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terminfo(5)                      File Formats                      terminfo(5)




NAME

       terminfo - terminal capability data base


SYNOPSIS

       /opt/local/share/terminfo/*/*


DESCRIPTION

       Terminfo  is  a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs such as nvi(1), rogue(1) and  libraries  such  as  curses(3X).
       Terminfo describes terminals by giving a set of capabilities which they
       have, by specifying how to perform screen operations, and by specifying
       padding  requirements  and  initialization  sequences.   This describes
       ncurses version 6.0 (patch 20170520).

   Terminfo Entry Syntax
       Entries in terminfo consist of a sequence of fields:

       o   Each field ends with a comma "," (embedded commas  may  be  escaped
           with a backslash or written as "\054").

       o   White space between fields is ignored.

       o   The first field in a terminfo entry begins in the first column.

       o   Newlines  and  leading  whitespace (spaces or tabs) may be used for
           formatting entries for readability.  These are removed from  parsed
           entries.

           The  infocmp  -f and -W options rely on this to format if-then-else
           expressions, or to enforce maximum line-width.  The resulting  for-
           matted terminal description can be read by tic.

       o   The  first  field for each terminal gives the names which are known
           for the terminal, separated by "|" characters.

           The first name given is the most common abbreviation for the termi-
           nal  (its  primary name), the last name given should be a long name
           fully identifying the terminal (see longname(3X)), and  all  others
           are treated as synonyms (aliases) for the primary terminal name.

           X/Open  Curses  advises  that  all  names but the last should be in
           lower case and contain no blanks; the last name  may  well  contain
           upper case and blanks for readability.

           This  implementation  is not so strict; it allows mixed case in the
           primary name and aliases.  If the last name has no embedded blanks,
           it  allows  that  to  be both an alias and a verbose name (but will
           warn about this ambiguity).

       o   Lines beginning with a "#" in the first column are treated as  com-
           ments.

           While comment lines are legal at any point, the output of captoinfo
           and infotocap (aliases for tic) will move comments  so  they  occur
           only between entries.

       Terminal  names  (except  for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen
       using the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware mak-
       ing  up the terminal should have a root name, thus "hp2621".  This name
       should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in, or user
       preferences,  should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode suf-
       fix.  Thus, a vt100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w.  The following
       suffixes should be used where possible:


            Suffix                  Meaning                   Example
            -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
            -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
            -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
            -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
            -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
            -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
            -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
            -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
            -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
            -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
            -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
            -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb
            -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

   Terminfo Capabilities Syntax
       The  terminfo  entry  consists  of several capabilities, i.e., features
       that the terminal has, or methods for exercising  the  terminal's  fea-
       tures.

       After the first field (giving the name(s) of the terminal entry), there
       should be one or more capability fields.  These are boolean, numeric or
       string names with corresponding values:

       o   Boolean  capabilities  are  true  when  present, false when absent.
           There is no explicit value for boolean capabilities.

       o   Numeric capabilities  have  a  "#"  following  the  name,  then  an
           unsigned decimal integer value.

       o   String  capabilities  have a "=" following the name, then an string
           of characters making up the capability value.

           String capabilities can be split into multiple lines, just  as  the
           fields  comprising  a  terminal  entry  can  be split into multiple
           lines.  While blanks between fields are  ignored,  blanks  embedded
           within  a string value are retained, except for leading blanks on a
           line.

       Any capability can be canceled,  i.e.,  suppressed  from  the  terminal
       entry, by following its name with "@" rather than a capability value.

   Similar Terminals
       If  there  are  two  very  similar  terminals, one (the variant) can be
       defined as being just like the other (the  base)  with  certain  excep-
       tions.  In the definition of the variant, the string capability use can
       be given with the name of the base terminal:

       o   The capabilities given before use override those in the  base  type
           named by use.

       o   If  there are multiple use capabilities, they are merged in reverse
           order.  That is, the rightmost use reference  is  processed  first,
           then the one to its left, and so forth.

       o   Capabilities  given  explicitly in the entry override those brought
           in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use ref-
       erence  that  imports it, where xx is the capability.  For example, the
       entry

              2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and
       hence  does  not  turn  on the function key labels when in visual mode.
       This is useful for different modes for a  terminal,  or  for  different
       user preferences.

       An entry included via use can contain canceled capabilities, which have
       the same effect as if those cancels were inline in the  using  terminal
       entry.

   Predefined Capabilities
       The  following  is  a  complete table of the capabilities included in a
       terminfo description block and available to  terminfo-using  code.   In
       each line of the table,

       The  variable  is  the  name  by  which the programmer (at the terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The capname is the short name used in the text of the database, and  is
       used  by  a  person updating the database.  Whenever possible, capnames
       are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard
       (now  superseded  by  ECMA-48,  which  uses  identical  or very similar
       names).  Semantics are also intended to match those of  the  specifica-
       tion.

       The  termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some capabilities
       are new, and have names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of  5
       characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in
       the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally, the description field attempts to convey the semantics of  the
       capability.  You may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in  the  description  field  indicates that the string is passed
              through tparm with parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the  number  of
              lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.


       These are the boolean capabilities:


               Variable              Cap-       TCap          Description
               Booleans              name       Code
       auto_left_margin              bw         bw        cub1 wraps from col-
                                                          umn 0 to last column
       auto_right_margin             am         am        terminal has auto-
                                                          matic margins
       back_color_erase              bce        ut        screen erased with
                                                          background color
       can_change                    ccc        cc        terminal can re-
                                                          define existing col-
                                                          ors
       ceol_standout_glitch          xhp        xs        standout not erased
                                                          by overwriting (hp)


       col_addr_glitch               xhpa       YA        only positive motion
                                                          for hpa/mhpa caps
       cpi_changes_res               cpix       YF        changing character
                                                          pitch changes reso-
                                                          lution
       cr_cancels_micro_mode         crxm       YB        using cr turns off
                                                          micro mode
       dest_tabs_magic_smso          xt         xt        tabs destructive,
                                                          magic so char
                                                          (t1061)
       eat_newline_glitch            xenl       xn        newline ignored
                                                          after 80 cols (con-
                                                          cept)
       erase_overstrike              eo         eo        can erase over-
                                                          strikes with a blank
       generic_type                  gn         gn        generic line type
       hard_copy                     hc         hc        hardcopy terminal
       hard_cursor                   chts       HC        cursor is hard to
                                                          see
       has_meta_key                  km         km        Has a meta key
                                                          (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
       has_print_wheel               daisy      YC        printer needs opera-
                                                          tor to change char-
                                                          acter set
       has_status_line               hs         hs        has extra status
                                                          line
       hue_lightness_saturation      hls        hl        terminal uses only
                                                          HLS color notation
                                                          (Tektronix)
       insert_null_glitch            in         in        insert mode distin-
                                                          guishes nulls
       lpi_changes_res               lpix       YG        changing line pitch
                                                          changes resolution
       memory_above                  da         da        display may be
                                                          retained above the
                                                          screen
       memory_below                  db         db        display may be
                                                          retained below the
                                                          screen
       move_insert_mode              mir        mi        safe to move while
                                                          in insert mode
       move_standout_mode            msgr       ms        safe to move while
                                                          in standout mode
       needs_xon_xoff                nxon       nx        padding will not
                                                          work, xon/xoff
                                                          required
       no_esc_ctlc                   xsb        xb        beehive (f1=escape,
                                                          f2=ctrl C)
       no_pad_char                   npc        NP        pad character does
                                                          not exist
       non_dest_scroll_region        ndscr      ND        scrolling region is
                                                          non-destructive
       non_rev_rmcup                 nrrmc      NR        smcup does not
                                                          reverse rmcup
       over_strike                   os         os        terminal can over-
                                                          strike
       prtr_silent                   mc5i       5i        printer will not
                                                          echo on screen
       row_addr_glitch               xvpa       YD        only positive motion
                                                          for vpa/mvpa caps
       semi_auto_right_margin        sam        YE        printing in last
                                                          column causes cr
       status_line_esc_ok            eslok      es        escape can be used
                                                          on the status line


       tilde_glitch                  hz         hz        cannot print ~'s
                                                          (Hazeltine)
       transparent_underline         ul         ul        underline character
                                                          overstrikes
       xon_xoff                      xon        xo        terminal uses
                                                          xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:


            Variable             Cap-         TCap            Description
             Numeric             name         Code
       columns                   cols         co          number of columns in
                                                          a line
       init_tabs                 it           it          tabs initially every
                                                          # spaces
       label_height              lh           lh          rows in each label
       label_width               lw           lw          columns in each
                                                          label
       lines                     lines        li          number of lines on
                                                          screen or page
       lines_of_memory           lm           lm          lines of memory if >
                                                          line. 0 means varies
       magic_cookie_glitch       xmc          sg          number of blank
                                                          characters left by
                                                          smso or rmso
       max_attributes            ma           ma          maximum combined
                                                          attributes terminal
                                                          can handle
       max_colors                colors       Co          maximum number of
                                                          colors on screen
       max_pairs                 pairs        pa          maximum number of
                                                          color-pairs on the
                                                          screen
       maximum_windows           wnum         MW          maximum number of
                                                          definable windows
       no_color_video            ncv          NC          video attributes
                                                          that cannot be used
                                                          with colors
       num_labels                nlab         Nl          number of labels on
                                                          screen
       padding_baud_rate         pb           pb          lowest baud rate
                                                          where padding needed
       virtual_terminal          vt           vt          virtual terminal
                                                          number (CB/unix)
       width_status_line         wsl          ws          number of columns in
                                                          status line

       The following numeric capabilities  are  present  in  the  SVr4.0  term
       structure,  but  are  not yet documented in the man page.  They came in
       with SVr4's printer support.


