for each search by issu-
              ing the rehash command.  There is a speed penalty for this which
              is  only  likely  to  be noticeable when directories in the path
              have slow file access.

       remote-access
              If set to false, certain commands will be prevented from  making
              Internet  connections  to  retrieve  remote  information.   This
              includes the completion for the CVS command.

              It is not always possible to know if connections are in fact  to
              a remote site, so some may be prevented unnecessarily.

       remove-all-dups
              The  _history_complete_word  bindable  command  and the _history
              completer use this to decide if all duplicate matches should  be
              removed, rather than just consecutive duplicates.

       select-prompt
              If  this is set for the default tag, its value will be displayed
              during menu selection (see the menu style above) when  the  com-
              pletion  list  does  not fit on the screen as a whole.  The same
              escapes as for the list-prompt style are understood, except that
              the  numbers  refer  to  the  match  or  line the mark is on.  A
              default prompt is used when the value is the empty string.

       select-scroll
              This style is tested for the default tag and  determines  how  a
              completion  list  is  scrolled  during a menu selection (see the
              menu style above) when the completion list does not fit  on  the
              screen  as  a  whole.   If  the value is `0' (zero), the list is
              scrolled by half-screenfuls; if it is a  positive  integer,  the
              list  is scrolled by the given number of lines; if it is a nega-
              tive number, the list is scrolled by a screenful minus the abso-
              lute  value  of  the  given  number of lines.  The default is to
              scroll by single lines.

       separate-sections
              This style is used with the manuals tag when completing names of
              manual  pages.   If it is `true', entries for different sections
              are added separately using tag names  of  the  form  `manual.X',
              where  X  is  the  section number.  When the group-name style is
              also in effect, pages from different sections will appear  sepa-
              rately.   This style is also used similarly with the words style
              when completing words for the dict command. It allows words from
              different  dictionary  databases  to  be  added separately.  The
              default for this style is `false'.

       show-completer
              Tested whenever a new completer is tried.  If it  is  true,  the
              completion system outputs a progress message in the listing area
              showing what completer is being  tried.   The  message  will  be
              overwritten  by  any  output  when  completions are found and is
              removed after completion is finished.

       single-ignored
              This is used by the _ignored completer when there  is  only  one
              match.   If  its  value is `show', the single match will be dis-
              played but not inserted.  If the value is `menu', then the  sin-
              gle  match and the original string are both added as matches and
              menu completion is started, making it easy to select  either  of
              them.

       sort   Many  completion  widgets  call _description at some point which
              decides whether the matches are added sorted or unsorted  (often
              indirectly  via  _wanted  or _requested).  This style can be set
              explicitly to one of the usual true or false values as an  over-
              ride.   If it is not set for the context, the standard behaviour
              of the calling widget is used.

              The style is tested first against the full context including the
              tag,  and  if  that fails to produce a value against the context
              without the tag.

              If the calling widget explicitly requests unsorted matches, this
              is  usually honoured.  However, the default (unsorted) behaviour
              of completion for the command history may be overridden by  set-
              ting the style to true.

              In the _expand completer, if it is set to `true', the expansions
              generated will always be sorted.  If it is set to  `menu',  then
              the  expansions  are only sorted when they are offered as single
              strings but not in the string  containing  all  possible  expan-
              sions.

       special-dirs
              Normally,  the  completion  code  will not produce the directory
              names `.' and `..' as possible completions.  If  this  style  is
              set to `true', it will add both `.' and `..' as possible comple-
              tions; if it is set to `..', only `..' will be added.

              The following example sets special-dirs to `..' when the current
              prefix  is  empty,  is  a single `.', or consists only of a path
              beginning with `../'.  Otherwise the value is `false'.

                     zstyle -e ':completion:*' special-dirs \
                        '[[ $PREFIX = (../)#(|.|..) ]] && reply=(..)'

       squeeze-slashes
              If set to `true', sequences of slashes in  filename  paths  (for
              example  in `foo//bar') will be treated as a single slash.  This
              is the usual behaviour of UNIX paths.  However, by  default  the
              file  completion function behaves as if there were a `*' between
              the slashes.

       stop   If set to `true', the  _history_complete_word  bindable  command
              will  stop  once  when reaching the beginning or end of the his-
              tory.  Invoking _history_complete_word will then wrap around  to
              the  opposite  end  of  the  history.   If  this style is set to
              `false' (the default), _history_complete_word will loop  immedi-
              ately as in a menu completion.

       strip-comments
              If  set  to `true', this style causes non-essential comment text
              to be removed from completion matches.   Currently  it  is  only
              used  when completing e-mail addresses where it removes any dis-
              play name  from  the  addresses,  cutting  them  down  to  plain
              user@host form.

       subst-globs-only
              This  is used by the _expand completer.  If it is set to `true',
              the expansion will only be used if it  resulted  from  globbing;
              hence,  if  expansions  resulted  from the use of the substitute
              style described below, but these were  not  further  changed  by
              globbing, the expansions will be rejected.

              The default for this style is `false'.

       substitute
              This  boolean  style controls whether the _expand completer will
              first try to expand all substitutions in  the  string  (such  as
              `$(...)' and `${...}').

              The default is `true'.

       suffix This  is used by the _expand completer if the word starts with a
              tilde or contains a  parameter  expansion.   If  it  is  set  to
              `true', the word will only be expanded if it doesn't have a suf-
              fix, i.e. if it is something like `~foo' or `$foo'  rather  than
              `~foo/'  or `$foo/bar', unless that suffix itself contains char-
              acters eligible for expansion.  The default for  this  style  is
              `true'.

       tag-order
              This  provides a mechanism for sorting how the tags available in
              a particular context will be used.

              The values for the style are sets of  space-separated  lists  of
              tags.  The tags in each value will be tried at the same time; if
              no match is found, the next value is used.  (See  the  file-pat-
              terns style for an exception to this behavior.)

              For example:

                     zstyle ':completion:*:complete:-command-:*' tag-order \
                         'commands functions'

              specifies  that  completion  in  command  position  first offers
              external commands and shell functions.  Remaining tags  will  be
              tried if no completions are found.

              In  addition to tag names, each string in the value may take one
              of the following forms:

              -      If any value consists of only a  hyphen,  then  only  the
                     tags  specified  in the other values are generated.  Nor-
                     mally all tags not explicitly selected are tried last  if
                     the  specified  tags  fail to generate any matches.  This
                     means that a single value consisting  only  of  a  single
                     hyphen turns off completion.

              ! tags...
                     A  string  starting  with  an  exclamation mark specifies
                     names of tags that are not to be used.  The effect is the
                     same  as  if  all other possible tags for the context had
                     been listed.

              tag:label ...
                     Here, tag is one of the standard tags  and  label  is  an
                     arbitrary  name.  Matches are generated as normal but the
                     name label is used in contexts instead of tag.   This  is
                     not useful in words starting with !.

                     If  the  label starts with a hyphen, the tag is prepended
                     to the label to form the name used for lookup.  This  can
                     be  used  to make the completion system try a certain tag
                     more than once, supplying different  style  settings  for
                     each attempt; see below for an example.

              tag:label:description
                     As  before,  but description will replace the `%d' in the
                     value of the format style instead of the default descrip-
                     tion  supplied by the completion function.  Spaces in the
                     description must be quoted  with  a  backslash.   A  `%d'
                     appearing in description is replaced with the description
                     given by the completion function.

              In any of the forms above the tag may be a  pattern  or  several
              patterns  in the form `{pat1,pat2...}'.  In this case all match-
              ing tags will be used except for any  given  explicitly  in  the
              same string.

              One use of these features is to try one tag more than once, set-
              ting other styles differently on each attempt, but still to  use
              all the other tags without having to repeat them all.  For exam-
              ple, to make completion of function names  in  command  position
              ignore  all the completion functions starting with an underscore
              the first time completion is tried:

                     zstyle ':completion:*:*:-command-:*' tag-order \
                         'functions:-non-comp *' functions
                     zstyle ':completion:*:functions-non-comp' ignored-patterns '_*'

              On the first attempt, all tags will be offered but the functions
              tag  will  be  replaced by functions-non-comp.  The ignored-pat-
              terns style is set for this tag to  exclude  functions  starting
              with  an  underscore.  If there are no matches, the second value
              of the tag-order style is used which completes  functions  using
              the  default  tag,  this  time presumably including all function
              names.

              The matches for one tag can be split into different groups.  For
              example:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' tag-order \
                         'options:-long:long\ options
                          options:-short:short\ options
                          options:-single-letter:single\ letter\ options'

                     zstyle ':completion:*:options-long' ignored-patterns '[-+](|-|[^-]*)'
                     zstyle ':completion:*:options-short' ignored-patterns '--*' '[-+]?'
                     zstyle ':completion:*:options-single-letter' ignored-patterns '???*'

              With  the  group-names  style  set, options beginning with `--',
              options beginning with a single `-' or `+' but containing multi-
              ple  characters,  and single-letter options will be displayed in
              separate groups with different descriptions.

              Another use of patterns is to try multiple match  specifications
              one after another.  The matcher-list style offers something sim-
              ilar, but it is tested very early in the completion  system  and
              hence  can't  be  set  for single commands nor for more specific
              contexts.  Here is how to  try  normal  completion  without  any
              match specification and, if that generates no matches, try again
              with case-insensitive matching, restricting the effect to  argu-
              ments of the command foo:

                     zstyle ':completion:*:*:foo:*' tag-order '*' '*:-case'
                     zstyle ':completion:*-case' matcher 'm:{a-z}={A-Z}'

              First,  all the tags offered when completing after foo are tried
              using the normal tag name.  If that generates  no  matches,  the
              second  value  of  tag-order is used, which tries all tags again
              except that this time each has -case appended to  its  name  for
              lookup  of  styles.   Hence  this time the value for the matcher
              style from the second call to zstyle in the example is  used  to
              make completion case-insensitive.

              It  is  possible to use the -e option of the zstyle builtin com-
              mand to specify conditions for the use of particular tags.   For
              example:

                     zstyle -e '*:-command-:*' tag-order '
                         if [[ -n $PREFIX$SUFFIX ]]; then
                           reply=( )
                         else
                           reply=( - )
                         fi'

              Completion  in  command  position  will be attempted only if the
              string typed so far is not empty.  This is tested using the PRE-
              FIX  special  parameter;  see  zshcompwid  for  a description of
              parameters which are special inside completion widgets.  Setting
              reply to an empty array provides the default behaviour of trying
              all tags at once; setting it  to  an  array  containing  only  a
              hyphen  disables  the  use  of all tags and hence of all comple-
              tions.

              If no tag-order style  has  been  defined  for  a  context,  the
              strings  `(|*-)argument-*  (|*-)option-*  values'  and `options'
              plus all tags offered by the completion function will be used to
              provide  a  sensible  default  behavior  that  causes  arguments
              (whether normal command arguments or arguments of options) to be
              completed before option names for most commands.

       urls   This  is used together with the urls tag by functions completing
              URLs.

              If the value consists of more than one string, or  if  the  only
              string  does  not name a file or directory, the strings are used
              as the URLs to complete.

              If the value contains only one string which is  the  name  of  a
              normal  file  the  URLs are taken from that file (where the URLs
              may be separated by white space or newlines).

              Finally, if the only string in the value names a directory,  the
              directory  hierarchy  rooted at this directory gives the comple-
              tions.  The top  level  directory  should  be  the  file  access
              method,  such  as  `http', `ftp', `bookmark' and so on.  In many
              cases the next level of directories will  be  a  filename.   The
              directory hierarchy can descend as deep as necessary.

              For example,

                     zstyle ':completion:*' urls ~/.urls
                     mkdir -p ~/.urls/ftp/ftp.zsh.org/pub

              allows   completion   of   all   the   components   of  the  URL
              ftp://ftp.zsh.org/pub after suitable commands such as `netscape'
              or  `lynx'.   Note,  however,  that access methods and files are
              completed separately, so if the hosts style is set hosts can  be
              completed without reference to the urls style.

              See the description in the function _urls itself for more infor-
              mation (e.g. `more $^fpath/_urls(N)').

       use-cache
              If this is set, the completion caching layer  is  activated  for
              any   completions   which   use   it   (via   the  _store_cache,
              _retrieve_cache, and _cache_invalid functions).   The  directory
              containing  the  cache  files can be changed with the cache-path
              style.

       use-compctl
              If this style is set to a string not equal to false, 0, no,  and
              off, the completion system may use any completion specifications
              defined with the compctl  builtin  command.   If  the  style  is
              unset,  this  is  done only if the zsh/compctl module is loaded.
              The string may also contain the substring `first' to use comple-
              tions  defined with `compctl -T', and the substring `default' to
              use the completion defined with `compctl -D'.

              Note that this is only intended to smooth  the  transition  from
              compctl  to  the  new completion system and may disappear in the
              future.