             Variable             Cap-         TCap           Description
             Numeric              name         Code
       bit_image_entwining        bitwin       Yo         number of passes for
                                                          each bit-image row
       bit_image_type             bitype       Yp         type of bit-image
                                                          device
       buffer_capacity            bufsz        Ya         numbers of bytes
                                                          buffered before
                                                          printing
       buttons                    btns         BT         number of buttons on
                                                          mouse


       dot_horz_spacing           spinh        Yc         spacing of dots hor-
                                                          izontally in dots
                                                          per inch
       dot_vert_spacing           spinv        Yb         spacing of pins ver-
                                                          tically in pins per
                                                          inch
       max_micro_address          maddr        Yd         maximum value in
                                                          micro_..._address
       max_micro_jump             mjump        Ye         maximum value in
                                                          parm_..._micro
       micro_col_size             mcs          Yf         character step size
                                                          when in micro mode
       micro_line_size            mls          Yg         line step size when
                                                          in micro mode
       number_of_pins             npins        Yh         numbers of pins in
                                                          print-head
       output_res_char            orc          Yi         horizontal resolu-
                                                          tion in units per
                                                          line
       output_res_horz_inch       orhi         Yk         horizontal resolu-
                                                          tion in units per
                                                          inch
       output_res_line            orl          Yj         vertical resolution
                                                          in units per line
       output_res_vert_inch       orvi         Yl         vertical resolution
                                                          in units per inch
       print_rate                 cps          Ym         print rate in char-
                                                          acters per second
       wide_char_size             widcs        Yn         character step size
                                                          when in double wide
                                                          mode

       These are the string capabilities:


               Variable              Cap-       TCap          Description
                String               name       Code
       acs_chars                     acsc       ac        graphics charset
                                                          pairs, based on
                                                          vt100
       back_tab                      cbt        bt        back tab (P)
       bell                          bel        bl        audible signal
                                                          (bell) (P)
       carriage_return               cr         cr        carriage return (P*)
                                                          (P*)
       change_char_pitch             cpi        ZA        Change number of
                                                          characters per inch
                                                          to #1
       change_line_pitch             lpi        ZB        Change number of
                                                          lines per inch to #1
       change_res_horz               chr        ZC        Change horizontal
                                                          resolution to #1
       change_res_vert               cvr        ZD        Change vertical res-
                                                          olution to #1
       change_scroll_region          csr        cs        change region to
                                                          line #1 to line #2
                                                          (P)
       char_padding                  rmp        rP        like ip but when in
                                                          insert mode
       clear_all_tabs                tbc        ct        clear all tab stops
                                                          (P)
       clear_margins                 mgc        MC        clear right and left
                                                          soft margins
       clear_screen                  clear      cl        clear screen and
                                                          home cursor (P*)

       clr_bol                       el1        cb        Clear to beginning
                                                          of line
       clr_eol                       el         ce        clear to end of line
                                                          (P)
       clr_eos                       ed         cd        clear to end of
                                                          screen (P*)
       column_address                hpa        ch        horizontal position
                                                          #1, absolute (P)
       command_character             cmdch      CC        terminal settable
                                                          cmd character in
                                                          prototype !?
       create_window                 cwin       CW        define a window #1
                                                          from #2,#3 to #4,#5
       cursor_address                cup        cm        move to row #1 col-
                                                          umns #2
       cursor_down                   cud1       do        down one line
       cursor_home                   home       ho        home cursor (if no
                                                          cup)
       cursor_invisible              civis      vi        make cursor invisi-
                                                          ble
       cursor_left                   cub1       le        move left one space
       cursor_mem_address            mrcup      CM        memory relative cur-
                                                          sor addressing, move
                                                          to row #1 columns #2
       cursor_normal                 cnorm      ve        make cursor appear
                                                          normal (undo
                                                          civis/cvvis)
       cursor_right                  cuf1       nd        non-destructive
                                                          space (move right
                                                          one space)
       cursor_to_ll                  ll         ll        last line, first
                                                          column (if no cup)
       cursor_up                     cuu1       up        up one line
       cursor_visible                cvvis      vs        make cursor very
                                                          visible
       define_char                   defc       ZE        Define a character
                                                          #1, #2 dots wide,
                                                          descender #3
       delete_character              dch1       dc        delete character
                                                          (P*)
       delete_line                   dl1        dl        delete line (P*)
       dial_phone                    dial       DI        dial number #1
       dis_status_line               dsl        ds        disable status line
       display_clock                 dclk       DK        display clock
       down_half_line                hd         hd        half a line down
       ena_acs                       enacs      eA        enable alternate
                                                          char set
       enter_alt_charset_mode        smacs      as        start alternate
                                                          character set (P)
       enter_am_mode                 smam       SA        turn on automatic
                                                          margins
       enter_blink_mode              blink      mb        turn on blinking
       enter_bold_mode               bold       md        turn on bold (extra
                                                          bright) mode
       enter_ca_mode                 smcup      ti        string to start pro-
                                                          grams using cup
       enter_delete_mode             smdc       dm        enter delete mode
       enter_dim_mode                dim        mh        turn on half-bright
                                                          mode
       enter_doublewide_mode         swidm      ZF        Enter double-wide
                                                          mode
       enter_draft_quality           sdrfq      ZG        Enter draft-quality
                                                          mode
       enter_insert_mode             smir       im        enter insert mode
       enter_italics_mode            sitm       ZH        Enter italic mode

       enter_leftward_mode           slm        ZI        Start leftward car-
                                                          riage motion
       enter_micro_mode              smicm      ZJ        Start micro-motion
                                                          mode
       enter_near_letter_quality     snlq       ZK        Enter NLQ mode
       enter_normal_quality          snrmq      ZL        Enter normal-quality
                                                          mode
       enter_protected_mode          prot       mp        turn on protected
                                                          mode
       enter_reverse_mode            rev        mr        turn on reverse
                                                          video mode
       enter_secure_mode             invis      mk        turn on blank mode
                                                          (characters invisi-
                                                          ble)
       enter_shadow_mode             sshm       ZM        Enter shadow-print
                                                          mode
       enter_standout_mode           smso       so        begin standout mode
       enter_subscript_mode          ssubm      ZN        Enter subscript mode
       enter_superscript_mode        ssupm      ZO        Enter superscript
                                                          mode
       enter_underline_mode          smul       us        begin underline mode
       enter_upward_mode             sum        ZP        Start upward car-
                                                          riage motion
       enter_xon_mode                smxon      SX        turn on xon/xoff
                                                          handshaking
       erase_chars                   ech        ec        erase #1 characters
                                                          (P)
       exit_alt_charset_mode         rmacs      ae        end alternate char-
                                                          acter set (P)
       exit_am_mode                  rmam       RA        turn off automatic
                                                          margins
       exit_attribute_mode           sgr0       me        turn off all
                                                          attributes
       exit_ca_mode                  rmcup      te        strings to end pro-
                                                          grams using cup
       exit_delete_mode              rmdc       ed        end delete mode
       exit_doublewide_mode          rwidm      ZQ        End double-wide mode
       exit_insert_mode              rmir       ei        exit insert mode
       exit_italics_mode             ritm       ZR        End italic mode
       exit_leftward_mode            rlm        ZS        End left-motion mode
       exit_micro_mode               rmicm      ZT        End micro-motion
                                                          mode
       exit_shadow_mode              rshm       ZU        End shadow-print
                                                          mode
       exit_standout_mode            rmso       se        exit standout mode
       exit_subscript_mode           rsubm      ZV        End subscript mode
       exit_superscript_mode         rsupm      ZW        End superscript mode
       exit_underline_mode           rmul       ue        exit underline mode
       exit_upward_mode              rum        ZX        End reverse charac-
                                                          ter motion
       exit_xon_mode                 rmxon      RX        turn off xon/xoff
                                                          handshaking
       fixed_pause                   pause      PA        pause for 2-3 sec-
                                                          onds
       flash_hook                    hook       fh        flash switch hook
       flash_screen                  flash      vb        visible bell (may
                                                          not move cursor)
       form_feed                     ff         ff        hardcopy terminal
                                                          page eject (P*)
       from_status_line              fsl        fs        return from status
                                                          line
       goto_window                   wingo      WG        go to window #1
       hangup                        hup        HU        hang-up phone
       init_1string                  is1        i1        initialization
                                                          string

       init_2string                  is2        is        initialization
                                                          string
       init_3string                  is3        i3        initialization
                                                          string
       init_file                     if         if        name of initializa-
                                                          tion file
       init_prog                     iprog      iP        path name of program
                                                          for initialization
       initialize_color              initc      Ic        initialize color #1
                                                          to (#2,#3,#4)
       initialize_pair               initp      Ip        Initialize color
                                                          pair #1 to
                                                          fg=(#2,#3,#4),
                                                          bg=(#5,#6,#7)
       insert_character              ich1       ic        insert character (P)
       insert_line                   il1        al        insert line (P*)
       insert_padding                ip         ip        insert padding after
                                                          inserted character
       key_a1                        ka1        K1        upper left of keypad
       key_a3                        ka3        K3        upper right of key-
                                                          pad
       key_b2                        kb2        K2        center of keypad
       key_backspace                 kbs        kb        backspace key
       key_beg                       kbeg       @1        begin key
       key_btab                      kcbt       kB        back-tab key
       key_c1                        kc1        K4        lower left of keypad
       key_c3                        kc3        K5        lower right of key-
                                                          pad
       key_cancel                    kcan       @2        cancel key
       key_catab                     ktbc       ka        clear-all-tabs key
       key_clear                     kclr       kC        clear-screen or
                                                          erase key
       key_close                     kclo       @3        close key
       key_command                   kcmd       @4        command key
       key_copy                      kcpy       @5        copy key
       key_create                    kcrt       @6        create key
       key_ctab                      kctab      kt        clear-tab key
       key_dc                        kdch1      kD        delete-character key
       key_dl                        kdl1       kL        delete-line key
       key_down                      kcud1      kd        down-arrow key
       key_eic                       krmir      kM        sent by rmir or smir
                                                          in insert mode
       key_end                       kend       @7        end key
       key_enter                     kent       @8        enter/send key
       key_eol                       kel        kE        clear-to-end-of-line
                                                          key
       key_eos                       ked        kS        clear-to-end-of-
                                                          screen key
       key_exit                      kext       @9        exit key
       key_f0                        kf0        k0        F0 function key
       key_f1                        kf1        k1        F1 function key
       key_f10                       kf10       k;        F10 function key
       key_f11                       kf11       F1        F11 function key
       key_f12                       kf12       F2        F12 function key
       key_f13                       kf13       F3        F13 function key
       key_f14                       kf14       F4        F14 function key
       key_f15                       kf15       F5        F15 function key
       key_f16                       kf16       F6        F16 function key
       key_f17                       kf17       F7        F17 function key
       key_f18                       kf18       F8        F18 function key
       key_f19                       kf19       F9        F19 function key
       key_f2                        kf2        k2        F2 function key
       key_f20                       kf20       FA        F20 function key
       key_f21                       kf21       FB        F21 function key
       key_f22                       kf22       FC        F22 function key