              Note also that the definitions from compctl will only be used if
              there  is  no  specific  completion  function for the command in
              question.  For example, if there is a function _foo to  complete
              arguments  to the command foo, compctl will never be invoked for
              foo.  However, the compctl version will be  tried  if  foo  only
              uses default completion.

       use-ip By default, the function _hosts that completes host names strips
              IP addresses from entries read from host databases such  as  NIS
              and  ssh  files.   If  this  style is true, the corresponding IP
              addresses can be completed as well.  This style is  not  use  in
              any  context  where the hosts style is set; note also it must be
              set before the cache of host names is generated  (typically  the
              first completion attempt).

       users  This  may  be set to a list of usernames to be completed.  If it
              is not set all usernames will be completed.  Note that if it  is
              set  only  that list of users will be completed; this is because
              on some systems querying all users can take a prohibitive amount
              of time.

       users-hosts
              The  values  of  this style should be of the form `user@host' or
              `user:host'. It is used for commands that need  pairs  of  user-
              and hostnames.  These commands will complete usernames from this
              style (only), and will restrict subsequent  hostname  completion
              to  hosts  paired  with  that  user  in one of the values of the
              style.

              It is possible to group values for sets of commands which  allow
              a remote login, such as rlogin and ssh, by using the my-accounts
              tag.  Similarly, values for sets of commands which usually refer
              to the accounts of other people, such as talk and finger, can be
              grouped by using the other-accounts tag.  More  ambivalent  com-
              mands may use the accounts tag.

       users-hosts-ports
              Like  users-hosts but used for commands like telnet and contain-
              ing strings of the form `user@host:port'.

       verbose
              If set, as it is by default, the completion listing is more ver-
              bose.  In particular many commands show descriptions for options
              if this style is `true'.

       word   This is used by the _list completer, which prevents  the  inser-
              tion  of  completions until a second completion attempt when the
              line has not changed.  The normal way of finding out if the line
              has  changed  is  to compare its entire contents between the two
              occasions.  If this style is true,  the  comparison  is  instead
              performed only on the current word.  Hence if completion is per-
              formed on another word with the same contents,  completion  will
              not be delayed.



CONTROL FUNCTIONS

       The initialization script compinit redefines all the widgets which per-
       form completion to call the supplied  widget  function  _main_complete.
       This function acts as a wrapper calling the so-called `completer' func-
       tions that generate matches.  If _main_complete is  called  with  argu-
       ments, these are taken as the names of completer functions to be called
       in the order given.  If no arguments are given, the set of functions to
       try is taken from the completer style.  For example, to use normal com-
       pletion and correction if that doesn't generate any matches:

              zstyle ':completion:*' completer _complete _correct

       after calling compinit. The default value for this style is  `_complete
       _ignored',  i.e. normally only ordinary completion is tried, first with
       the effect of the ignored-patterns style  and  then  without  it.   The
       _main_complete  function  uses the return status of the completer func-
       tions to decide if other completers should be called.   If  the  return
       status  is  zero,  no other completers are tried and the _main_complete
       function returns.

       If the first argument to _main_complete is a single hyphen,  the  argu-
       ments  will  not  be taken as names of completers.  Instead, the second
       argument gives a name to use in the completer field of the context  and
       the other arguments give a command name and arguments to call to gener-
       ate the matches.

       The following completer functions are contained  in  the  distribution,
       although  users may write their own.  Note that in contexts the leading
       underscore is stripped, for example basic completion  is  performed  in
       the context `:completion::complete:...'.

       _all_matches
              This  completer  can  be  used to add a string consisting of all
              other matches.  As it influences later completers it must appear
              as  the first completer in the list.  The list of all matches is
              affected by the avoid-completer and old-matches styles described
              above.

              It may be useful to use the _generic function described below to
              bind _all_matches to its own keystroke, for example:

                     zle -C all-matches complete-word _generic
                     bindkey '^Xa' all-matches
                     zstyle ':completion:all-matches:*' old-matches only
                     zstyle ':completion:all-matches::::' completer _all_matches

              Note that this does not generate completions by  itself:   first
              use  any  of  the  standard ways of generating a list of comple-
              tions, then use ^Xa to show all matches.  It is possible instead
              to  add  a  standard  completer to the list and request that the
              list of all matches should be directly inserted:

                     zstyle ':completion:all-matches::::' completer _all_matches _complete
                     zstyle ':completion:all-matches:*' insert true

              In this case the old-matches style should not be set.

       _approximate
              This is similar to the basic _complete completer but allows  the
              completions  to  undergo  corrections.   The  maximum  number of
              errors can  be  specified  by  the  max-errors  style;  see  the
              description of approximate matching in zshexpn(1) for how errors
              are counted.  Normally this completer will only be  tried  after
              the normal _complete completer:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' completer _complete _approximate

              This  will give correcting completion if and only if normal com-
              pletion yields no possible completions.  When corrected  comple-
              tions  are found, the completer will normally start menu comple-
              tion allowing you to cycle through these strings.

              This completer uses the tags corrections and original when  gen-
              erating  the  possible corrections and the original string.  The
              format style for the former may contain the additional sequences
              `%e'  and  `%o'  which  will be replaced by the number of errors
              accepted to generate the corrections and  the  original  string,
              respectively.

              The  completer  progressively  increases  the  number  of errors
              allowed up to the limit by the max-errors style, hence if a com-
              pletion  is found with one error, no completions with two errors
              will be shown, and so on.  It modifies the completer name in the
              context  to  indicate  the  number of errors being tried: on the
              first try the completer field contains `approximate-1',  on  the
              second try `approximate-2', and so on.

              When _approximate is called from another function, the number of
              errors to accept may be passed with the -a option.  The argument
              is  in  the  same  format  as  the  max-errors style, all in one
              string.

              Note that this completer (and the _correct  completer  mentioned
              below)  can  be quite expensive to call, especially when a large
              number of errors are allowed.  One way to avoid this is  to  set
              up  the  completer  style  using the -e option to zstyle so that
              some completers are only used when  completion  is  attempted  a
              second time on the same string, e.g.:

                     zstyle -e ':completion:*' completer '
                       if [[ $_last_try != "$HISTNO$BUFFER$CURSOR" ]]; then
                         _last_try="$HISTNO$BUFFER$CURSOR"
                         reply=(_complete _match _prefix)
                       else
                         reply=(_ignored _correct _approximate)
                       fi'

              This uses the HISTNO parameter and the BUFFER and CURSOR special
              parameters that are available inside zle and completion  widgets
              to  find  out  if the command line hasn't changed since the last
              time completion was tried.  Only then are the _ignored, _correct
              and _approximate completers called.

       _complete
              This  completer  generates  all  possible  completions in a con-
              text-sensitive manner, i.e. using the settings defined with  the
              compdef function explained above and the current settings of all
              special parameters.  This gives the normal completion behaviour.

              To  complete  arguments  of commands, _complete uses the utility
              function _normal, which is in turn responsible for  finding  the
              particular function; it is described below.  Various contexts of
              the form -context- are handled specifically. These are all  men-
              tioned above as possible arguments to the #compdef tag.

              Before  trying  to find a function for a specific context, _com-
              plete checks if the  parameter  `compcontext'  is  set.  Setting
              `compcontext'  allows  the  usual  completion  dispatching to be
              overridden which is useful in places such  as  a  function  that
              uses vared for input. If it is set to an array, the elements are
              taken to be the possible matches which will be  completed  using
              the tag `values' and the description `value'. If it is set to an
              associative array, the keys are used as the possible completions
              and  the  values (if non-empty) are used as descriptions for the
              matches.  If `compcontext' is set to a string containing colons,
              it  should  be of the form `tag:descr:action'.  In this case the
              tag and descr give the tag and description to use and the action
              indicates  what should be completed in one of the forms accepted
              by the _arguments utility function described below.

              Finally, if `compcontext' is set to a string without colons, the
              value  is  taken as the name of the context to use and the func-
              tion defined for that context will be called.  For this purpose,
              there  is  a special context named -command-line- that completes
              whole command lines (commands and their arguments).  This is not
              used  by the completion system itself but is nonetheless handled
              when explicitly called.

       _correct
              Generate corrections, but not completions, for the current word;
              this is similar to _approximate but will not allow any number of
              extra characters at the cursor  as  that  completer  does.   The
              effect  is  similar to spell-checking.  It is based on _approxi-
              mate, but the completer field in the context name is correct.

              For example, with:

                     zstyle ':completion:::::' completer _complete _correct _approximate
                     zstyle ':completion:*:correct:::' max-errors 2 not-numeric
                     zstyle ':completion:*:approximate:::' max-errors 3 numeric

              correction will accept up to two errors.  If a numeric  argument
              is  given, correction will not be performed, but correcting com-
              pletion will be, and will accept as many errors as given by  the
              numeric  argument.  Without a numeric argument, first correction
              and then correcting completion will be tried, with the first one
              accepting  two errors and the second one accepting three errors.

              When _correct is called as a function, the number of  errors  to
              accept may be given following the -a option.  The argument is in
              the same form a values to the accept style, all in one string.

              This completer function is  intended  to  be  used  without  the
              _approximate  completer  or,  as in the example, just before it.
              Using it after  the  _approximate  completer  is  useless  since
              _approximate will at least generate the corrected strings gener-
              ated by the _correct completer -- and probably more.

       _expand
              This completer function does not really perform completion,  but
              instead  checks  if the word on the command line is eligible for
              expansion and, if it is, gives detailed control  over  how  this
              expansion  is  done.   For this to happen, the completion system
              needs to be invoked with complete-word,  not  expand-or-complete
              (the  default  binding for TAB), as otherwise the string will be
              expanded by the shell's internal mechanism before the completion
              system  is  started.   Note also this completer should be called
              before the _complete completer function.

              The tags used when generating expansions are all-expansions  for
              the  string  containing all possible expansions, expansions when
              adding the possible expansions as single  matches  and  original
              when  adding  the  original  string from the line.  The order in
              which these strings are generated, if at all, can be  controlled
              by the group-order and tag-order styles, as usual.

              The format string for all-expansions and for expansions may con-
              tain the sequence `%o' which will be replaced  by  the  original
              string from the line.

              The  kind  of expansion to be tried is controlled by the substi-
              tute, glob and subst-globs-only styles.

              It is also possible to call _expand as a function, in which case
              the different modes may be selected with options: -s for substi-
              tute, -g for glob and -o for subst-globs-only.

       _expand_alias
              If the word the cursor is on is an alias, it is expanded and  no
              other  completers are called.  The types of aliases which are to
              be expanded can be controlled with the  styles  regular,  global
              and disabled.

              This function is also a bindable command, see the section `Bind-
              able Commands' below.

       _history
              Complete words from the shell's  command   history.   This  com-
              pleter can be controlled by the remove-all-dups, and sort styles
              as for the _history_complete_word bindable command, see the sec-
              tion  `Bindable Commands' below and the section `Completion Sys-
              tem Configuration' above.

       _ignored
              The ignored-patterns style can be set  to  a  list  of  patterns
              which  are  compared against possible completions; matching ones
              are removed.  With this completer those  matches  can  be  rein-
              stated, as if no ignored-patterns style were set.  The completer
              actually generates its own list of matches; which completers are
              invoked  is  determined  in the same way as for the _prefix com-
              pleter.  The single-ignored style is also available as described
              above.

       _list  This  completer  allows  the  insertion of matches to be delayed
              until completion is attempted a second time without the word  on
              the  line being changed.  On the first attempt, only the list of
              matches will be shown.  It is affected by the  styles  condition
              and  word,  see  the  section  `Completion System Configuration'
              above.

       _match This completer is intended to be used after the  _complete  com-
              pleter.  It behaves similarly but the string on the command line
              may be a pattern to match against trial completions.  This gives
              the effect of the GLOB_COMPLETE option.

              Normally completion will be performed by taking the pattern from
              the line, inserting a `*' at the cursor position  and  comparing
              the  resulting  pattern with the possible completions generated.
              This can be modified with  the  match-original  style  described
              above.

              The  generated  matches  will  be  offered  in a menu completion
              unless the insert-unambiguous style is set to  `true';  see  the
              description above for other options for this style.

              Note that matcher specifications defined globally or used by the
              completion functions (the styles matcher-list and matcher)  will
              not be used.

       _menu  This  completer  was  written as simple example function to show
              how menu completion can be enabled in shell  code.  However,  it
              has  the notable effect of disabling menu selection which can be
              useful with _generic based widgets. It should  be  used  as  the
              first  completer  in the list.  Note that this is independent of
              the setting of the MENU_COMPLETE option and does not  work  with
              the other menu completion widgets such as reverse-menu-complete,
              or accept-and-menu-complete.