       key_f23                       kf23       FD        F23 function key
       key_f24                       kf24       FE        F24 function key
       key_f25                       kf25       FF        F25 function key
       key_f26                       kf26       FG        F26 function key
       key_f27                       kf27       FH        F27 function key
       key_f28                       kf28       FI        F28 function key
       key_f29                       kf29       FJ        F29 function key
       key_f3                        kf3        k3        F3 function key
       key_f30                       kf30       FK        F30 function key
       key_f31                       kf31       FL        F31 function key
       key_f32                       kf32       FM        F32 function key
       key_f33                       kf33       FN        F33 function key
       key_f34                       kf34       FO        F34 function key
       key_f35                       kf35       FP        F35 function key
       key_f36                       kf36       FQ        F36 function key
       key_f37                       kf37       FR        F37 function key
       key_f38                       kf38       FS        F38 function key
       key_f39                       kf39       FT        F39 function key
       key_f4                        kf4        k4        F4 function key
       key_f40                       kf40       FU        F40 function key
       key_f41                       kf41       FV        F41 function key
       key_f42                       kf42       FW        F42 function key
       key_f43                       kf43       FX        F43 function key
       key_f44                       kf44       FY        F44 function key
       key_f45                       kf45       FZ        F45 function key
       key_f46                       kf46       Fa        F46 function key
       key_f47                       kf47       Fb        F47 function key
       key_f48                       kf48       Fc        F48 function key
       key_f49                       kf49       Fd        F49 function key
       key_f5                        kf5        k5        F5 function key
       key_f50                       kf50       Fe        F50 function key
       key_f51                       kf51       Ff        F51 function key
       key_f52                       kf52       Fg        F52 function key
       key_f53                       kf53       Fh        F53 function key
       key_f54                       kf54       Fi        F54 function key
       key_f55                       kf55       Fj        F55 function key
       key_f56                       kf56       Fk        F56 function key
       key_f57                       kf57       Fl        F57 function key
       key_f58                       kf58       Fm        F58 function key
       key_f59                       kf59       Fn        F59 function key
       key_f6                        kf6        k6        F6 function key
       key_f60                       kf60       Fo        F60 function key
       key_f61                       kf61       Fp        F61 function key
       key_f62                       kf62       Fq        F62 function key
       key_f63                       kf63       Fr        F63 function key
       key_f7                        kf7        k7        F7 function key
       key_f8                        kf8        k8        F8 function key
       key_f9                        kf9        k9        F9 function key
       key_find                      kfnd       @0        find key
       key_help                      khlp       %1        help key
       key_home                      khome      kh        home key
       key_ic                        kich1      kI        insert-character key
       key_il                        kil1       kA        insert-line key
       key_left                      kcub1      kl        left-arrow key
       key_ll                        kll        kH        lower-left key (home
                                                          down)
       key_mark                      kmrk       %2        mark key
       key_message                   kmsg       %3        message key
       key_move                      kmov       %4        move key
       key_next                      knxt       %5        next key
       key_npage                     knp        kN        next-page key
       key_open                      kopn       %6        open key
       key_options                   kopt       %7        options key
       key_ppage                     kpp        kP        previous-page key
       key_previous                  kprv       %8        previous key

       key_print                     kprt       %9        print key
       key_redo                      krdo       %0        redo key
       key_reference                 kref       &1        reference key
       key_refresh                   krfr       &2        refresh key
       key_replace                   krpl       &3        replace key
       key_restart                   krst       &4        restart key
       key_resume                    kres       &5        resume key
       key_right                     kcuf1      kr        right-arrow key
       key_save                      ksav       &6        save key
       key_sbeg                      kBEG       &9        shifted begin key
       key_scancel                   kCAN       &0        shifted cancel key
       key_scommand                  kCMD       *1        shifted command key
       key_scopy                     kCPY       *2        shifted copy key
       key_screate                   kCRT       *3        shifted create key
       key_sdc                       kDC        *4        shifted delete-char-
                                                          acter key
       key_sdl                       kDL        *5        shifted delete-line
                                                          key
       key_select                    kslt       *6        select key
       key_send                      kEND       *7        shifted end key
       key_seol                      kEOL       *8        shifted clear-to-
                                                          end-of-line key
       key_sexit                     kEXT       *9        shifted exit key
       key_sf                        kind       kF        scroll-forward key
       key_sfind                     kFND       *0        shifted find key
       key_shelp                     kHLP       #1        shifted help key
       key_shome                     kHOM       #2        shifted home key
       key_sic                       kIC        #3        shifted insert-char-
                                                          acter key
       key_sleft                     kLFT       #4        shifted left-arrow
                                                          key
       key_smessage                  kMSG       %a        shifted message key
       key_smove                     kMOV       %b        shifted move key
       key_snext                     kNXT       %c        shifted next key
       key_soptions                  kOPT       %d        shifted options key
       key_sprevious                 kPRV       %e        shifted previous key
       key_sprint                    kPRT       %f        shifted print key
       key_sr                        kri        kR        scroll-backward key
       key_sredo                     kRDO       %g        shifted redo key
       key_sreplace                  kRPL       %h        shifted replace key
       key_sright                    kRIT       %i        shifted right-arrow
                                                          key
       key_srsume                    kRES       %j        shifted resume key
       key_ssave                     kSAV       !1        shifted save key
       key_ssuspend                  kSPD       !2        shifted suspend key
       key_stab                      khts       kT        set-tab key
       key_sundo                     kUND       !3        shifted undo key
       key_suspend                   kspd       &7        suspend key
       key_undo                      kund       &8        undo key
       key_up                        kcuu1      ku        up-arrow key
       keypad_local                  rmkx       ke        leave 'key-
                                                          board_transmit' mode
       keypad_xmit                   smkx       ks        enter 'key-
                                                          board_transmit' mode
       lab_f0                        lf0        l0        label on function
                                                          key f0 if not f0
       lab_f1                        lf1        l1        label on function
                                                          key f1 if not f1
       lab_f10                       lf10       la        label on function
                                                          key f10 if not f10
       lab_f2                        lf2        l2        label on function
                                                          key f2 if not f2
       lab_f3                        lf3        l3        label on function
                                                          key f3 if not f3


       lab_f4                        lf4        l4        label on function
                                                          key f4 if not f4
       lab_f5                        lf5        l5        label on function
                                                          key f5 if not f5
       lab_f6                        lf6        l6        label on function
                                                          key f6 if not f6
       lab_f7                        lf7        l7        label on function
                                                          key f7 if not f7
       lab_f8                        lf8        l8        label on function
                                                          key f8 if not f8
       lab_f9                        lf9        l9        label on function
                                                          key f9 if not f9
       label_format                  fln        Lf        label format
       label_off                     rmln       LF        turn off soft labels
       label_on                      smln       LO        turn on soft labels
       meta_off                      rmm        mo        turn off meta mode
       meta_on                       smm        mm        turn on meta mode
                                                          (8th-bit on)
       micro_column_address          mhpa       ZY        Like column_address
                                                          in micro mode
       micro_down                    mcud1      ZZ        Like cursor_down in
                                                          micro mode
       micro_left                    mcub1      Za        Like cursor_left in
                                                          micro mode
       micro_right                   mcuf1      Zb        Like cursor_right in
                                                          micro mode
       micro_row_address             mvpa       Zc        Like row_address #1
                                                          in micro mode
       micro_up                      mcuu1      Zd        Like cursor_up in
                                                          micro mode
       newline                       nel        nw        newline (behave like
                                                          cr followed by lf)
       order_of_pins                 porder     Ze        Match software bits
                                                          to print-head pins
       orig_colors                   oc         oc        Set all color pairs
                                                          to the original ones
       orig_pair                     op         op        Set default pair to
                                                          its original value
       pad_char                      pad        pc        padding char
                                                          (instead of null)
       parm_dch                      dch        DC        delete #1 characters
                                                          (P*)
       parm_delete_line              dl         DL        delete #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_cursor              cud        DO        down #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_micro               mcud       Zf        Like parm_down_cur-
                                                          sor in micro mode
       parm_ich                      ich        IC        insert #1 characters
                                                          (P*)
       parm_index                    indn       SF        scroll forward #1
                                                          lines (P)
       parm_insert_line              il         AL        insert #1 lines (P*)
       parm_left_cursor              cub        LE        move #1 characters
                                                          to the left (P)
       parm_left_micro               mcub       Zg        Like parm_left_cur-
                                                          sor in micro mode
       parm_right_cursor             cuf        RI        move #1 characters
                                                          to the right (P*)
       parm_right_micro              mcuf       Zh        Like parm_right_cur-
                                                          sor in micro mode
       parm_rindex                   rin        SR        scroll back #1 lines
                                                          (P)
       parm_up_cursor                cuu        UP        up #1 lines (P*)
       parm_up_micro                 mcuu       Zi        Like parm_up_cursor
                                                          in micro mode


       pkey_key                      pfkey      pk        program function key
                                                          #1 to type string #2
       pkey_local                    pfloc      pl        program function key
                                                          #1 to execute string
                                                          #2
       pkey_xmit                     pfx        px        program function key
                                                          #1 to transmit
                                                          string #2
       plab_norm                     pln        pn        program label #1 to
                                                          show string #2
       print_screen                  mc0        ps        print contents of
                                                          screen
       prtr_non                      mc5p       pO        turn on printer for
                                                          #1 bytes
       prtr_off                      mc4        pf        turn off printer
       prtr_on                       mc5        po        turn on printer
       pulse                         pulse      PU        select pulse dialing
       quick_dial                    qdial      QD        dial number #1 with-
                                                          out checking
       remove_clock                  rmclk      RC        remove clock
       repeat_char                   rep        rp        repeat char #1 #2
                                                          times (P*)
       req_for_input                 rfi        RF        send next input char
                                                          (for ptys)
       reset_1string                 rs1        r1        reset string
       reset_2string                 rs2        r2        reset string
       reset_3string                 rs3        r3        reset string
       reset_file                    rf         rf        name of reset file
       restore_cursor                rc         rc        restore cursor to
                                                          position of last
                                                          save_cursor
       row_address                   vpa        cv        vertical position #1
                                                          absolute (P)
       save_cursor                   sc         sc        save current cursor
                                                          position (P)
       scroll_forward                ind        sf        scroll text up (P)
       scroll_reverse                ri         sr        scroll text down (P)
       select_char_set               scs        Zj        Select character
                                                          set, #1
       set_attributes                sgr        sa        define video
                                                          attributes #1-#9
                                                          (PG9)
       set_background                setb       Sb        Set background color
                                                          #1
       set_bottom_margin             smgb       Zk        Set bottom margin at
                                                          current line
       set_bottom_margin_parm        smgbp      Zl        Set bottom margin at
                                                          line #1 or (if smgtp
                                                          is not given) #2
                                                          lines from bottom
       set_clock                     sclk       SC        set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                                          mins #3 secs
       set_color_pair                scp        sp        Set current color
                                                          pair to #1
       set_foreground                setf       Sf        Set foreground color
                                                          #1
       set_left_margin               smgl       ML        set left soft margin
                                                          at current col-
                                                          umn.       See smgl.
                                                          (ML is not in BSD
                                                          termcap).
       set_left_margin_parm          smglp      Zm        Set left (right)
                                                          margin at column #1



       set_right_margin              smgr       MR        set right soft mar-
                                                          gin at current col-
                                                          umn
       set_right_margin_parm         smgrp      Zn        Set right margin at
                                                          column #1
       set_tab                       hts        st        set a tab in every
                                                          row, current columns
       set_top_margin                smgt       Zo        Set top margin at
                                                          current line
       set_top_margin_parm           smgtp      Zp        Set top (bottom)
                                                          margin at row #1
       set_window                    wind       wi        current window is
                                                          lines #1-#2 cols
                                                          #3-#4
       start_bit_image               sbim       Zq        Start printing bit
                                                          image graphics
       start_char_set_def            scsd       Zr        Start character set
                                                          definition #1, with
                                                          #2 characters in the
                                                          set
       stop_bit_image                rbim       Zs        Stop printing bit
                                                          image graphics
       stop_char_set_def             rcsd       Zt        End definition of
                                                          character set #1
       subscript_characters          subcs      Zu        List of subscript-
                                                          able characters
       superscript_characters        supcs      Zv        List of superscript-
                                                          able characters
       tab                           ht         ta        tab to next 8-space
                                                          hardware tab stop
       these_cause_cr                docr       Zw        Printing any of
                                                          these characters
                                                          causes CR
       to_status_line                tsl        ts        move to status line,
                                                          column #1
       tone                          tone       TO        select touch tone
                                                          dialing
       underline_char                uc         uc        underline char and
                                                          move past it
       up_half_line                  hu         hu        half a line up
       user0                         u0         u0        User string #0
       user1                         u1         u1        User string #1
       user2                         u2         u2        User string #2
       user3                         u3         u3        User string #3
       user4                         u4         u4        User string #4
       user5                         u5         u5        User string #5
       user6                         u6         u6        User string #6
       user7                         u7         u7        User string #7
       user8                         u8         u8        User string #8
       user9                         u9         u9        User string #9
       wait_tone                     wait       WA        wait for dial-tone
       xoff_character                xoffc      XF        XOFF character
       xon_character                 xonc       XN        XON character
       zero_motion                   zerom      Zx        No motion for subse-
                                                          quent character

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term struc-
       ture, but were originally not documented in the man page.


               Variable              Cap-         TCap         Description
                String               name         Code
       alt_scancode_esc              scesa        S8        Alternate escape
                                                            for scancode emu-
                                                            lation

       bit_image_carriage_return     bicr         Yv        Move to beginning
                                                            of same row
       bit_image_newline             binel        Zz        Move to next row
                                                            of the bit image
       bit_image_repeat              birep        Xy        Repeat bit image
                                                            cell #1 #2 times
       char_set_names                csnm         Zy        Produce #1'th item
                                                            from list of char-
                                                            acter set names
       code_set_init                 csin         ci        Init sequence for
                                                            multiple codesets
       color_names                   colornm      Yw        Give name for
                                                            color #1
       define_bit_image_region       defbi        Yx        Define rectangular
                                                            bit image region
       device_type                   devt         dv        Indicate lan-
                                                            guage/codeset sup-
                                                            port
       display_pc_char               dispc        S1        Display PC charac-
                                                            ter #1
       end_bit_image_region          endbi        Yy        End a bit-image
                                                            region
       enter_pc_charset_mode         smpch        S2        Enter PC character
                                                            display mode
       enter_scancode_mode           smsc         S4        Enter PC scancode
                                                            mode
       exit_pc_charset_mode          rmpch        S3        Exit PC character
                                                            display mode
       exit_scancode_mode            rmsc         S5        Exit PC scancode
                                                            mode
       get_mouse                     getm         Gm        Curses should get
                                                            button events,
                                                            parameter #1 not
                                                            documented.
       key_mouse                     kmous        Km        Mouse event has
                                                            occurred
       mouse_info                    minfo        Mi        Mouse status
                                                            information
       pc_term_options               pctrm        S6        PC terminal
                                                            options
       pkey_plab                     pfxl         xl        Program function
                                                            key #1 to type
                                                            string #2 and show
                                                            string #3
       req_mouse_pos                 reqmp        RQ        Request mouse
                                                            position
       scancode_escape               scesc        S7        Escape for scan-
                                                            code emulation
       set0_des_seq                  s0ds         s0        Shift to codeset 0
                                                            (EUC set 0, ASCII)
       set1_des_seq                  s1ds         s1        Shift to codeset 1
       set2_des_seq                  s2ds         s2        Shift to codeset 2
       set3_des_seq                  s3ds         s3        Shift to codeset 3
       set_a_background              setab        AB        Set background
                                                            color to #1, using
                                                            ANSI escape
       set_a_foreground              setaf        AF        Set foreground
                                                            color to #1, using
                                                            ANSI escape
       set_color_band                setcolor     Yz        Change to ribbon
                                                            color #1





       set_lr_margin                 smglr        ML        Set both left and
                                                            right margins to
                                                            #1, #2.  (ML is
                                                            not in BSD term-
                                                            cap).
       set_page_length               slines       YZ        Set page length to
                                                            #1 lines
       set_tb_margin                 smgtb        MT        Sets both top and
                                                            bottom margins to
                                                            #1, #2

        The  XSI Curses standard added these hardcopy capabilities.  They were
        used in some post-4.1 versions of System V curses, e.g.,  Solaris  2.5
        and  IRIX  6.x.  Except for YI, the ncurses termcap names for them are
        invented.  According to the XSI Curses standard, they have no  termcap
        names.   If  your compiled terminfo entries use these, they may not be
        binary-compatible with System V terminfo entries after SVr4.1; beware!


                Variable             Cap-        TCap         Description
                 String              name        Code
        enter_horizontal_hl_mode     ehhlm       Xh       Enter horizontal
                                                          highlight mode
        enter_left_hl_mode           elhlm       Xl       Enter left highlight
                                                          mode
        enter_low_hl_mode            elohlm      Xo       Enter low highlight
                                                          mode
        enter_right_hl_mode          erhlm       Xr       Enter right high-
                                                          light mode
        enter_top_hl_mode            ethlm       Xt       Enter top highlight
                                                          mode
        enter_vertical_hl_mode       evhlm       Xv       Enter vertical high-
                                                          light mode
        set_a_attributes             sgr1        sA       Define second set of
                                                          video attributes
                                                          #1-#6
        set_pglen_inch               slength     YI       Set page length to
                                                          #1 hundredth of an
                                                          inch (some implemen-
                                                          tations use sL for
                                                          termcap).

   User-Defined Capabilities
       The  preceding  section  listed the predefined capabilities.  They deal
       with some special features for terminals no longer (or possibly  never)
       produced.   Occasionally  there are special features of newer terminals
       which are awkward or impossible to represent by reusing the  predefined
       capabilities.

       ncurses  addresses  this  limitation by allowing user-defined capabili-
       ties.  The tic and infocmp programs provide the -x option for this pur-
       pose.  When -x is set, tic treats unknown capabilities as user-defined.
       That is, if tic encounters a capability name which it does  not  recog-
       nize,  it  infers  its type (boolean, number or string) from the syntax
       and  makes  an  extended  table  entry  for   that   capability.    The
       use_extended_names(3X)  function  makes  this information conditionally
       available to applications.  The ncurses library provides the data leav-
       ing most of the behavior to applications:

       o   User-defined  capability  strings  whose  name  begins with "k" are
           treated as function keys.

       o   The types (boolean,  number,  string)  determined  by  tic  can  be
           inferred by successful calls on tigetflag, etc.

       o   If the capability name happens to be two characters, the capability
           is also available through the termcap interface.

       While termcap is said to be extensible because it does not use a prede-
       fined set of capabilities, in practice it has been limited to the capa-
       bilities defined by terminfo implementations.  As a rule,  user-defined
       capabilities intended for use by termcap applications should be limited
       to booleans and numbers to avoid  running  past  the  1023  byte  limit
       assumed by termcap implementations and their applications.  In particu-
       lar, providing extended sets of function keys  (past  the  60  numbered
       keys  and  the  handful  of  special named keys) is best done using the
       longer names available using terminfo.