       _oldlist
              This completer controls  how  the  standard  completion  widgets
              behave  when  there is an existing list of completions which may
              have been generated  by  a  special  completion  (i.e.  a  sepa-
              rately-bound  completion  command).  It allows the ordinary com-
              pletion keys to continue to use the  list  of  completions  thus
              generated,  instead  of producing a new list of ordinary contex-
              tual completions.  It should appear in the  list  of  completers
              before  any  of the widgets which generate matches.  It uses two
              styles: old-list and old-menu, see the section `Completion  Sys-
              tem Configuration' above.

       _prefix
              This  completer  can  be  used to try completion with the suffix
              (everything after the cursor) ignored.  In other words, the suf-
              fix  will  not be considered to be part of the word to complete.
              The effect is similar to the expand-or-complete-prefix  command.

              The completer style is used to decide which other completers are
              to be called to generate matches.  If this style is  unset,  the
              list  of  completers  set  for  the  current  context is used --
              except, of course, the _prefix completer  itself.   Furthermore,
              if  this  completer  appears  more than once in the list of com-
              pleters only those completers not  already  tried  by  the  last
              invocation of _prefix will be called.

              For example, consider this global completer style:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' completer \
                         _complete _prefix _correct _prefix:foo

              Here, the _prefix completer tries normal completion but ignoring
              the suffix.  If that doesn't generate any matches,  and  neither
              does  the  call to the _correct completer after it, _prefix will
              be called a second time and, now only trying correction with the
              suffix  ignored.  On the second invocation the completer part of
              the context appears as `foo'.

              To use _prefix as the last resort and try only normal completion
              when it is invoked:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' completer _complete ... _prefix
                     zstyle ':completion::prefix:*' completer _complete

              The  add-space  style is also respected.  If it is set to `true'
              then _prefix will insert a space between the  matches  generated
              (if any) and the suffix.

              Note  that this completer is only useful if the COMPLETE_IN_WORD
              option is set; otherwise, the cursor will be moved to the end of
              the  current word before the completion code is called and hence
              there will be no suffix.

       _user_expand
              This completer behaves similarly to the  _expand  completer  but
              instead  performs  expansions  defined  by  users.   The  styles
              add-space and sort styles specific to the _expand completer  are
              usable  with  _user_expand  in  addition to other styles handled
              more generally by the completion system.  The tag all-expansions
              is also available.

              The  expansion  depends  on  the  array  style user-expand being
              defined for the current context; remember that the  context  for
              completers  is less specific than that for contextual completion
              as the full context has not yet been  determined.   Elements  of
              the array may have one of the following forms:
              $hash    hash is the name of an associative array.  Note this is
                     not a full parameter expression,  merely  a  $,  suitably
                     quoted  to  prevent  immediate expansion, followed by the
                     name of an associative array.   If  the  trial  expansion
                     word  matches  a  key in hash, the resulting expansion is
                     the corresponding value.
              _func   _func is the name of a shell function  whose  name  must
                     begin  with _ but is not otherwise special to the comple-
                     tion system.  The function is called with the trial  word
                     as an argument.  If the word is to be expanded, the func-
                     tion should set the array reply to a list of  expansions.
                     Optionally,  it can set REPLY to a word that will be used
                     as a description for the set of expansions.   The  return
                     status of the function is irrelevant.



BINDABLE COMMANDS

       In  addition  to  the context-dependent completions provided, which are
       expected to work in an intuitively obvious way, there are a few widgets
       implementing  special  behaviour which can be bound separately to keys.
       The following is a list of these and their default bindings.

       _bash_completions
              This function is used by two  widgets,  _bash_complete-word  and
              _bash_list-choices.   It  exists  to  provide compatibility with
              completion bindings in bash.  The last character of the  binding
              determines  what is completed: `!', command names; `$', environ-
              ment variables; `@', host  names;  `/',  file  names;  `~'  user
              names.   In bash, the binding preceded by `\e' gives completion,
              and preceded by `^X' lists options.  As some of  these  bindings
              clash with standard zsh bindings, only `\e~' and `^X~' are bound
              by default.  To add the rest, the following should be  added  to
              .zshrc after compinit has been run:

                     for key in '!' '$' '@' '/' '~'; do
                       bindkey "\e$key" _bash_complete-word
                       bindkey "^X$key" _bash_list-choices
                     done

              This  includes  the  bindings  for `~' in case they were already
              bound to something else; the completion code does  not  override
              user bindings.

       _correct_filename (^XC)
              Correct  the filename path at the cursor position.  Allows up to
              six errors in the name.  Can also be called with an argument  to
              correct a filename path, independently of zle; the correction is
              printed on standard output.

       _correct_word (^Xc)
              Performs correction of the current argument using the usual con-
              textual  completions as possible choices. This stores the string
              `correct-word' in the function field of  the  context  name  and
              then calls the _correct completer.

       _expand_alias (^Xa)
              This  function can be used as a completer and as a bindable com-
              mand.  It expands the word the cursor is on if it is  an  alias.
              The  types  of  alias expanded can be controlled with the styles
              regular, global and disabled.

              When used as a bindable command there is one additional  feature
              that  can  be  selected by setting the complete style to `true'.
              In this case,  if  the  word  is  not  the  name  of  an  alias,
              _expand_alias  tries  to  complete the word to a full alias name
              without expanding it.  It leaves the cursor directly  after  the
              completed  word  so  that  invoking _expand_alias once more will
              expand the now-complete alias name.

       _expand_word (^Xe)
              Performs expansion on the current word:  equivalent to the stan-
              dard  expand-word  command,  but  using  the  _expand completer.
              Before calling it, the function field of the context is  set  to
              `expand-word'.

       _generic
              This  function  is  not  defined  as  a  widget and not bound by
              default.  However, it can be used to define a  widget  and  will
              then  store  the name of the widget in the function field of the
              context and call the completion system.  This allows custom com-
              pletion  widgets  with  their  own  set  of style settings to be
              defined easily.  For example, to define a widget  that  performs
              normal completion and starts menu selection:

                     zle -C foo complete-word _generic
                     bindkey '...' foo
                     zstyle ':completion:foo:*' menu yes select=1

              Note  in  particular that the completer style may be set for the
              context in order to change the set of functions used to generate
              possible  matches.   If _generic is called with arguments, those
              are passed through to _main_complete as the list  of  completers
              in place of those defined by the completer style.

       _history_complete_word (\e/)
              Complete  words  from the shell's command history. This uses the
              list, remove-all-dups, sort, and stop styles.

       _most_recent_file (^Xm)
              Complete the name of the most recently  modified  file  matching
              the  pattern on the command line (which may be blank).  If given
              a numeric argument N, complete the Nth  most  recently  modified
              file.  Note the completion, if any, is always unique.

       _next_tags (^Xn)
              This command alters the set of matches used to that for the next
              tag, or set of tags, either as given by the tag-order  style  or
              as  set  by default; these matches would otherwise not be avail-
              able.  Successive invocations of the command cycle  through  all
              possible sets of tags.

       _read_comp (^X^R)
              Prompt the user for a string, and use that to perform completion
              on the current  word.   There  are  two  possibilities  for  the
              string.   First,  it  can  be  a set of words beginning `_', for
              example `_files -/', in which case the function with  any  argu-
              ments  will  be called to generate the completions.  Unambiguous
              parts of the function name will be completed automatically (nor-
              mal  completion is not available at this point) until a space is
              typed.

              Second, any other string will be passed as a set of arguments to
              compadd and should hence be an expression specifying what should
              be completed.

              A very restricted set of  editing  commands  is  available  when
              reading  the  string:  `DEL' and `^H' delete the last character;
              `^U' deletes the line, and `^C' and  `^G'  abort  the  function,
              while  `RET'  accepts  the  completion.  Note the string is used
              verbatim as a command line,  so  arguments  must  be  quoted  in
              accordance with standard shell rules.

              Once  a  string  has been read, the next call to _read_comp will
              use the existing string instead of reading a new one.  To  force
              a  new  string  to be read, call _read_comp with a numeric argu-
              ment.

       _complete_debug (^X?)
              This widget performs ordinary completion, but captures in a tem-
              porary  file  a trace of the shell commands executed by the com-
              pletion system.  Each completion attempt gets its own  file.   A
              command  to  view  each of these files is pushed onto the editor
              buffer stack.

       _complete_help (^Xh)
              This widget displays information about the  context  names,  the
              tags,  and  the completion functions used when completing at the
              current cursor position. If given a numeric argument other  than
              1 (as in `ESC-2 ^Xh'), then the styles used and the contexts for
              which they are used will be shown, too.

              Note that the information about styles  may  be  incomplete;  it
              depends  on  the information available from the completion func-
              tions called, which in turn is  determined  by  the  user's  own
              styles and other settings.

       _complete_help_generic
              Unlike  other  commands  listed  here, this must be created as a
              normal ZLE widget rather than a completion widget (i.e. with zle
              -N).   It is used for generating help with a widget bound to the
              _generic widget that is described above.

              If this widget is created using the name of the function, as  it
              is  by  default, then when executed it will read a key sequence.
              This is expected to be bound to a call to a completion  function
              that  uses  the  _generic widget.  That widget will be executed,
              and information provided in  the  same  format  that  the  _com-
              plete_help widget displays for contextual completion.

              If  the  widget's name contains debug, for example if it is cre-
              ated as `zle -N _complete_debug_generic _complete_help_generic',
              it  will  read and execute the keystring for a generic widget as
              before, but then generate debugging information as done by _com-
              plete_debug for contextual completion.

              If  the  widget's  name  contains  noread,  it  will  not read a
              keystring but instead arrange that the next  use  of  a  generic
              widget  run  in the same shell will have the effect as described
              above.

              The   widget   works   by   setting    the    shell    parameter
              ZSH_TRACE_GENERIC_WIDGET  which  is read by _generic.  Unsetting
              the parameter cancels any pending effect of the noread form.

              For example, after executing the following:

                     zle -N _complete_debug_generic _complete_help_generic
                     bindkey '^x:' _complete_debug_generic

              typing `C-x :' followed by the key sequence for a generic widget
              will cause trace output for that widget to be saved to a file.

       _complete_tag (^Xt)
              This  widget completes symbol tags created by the etags or ctags
              programmes (note there is no connection with the completion sys-
              tem's  tags) stored in a file TAGS, in the format used by etags,
              or tags, in the format created by ctags.  It will look  back  up
              the  path  hierarchy for the first occurrence of either file; if
              both exist, the file TAGS is preferred.   You  can  specify  the
              full path to a TAGS or tags file by setting the parameter $TAGS-
              FILE or $tagsfile respectively.   The  corresponding  completion
              tags  used are etags and vtags, after emacs and vi respectively.



UTILITY FUNCTIONS

       Descriptions follow for utility functions that may be useful when writ-
       ing  completion  functions.   If functions are installed in subdirecto-
       ries, most of these reside in the Base subdirectory.  Like the  example
       functions  for commands in the distribution, the utility functions gen-
       erating matches all follow the convention of returning status  zero  if
       they  generated  completions  and  non-zero  if no matching completions
       could be added.

       Two more features are offered  by  the  _main_complete  function.   The
       arrays  compprefuncs  and  comppostfuncs may contain names of functions
       that are to be called immediately before or after completion  has  been
       tried.   A function will only be called once unless it explicitly rein-
       serts itself into the array.

       _all_labels [ -x ] [ -12VJ ] tag name descr [ command args ... ]
              This is a  convenient  interface  to  the  _next_label  function
              below,  implementing  the loop shown in the _next_label example.
              The command  and  its  arguments  are  called  to  generate  the
              matches.  The options stored in the parameter name will automat-
              ically be inserted into the args passed to  the  command.   Nor-
              mally,  they  are  put directly after the command, but if one of
              the args is a single hyphen, they are inserted  directly  before
              that.   If  the  hyphen is the last argument, it will be removed
              from the argument list  before  the  command  is  called.   This
              allows  _all_labels  to  be  used  in almost all cases where the
              matches can be generated by a single call to the compadd builtin
              command or by a call to one of the utility functions.

              For example:

                     local expl
                     ...
                     if _requested foo; then
                       ...
                       _all_labels foo expl '...' compadd ... - $matches
                     fi

              Will complete the strings from the matches parameter, using com-
              padd with additional options which  will  take  precedence  over
              those generated by _all_labels.

       _alternative [ -O name ] [ -C name ] spec ...
              This  function is useful in simple cases where multiple tags are
              available.  Essentially  it  implements  a  loop  like  the  one
              described for the _tags function below.

              The  tags to use and the action to perform if a tag is requested
              are  described  using  the  specs  which  are   of   the   form:
              `tag:descr:action'.  The tags are offered using _tags and if the
              tag is requested, the action is executed with the given descrip-
              tion  descr.   The  actions are those accepted by the _arguments
              function (described below), excluding the `->state'  and  `=...'
              forms.

              For example, the action may be a simple function call:

                     _alternative \
                         'users:user:_users' \
                         'hosts:host:_hosts'

              offers usernames and hostnames as possible matches, generated by
              the _users and _hosts functions respectively.