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is represen-
       tative  of  what a terminfo entry for a modern terminal typically looks
       like.

       ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
               am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
               colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
               acsc=+\020\,\021-\030.^Y0\333`\004a\261f\370g\361h\260
                    j\331k\277l\332m\300n\305o~p\304q\304r\304s_t\303
                    u\264v\301w\302x\263y\363z\362{\343|\330}\234~\376,
               bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
               cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
               cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
               cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
               dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
               el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
               ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
               indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
               kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
               mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
               rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
               rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
               s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
               setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
               sgr=\E[0;10%?%p1%t;7%;
                          %?%p2%t;4%;
                          %?%p3%t;7%;
                          %?%p4%t;5%;
                          %?%p6%t;1%;
                          %?%p7%t;8%;
                          %?%p9%t;11%;m,
               sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
               smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
               u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

       Entries may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at  the
       beginning  of  each line except the first.  Comments may be included on
       lines beginning with "#".  Capabilities in terminfo are of three types:

       o   Boolean capabilities which indicate that the terminal has some par-
           ticular feature,

       o   numeric capabilities giving the size of the terminal or the size of
           particular delays, and

       o   string  capabilities,  which  give  a sequence which can be used to
           perform particular terminal operations.


   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
       terminals  have  automatic margins (i.e., an automatic return and line-
       feed when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the  capability
       am.   Hence  the description of ansi includes am.  Numeric capabilities
       are followed by the character "#" and  then  a  positive  value.   Thus
       cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives the
       value "80" for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be  specified
       in decimal, octal or hexadecimal, using the C programming language con-
       ventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally, string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end  of  line
       sequence)  are  given  by  the  two-character  code, an "=", and then a
       string ending at the next following ",".

       A number of escape sequences are provided in the string valued capabil-
       ities for easy encoding of characters there:

       o   Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character,

       o   ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and

       o   the sequences

             \n, \l, \r, \t, \b, \f, and \s

           produce

             newline, line-feed, return, tab, backspace, form-feed, and space,

           respectively.

       X/Open Curses does not say what "appropriate x" might be.  In practice,
       that  is a printable ASCII graphic character.  The special case "^?" is
       interpreted as DEL (127).  In all other cases, the character  value  is
       AND'd  with 0x1f, mapping to ASCII control codes in the range 0 through
       31.

       Other escapes include

       o   \^ for ^,

       o   \\ for \,

       o   \, for comma,

       o   \: for :,

       o   and \0 for null.

           \0 will produce \200, which does not terminate a string but behaves
           as  a null character on most terminals, providing CS7 is specified.
           See stty(1).

           The reason for this quirk is to maintain  binary  compatibility  of
           the  compiled  terminfo files with other implementations, e.g., the
           SVr4 systems, which document this.   Compiled  terminfo  files  use
           null-terminated  strings,  with  no  lengths.  Modifying this would
           require a new binary format, which would not work with other imple-
           mentations.

       Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A  delay  in  milliseconds  may appear anywhere in a string capability,
       enclosed in $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>,  and  padding  characters
       are supplied by tputs(3X) to provide this delay.

       o   The delay must be a number with at most one decimal place of preci-
           sion; it may be followed by suffixes "*" or "/" or both.

       o   A "*" indicates that the padding required is  proportional  to  the
           number  of lines affected by the operation, and the amount given is
           the per-affected-unit padding required.  (In  the  case  of  insert
           character, the factor is still the number of lines affected.)

           Normally, padding is advisory if the device has the xon capability;
           it is used for cost computation but does not trigger delays.

       o   A "/" suffix indicates that the padding is mandatory and  forces  a
           delay of the given number of milliseconds even on devices for which
           xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To  do  this,
       put  a  period before the capability name.  For example, see the second
       ind in the example above.


   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       The ncurses library  searches  for  terminal  descriptions  in  several
       places.   It  uses only the first description found.  The library has a
       compiled-in list of places to search which can be overridden  by  envi-
       ronment  variables.   Before  starting  to  search,  ncurses eliminates
       duplicates in its search list.

       o   If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is  interpreted  as
           the pathname of a directory containing the compiled description you
           are working on.  Only that directory is searched.

       o   If TERMINFO is not set, ncurses will instead look in the  directory
           $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled description.

       o   Next,  if  the  environment  variable TERMINFO_DIRS is set, ncurses
           will interpret the contents of that variable as a  list  of  colon-
           separated directories (or database files) to be searched.

           An  empty directory name (i.e., if the variable begins or ends with
           a colon, or contains adjacent colons) is interpreted as the  system
           location /opt/local/share/terminfo.

       o   Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

           o   a list of directories (no default value), and

           o   the  system  terminfo directory, /opt/local/share/terminfo (the
               compiled-in default).

   Preparing Descriptions
       We now outline how to prepare  descriptions  of  terminals.   The  most
       effective  way  to  prepare  a terminal description is by imitating the
       description of a similar  terminal  in  terminfo  and  to  build  up  a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other
       screen-oriented program to check that they are correct.  Be aware  that
       a  very  unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the ability of the
       terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the
       test program.

       To  get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer
       did not document it) a severe test is to edit  a  large  file  at  9600
       baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the
       "u" key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding
       is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.


   Basic Capabilities
       The  number  of  columns  on each line for the terminal is given by the
       cols numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the number  of
       lines  on the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the terminal
       wraps around to the beginning of the next  line  when  it  reaches  the
       right  margin,  then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal
       can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in  the  home  position,  then
       this  is  given  by the clear string capability.  If the terminal over-
       strikes (rather than clearing a position when  a  character  is  struck
       over)  then  it  should  have  the os capability.  If the terminal is a
       printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
       applies  to  storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as
       well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a code to  move  the
       cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally
       this will be carriage return, control M.)  If there is a code  to  pro-
       duce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace) that capability should be given as cub1.   Similarly,  codes
       to  move  to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and
       cud1.  These local cursor motions should not alter the text  they  pass
       over,  for  example,  you  would  not normally use "cuf1= " because the
       space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       terminfo  are  undefined  at  the left and top edges of a CRT terminal.
       Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge, unless
       bw  is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In order
       to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner  of  the
       screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To  scroll  text  down,  a  program  goes to the top left corner of the
       screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind and ri
       are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized  versions  of  the  scrolling  sequences are indn and rin
       which have the same semantics as ind and ri except that they  take  one
       parameter,  and scroll that many lines.  They are also undefined except
       at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge  of
       the  screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply to
       a cuf1 from the last column.  The only local motion  which  is  defined
       from  the  left  edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from the left edge
       will move to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is  not  given,
       the  effect  is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box around the
       edge of the screen, for example.  If the terminal has switch selectable
       automatic  margins,  the terminfo file usually assumes that this is on;
       i.e., am.  If the terminal has a command which moves to the first  col-
       umn  of  the next line, that command can be given as nel (newline).  It
       does not matter if the command clears  the  remainder  of  the  current
       line,  so  if the terminal has no cr and lf it may still be possible to
       craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and "glass-tty" termi-
       nals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
               bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
               am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
               ind=^J, lines#24,


   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor  addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the termi-
       nal are described by a parameterized string  capability,  with  printf-
       like escapes such as %x in it.  For example, to address the cursor, the
       cup capability is given, using two parameters: the row  and  column  to
       address  to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to the
       physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.)  If the
       terminal  has  memory relative cursor addressing, that can be indicated
       by mrcup.

       The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to  manipulate
       it.   Typically  a  sequence  will  push one of the parameters onto the
       stack and then print it in some format.  Print (e.g., "%d") is  a  spe-
       cial case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand from the
       stack.  It is noted that more complex operations are  often  necessary,
       e.g., in the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:


       %%   outputs "%"

       %[[:]flags][width[.precision]][doxXs]
            as  in  printf, flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a ":" to allow the
            next character to be a "-" flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as  an
            operator.

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

       %p[1-9]
            push i'th parameter

       %P[a-z]
            set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

       %g[a-z]/
            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

       %P[A-Z]
            set static variable [a-z] to pop()

       %g[A-Z]
            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The  terms  "static"  and "dynamic" are misleading.  Historically,
            these are simply two different sets of variables, whose values are
            not  reset  between calls to tparm(3X).  However, that fact is not
            documented in other implementations.  Relying on it will adversely
            impact portability to other implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

       %{nn}
            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %&, %|, %^
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %=, %>, %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %!, %~
            unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            This forms an if-then-else.  The %e elsepart is optional.  Usually
            the %? expr part pushes a value onto the stack,  and  %t  pops  it
            from  the  stack,  testing if it is nonzero (true).  If it is zero
            (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use the -f option of tic or infocmp to see the  structure  of  if-
            then-else's.  Some strings, e.g., sgr can be very complicated when
            written on one line.  The -f option splits the string  into  lines
            with the parts indented.

       Binary  operations  are  in postfix form with the operands in the usual
       order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g vari-
       ables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider  the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to be
       sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of  the
       rows  and  columns  is  inverted  here, and that the row and column are
       printed   as   two   digits.     Thus    its    cup    capability    is
       "cup=6\E&%p2%2dc%p1%2dY".

       The  Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by
       a  ^T,  with  the  row   and   column   simply   encoded   in   binary,
       "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".   Terminals  which  use  "%c"  need  to  be able to
       backspace the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line on  the
       screen  (cuu1).   This  is  necessary  because it is not always safe to
       transmit \n ^D and \r, as the system may change or discard them.   (The
       library  routines  dealing with terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are
       never expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be  essential
       for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A  final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by
       a blank character, thus "cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c".  After sending
       "\E=",  this  pushes  the first parameter, pushes the ASCII value for a
       space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two
       previous  values) and outputs that value as a character.  Then the same
       is done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is  possible
       using the stack.


   Cursor Motions
       If  the  terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left
       corner of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly a fast  way
       of  getting  to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll; this may
       involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program should
       never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no assumption
       about the effect of moving up from the home position.   Note  that  the
       home  position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left cor-
       ner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP termi-
       nals cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
       be given as single  parameter  capabilities  hpa  (horizontal  position
       absolute)  and  vpa  (vertical position absolute).  Sometimes these are
       shorter than the more general  two  parameter  sequence  (as  with  the
       hp2645)  and can be used in preference to cup.  If there are parameter-
       ized local motions (e.g., move n spaces to  the  right)  these  can  be
       given  as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter indicating how
       many spaces to move.  These are primarily useful if the  terminal  does
       not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If  the  terminal  needs to be in a special mode when running a program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can
       be  given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from terminals
       like the Concept with more than one page of memory.   If  the  terminal
       has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative cur-
       sor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the termi-
       nal  for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for the
       TEKTRONIX 4025, where smcup sets the command character to  be  the  one
       used  by  terminfo.   If the smcup sequence will not restore the screen
       after an rmcup sequence is output (to the  state  prior  to  outputting
       rmcup), specify nrrmc.


   Area Clears
       If  the  terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
       line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as  el.   If
       the  terminal  can  clear from the beginning of the line to the current
       position inclusive, leaving the cursor where  it  is,  this  should  be
       given  as  el1.  If the terminal can clear from the current position to
       the end of the display, then this should be given as ed.   Ed  is  only
       defined from the first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated by
       a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not avail-
       able.)


   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If  the  terminal  can  open a new blank line before the line where the
       cursor is, this should be given as il1; this  is  done  only  from  the
       first  position  of  a  line.  The cursor must then appear on the newly
       blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line which  the  cursor  is
       on,  then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the first
       position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which take
       a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as
       il and dl.

       If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like  the  vt100)  the
       command  to  set  this  can be described with the csr capability, which
       takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region.
       The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It  is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr on
       a properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor)  com-
       mands  may  be  useful for ensuring that your synthesized insert/delete
       string does not move the cursor.  (Note that  the  ncurses(3X)  library
       does   this   synthesis   automatically,   so   you  need  not  compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a combi-
       nation  of  index  with the memory-lock feature found on some terminals
       (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has insert/delete).

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen  can  also  be  done
       using  ri  or  ind on many terminals without a true insert/delete line,
       and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each scrolling win-
       dow  is  effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.  To test for
       this capability, create a scrolling region in the middle of the screen,
       write  something  to the bottom line, move the cursor to the top of the
       region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off the
       bottom  of  the  region  by  the  ri re-appears, then scrolling is non-
       destructive.  System V and XSI Curses expect that ind,  ri,  indn,  and
       rin  will  simulate destructive scrolling; their documentation cautions
       you not to define csr unless this is true.  This curses  implementation
       is more liberal and will do explicit erases after scrolling if ndsrc is
       defined.

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part  of  memory,
       which  all  commands  affect,  it  should be given as the parameterized
       string wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines  in
       memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability
       should be given; if display memory  can  be  retained  below,  then  db
       should  be given.  These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling may
       bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri  may
       bring down non-blank lines.


   Insert/Delete Character
       There  are  two  basic  kinds  of intelligent terminals with respect to
       insert/delete character which can be  described  using  terminfo.   The
       most  common insert/delete character operations affect only the charac-
       ters on the current line and shift characters off the end of  the  line
       rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer
       Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen,
       shifting  upon  an  insert  or  delete  only to an untyped blank on the
       screen which is either eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.

       You can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the  screen
       and  then  typing  text separated by cursor motions.  Type "abc    def"
       using local cursor motions (not  spaces)  between  the  "abc"  and  the
       "def".   Then position the cursor before the "abc" and put the terminal
       in insert mode.  If typing characters causes the rest of  the  line  to
       shift  rigidly  and  characters to fall off the end, then your terminal
       does not distinguish between blanks  and  untyped  positions.   If  the
       "abc"  shifts over to the "def" which then move together around the end
       of the current line and onto the next as you insert, you have the  sec-
       ond  type  of terminal, and should give the capability in, which stands
       for "insert null".

       While these are two logically  separate  attributes  (one  line  versus
       multi-line  insert  mode,  and  special treatment of untyped spaces) we
       have seen no terminals whose insert mode cannot be described  with  the
       single attribute.

       Terminfo  can  describe  both  terminals which have an insert mode, and
       terminals which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on  the
       current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give
       as rmir the sequence to leave  insert  mode.   Now  give  as  ich1  any
       sequence  needed  to  be  sent  just before sending the character to be
       inserted.  Most terminals with a true insert mode will not  give  ich1;
       terminals  which  send a sequence to open a screen position should give
       it here.

       If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable  to  ich1.
       Technically,  you  should  not  give  both unless the terminal actually
       requires both to be used in combination.  Accordingly, some  non-curses
       applications  get  confused if both are present; the symptom is doubled
       characters in an update using insert.  This requirement  is  now  rare;
       most  ich  sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir insert
       modes do not require ich1 before each character.   Therefore,  the  new
       curses  actually  assumes this is the case and uses either rmir/smir or
       ich/ich1 as appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write an  entry
       to  be  used  under  new curses for a terminal old enough to need both,
       include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds
       in  ip (a string option).  Any other sequence which may need to be sent
       after an insert of a single character may also be given in ip.  If your
       terminal  needs  both  to be placed into an "insert mode" and a special
       code to precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir  and  ich1
       can  be  given,  and  both  will be used.  The ich capability, with one
       parameter, n, will repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed while  not  in  insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It  is  occasionally  necessary  to move around while in insert mode to
       delete characters on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab  after  the
       insertion  position).   If  your terminal allows motion while in insert
       mode you can give the capability mir to  speed  up  inserting  in  this
       case.   Omitting  mir  will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably
       Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the  way  their  insert  mode
       works.

       Finally,  you  can  specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch with
       one parameter, n, to delete n characters, and  delete  mode  by  giving
       smdc  and  rmdc  to  enter  and exit delete mode (any mode the terminal
       needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters  (equivalent  to  outputting  n  blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.


   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
       be represented in a number of different ways.  You  should  choose  one
       display  form  as  standout  mode,  representing a good, high contrast,
       easy-on-the-eyes, format for  highlighting  error  messages  and  other
       attention  getters.   (If  you  have a choice, reverse video plus half-
       bright is good, or reverse video alone.)  The sequences  to  enter  and
       exit  standout  mode  are given as smso and rmso, respectively.  If the
       code to change into or out of standout mode  leaves  one  or  even  two
       blank  spaces  on  the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then
       xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and
       rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
       character and move the cursor one space  to  the  right,  such  as  the
       Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other  capabilities  to  enter various highlighting modes include blink
       (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or  half-bright)  invis
       (blanking  or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video) sgr0
       (turn off all attribute modes) smacs  (enter  alternate  character  set
       mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on any of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set arbitrary  combinations  of  modes,  this
       should  be  given  as  sgr (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each
       parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is  on
       or  off.  The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline, reverse,
       blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate  character  set.   Not  all
       modes need be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding sep-
       arate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:


                   tparm parameter   attribute    escape sequence

                   none              none         \E[0m
                   p1                standout     \E[0;1;7m
                   p2                underline    \E[0;4m
                   p3                reverse      \E[0;7m
                   p4                blink        \E[0;5m
                   p5                dim          not available
                   p6                bold         \E[0;1m

                   p7                invis        \E[0;8m
                   p8                protect      not used
                   p9                altcharset   ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes,  since
       there  is  no quick way to determine whether they are active.  Standout
       is set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.  The vt220  termi-
       nal  has  a protect mode, though it is not commonly used in sgr because
       it protects characters on the screen from  the  host's  erasures.   The
       altcharset  mode  also  is  different  in  that  it is either ^O or ^N,
       depending on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are turned on,  the
       resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some  sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is out-
       put when either p1 or p3 is  true,  that  is,  if  either  standout  or
       reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields


                 sequence   when to output      terminfo translation

                 \E[0       always              \E[0
                 ;1         if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
                 ;4         if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
                 ;5         if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
                 ;7         if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
                 ;8         if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
                 m          always              m
                 ^N or ^O   if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:

           sgr=\E[0%?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;%?%p2%t;4%;%?%p4%t;5%;
               %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;%?%p7%t;8%;m%?%p9%t\016%e\017%;,

       Remember  that  if  you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.  Also,
       some implementations rely on sgr being given if sgr0 is, Not  all  ter-
       minfo  entries  necessarily have an sgr string, however.  Many terminfo
       entries are derived from termcap entries which have no sgr string.  The
       only drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap also assumes that
       sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals with the "magic cookie" glitch (xmc) deposit  special  "cook-
       ies" when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the display
       algorithm rather than having extra bits for each character.  Some  ter-
       minals,  such  as  the  HP 2621, automatically leave standout mode when
       they move to a new line or the cursor  is  addressed.   Programs  using
       standout  mode  should  exit  standout mode before moving the cursor or
       sending a newline, unless the msgr capability,  asserting  that  it  is
       safe to move in standout mode, is present.

       If  the  terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
       quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given as flash;  it  must
       not move the cursor.

       If  the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not
       on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into
       an  easier  to  find block or blinking underline) give this sequence as
       cvvis.  If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that  as  civis.  The capability cnorm should be given which undoes the
       effects of both of these modes.

       If your terminal correctly generates  underlined  characters  (with  no
       special  codes  needed)  even  though  it does not overstrike, then you
       should give the capability ul.  If  a  character  overstriking  another
       leaves  both  characters  on the screen, specify the capability os.  If
       overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by
       giving eo.


   Keypad and Function Keys
       If  the  terminal  has  a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are
       pressed, this information can be given.  Note that it is  not  possible
       to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies,
       for example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be  set
       to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.  Other-
       wise the keypad is assumed to always transmit.