              Like _arguments, this function uses _all_labels to  execute  the
              actions,  which  will  loop over all sets of tags.  Special han-
              dling is only required if there is an additional valid tag,  for
              example inside a function called from _alternative.

              The  option  `-O  name' is used in the same way as by the _argu-
              ments function.  In other words, the elements of the name  array
              will be passed to compadd when executing an action.

              Like  _tags  this function supports the -C option to give a dif-
              ferent name for the argument context field.

       _arguments [ -nswWACRS ] [ -O name ] [ -M matchspec ] [ : ] spec ...
              This function can be used to give a complete  specification  for
              completion  for  a  command whose arguments follow standard UNIX
              option and argument conventions.  The  following  forms  specify
              individual  sets  of  options and arguments; to avoid ambiguity,
              these may be separated from the options to _arguments itself  by
              a  single  colon.  Options to _arguments itself must be in sepa-
              rate words, i.e. -s -w, not -sw.

              With the option -n, _arguments sets the parameter NORMARG to the
              position  of the first normal argument in the $words array, i.e.
              the position after the end of the options.  If that argument has
              not  been  reached,  NORMARG  is  set  to -1.  The caller should
              declare `integer NORMARG' if the -n option is passed;  otherwise
              the parameter is not used.

              n:message:action
              n::message:action
                     This  describes  the  n'th  normal argument.  The message
                     will be printed  above  the  matches  generated  and  the
                     action  indicates  what can be completed in this position
                     (see below).  If there are two colons before the  message
                     the  argument  is optional.  If the message contains only
                     white space, nothing will be printed  above  the  matches
                     unless the action adds an explanation string itself.

              :message:action
              ::message:action
                     Similar, but describes the next argument, whatever number
                     that happens to be.  If all arguments  are  specified  in
                     this  form  in the correct order the numbers are unneces-
                     sary.

              *:message:action
              *::message:action
              *:::message:action
                     This describes how arguments  (usually  non-option  argu-
                     ments,  those  not  beginning with - or +) are to be com-
                     pleted when neither of the first two forms was  provided.
                     Any number of arguments can be completed in this fashion.

                     With two colons before the  message,  the  words  special
                     array  and  the CURRENT special parameter are modified to
                     refer only to the normal arguments  when  the  action  is
                     executed or evaluated.  With three colons before the mes-
                     sage they are modified to refer only to the normal  argu-
                     ments covered by this description.

              optspec
              optspec:...
                     This  describes  an option.  The colon indicates handling
                     for one or more arguments to the option;  if  it  is  not
                     present, the option is assumed to take no arguments.

                     By default, options are multi-character name, one `-word'
                     per option.  With -s, options may be  single  characters,
                     with more than one option per word, although words start-
                     ing with two hyphens, such as `--prefix', are still  con-
                     sidered  complete  option  names.   This  is suitable for
                     standard GNU options.

                     The  combination  of  -s  with  -w  allows  single-letter
                     options  to  be  combined in a single word even if one or
                     more of the options take arguments.  For example,  if  -a
                     takes  an  argument,  with no -s `-ab' is considered as a
                     single (unhandled) option; with -s -ab is an option  with
                     the  argument  `b';  with  both -s and -w, -ab may be the
                     option -a and the option -b with arguments still to come.

                     The option -W takes this a stage further:  it is possible
                     to complete single-letter options even after an  argument
                     that occurs in the same word.  However, it depends on the
                     action performed whether options will really be completed
                     at  this point.  For more control, use a utility function
                     like _guard as part of the action.

                     The following forms are available for  the  initial  opt-
                     spec, whether or not the option has arguments.

                     *optspec
                            Here  optspec is one of the remaining forms below.
                            This  indicates  the  following  optspec  may   be
                            repeated.   Otherwise  if the corresponding option
                            is already present on the command line to the left
                            of the cursor it will not be offered again.

                     -optname
                     +optname
                            In  the  simplest  form  the  optspec  is just the
                            option name beginning with a minus or a plus sign,
                            such as `-foo'.  The first argument for the option
                            (if any) must follow as a separate  word  directly
                            after the option.

                            Either  of `-+optname' and `+-optname' can be used
                            to specify that -optname  and  +optname  are  both
                            valid.

                            In all the remaining forms, the leading `-' may be
                            replaced by or paired with `+' in this way.

                     -optname-
                            The  first  argument  of  the  option  must   come
                            directly  after  the option name in the same word.
                            For example, `-foo-:...' specifies that  the  com-
                            pleted   option   and   argument  will  look  like
                            `-fooarg'.

                     -optname+
                            The first argument may  appear  immediately  after
                            optname in the same word, or may appear as a sepa-
                            rate  word  after  the   option.    For   example,
                            `-foo+:...'  specifies  that  the completed option
                            and argument will look like  either  `-fooarg'  or
                            `-foo arg'.

                     -optname=
                            The  argument  may  appear as the next word, or in
                            same word as the option name provided that  it  is
                            separated  from  it by an equals sign, for example
                            `-foo=arg' or `-foo arg'.

                     -optname=-
                            The argument to the option must  appear  after  an
                            equals sign in the same word, and may not be given
                            in the next argument.

                     optspec[explanation]
                            An explanation string may be appended  to  any  of
                            the  preceding forms of optspec by enclosing it in
                            brackets, as in `-q[query operation]'.

                            The verbose style is used to  decide  whether  the
                            explanation  strings are displayed with the option
                            in a completion listing.

                            If no bracketed explanation string  is  given  but
                            the  auto-description  style  is  set and only one
                            argument is described for this optspec, the  value
                            of  the style is displayed, with any appearance of
                            the sequence `%d' in it replaced by the message of
                            the  first  optarg  that  follows the optspec; see
                            below.

              It is possible for options with a literal `+' or `=' to  appear,
              but that character must be quoted, for example `-\+'.

              Each  optarg following an optspec must take one of the following
              forms:

              :message:action
              ::message:action
                     An argument to the option; message and action are treated
                     as  for ordinary arguments.  In the first form, the argu-
                     ment is mandatory, and in the second form it is optional.

                     This  group may be repeated for options which take multi-
                     ple arguments.  In  other  words,  :message1:action1:mes-
                     sage2:action2  specifies  that the option takes two argu-
                     ments.

              :*pattern:message:action
              :*pattern::message:action
              :*pattern:::message:action
                     This describes multiple arguments.  Only the last  optarg
                     for  an  option taking multiple arguments may be given in
                     this form.  If the pattern is empty (i.e., :*:), all  the
                     remaining  words  on  the  line  are  to  be completed as
                     described by the action; otherwise, all the words  up  to
                     and  including a word matching the pattern are to be com-
                     pleted using the action.

                     Multiple colons are treated as for the `*:...' forms  for
                     ordinary  arguments:  when the message is preceded by two
                     colons, the words special array and the  CURRENT  special
                     parameter are modified during the execution or evaluation
                     of the action to  refer  only  to  the  words  after  the
                     option.  When preceded by three colons, they are modified
                     to refer only to the words covered by this description.

       Any literal colon in an optname, message, or action must be preceded by
       a backslash, `\:'.

       Each  of  the  forms  above may be preceded by a list in parentheses of
       option names and argument numbers.  If the given option is on the  com-
       mand  line, the options and arguments indicated in parentheses will not
       be offered.  For  example,  `(-two  -three  1)-one:...'  completes  the
       option  `-one';  if  this appears on the command line, the options -two
       and -three and the first ordinary argument will not be completed  after
       it.   `(-foo):...' specifies an ordinary argument completion; -foo will
       not be completed if that argument is already present.

       Other items may appear in the list of excluded options to indicate var-
       ious other items that should not be applied when the current specifica-
       tion is matched: a single star (*) for the rest arguments (i.e. a spec-
       ification   of   the   form  `*:...');  a  colon  (:)  for  all  normal
       (non-option-) arguments; and a hyphen (-) for all options.   For  exam-
       ple,  if  `(*)'  appears before an option and the option appears on the
       command line, the list of remaining arguments (those shown in the above
       table beginning with `*:') will not be completed.

       To aid in reuse of specifications, it is possible to precede any of the
       forms above with `!'; then  the  form  will  no  longer  be  completed,
       although  if  the  option  or argument appears on the command line they
       will be skipped as normal.  The main use for this is when the arguments
       are  given  by  an  array, and _arguments is called repeatedly for more
       specific contexts: on the first call  `_arguments  $global_options'  is
       used, and on subsequent calls `_arguments !$^global_options'.

       In each of the forms above the action determines how completions should
       be generated.  Except for the `->string' form below, the action will be
       executed by calling the _all_labels function to process all tag labels.
       No special handling of tags is needed unless a function call introduces
       a new one.

       The forms for action are as follows.

         (single unquoted space)
              This  is useful where an argument is required but it is not pos-
              sible or desirable to generate matches for it.  The message will
              be  displayed but no completions listed.  Note that even in this
              case the colon at the end of the message is needed; it may  only
              be omitted when neither a message nor an action is given.

       (item1 item2 ...)
              One of a list of possible matches, for example:

                     :foo:(foo bar baz)

       ((item1\:desc1 ...))
              Similar  to  the  above, but with descriptions for each possible
              match.  Note the backslash before the colon.  For example,

                     :foo:((a\:bar b\:baz))

              The matches will be listed together with their  descriptions  if
              the description style is set with the values tag in the context.

       ->string
              In this form, _arguments processes the arguments and options and
              then returns control to the calling function with parameters set
              to indicate the state of processing; the calling  function  then
              makes  its  own  arrangements  for  generating completions.  For
              example, functions that implement a state machine can  use  this
              type of action.

              Where  _arguments encounters action in the `->string' format, it
              will strip all leading and trailing whitespace from  string  and
              set  the  array  state  to  the  set of all strings for which an
              action  is  to  be  performed.   The  elements  of   the   array
              state_descr  are  assigned  the corresponding message field from
              each optarg containing such an action.

              By default and in common with all other well behaved  completion
              functions,  _arguments returns status zero if it was able to add
              matches and non-zero otherwise. However, if  the  -R  option  is
              given,  _arguments  will instead return a status of 300 to indi-
              cate that $state is to be handled.

              In addition to $state and $state_descr, _arguments also sets the
              global  parameters `context', `line' and `opt_args' as described
              below, and does not reset any changes made to the special param-
              eters such as PREFIX and words.  This gives the calling function
              the choice of resetting these parameters or propagating  changes
              in them.

              A  function calling _arguments with at least one action contain-
              ing a `->string' must therefore declare appropriate local param-
              eters:

                     local context state state_descr line
                     typeset -A opt_args

              to prevent _arguments from altering the global environment.

       {eval-string}
              A  string  in  braces  is  evaluated  as  shell code to generate
              matches.  If the eval-string itself does not begin with an open-
              ing  parenthesis or brace it is split into separate words before
              execution.

       = action
              If the action starts with `= ' (an equals  sign  followed  by  a
              space),  _arguments  will  insert  the  contents of the argument
              field of the current context as the new  first  element  in  the
              words  special array and increment the value of the CURRENT spe-
              cial parameter.  This has the effect of inserting a  dummy  word
              onto the completion command line while not changing the point at
              which completion is taking place.

              This is most useful with one of the specifiers that restrict the
              words on the command line on which the action is to operate (the
              two- and three-colon forms above).  One particular use  is  when
              an  action itself causes _arguments on a restricted range; it is
              necessary to use this trick to  insert  an  appropriate  command
              name into the range for the second call to _arguments to be able
              to parse the line.

        word...
       word...
              This covers all forms other than those  above.   If  the  action
              starts with a space, the remaining list of words will be invoked
              unchanged.

              Otherwise it will be invoked  with  some  extra  strings  placed
              after  the first word; these are to be passed down as options to
              the compadd builtin.  They ensure that the  state  specified  by
              _arguments,  in particular the descriptions of options and argu-
              ments, is correctly passed to  the  completion  command.   These
              additional  arguments are taken from the array parameter `expl';
              this will be set up before executing the action and hence may be
              referred  to  inside  it,  typically in an expansion of the form
              `$expl[@]' which preserves empty elements of the array.

       During the performance of the action the array `line' will  be  set  to
       the  command  name and normal arguments from the command line, i.e. the
       words from the command line excluding all options and their  arguments.
       Options  are  stored  in  the  associative array `opt_args' with option
       names as keys and their arguments as the values.  For options that have
       more  than  one  argument  these  are given as one string, separated by
       colons.  All colons in the original arguments are preceded  with  back-
       slashes.

       The  parameter  `context' is set when returning to the calling function
       to perform an action of the form `->string'.  It is set to an array  of
       elements  corresponding  to  the elements of $state.  Each element is a
       suitable name for the argument field of the context: either a string of
       the  form `option-opt-n' for the n'th argument of the option -opt, or a
       string of the form `argument-n' for  the  n'th  argument.   For  `rest'
       arguments,  that  is  those in the list at the end not handled by posi-
       tion, n is the string `rest'.  For example, when completing  the  argu-
       ment  of  the -o option, the name is `option-o-1', while for the second
       normal (non-option-) argument it is `argument-2'.