       The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up  arrow,  down  arrow,
       and  home  keys  can  be given as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome
       respectively.  If there are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the
       codes  they  send  can  be given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys
       have labels other than the default f0 through f10, the  labels  can  be
       given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given:

       o   kll (home down),

       o   kbs (backspace),

       o   ktbc (clear all tabs),

       o   kctab (clear the tab stop in this column),

       o   kclr (clear screen or erase key),

       o   kdch1 (delete character),

       o   kdl1 (delete line),

       o   krmir (exit insert mode),

       o   kel (clear to end of line),

       o   ked (clear to end of screen),

       o   kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

       o   kil1 (insert line),

       o   knp (next page),

       o   kpp (previous page),

       o   kind (scroll forward/down),

       o   kri (scroll backward/up),

       o   khts (set a tab stop in this column).

       In  addition,  if  the  keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the
       four arrow keys, the other five keys can be given  as  ka1,  ka3,  kb2,
       kc1,  and  kc3.   These  keys  are  useful when the effects of a 3 by 3
       directional pad are needed.

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.
       A  string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.  Each of
       these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to  program
       (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.  Function key numbers
       out of this range may program undefined keys in  a  terminal  dependent
       manner.   The  difference between the capabilities is that pfkey causes
       pressing the given key to be the same as  the  user  typing  the  given
       string;  pfloc  causes  the  string  to  be executed by the terminal in
       local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh  define  the  number  of  programmable
       screen  labels  and  their  width and height.  If there are commands to
       turn the labels on and off, give them in smln and rmln.  smln  is  nor-
       mally  output  after  one  or  more pln sequences to make sure that the
       change becomes visible.


   Tabs and Initialization
       If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to  the  next
       tab  stop can be given as ht (usually control I).  A "back-tab" command
       which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop can be given as cbt.  By
       convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being expanded
       by the computer rather than being sent to the terminal, programs should
       not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since the user may not have
       the tab stops properly set.  If the terminal has  hardware  tabs  which
       are  initially  set every n spaces when the terminal is powered up, the
       numeric parameter it is given, showing the number of  spaces  the  tabs
       are  set  to.   This  is normally used by the tset command to determine
       whether to set the mode for hardware tab expansion, and whether to  set
       the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops that can be saved in non-
       volatile memory, the terminfo description  can  assume  that  they  are
       properly set.

       Other  capabilities  include  is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings
       for the terminal, iprog, the path name of a program to be run  to  ini-
       tialize  the  terminal, and if, the name of a file containing long ini-
       tialization strings.  These strings are expected to  set  the  terminal
       into  modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.  They
       are normally sent to the terminal, by the init option of the tput  pro-
       gram,  each time the user logs in.  They will be printed in the follow-
       ing order:

              run the program
                     iprog

              output is1 is2

              set the margins using
                     mgc, smgl and smgr

              set tabs using
                     tbc and hts

              print the file
                     if

              and finally
                     output is3.

       Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal  modes  can  be
       set  up  without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in
       is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

       A set of sequences that does a harder  reset  from  a  totally  unknown
       state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2 , if
       and is3 respectively.  These strings are output by the  reset  program,
       which is used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are
       normally placed in rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if  they  produce  annoying
       effects on the screen and are not necessary when logging in.  For exam-
       ple, the command to set the vt100 into 80-column mode would normally be
       part  of is2, but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen and is not
       normally needed since the terminal is  usually  already  in  80  column
       mode.

       The  reset  program  writes  strings including iprog, etc., in the same
       order as the init program, using rs1, etc., instead of  is1,  etc.   If
       any  of  rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are missing, the
       reset program falls back upon the corresponding initialization capabil-
       ity string.

       If  there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as
       tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current column
       of  every  row).   If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs
       than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

   Delays and Padding
       Many  older  and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF or DTR
       handshaking, including hard copy terminals and some very  archaic  CRTs
       (including,  for example, DEC VT100s).  These may require padding char-
       acters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is, it
       automatically  emits  ^S  back  to  the host when its input buffers are
       close to full), set xon.  This capability suppresses  the  emission  of
       padding.   You can also set it for memory-mapped console devices effec-
       tively that do not have a  speed  limit.   Padding  information  should
       still be included so that routines can make better decisions about rel-
       ative costs, but actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
       below  the  value  of  pb.  If the entry has no padding baud rate, then
       whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as  a  pad,
       then  this  can  be  given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
       string is used.


   Status Lines
       Some terminals have an extra "status line" which is not  normally  used
       by  software (and thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

       The simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but  not
       part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a
       status line of this kind, as would  a  24-line  VT100  with  a  23-line
       scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is indicated
       by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to  access  the
       status  line.  These may be expressed as a string with single parameter
       tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the  status
       line.   The  capability fsl must return to the main-screen cursor posi-
       tions before the last tsl.  You may need to embed the string values  of
       sc  (save  cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl and fsl to accomplish
       this.

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as  the  width
       of  the  terminal.   If  this  is  untrue,  you can specify it with the
       numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The boolean capability eslok specifies  that  escape  sequences,  tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The  ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these capabilities.
       They are documented here in case they ever become important.


   Line Graphics
       Many terminals have alternate character sets useful for  forms-drawing.
       Terminfo and curses have built-in support for most of the drawing char-
       acters supported by the VT100,  with  some  characters  from  the  AT&T
       4410v1  added.   This  alternate  character set may be specified by the
       acsc capability.


       Glyph                        ACS             Ascii       acsc     acsc
       Name                         Name            Default     Char     Value
       ------------------------------------------------------------------------
       arrow pointing right         ACS_RARROW      >           +        0x2b
       arrow pointing left          ACS_LARROW      <           ,        0x2c
       arrow pointing up            ACS_UARROW      ^           -        0x2d
       arrow pointing down          ACS_DARROW      v           .        0x2e
       solid square block           ACS_BLOCK       #           0        0x30
       diamond                      ACS_DIAMOND     +           `        0x60
       checker board (stipple)      ACS_CKBOARD     :           a        0x61
       degree symbol                ACS_DEGREE      \           f        0x66
       plus/minus                   ACS_PLMINUS     #           g        0x67
       board of squares             ACS_BOARD       #           h        0x68
       lantern symbol               ACS_LANTERN     #           i        0x69
       lower right corner           ACS_LRCORNER    +           j        0x6a
       upper right corner           ACS_URCORNER    +           k        0x6b
       upper left corner            ACS_ULCORNER    +           l        0x6c
       lower left corner            ACS_LLCORNER    +           m        0x6d
       large plus or crossover      ACS_PLUS        +           n        0x6e
       scan line 1                  ACS_S1          ~           o        0x6f
       scan line 3                  ACS_S3          -           p        0x70
       horizontal line              ACS_HLINE       -           q        0x71
       scan line 7                  ACS_S7          -           r        0x72
       scan line 9                  ACS_S9          _           s        0x73
       tee pointing right           ACS_LTEE        +           t        0x74
       tee pointing left            ACS_RTEE        +           u        0x75
       tee pointing up              ACS_BTEE        +           v        0x76
       tee pointing down            ACS_TTEE        +           w        0x77
       vertical line                ACS_VLINE       |           x        0x78
       less-than-or-equal-to        ACS_LEQUAL      <           y        0x79
       greater-than-or-equal-to     ACS_GEQUAL      >           z        0x7a
       greek pi                     ACS_PI          *           {        0x7b
       not-equal                    ACS_NEQUAL      !           |        0x7c
       UK pound sign                ACS_STERLING    f           }        0x7d
       bullet                       ACS_BULLET      o           ~        0x7e

       A few notes apply to the table itself:

       o   X/Open Curses incorrectly states that the mapping  for  lantern  is
           uppercase  "I"  although Unix implementations use the lowercase "i"
           mapping.

       o   The DEC VT100 implemented graphics using  the  alternate  character
           set  feature, temporarily switching modes and sending characters in
           the range 0x60 (96) to 0x7e (126) (the acsc Value column in the ta-
           ble).

       o   The AT&T terminal added graphics characters outside that range.

           Some  of  the  characters  within the range do not match the VT100;
           presumably they were used in the AT&T terminal:  board  of  squares
           replaces  the  VT100  newline symbol, while lantern symbol replaces
           the VT100 vertical tab symbol.  The other VT100 symbols for control
           characters  (horizontal tab, carriage return and line-feed) are not
           (re)used in curses.

       The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add  a  column
       to  a  copy of this table for your terminal, giving the character which
       (when emitted between smacs/rmacs switches) will  be  rendered  as  the
       corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character
       pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.


   Color Handling
       The curses library functions init_pair and  init_color  manipulate  the
       color   pairs   and   color  values  discussed  in  this  section  (see
       curs_color(3X) for details on these and related functions).

       Most color terminals are either "Tektronix-like" or "HP-like":

       o   Tektronix-like terminals have a predefined set of N colors (where N
           is usually 8), and can set character-cell foreground and background
           characters independently, mixing them into N * N color-pairs.

       o   On HP-like terminals, the user must set each color  pair  up  sepa-
           rately  (foreground and background are not independently settable).
           Up to M color-pairs may be set up from 2*M different colors.  ANSI-
           compatible terminals are Tektronix-like.

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The
       numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify the  maximum  numbers  of
       colors  and  color-pairs  that can be displayed simultaneously.  The op
       (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their
       default  values  for  the terminal.  The oc string resets all colors or
       color-pairs to their default values for the terminal.   Some  terminals
       (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the cur-
       rent background color rather  than  the  power-up  default  background;
       these should have the boolean capability bce.

       While the curses library works with color pairs (reflecting the inabil-
       ity of some devices to set foreground and  background  colors  indepen-
       dently), there are separate capabilities for setting these features:

       o   To  change  the  current  foreground  or background color on a Tek-
           tronix-type terminal, use setaf (set  ANSI  foreground)  and  setab
           (set  ANSI background) or setf (set foreground) and setb (set back-
           ground).  These take one parameter, the  color  number.   The  SVr4
           documentation  describes only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft says that
           "If the terminal supports ANSI escape sequences to  set  background
           and  foreground,  they  should be coded as setaf and setab, respec-
           tively.

       o   If the terminal supports other escape sequences to  set  background
           and  foreground,  they  should  be  coded as setf and setb, respec-
           tively.  The vidputs and the refresh(3X) functions  use  the  setaf
           and setab capabilities if they are defined.