       Furthermore, during the evaluation of the action the  context  name  in
       the  curcontext  parameter is altered to append the same string that is
       stored in the context parameter.

       It is possible to specify multiple sets of options and  arguments  with
       the  sets  separated  by single hyphens.  The specifications before the
       first hyphen (if any) are shared by all the remaining sets.  The  first
       word in every other set provides a name for the set which may appear in
       exclusion lists in specifications, either alone or before  one  of  the
       possible  values  described  above.   In  the  second case a `-' should
       appear between this name and the remainder.

       For example:

              _arguments \
                  -a \
                - set1 \
                  -c \
                - set2 \
                  -d \
                  ':arg:(x2 y2)'

       This defines two sets.  When the command line contains the option `-c',
       the  `-d'  option and the argument will not be considered possible com-
       pletions.  When it contains `-d' or an argument, the option  `-c'  will
       not be considered.  However, after `-a' both sets will still be consid-
       ered valid.

       If the name given for one of the mutually exclusive sets is of the form
       `(name)' then only one value from each set will ever be completed; more
       formally, all specifications are mutually exclusive to all other speci-
       fications  in  the same set.  This is useful for defining multiple sets
       of options which are mutually exclusive and in which  the  options  are
       aliases for each other.  For example:

              _arguments \
                  -a -b \
                - '(compress)' \
                  {-c,--compress}'[compress]' \
                - '(uncompress)' \
                  {-d,--decompress}'[decompress]'

       As  the  completion  code  has to parse the command line separately for
       each set this form of argument is slow and should  only  be  used  when
       necessary.   A useful alternative is often an option specification with
       rest-arguments (as in `-foo:*:...'); here the option -foo  swallows  up
       all remaining arguments as described by the optarg definitions.

       The  options -S and -A are available to simplify the specifications for
       commands with standard option parsing.  With -S, no option will be com-
       pleted  after  a  `--'  appearing on its own on the line; this argument
       will otherwise be ignored; hence in the line

              foobar -a -- -b

       the `-a' is considered an option but the `-b' is  considered  an  argu-
       ment, while the `--' is considered to be neither.

       With  -A, no options will be completed after the first non-option argu-
       ment on the line.  The -A must be followed by a  pattern  matching  all
       strings  which  are not to be taken as arguments.  For example, to make
       _arguments stop completing options after the first normal argument, but
       ignoring  all  strings  starting  with  a  hyphen  even if they are not
       described by one of the optspecs, the form is `-A "-*"'.

       The option `-O name' specifies the name of an array whose elements will
       be  passed  as  arguments  to functions called to execute actions.  For
       example, this can be used to pass the same set of options for the  com-
       padd builtin to all actions.

       The  option  `-M  spec' sets a match specification to use to completion
       option names and values.  It must  appear  before  the  first  argument
       specification.   The  default is `r:|[_-]=* r:|=*': this allows partial
       word completion after `_' and `-', for example `-f-b' can be  completed
       to `-foo-bar'.

       The  option  -C tells _arguments to modify the curcontext parameter for
       an action of the form `->state'.  This is the standard  parameter  used
       to  keep  track  of  the current context.  Here it (and not the context
       array) should be made local to the calling function  to  avoid  passing
       back  the modified value and should be initialised to the current value
       at the start of the function:

              local curcontext="$curcontext"

       This is useful where it is not possible for multiple states to be valid
       together.

       The option `--' allows _arguments to work out the names of long options
       that support the `--help' option which is standard  in  many  GNU  com-
       mands.   The  command word is called with the argument `--help' and the
       output examined for option names.  Clearly, it can be dangerous to pass
       this  to commands which may not support this option as the behaviour of
       the command is unspecified.

       In addition to options, `_arguments --' will try to deduce the types of
       arguments available for options when the form `--opt=val' is valid.  It
       is also possible to provide hints by examining the  help  text  of  the
       command  and  adding  specifiers  of the form `pattern:message:action';
       note that normal _arguments specifiers are not used.   The  pattern  is
       matched against the help text for an option, and if it matches the mes-
       sage and action are used as for other argument specifiers.   For  exam-
       ple:

              _arguments -- '*\*:toggle:(yes no)' \
                            '*=FILE*:file:_files' \
                            '*=DIR*:directory:_files -/' \
                            '*=PATH*:directory:_files -/'

       Here, `yes' and `no' will be completed as the argument of options whose
       description ends in a star; file names will be  completed  for  options
       that  contain the substring `=FILE' in the description; and directories
       will be completed for options  whose  description  contains  `=DIR'  or
       `=PATH'.   The  last  three  are in fact the default and so need not be
       given explicitly, although it is possible to override the use of  these
       patterns.  A typical help text which uses this feature is:

                -C, --directory=DIR          change to directory DIR

       so that the above specifications will cause directories to be completed
       after `--directory', though not after `-C'.

       Note also that _arguments tries to find out automatically if the  argu-
       ment  for  an  option is optional.  This can be specified explicitly by
       doubling the colon before the message.

       If the pattern ends in `(-)', this will be removed from the pattern and
       the  action  will  be used only directly after the `=', not in the next
       word.  This is the behaviour of a normal specification defined with the
       form `=-'.

       The `_arguments --' can be followed by the option `-i patterns' to give
       patterns for options which are not to be completed.  The  patterns  can
       be  given  as  the  name  of an array parameter or as a literal list in
       parentheses.  For example,

              _arguments -- -i \
                  "(--(en|dis)able-FEATURE*)"

       will cause completion to  ignore  the  options  `--enable-FEATURE'  and
       `--disable-FEATURE' (this example is useful with GNU configure).

       The  `_arguments  --' form can also be followed by the option `-s pair'
       to describe option aliases.  Each pair consists  of  a  pattern  and  a
       replacement.  For example, some configure-scripts describe options only
       as `--enable-foo', but also accept `--disable-foo'.  To  allow  comple-
       tion of the second form:

              _arguments -- -s "(#--enable- --disable-)"

       Here is a more general example of the use of _arguments:

              _arguments '-l+:left border:' \
                         '-format:paper size:(letter A4)' \
                         '*-copy:output file:_files::resolution:(300 600)' \
                         ':postscript file:_files -g \*.\(ps\|eps\)' \
                         '*:page number:'

       This  describes three options: `-l', `-format', and `-copy'.  The first
       takes one argument described as `left border' for which  no  completion
       will  be  offered  because  of the empty action.  Its argument may come
       directly after the `-l' or it may be given as  the  next  word  on  the
       line.

       The  `-format' option takes one argument in the next word, described as
       `paper size' for which only the strings `letter' and `A4' will be  com-
       pleted.

       The  `-copy'  option  may appear more than once on the command line and
       takes two arguments.  The first is mandatory and will be completed as a
       filename.   The  second is optional (because of the second colon before
       the description `resolution') and will be completed  from  the  strings
       `300' and `600'.

       The  last  two  descriptions say what should be completed as arguments.
       The first describes the first argument as a `postscript file' and makes
       files ending in `ps' or `eps' be completed.  The last description gives
       all other arguments the description `page numbers' but does  not  offer
       completions.

       _cache_invalid cache_identifier
              This  function returns status zero if the completions cache cor-
              responding to the given cache identifier needs  rebuilding.   It
              determines  this  by  looking  up the cache-policy style for the
              current context.  This should provide a function name  which  is
              run  with  the  full path to the relevant cache file as the only
              argument.

              Example:

                     _example_caching_policy () {
                         # rebuild if cache is more than a week old
                         local -a oldp
                         oldp=( "$1"(Nm+7) )
                         (( $#oldp ))
                     }

       _call_function return name [ args ... ]
              If a function name exists, it is called with the arguments args.
              The  return  argument gives the name of a parameter in which the
              return status from the function name should be stored; if return
              is empty or a single hyphen it is ignored.

              The  return status of _call_function itself is zero if the func-
              tion name exists and was called and non-zero otherwise.

       _call_program tag string ...
              This function provides a mechanism for the user to override  the
              use  of an external command.  It looks up the command style with
              the supplied tag.  If the style is set, its value is used as the
              command to execute.  The strings from the call to _call_program,
              or from the style if set, are concatenated with  spaces  between
              them  and  the resulting string is evaluated.  The return status
              is the return status of the command called.

       _combination [ -s pattern ] tag style spec ... field opts ...
              This function is used to complete combinations of  values,   for
              example  pairs  of  hostnames and usernames.  The style argument
              gives the style which defines the pairs; it is looked  up  in  a
              context with the tag specified.

              The style name consists of field names separated by hyphens, for
              example `users-hosts-ports'.  For each  field  for  a  value  is
              already known, a spec of the form `field=pattern' is given.  For
              example, if the command line so far specifies a user `pws',  the
              argument `users=pws' should appear.

              The  next  argument  with no equals sign is taken as the name of
              the field for which completions should be generated  (presumably
              not one of the fields for which the value is known).

              The matches generated will be taken from the value of the style.
              These should contain the possible values for the combinations in
              the  appropriate  order  (users,  hosts,  ports  in  the example
              above).  The different  fields  the  values  for  the  different
              fields  are  separated  by colons.  This can be altered with the
              option -s to _combination which specifies a pattern.   Typically
              this  is  a  character  class, as for example `-s "[:@]"' in the
              case of the users-hosts style.    Each `field=pattern'  specifi-
              cation  restricts the completions which apply to elements of the
              style with appropriately matching fields.

              If no style with the given name is defined for the given tag, or
              if  none  of  the strings in style's value match, but a function
              name of the required field preceded by an underscore is defined,
              that function will be called to generate the matches.  For exam-
              ple, if there is no `users-hosts-ports' or no matching  hostname
              when  a  host  is required, the function `_hosts' will automati-
              cally be called.

              If the same name is used for more than one field,  in  both  the
              `field=pattern'  and  the  argument  that  gives the name of the
              field to be completed, the number of the  field  (starting  with
              one)  may  be  given after the fieldname, separated from it by a
              colon.

              All arguments after the required field name are passed  to  com-
              padd  when  generating  matches  from the style value, or to the
              functions for the fields if they are called.

       _describe [ -oO | -t tag ] descr name1 [ name2 ] opts ... -- ...
              This function associates completions with descriptions.   Multi-
              ple  groups  separated  by  -- can be supplied, potentially with
              different completion options opts.

              The descr is taken as a string to display above the  matches  if
              the  format style for the descriptions tag is set.  This is fol-
              lowed by one or two names of arrays followed by options to  pass
              to  compadd.   The first array contains the possible completions
              with their descriptions in  the  form  `completion:description'.
              Any  literal  colons  in  completion must be quoted with a back-
              slash.  If a second array is given, it should have the same num-
              ber  of  elements  as  the first; in this case the corresponding
              elements are added as possible completions instead of  the  com-
              pletion  strings from the first array.  The completion list will
              retain the descriptions from the first array.  Finally, a set of
              completion options can appear.

              If  the  option  `-o'  appears  before  the  first argument, the
              matches added will be treated as names of command options  (N.B.
              not  shell  options),  typically following a `-', `--' or `+' on
              the command line.  In this case _describe uses  the  prefix-hid-
              den, prefix-needed and verbose styles to find out if the strings
              should be added as completions and if the descriptions should be
              shown.   Without the `-o' option, only the verbose style is used
              to decide how descriptions are shown.  If `-O' is  used  instead
              of  `-o',  command  options are completed as above but _describe
              will not handle the prefix-needed style.

              With the -t option a tag can be specified.  The default is `val-
              ues' or, if the -o option is given, `options'.

              If  selected  by  the  list-grouped style, strings with the same
              description will appear together in the list.

              _describe uses the _all_labels function to generate the matches,
              so it does not need to appear inside a loop over tag labels.

       _description [ -x ] [ -12VJ ] tag name descr [ spec ... ]
              This function is not to be confused with the previous one; it is
              used as a helper function for creating options to  compadd.   It
              is  buried  inside many of the higher level completion functions
              and so often does not need to be called directly.

              The styles listed below are tested in the current context  using
              the  given  tag.  The resulting options for compadd are put into
              the array named name (this is  traditionally  `expl',  but  this
              convention  is  not  enforced).   The description for the corre-
              sponding set of matches is passed to the function in descr.

              The styles tested are: format, hidden, matcher, ignored-patterns
              and  group-name.  The format style is first tested for the given
              tag and then for the descriptions tag if  no  value  was  found,
              while  the  remainder  are  only tested for the tag given as the
              first argument.  The function also calls _setup which tests some
              more styles.