       The  setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric argu-
       ment each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab are portably defined  as
       follows  (the  middle  column  is the symbolic #define available in the
       header for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware  is
       free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal loca-
       tions in color space.


                    Color       #define       Value       RGB
                    black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                    red       COLOR_RED         1     max,0,0
                    green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max,max,0
                    blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,0,max
                    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                    cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,max,max
                    white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a different
       mapping, i.e.,

                    Color       #define       Value       RGB
                    black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0

                    blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,0,max
                    green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                    cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,max,max
                    red       COLOR_RED         4     max,0,0
                    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max,max,0
                    white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities; oth-
       erwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number  parameter  to
       set which color pair is current.

       Some terminals allow the color values to be modified:

       o   On  a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability ccc may be present to
           indicate that colors can be modified.  If so, the initc  capability
           will take a color number (0 to colors - 1)and three more parameters
           which describe the color.  These three parameters default to  being
           interpreted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.  If the boolean capa-
           bility hls is present, they are instead  as  HLS  (Hue,  Lightness,
           Saturation) indices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       o   On  an HP-like terminal, initp may give a capability for changing a
           color-pair value.  It will take seven parameters; a color-pair num-
           ber  (0  to  max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing first back-
           ground and then foreground colors.  These parameters must be  (Red,
           Green, Blue) or (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

       On  some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can reg-
       ister these collisions with the ncv capability.  This is a bit-mask  of
       attributes  not to be used when colors are enabled.  The correspondence
       with the attributes understood by curses is as follows:


                        Attribute      Bit   Decimal   Set by
                        A_STANDOUT     0     1         sgr
                        A_UNDERLINE    1     2         sgr
                        A_REVERSE      2     4         sgr
                        A_BLINK        3     8         sgr
                        A_DIM          4     16        sgr
                        A_BOLD         5     32        sgr
                        A_INVIS        6     64        sgr
                        A_PROTECT      7     128       sgr
                        A_ALTCHARSET   8     256       sgr
                        A_HORIZONTAL   9     512       sgr1
                        A_LEFT         10    1024      sgr1
                        A_LOW          11    2048      sgr1
                        A_RIGHT        12    4096      sgr1
                        A_TOP          13    8192      sgr1
                        A_VERTICAL     14    16384     sgr1
                        A_ITALIC       15    32768     sitm

       For example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute  collides
       with  the  foreground  color  blue  and is not available in color mode.
       These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4 curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and  optimizes
       the output in favor of colors.


   Miscellaneous
       If  the  terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first  character  of  the  pad
       string is used.  If the terminal does not have a pad character, specify
       npc.  Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC  variable;
       though  the  application  may  set this value to something other than a
       null, ncurses will test npc first and use napms if the terminal has  no
       pad character.

       If  the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).  This is primarily use-
       ful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy terminals.  If a hard-
       copy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this  as  ff
       (usually control L).

       If  there  is  a  command to repeat a given character a given number of
       times (to save time transmitting a large number  of  identical  charac-
       ters)  this  can  be  indicated with the parameterized string rep.  The
       first parameter is the character to be repeated and the second  is  the
       number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the
       same as "xxxxxxxxxx".

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
       4025,  this can be indicated with cmdch.  A prototype command character
       is chosen which is used in all capabilities.  This character  is  given
       in  the  cmdch  capability to identify it.  The following convention is
       supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a
       CC  variable,  and if found, all occurrences of the prototype character
       are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific  kind  of  known
       terminal,  such  as  switch, dialup, patch, and network, should include
       the gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they  do
       not  know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not apply
       to virtual terminal descriptions for which  the  escape  sequences  are
       known.)

       If the terminal has a "meta key" which acts as a shift key, setting the
       8th bit of any character transmitted, this fact can be  indicated  with
       km.   Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th bit is parity and it
       will usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this "meta mode"  on
       and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at
       once, the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A  value
       of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there
       is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual  terminal
       protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media  copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to the
       terminal can be given as mc0: print the contents of  the  screen,  mc4:
       turn  off  the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When the printer
       is on, all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the  printer.   It
       is  undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen
       when the printer is on.  A variation  mc5p  takes  one  parameter,  and
       leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the param-
       eter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed 255.
       All  text,  including mc4, is transparently passed to the printer while
       an mc5p is in effect.


   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow "~" characters to be  displayed
       should indicate hz.

       Terminals  which  ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap, such
       as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If el is required to get rid of standout  (instead  of  merely  writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the  variable  indicating
       this  is  now  "dest_tabs_magic_smso";  in  older versions, it was tel-
       eray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not possible
       to position the cursor on top of a "magic cookie", that to erase stand-
       out mode it is instead necessary to use delete and  insert  line.   The
       ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The  Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the escape
       or control C characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1  key  is  used
       for  escape  and  f2  for control C.  (Only certain Superbees have this
       problem, depending on the ROM.)  Note that in older terminfo  versions,
       this  capability was called "beehive_glitch"; it is now "no_esc_ctl_c".

       Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more  capa-
       bilities of the form xx.


   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long  terminfo  entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry
       has even approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-table maximum.   Unfor-
       tunately,  the  termcap translations are much more strictly limited (to
       1023 bytes), thus termcap translations of  long  terminfo  entries  can
       cause problems.

       The  man  pages  for  4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent instruct the
       user to allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.   The  entry
       gets  null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes the maximum
       safe length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending  on  what
       the  application  and the termcap library being used does, and where in
       the termcap file the terminal type that tgetent is  searching  for  is,
       several bad things can happen.

       Some  termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find an
       entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the
       entries  to  1023  bytes.  Some application programs allocate more than
       the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with  it:  before
       "tc"  expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability that
       tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add on
       its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability,
       then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because  it
       affects  more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is the
       length of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the  backslash-
       newline pairs, which tgetent strips out while reading it.  Some termcap
       libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).  Now
       suppose:

       o   a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       o   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       o   and  the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads
           the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length, to  see
           if it is the entry it wants,

       o   and  tgetent  is  searching  for a terminal type that either is the
           long entry, appears in the termcap file after the  long  entry,  or
           does  not  appear in the file at all (so that tgetent has to search
           the whole termcap file).

       Then tgetent will overwrite memory, perhaps  its  stack,  and  probably
       core  dump the program.  Programs like telnet are particularly vulnera-
       ble; modern telnets pass along values like the terminal type  automati-
       cally.   The  results are almost as undesirable with a termcap library,
       like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages  when  it
       reads  an  overly  long  termcap entry.  If a termcap library truncates
       long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is  immune  to  dying  here  but  will
       return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The  "after  tc  expansion"  length  will  have a similar effect to the
       above, but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal type,
       since  tgetent  only  does "tc" expansion once it is found the terminal
       type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes  can  cause,
       on  various  combinations of termcap libraries and applications, a core
       dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.  If it is too long even  before
       "tc"  expansion,  it will have this effect even for users of some other
       terminal types and users whose TERM variable does not  have  a  termcap
       entry.

       When  in  -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of
       tic(1M) issues warning messages when the pre-tc  length  of  a  termcap
       translation  is  too  long.  The -c (check) option also checks resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It is not wise to count  on  portability  of  binary  terminfo  entries
       between  commercial  UNIX  versions.   The problem is that there are at
       least two versions of terminfo (under HP-UX  and  AIX)  which  diverged
       from  System  V terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension capabili-
       ties to the string table that (in the binary format) collide with  Sys-
       tem V and XSI Curses extensions.


EXTENSIONS

       Searching   for  terminal  descriptions  in  $HOME/.terminfo  and  TER-
       MINFO_DIRS is not supported by older implementations.

       Some SVr4 curses implementations, and all  previous  to  SVr4,  do  not
       interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4  do  not  specify  whether msgr licenses movement while in an
       alternate-character-set mode (such modes may, among other  things,  map
       CR  and  NL  to  characters  that  do  not trigger local motions).  The
       ncurses implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET  mode.   This  raises
       the  possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite inter-
       pretation may need terminfo entries  made  for  ncurses  to  have  msgr
       turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character modes
       in a slightly non-standard way to get better  update  efficiency.   See
       the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The  parameter  substitutions  for  set_clock and display_clock are not
       documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They are  deduced  from
       the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be  careful  assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses library wants
       to interpret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals and  emulators  like
       xterm  that can return mouse-tracking information in the keyboard-input
       stream.

       X/Open Curses does not mention  italics.   Portable  applications  must
       assume  that  numeric  capabilities  are  signed  16-bit  values.  This
       includes the no_color_video (ncv) capability.   The  32768  mask  value
       used  for  italics with ncv can be confused with an absent or cancelled
       ncv.  If italics should work with colors, then the ncv  value  must  be
       specified, even if it is zero.

       Different  commercial  ports  of  terminfo and curses support different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different exten-
       sion sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       o   SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       o   SGI -- Supports the SVr4 set, adds one undocumented extended string
           capability (set_pglen).

       o   SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo capa-
           bilities.   The  booleans  end  with  xon_xoff;  the  numerics with
           width_status_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       o   HP/UX -- Supports the  SVr1  subset,  plus  the  SVr[234]  numerics
           num_labels,   label_height,  label_width,  plus  function  keys  11
           through 63, plus plab_norm,  label_on,  and  label_off,  plus  some
           incompatible extensions in the string table.

       o   AIX  -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63,
           plus a number of incompatible string table extensions.

       o   OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.


FILES

       /opt/local/share/terminfo/?/*
                                files containing terminal descriptions


SEE ALSO

       tic(1M), infocmp(1M), curses(3X), curs_color(3X),  printf(3),  term(5).
       term_variables(3X).


AUTHORS

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.



                                                                   terminfo(5)

ncurses 6.0.20170422 - Generated Fri May 26 09:14:17 CDT 2017
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