              The  string  returned by the format style (if any) will be modi-
              fied so that the sequence `%d' is replaced by the descr given as
              the  third argument without any leading or trailing white space.
              If, after removing the white  space,  the  descr  is  the  empty
              string,  the  format  style will not be used and the options put
              into the name array will not contain an explanation string to be
              displayed above the matches.

              If  _description  is  called with more than three arguments, the
              additional specs should be of the form `char:str'.  These supply
              escape sequence replacements for the format style: every appear-
              ance of `%char' will be replaced by string.

              If the -x option is given, the description  will  be  passed  to
              compadd  using  the  -x  option instead of the default -X.  This
              means that the description will be displayed even if  there  are
              no corresponding matches.

              The  options  placed  in  the  array  name  take  account of the
              group-name style, so matches are  placed  in  a  separate  group
              where necessary.  The group normally has its elements sorted (by
              passing the option -J to compadd), but  if  an  option  starting
              with  `-V',  `-J', `-1', or `-2' is passed to _description, that
              option will be included in the array.  Hence it is possible  for
              the  completion  group to be unsorted by giving the option `-V',
              `-1V', or `-2V'.

              In most cases, the function will be used like this:

                     local expl
                     _description files expl file
                     compadd "$expl[@]" - "$files[@]"

              Note the use of the parameter expl, the hyphen, and the list  of
              matches.  Almost all calls to compadd within the completion sys-
              tem use a  similar  format;  this  ensures  that  user-specified
              styles are correctly passed down to the builtins which implement
              the internals of completion.

       _dispatch context string ...
              This sets the current context to context and looks  for  comple-
              tion  functions  to  handle  this context by hunting through the
              list of command names or special contexts  (as  described  above
              for compdef) given as string ....  The first completion function
              to be defined for one of the contexts in the  list  is  used  to
              generate  matches.   Typically,  the last string is -default- to
              cause the function for default completion to be used as a  fall-
              back.

              The  function  sets  the  parameter $service to the string being
              tried, and sets the context/command field (the  fourth)  of  the
              $curcontext  parameter  to  the context given as the first argu-
              ment.

       _files The function _files calls _path_files with all the arguments  it
              was  passed  except for -g and -/.  The use of these two options
              depends on the setting of the  file-patterns style.

              This function  accepts  the  full  set  of  options  allowed  by
              _path_files, described below.

       _gnu_generic
              This function is a simple wrapper around the _arguments function
              described above.  It can be used to determine automatically  the
              long  options  understood  by  commands that produce a list when
              passed the option `--help'.  It is intended  to  be  used  as  a
              top-level completion function in its own right.  For example, to
              enable option completion for the commands foo and bar, use

                     compdef _gnu_generic foo bar

              after the call to compinit.

              The completion system as supplied is conservative in its use  of
              this  function,  since  it  is  important to be sure the command
              understands the option `--help'.

       _guard [ options ] pattern descr
              This function is intended to be used in the action for the spec-
              ifications  passed  to  _arguments  and  similar  functions.  It
              returns immediately with a non-zero return status if the  string
              to  be  completed  does  not  match the pattern.  If the pattern
              matches, the descr is displayed; the function then returns  sta-
              tus  zero  if the word to complete is not empty, non-zero other-
              wise.

              The pattern may be preceded by any of the options understood  by
              compadd  that  are passed down from _description, namely -M, -J,
              -V, -1, -2, -n, -F  and  -X.   All  of  these  options  will  be
              ignored.   This  fits  in conveniently with the argument-passing
              conventions of actions for _arguments.

              As an example, consider a command  taking  the  options  -n  and
              -none,  where -n must be followed by a numeric value in the same
              word.  By using:

                     _arguments '-n-: :_guard "[0-9]#" "numeric value"' '-none'

              _arguments can be made to  both  display  the  message  `numeric
              value'  and  complete  options  after `-n<TAB>'.  If the `-n' is
              already followed by one or more digits (the  pattern  passed  to
              _guard)  only the message will be displayed; if the `-n' is fol-
              lowed by another character, only options are completed.

       _message [ -r12 ] [ -VJ group ] descr
       _message -e [ tag ] descr
              The descr is used in the same way as the third argument  to  the
              _description  function,  except  that  the resulting string will
              always be shown whether or not matches were generated.  This  is
              useful  for displaying a help message in places where no comple-
              tions can be generated.

              The format style is examined with the messages  tag  to  find  a
              message;  the usual tag, descriptions, is used only if the style
              is not set with the former.

              If the -r option is given, no style is used; the descr is  taken
              literally  as  the  string to display.  This is most useful when
              the descr comes from a pre-processed argument list which already
              contains an expanded description.

              The  -12VJ options and the group are passed to compadd and hence
              determine the group the message string is added to.

              The second form gives a description for completions with the tag
              tag  to be shown even if there are no matches for that tag.  The
              tag can be omitted and if so the tag is taken from the parameter
              $curtag;  this  is maintained by the completion system and so is
              usually correct.

       _multi_parts sep array
              The argument sep is a separator character.   The  array  may  be
              either  the name of an array parameter or a literal array in the
              form `(foo bar)', a parenthesised list  of  words  separated  by
              whitespace.   The  possible completions are the strings from the
              array.  However, each chunk delimited by sep will  be  completed
              separately.  For example, the _tar function uses `_multi_parts /
              patharray' to complete partial file paths from the  given  array
              of complete file paths.

              The  -i option causes _multi_parts to insert a unique match even
              if that requires multiple separators to be  inserted.   This  is
              not  usually  the expected behaviour with filenames, but certain
              other types of completion, for example those with a fixed set of
              possibilities, may be more suited to this form.

              Like  other  utility  functions, this function accepts the `-V',
              `-J', `-1', `-2', `-n', `-f',  `-X',  `-M',  `-P',  `-S',  `-r',
              `-R', and `-q' options and passes them to the compadd builtin.

       _next_label [ -x ] [ -12VJ ] tag name descr [ options ... ]
              This  function  is used to implement the loop over different tag
              labels for a particular tag as described above for the tag-order
              style.   On each call it checks to see if there are any more tag
              labels; if there is it returns status zero, otherwise  non-zero.
              As  this  function  requires  a  current  tag to be set, it must
              always follow a call to _tags or _requested.

              The -x12VJ options and the first three arguments are  passed  to
              the  _description  function.   Where appropriate the tag will be
              replaced by a tag label in this call.  Any description given  in
              the  tag-order  style  is  preferred  to  the  descr  passed  to
              _next_label.

              The options given after the descr are set in the parameter given
              by name, and hence are to be passed to compadd or whatever func-
              tion is called to add the matches.

              Here is a typical use of this function for  the  tag  foo.   The
              call to _requested determines if tag foo is required at all; the
              loop over _next_label handles any labels defined for the tag  in
              the tag-order style.

                     local expl ret=1
                     ...
                     if _requested foo; then
                       ...
                       while _next_label foo expl '...'; do
                         compadd "$expl[@]" ... && ret=0
                       done
                       ...
                     fi
                     return ret

       _normal
              This  is  the standard function called to handle completion out-
              side any special -context-.  It is called both to  complete  the
              command  word and also the arguments for a command.  In the sec-
              ond case, _normal looks for a special completion for  that  com-
              mand,  and  if  there  is  none  it  uses the completion for the
              -default- context.

              A second use is to reexamine the command line specified  by  the
              $words  array  and  the $CURRENT parameter after those have been
              modified.  For example, the  function  _precommand,  which  com-
              pletes  after  pre-command specifiers such as nohup, removes the
              first word from the words array, decrements the CURRENT  parame-
              ter,  then  calls  _normal again.  The effect is that `nohup cmd
              ...' is treated in the same way as `cmd ...'.

              If the command name matches one of the patterns given by one  of
              the  options  -p  or -P to compdef, the corresponding completion
              function is called and then the parameter _compskip is  checked.
              If  it  is set completion is terminated at that point even if no
              matches have been found.  This is the  same  effect  as  in  the
              -first- context.

       _options
              This  can  be  used  to complete the names of shell options.  It
              provides a matcher specification that ignores  a  leading  `no',
              ignores underscores and allows upper-case letters to match their
              lower-case  counterparts   (for   example,   `glob',   `noglob',
              `NO_GLOB'  are  all completed).  Any arguments are propagated to
              the compadd builtin.

       _options_set and _options_unset
              These functions complete only set or  unset  options,  with  the
              same matching specification used in the _options function.

              Note  that  you  need to uncomment a few lines in the _main_com-
              plete function for these functions to work properly.  The  lines
              in  question  are  used  to  store the option settings in effect
              before the completion widget locally sets the options it  needs.
              Hence  these  functions are not generally used by the completion
              system.

       _parameters
              This is used to complete the names of shell parameters.

              The option `-g pattern'  limits  the  completion  to  parameters
              whose type matches the pattern.  The type of a parameter is that
              shown by `print ${(t)param}', hence judicious use of `*' in pat-
              tern is probably necessary.

              All other arguments are passed to the compadd builtin.

       _path_files
              This  function  is used throughout the completion system to com-
              plete filenames.  It allows completion of  partial  paths.   For
              example,   the   string   `/u/i/s/sig'   may   be  completed  to
              `/usr/include/sys/signal.h'.

              The options accepted by both _path_files and _files are:

              -f     Complete all filenames.  This is the default.

              -/     Specifies that only directories should be completed.

              -g pattern
                     Specifies that only files matching the pattern should  be
                     completed.

              -W paths
                     Specifies  path  prefixes that are to be prepended to the
                     string from the command line to  generate  the  filenames
                     but  that should not be inserted as completions nor shown
                     in completion listings.  Here, paths may be the  name  of
                     an  array  parameter, a literal list of paths enclosed in
                     parentheses or an absolute pathname.

              -F ignored-files
                     This behaves as for the corresponding option to the  com-
                     padd  builtin.   It gives direct control over which file-
                     names should be ignored.  If the option is  not  present,
                     the ignored-patterns style is used.

              Both  _path_files  and  _files also accept the following options
              which are passed to compadd: `-J', `-V', `-1', `-2', `-n', `-X',
              `-M', `-P', `-S', `-q', `-r', and `-R'.

              Finally,  the  _path_files  function   uses  the  styles expand,
              ambiguous, special-dirs, list-suffixes and  file-sort  described
              above.

       _pick_variant [ -b builtin-label ] [ -c
              command ] [ -r name ]
          label=pattern ... label [ args ... ]
              This  function is used to resolve situations where a single com-
              mand name requires  more  than  one  type  of  handling,  either
              because  it has more than one variant or because there is a name
              clash between two different commands.

              The command to run is taken from the first element of the  array
              words  unless this is overridden by the option -c.  This command
              is run and its output is compared with  a  series  of  patterns.
              Arguments  to  be  passed to the command can be specified at the
              end after all the other arguments.  The patterns to try in order
              are given by the arguments label=pattern; if the output of `com-
              mand args ...' contains pattern, then label is selected  as  the
              label  for  the command variant.  If none of the patterns match,
              the final command label is selected and status 1 is returned.

              If the `-b builtin-label' is given, the command is tested to see
              if  it  is  provided as a shell builtin, possibly autoloaded; if
              so, the label builtin-label is selected as  the  label  for  the
              variant.

              If  the  `-r  name'  is given, the label picked is stored in the
              parameter named name.

              The results are also  cached  in  the  _cmd_variant  associative
              array indexed by the name of the command run.

       _regex_arguments name spec ...
              This function generates a completion function name which matches
              the specifications spec ..., a set  of  regular  expressions  as
              described  below.   After running _regex_arguments, the function
              name should be called as a normal completion function.  The pat-
              tern  to  be matched is given by the contents of the words array
              up to the current cursor  position  joined  together  with  null
              characters; no quotation is applied.

              The  arguments  are grouped as sets of alternatives separated by
              `|', which are tried one after  the  other  until  one  matches.
              Each  alternative consists of a one or more specifications which
              are tried  left  to  right,  with  each  pattern  matched  being
              stripped  in  turn from the command line being tested, until all
              of the group succeeds or until one fails; in  the  latter  case,
              the  next  alternative is tried.  This structure can be repeated
              to arbitrary depth by using parentheses; matching proceeds  from
              inside to outside.

              A  special  procedure  is  applied  if  no test succeeds but the
              remaining command line string contains no null character (imply-
              ing  the  remaining word is the one for which completions are to
              be generated).  The  completion  target  is  restricted  to  the
              remaining  word  and  any actions for the corresponding patterns
              are executed.  In this case, nothing is stripped from  the  com-
              mand line string.  The order of evaluation of the actions can be
              determined by the tag-order style; the various formats supported
              by  _alternative  can  be used in action.  The descr is used for
              setting up the array parameter expl.

              Specification arguments take one of following  forms,  in  which
              metacharacters such as `(', `)', `#' and `|' should be quoted.

              /pattern/ [%lookahead%] [-guard] [:tag:descr:action]
                     This is a single primitive component.  The function tests
                     whether  the  combined  pattern  `(#b)((#B)pattern)looka-
                     head*'  matches  the command line string.  If so, `guard'
                     is evaluated and its return status is examined to  deter-
                     mine  if the test has succeeded.  The pattern string `[]'
                     is guaranteed never  to  match.   The  lookahead  is  not
                     stripped from the command line before the next pattern is
                     examined.

                     The argument starting with : is used in the  same  manner
                     as an argument to _alternative.

                     A  component is used as follows: pattern is tested to see
                     if the component already exists on the command line.   If
                     it  does,  any  following  specifications are examined to
                     find something to complete.  If a  component  is  reached
                     but  no  such pattern exists yet on the command line, the
                     string containing the action is used to generate  matches
                     to insert at that point.

              /pattern/+ [%lookahead%] [-guard] [:tag:descr:action]
                     This  is  similar to `/pattern/ ...' but the left part of
                     the command line string (i.e. the part already matched by
                     previous patterns) is also considered part of the comple-
                     tion target.

              /pattern/- [%lookahead%] [-guard] [:tag:descr:action]
                     This is similar to `/pattern/ ...' but the actions of the
                     current  and previously matched patterns are ignored even
                     if the following `pattern' matches the empty string.

              ( spec )
                     Parentheses may be used to groups specs; note each paren-
                     thesis is a single argument to _regex_arguments.

              spec # This allows any number of repetitions of spec.

              spec spec
                     The  two  specs  are to be matched one after the other as
                     described above.

              spec | spec
                     Either of the two specs can be matched.

              The function _regex_words can be used as a  helper  function  to
              generate  matches  for  a set of alternative words possibly with
              their own arguments as a command line argument.

              Examples:

                     _regex_arguments _tst /$'[^\0]#\0'/ \
                     /$'[^\0]#\0'/ :'compadd aaa'

              This generates a function _tst that completes aaa  as  its  only
              argument.   The  tag  and  description  for the action have been
              omitted for brevity (this works but is not recommended in normal
              use).   The  first  component matches the command word, which is
              arbitrary; the second matches  any argument.  As the argument is
              also  arbitrary, any following component would not depend on aaa
              being present.

                     _regex_arguments _tst /$'[^\0]#\0'/ \
                     /$'aaa\0'/ :'compadd aaa'

              This is a more typical use; it is  similar,  but  any  following
              patterns  would only match if aaa was present as the first argu-
              ment.

                     _regex_arguments _tst /$'[^\0]#\0'/ \( \
                     /$'aaa\0'/ :'compadd aaa' \
                     /$'bbb\0'/ :'compadd bbb' \) \#

              In this example, an indefinite number of command  arguments  may
              be completed.  Odd arguments are completed as aaa and even argu-
              ments as bbb.  Completion fails unless the set of  aaa  and  bbb
              arguments before the current one is matched correctly.

                     _regex_arguments _tst /$'[^\0]#\0'/ \
                     \( /$'aaa\0'/ :'compadd aaa' \| \
                     /$'bbb\0'/ :'compadd bbb' \) \#

              This  is similar, but either aaa or bbb may be completed for any
              argument.  In this case _regex_words could be used to generate a
              suitable expression for the arguments.


       _regex_words tag description spec ...
              This  function  can  be  used  to  generate  arguments  for  the
              _regex_arguments command which may  be  inserted  at  any  point
              where  a set of rules is expected.  The tag and description give
              a standard tag and description pertaining to  the  current  con-
              text.   Each spec contains two or three arguments separated by a
              colon: note that there is no leading colon in this case.

              Each spec gives one of a set of words that may be  completed  at
              this point, together with arguments.  It is thus roughly equiva-
              lent to the _arguments function when used in normal  (non-regex)
              completion.

              The  part  of  the spec before the first colon is the word to be
              completed.  This may contain a *; the entire  word,  before  and
              after  the  *  is  completed,  but only the text before the * is
              required for the context to be matched, so  that  further  argu-
              ments may be completed after the abbreviated form.

              The second part of spec is a description for the word being com-
              pleted.

              The optional third part of the spec describes how words  follow-
              ing  the one being completed are themselves to be completed.  It
              will be evaluated in order to avoid problems with quoting.  This
              means  that  typically  it contains a reference to an array con-
              taining previously generated regex arguments.

              The option -t term specifies a terminator for the  word  instead
              of the usual space.  This is handled as an auto-removable suffix
              in the manner of the option -s sep to _values.

              The result of the processing by _regex_words is  placed  in  the
              array reply, which should be made local to the calling function.
              If the set of words and arguments may be matched repeatedly, a #
              should be appended to the generated array at that point.

              For example:

                     local -a reply
                     _regex_words mydb-commands 'mydb commands' \
                       'add:add an entry to mydb:$mydb_add_cmds' \
                       'show:show entries in mydb'
                     _regex_arguments _mydb "$reply[@]"
                     _mydb "$@"

              This  shows a completion function for a command mydb which takes
              two command arguments, add and show.  show takes  no  arguments,
              while  the  arguments  for  add have already been prepared in an
              array mydb_add_cmds,  quite  possibly  by  a  previous  call  to
              _regex_words.

       _requested [ -x ] [ -12VJ ] tag [ name descr [ command args ... ] ]
              This  function  is called to decide whether a tag already regis-
              tered by a call to _tags (see below) has been requested  by  the
              user  and  hence  completion  should  be  performed  for it.  It
              returns status zero if the tag is requested and non-zero  other-
              wise.   The  function  is  typically used as part of a loop over
              different tags as follows:

                     _tags foo bar baz
                     while _tags; do
                       if _requested foo; then
                         ... # perform completion for foo
                       fi
                       ... # test the tags bar and baz in the same way
                       ... # exit loop if matches were generated
                     done

              Note that the test for whether matches  were  generated  is  not
              performed  until the end of the _tags loop.  This is so that the
              user can set the tag-order style to specify a set of tags to  be
              completed at the same time.

              If  name  and descr are given, _requested calls the _description
              function with these arguments together with the  options  passed
              to _requested.

              If  command  is  given,  the _all_labels function will be called
              immediately with the same arguments.  In simple cases this makes
              it  possible to perform the test for the tag and the matching in
              one go.  For example:

                     local expl ret=1
                     _tags foo bar baz
                     while _tags; do
                       _requested foo expl 'description' \
                           compadd foobar foobaz && ret=0
                       ...
                       (( ret )) || break
                     done

              If the command is not compadd, it must nevertheless be  prepared
              to handle the same options.

       _retrieve_cache cache_identifier
              This  function  retrieves  completion  information from the file
              given by cache_identifier, stored in a  directory  specified  by
              the  cache-path  style  which  defaults  to  ~/.zcompcache.  The
              return status is zero if retrieval was successful.  It will only
              attempt retrieval if the use-cache style is set, so you can call
              this function without worrying about whether the user wanted  to
              use the caching layer.

              See _store_cache below for more details.

       _sep_parts
              This  function  is  passed  alternating arrays and separators as
              arguments.  The arrays specify completions for parts of  strings
              to  be separated by the separators.  The arrays may be the names
              of array parameters or a quoted list of  words  in  parentheses.
              For   example,  with  the  array  `hosts=(ftp  news)'  the  call
              `_sep_parts '(foo bar)' @ hosts' will complete the  string   `f'
              to `foo' and the string `b@n' to `bar@news'.

              This  function  accepts  the  compadd  options `-V', `-J', `-1',
              `-2', `-n', `-X', `-M', `-P', `-S', `-r',  `-R',  and  `-q'  and
              passes them on to the compadd builtin used to add the matches.

       _setup tag [ group ]
              This function sets up the special parameters used by the comple-
              tion system appropriately for the tag given as the  first  argu-
              ment.     It   uses   the   styles   list-colors,   list-packed,
              list-rows-first, last-prompt, accept-exact, menu and force-list.

              The  optional  group supplies the name of the group in which the
              matches will be placed.  If it is not given, the tag is used  as
              the group name.

              This  function  is  called  automatically  from _description and
              hence is not normally called explicitly.

       _store_cache cache_identifier params ...
              This function, together with _retrieve_cache and _cache_invalid,
              implements  a  caching layer which can be used in any completion
              function.  Data obtained by  costly  operations  are  stored  in
              parameters; this function then dumps the values of those parame-
              ters to a file.  The data can then  be  retrieved  quickly  from
              that  file  via  _retrieve_cache, even in different instances of
              the shell.

              The cache_identifier specifies the file which the data should be
              dumped  to.   The file is stored in a directory specified by the
              cache-path style which defaults to ~/.zcompcache.  The remaining
              params arguments are the parameters to dump to the file.

              The  return status is zero if storage was successful.  The func-
              tion will only attempt storage if the use-cache style is set, so
              you  can  call  this function without worrying about whether the
              user wanted to use the caching layer.

              The completion function may avoid calling  _retrieve_cache  when
              it  already  has  the  completion  data available as parameters.
              However, in that case it should  call  _cache_invalid  to  check
              whether  the  data  in the parameters and in the cache are still
              valid.

              See the _perl_modules completion function for a  simple  example
              of the usage of the caching layer.

       _tags [ [ -C name ] tags ... ]
              If  called  with  arguments,  these are taken to be the names of
              tags valid for completions in the current context.   These  tags
              are stored internally and sorted by using the tag-order style.

              Next, _tags is called repeatedly without arguments from the same
              completion function.  This successively selects the first,  sec-
              ond,  etc. set of tags requested by the user.  The return status
              is zero if at least one of the tags is  requested  and  non-zero
              otherwise.   To  test  if  a  particular tag is to be tried, the
              _requested function should be called (see above).

              If `-C name' is given, name is temporarily stored in  the  argu-
              ment  field (the fifth) of the context in the curcontext parame-
              ter during the call to _tags; the field  is  restored  on  exit.
              This  allows _tags to use a more specific context without having
              to change and reset the curcontext parameter (which has the same
              effect).

       _values [ -O name ] [ -s sep ] [ -S sep ] [ -wC ] desc spec ...
              This  is  used to complete arbitrary keywords (values) and their
              arguments, or lists of such combinations.

              If the first argument is the option `-O name', it will  be  used
              in  the same way as by the _arguments function.  In other words,
              the elements of the name array will be passed  to  compadd  when
              executing an action.

              If the first argument (or the first argument after `-O name') is
              `-s', the next argument is used as the character that  separates
              multiple  values.   This  character is automatically added after
              each value in an auto-removable fashion (see below); all  values
              completed by `_values -s' appear in the same word on the command
              line, unlike completion using _arguments.  If this option is not
              present, only a single value will be completed per word.

              Normally,  _values  will  only use the current word to determine
              which values are already present on the command line  and  hence
              are not to be completed again.  If the -w option is given, other
              arguments are examined as well.

              The first non-option argument is used as a string to print as  a
              description before listing the values.

              All other arguments describe the possible values and their argu-
              ments in the same format used for the description of options  by
              the  _arguments  function (see above).  The only differences are
              that no minus or plus sign is required at the beginning,  values
              can  have  only  one argument, and the forms of action beginning
              with an equal sign are not supported.

              The character separating a value from its argument  can  be  set
              using  the  option -S (like -s, followed by the character to use
              as the separator in the next argument).  By default  the  equals
              sign will be used as the separator between values and arguments.

              Example:

                     _values -s , 'description' \
                             '*foo[bar]' \
                             '(two)*one[number]:first count:' \
                             'two[another number]::second count:(1 2 3)'

              This describes three possible values: `foo', `one',  and  `two'.
              The  first  is  described  as  `bar',  takes no argument and may
              appear more than once.  The second is described as `number', may
              appear   more  than  once,  and  takes  one  mandatory  argument
              described as `first count'; no action is specified, so  it  will
              not be completed.  The `(two)' at the beginning says that if the
              value `one' is on the line, the value `two' will  no  longer  be
              considered  a  possible  completion.   Finally,  the  last value
              (`two') is described as `another number' and takes  an  optional
              argument  described  as `second count' for which the completions
              (to appear after an `=') are `1', `2',  and  `3'.   The  _values
              function  will  complete lists of these values separated by com-
              mas.

              Like _arguments, this function temporarily adds another  context
              name  component to the arguments element (the fifth) of the cur-
              rent context while executing the action.  Here this name is just
              the name of the value for which the argument is completed.

              The  style verbose is used to decide if the descriptions for the
              values (but not those for the arguments) should be printed.

              The associative array val_args is  used  to  report  values  and
              their  arguments;  this works similarly to the opt_args associa-
              tive array used by _arguments.  Hence the function calling _val-
              ues  should  declare  the  local  parameters state, state_descr,
              line, context and val_args:

                     local context state state_descr line
                     typeset -A val_args

              when using an action of the form `->string'.  With this function
              the context parameter will be set to the name of the value whose
              argument is to be completed.  Note that for _values,  the  state
              and  state_descr  are scalars rather than arrays.  Only a single
              matching state is returned.

              Note also that _values normally adds the character used  as  the
              separator between values as an auto-removable suffix (similar to
              a `/' after a directory).  However, this is not possible  for  a
              `->string'  action as the matches for the argument are generated
              by the calling function.  To get the usual behaviour, the  call-
              ing  function can add the separator x as a suffix by passing the
              options `-qS x' either directly or indirectly to compadd.

              The option -C is treated in the same way as it is by _arguments.
              In  that  case  the  parameter  curcontext  should be made local
              instead of context (as described above).

       _wanted [ -x ] [ -C name ]  [ -12VJ ] tag name descr command args ...
              In many contexts, completion can only  generate  one  particular
              set of matches, usually corresponding to a single tag.  However,
              it is still  necessary  to  decide  whether  the  user  requires
              matches of this type.  This function is useful in such a case.

              The  arguments  to  _wanted are the same as those to _requested,
              i.e. arguments to be passed to _description.  However,  in  this
              case  the  command is not optional;  all the processing of tags,
              including the loop over both tags and tag labels and the genera-
              tion of matches, is carried out automatically by _wanted.

              Hence  to offer only one tag and immediately add the correspond-
              ing matches with the given description:

                     local expl
                     _wanted tag expl 'description' \
                         compadd matches...

              Note that, as for _requested, the command must be able to accept
              options to be passed down to compadd.

              Like  _tags  this function supports the -C option to give a dif-
              ferent name for the argument context field.  The -x  option  has
              the same meaning as for _description.



COMPLETION DIRECTORIES

       In  the  source distribution, the files are contained in various subdi-
       rectories of the Completion directory.  They may have been installed in
       the same structure, or into one single function directory.  The follow-
       ing is a description of the  files  found  in  the  original  directory
       structure.   If  you  wish to alter an installed file, you will need to
       copy it to some directory which appears earlier in your fpath than  the
       standard directory where it appears.

       Base   The  core functions and special completion widgets automatically
              bound to keys.  You will certainly need most  of  these,  though
              will  probably  not need to alter them.  Many of these are docu-
              mented above.

       Zsh    Functions for completing arguments of shell builtin commands and
              utility  functions  for  this.   Some  of these are also used by
              functions from the Unix directory.

       Unix   Functions for completing  arguments  of  external  commands  and
              suites  of  commands.   They may need modifying for your system,
              although in many cases some attempt is made to decide which ver-
              sion  of  a command is present.  For example, completion for the
              mount command tries to determine the system it  is  running  on,
              while  completion for many other utilities try to decide whether
              the GNU version of the command is in use, and hence whether  the
              --help option is supported.

       X, AIX, BSD, ...
              Completion  and  utility function for commands available only on
              some systems.  These are not arranged  hierarchically,  so,  for
              example, both the Linux and Debian directories, as well as the X
              directory, may be useful on your system.



ZSHCOMPCTL(1)                                                    ZSHCOMPCTL(1)




NAME

       zshcompctl - zsh programmable completion


DESCRIPTION

       This version of zsh has two ways of performing completion of  words  on
       the  command  line.  New users of the shell may prefer to use the newer
       and more powerful system based on shell functions; this is described in
       zshcompsys(1),  and  the  basic  shell  mechanisms which support it are
       described in zshcompwid(1).  This manual entry describes the older com-
       pctl command.
       compctl [ -CDT ] options [ command ... ]
       compctl  [ -CDT ] options [ -x pattern options - ... -- ] [ + options [
       -x ... -- ] ... [+] ] [ command ... ]
       compctl -M match-specs ...
       compctl -L [ -CDTM ] [ command ... ]
       compctl + command ...

       Control  the editor's completion behavior according to the supplied set
       of options.  Various editing commands, notably expand-or-complete-word,
       usually  bound  to  tab,  will  attempt to complete a word typed by the
       user, while others, notably delete-char-or-list, usually bound to ^D in
       EMACS editing mode, list the possibilities; compctl controls what those
       possibilities are.  They may for example be filenames (the most  common
       case,  and  hence  the  default),  shell  variables,  or  words  from a
       user-specified list.



COMMAND FLAGS

       Completion of the arguments of a command may be different for each com-
       mand  or may use the default.  The behavior when completing the command
       word itself may also be separately specified.  These correspond to  the
       following flags and arguments, all of which (except for -L) may be com-
       bined with any combination of the options described subsequently in the
       section `Option Flags':

       command ...
              controls completion for the named commands, which must be listed
              last on the command line.  If completion is attempted for a com-
              mand  with a pathname containing slashes and no completion defi-
              nition is found, the search is retried with  the  last  pathname
              component.  If  the command starts with a =, completion is tried
              with the pathname of the command.

              Any of the command strings may be patterns of the form  normally
              used for filename generation.  These should be quoted to protect
              them from immediate expansion; for example  the  command  string
              'foo*'  arranges  for  completion  of  the  words of any command
              beginning with foo.  When completion is attempted,  all  pattern
              completions  are  tried in the reverse order of their definition
              until one matches.  By default, completion then proceeds as nor-
              mal,  i.e.  the  shell will try to generate more matches for the
              specific command on the command line; this can be overridden  by
              including -tn in the flags for the pattern completion.

              Note that aliases are expanded before the command name is deter-
              mined unless the COMPLETE_ALIASES option is set.   Commands  may
              not be combined with the -C, -D or -T flags.

       -C     controls  completion  when the command word itself is being com-
              pleted.  If no compctl -C command has been issued,  the names of
              any  executable  command (whether in the path or specific to the
              shell, such as aliases or functions) are completed.

       -D     controls default completion behavior for the arguments  of  com-
              mands  not assigned any special behavior.  If no compctl -D com-
              mand has been issued, filenames are completed.

       -T     supplies completion flags to be used before any other processing
              is  done,  even  before processing for compctls defined for spe-
              cific commands.  This is especially useful  when  combined  with
              extended completion (the -x flag, see the section `Extended Com-
              pletion' below).  Using this flag you can define default  behav-
              ior  which  will apply to all commands without exception, or you
              can alter the standard behavior for all commands.  For  example,
              if  your  access to the user database is too slow and/or it con-
              tains too many users (so that completion after `~' is  too  slow
              to be usable), you can use

                     compctl -T -x 's[~] C[0,[^/]#]' -k friends -S/ -tn

              to  complete  the strings in the array friends after a `~'.  The
              C[...] argument is necessary so that this form  of  ~-completion
              is not tried after the directory name is finished.

       -L     lists  the existing completion behavior in a manner suitable for
              putting into a start-up script; the  existing  behavior  is  not
              changed.   Any  combination  of  the above forms, or the -M flag
              (which must follow the -L flag), may be specified, otherwise all
              defined  completions  are  listed.  Any other flags supplied are
              ignored.

       no argument
              If no argument is given, compctl lists all  defined  completions
              in an abbreviated form;  with a list of options, all completions
              with those flags set  (not  counting  extended  completion)  are
              listed.

       If  the  +  flag is alone and followed immediately by the command list,
       the completion behavior for all the commands in the list  is  reset  to
       the  default.   In  other  words,  completion will subsequently use the
       options specified by the -D flag.

       The form with -M as the first and only option defines  global  matching
       specifications (see zshcompwid). The match specifications given will be
       used for every completion attempt (only when using  compctl,  not  with
       the new completion system) and are tried in the order in which they are
       defined until one generates at least one match. E.g.:

              compctl -M '' 'm:{a-zA-Z}={A-Za-z}'

       This will first try completion without any global match  specifications
       (the  empty  string)  and,  if that generates no matches, will try case
       insensitive completion.



OPTION FLAGS

       [ -fcFBdeaRGovNAIOPZEnbjrzu/12 ]
       [ -k array ] [ -g globstring ] [ -s subststring ]
       [ -K function ]
       [ -Q ] [ -P prefix ] [ -S suffix ]
       [ -W file-prefix ] [ -H num pattern ]
       [ -q ] [ -X explanation ] [ -Y explanation ]
       [ -y func-or-var ] [ -l cmd ] [ -h cmd ] [ -U ]
       [ -t continue ] [ -J name ] [ -V name ]
       [ -M match-spec ]

       The remaining options specify the type of command arguments to look for
       during  completion.   Any  combination of these flags may be specified;
       the result is a sorted list of all the possibilities.  The options  are
       as follows.


   Simple Flags
       These produce completion lists made up by the shell itself:

       -f     Filenames and file system paths.

       -/     Just file system paths.

       -c     Command  names, including aliases, shell functions, builtins and
              reserved words.

       -F     Function names.

       -B     Names of builtin commands.

       -m     Names of external commands.

       -w     Reserved words.

       -a     Alias names.

       -R     Names of regular (non-global) aliases.

       -G     Names of global aliases.

       -d     This can be combined with -F, -B, -w, -a, -R and -G to get names
              of disabled functions, builtins, reserved words or aliases.

       -e     This  option (to show enabled commands) is in effect by default,
              but may be combined with -d; -de in combination with -F, -B, -w,
              -a,  -R  and  -G  will  complete  names  of functions, builtins,
              reserved words or aliases whether or not they are disabled.

       -o     Names of shell options (see zshoptions(1)).

       -v     Names of any variable defined in the shell.

       -N     Names of scalar (non-array) parameters.

       -A     Array names.

       -I     Names of integer variables.

       -O     Names of read-only variables.

       -p     Names of parameters used by the shell (including special parame-
              ters).

       -Z     Names of shell special parameters.

       -E     Names of environment variables.

       -n     Named directories.

       -b     Key binding names.

       -j     Job  names:   the  first  word of the job leader's command line.
              This is useful with the kill builtin.

       -r     Names of running jobs.

       -z     Names of suspended jobs.

       -u     User names.


   Flags with Arguments
       These have user supplied arguments to determine how the list of comple-
       tions is to be made up:

       -k array
              Names  taken from the elements of $array (note that the `$' does
              not appear on the command line).   Alternatively,  the  argument
              array itself may be a set of space- or comma-separated values in
              parentheses, in which any delimiter may be escaped with a  back-
              slash; in this case the argument should be quoted.  For example,

                     compctl -k "(cputime filesize datasize stacksize
                                 coredumpsize resident descriptors)" limit

       -g globstring
              The globstring is expanded using filename globbing; it should be
              quoted  to  protect  it  from immediate expansion. The resulting
              filenames are taken as the  possible  completions.   Use  `*(/)'
              instead  of `*/' for directories.  The fignore special parameter
              is not applied to the resulting files.  More  than  one  pattern
              may  be given separated by blanks. (Note that brace expansion is
              not part of globbing.  Use the  syntax  `(either|or)'  to  match
              alternatives.)

       -s subststring
              The  subststring  is  split  into words and these words are than
              expanded using all shell expansion mechanisms (see  zshexpn(1)).
              The resulting words are taken as possible completions.  The fig-
              nore special parameter is not applied to  the  resulting  files.
              Note that -g is faster for filenames.

       -K function
              Call the given function to get the completions.  Unless the name
              starts with an underscore, the function is passed two arguments:
              the  prefix and the suffix of the word on which completion is to
              be attempted, in other words those characters before the  cursor
              position, and those from the cursor position onwards.  The whole
              command line can be accessed with the -c and  -l  flags  of  the
              read  builtin.  The function should set the variable reply to an
              array containing the completions (one completion  per  element);
              note  that reply should not be made local to the function.  From
              such a function the command line can be accessed with the -c and
              -l flags to the read builtin.  For example,

                     function whoson { reply=(`users`); }
                     compctl -K whoson talk

              completes only logged-on users after `talk'.  Note that `whoson'
              must return an array, so `reply=`users`' would be incorrect.

       -H num pattern
              The possible completions are taken from  the  last  num  history
              lines.   Only  words matching pattern are taken.  If num is zero
              or negative the whole history is searched and if pattern is  the
              empty  string  all words are taken (as with `*').  A typical use
              is

                     compctl -D -f + -H 0 ''

              which forces completion to look back in the history list  for  a
              word if no filename matches.


   Control Flags
       These do not directly specify types of name to be completed, but manip-
       ulate the options that do:

       -Q     This instructs the shell not to quote any metacharacters in  the
              possible  completions.  Normally the results of a completion are
              inserted into the command line with any metacharacters quoted so
              that  they are interpreted as normal characters.  This is appro-
              priate for filenames and ordinary strings.  However, for special
              effects,  such  as inserting a backquoted expression from a com-
              pletion array (-k) so that the expression will not be  evaluated
              until the complete line is executed, this option must be used.

       -P prefix
              The  prefix  is  inserted  just before the completed string; any
              initial part already typed will be completed and the whole  pre-
              fix ignored for completion purposes.  For example,

                     compctl -j -P "%" kill

              inserts  a  `%'  after  the  kill command and then completes job
              names.

       -S suffix
              When a completion is found the suffix is inserted after the com-
              pleted