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zshcontrib(1)                                                    zshcontrib(1)


       zshcontrib - user contributions to zsh


       The  Zsh  source distribution includes a number of items contributed by
       the user community.  These are not inherently a part of the shell,  and
       some may not be available in every zsh installation.  The most signifi-
       cant of these are documented here.  For documentation on other contrib-
       uted  items  such as shell functions, look for comments in the function
       source files.


   Accessing On-Line Help
       The key sequence ESC h is normally bound by ZLE to execute the run-help
       widget  (see  zshzle(1)).   This  invokes the run-help command with the
       command word from the current input line as its argument.  By  default,
       run-help  is an alias for the man command, so this often fails when the
       command word is  a  shell  builtin  or  a  user-defined  function.   By
       redefining  the  run-help  alias, one can improve the on-line help pro-
       vided by the shell.

       The helpfiles utility, found in the Util directory of the distribution,
       is a Perl program that can be used to process the zsh manual to produce
       a separate help file for each shell builtin and for  many  other  shell
       features  as  well.  The autoloadable run-help function, found in Func-
       tions/Misc, searches for these helpfiles  and  performs  several  other
       tests to produce the most complete help possible for the command.

       There  may already be a directory of help files on your system; look in
       /usr/share/zsh or /usr/local/share/zsh and subdirectories below  those,
       or ask your system administrator.

       To create your own help files with helpfiles, choose or create a direc-
       tory where the individual command help files will reside.  For example,
       you  might  choose ~/zsh_help.  If you unpacked the zsh distribution in
       your home directory, you would use the commands:

              mkdir ~/zsh_help
              cd ~/zsh_help
              man zshall | colcrt - | \
              perl ~/zsh-5.0.2/Util/helpfiles

       Next, to use the run-help function, you need  to  add  lines  something
       like the following to your .zshrc or equivalent startup file:

              unalias run-help
              autoload run-help

       The  HELPDIR parameter tells run-help where to look for the help files.
       If your system already has a help file directory installed, set HELPDIR
       to the path of that directory instead.

       Note  that  in order for `autoload run-help' to work, the run-help file
       must be in one of the directories named in your fpath array  (see  zsh-
       param(1)).   This should already be the case if you have a standard zsh
       installation; if it is not, copy Functions/Misc/run-help to  an  appro-
       priate directory.

   Recompiling Functions
       If  you frequently edit your zsh functions, or periodically update your
       zsh installation to track the latest developments, you  may  find  that
       function  digests compiled with the zcompile builtin are frequently out
       of date with respect to the function source files.  This is not usually
       a  problem, because zsh always looks for the newest file when loading a
       function, but it may cause slower shell startup and  function  loading.
       Also,  if  a digest file is explicitly used as an element of fpath, zsh
       won't check whether any of its source files has changed.

       The zrecompile autoloadable function, found in Functions/Misc,  can  be
       used to keep function digests up to date.

       zrecompile [ -qt ] [ name ... ]
       zrecompile [ -qt ] -p args [ -- args ... ]
              This tries to find *.zwc files and automatically re-compile them
              if at least one of the original files is newer than the compiled
              file.  This works only if the names stored in the compiled files
              are full paths or are relative to the  directory  that  contains
              the .zwc file.

              In the first form, each name is the name of a compiled file or a
              directory containing *.zwc files that should be checked.  If  no
              arguments  are  given,  the directories and *.zwc files in fpath
              are used.

              When -t is given, no compilation is performed, but a return sta-
              tus  of  zero  (true)  is set if there are files that need to be
              re-compiled and non-zero (false) otherwise.  The -q option  qui-
              ets the chatty output that describes what zrecompile is doing.

              Without  the  -t  option, the return status is zero if all files
              that needed re-compilation could be  compiled  and  non-zero  if
              compilation for at least one of the files failed.

              If  the  -p  option is given, the args are interpreted as one or
              more sets of arguments for zcompile,  separated  by  `--'.   For

                     zrecompile -p \
                                -R ~/.zshrc -- \
                                -M ~/.zcompdump -- \
                                ~/zsh/comp.zwc ~/zsh/Completion/*/_*

              This  compiles  ~/.zshrc into ~/.zshrc.zwc if that doesn't exist
              or if it is older than  ~/.zshrc.  The  compiled  file  will  be
              marked  for  reading  instead  of  mapping. The same is done for
              ~/.zcompdump and ~/.zcompdump.zwc, but  this  compiled  file  is
              marked   for   mapping.   The  last  line  re-creates  the  file
              ~/zsh/comp.zwc if any of the files matching the given pattern is
              newer than it.

              Without  the  -p  option,  zrecompile  does  not create function
              digests that do not already exist, nor does it add new functions
              to the digest.

       The  following  shell loop is an example of a method for creating func-
       tion digests for all functions in your fpath, assuming  that  you  have
       write permission to the directories:

              for ((i=1; i <= $#fpath; ++i)); do
                if [[ $dir == (.|..) || $dir == (.|..)/* ]]; then
                if [[ -w $dir:h && -n $files ]]; then
                  if ( cd $dir:h &&
                       zrecompile -p -U -z $zwc $files ); then

       The  -U and -z options are appropriate for functions in the default zsh
       installation fpath; you may need to use different options for your per-
       sonal function directories.

       Once  the digests have been created and your fpath modified to refer to
       them, you can keep them up to date by running zrecompile with no  argu-

   Keyboard Definition
       The  large  number of possible combinations of keyboards, workstations,
       terminals, emulators, and window systems makes it impossible for zsh to
       have  built-in  key  bindings  for  every situation.  The zkbd utility,
       found in Functions/Misc, can help you quickly create key  bindings  for
       your configuration.

       Run zkbd either as an autoloaded function, or as a shell script:

              zsh -f ~/zsh-5.0.2/Functions/Misc/zkbd

       When  you  run  zkbd, it first asks you to enter your terminal type; if
       the default it offers is correct, just press return.  It then asks  you
       to  press  a  number  of different keys to determine characteristics of
       your keyboard and terminal; zkbd warns you if it finds anything out  of
       the ordinary, such as a Delete key that sends neither ^H nor ^?.

       The  keystrokes  read by zkbd are recorded as a definition for an asso-
       ciative array named key, written to a file in  the  subdirectory  .zkbd
       within  either your HOME or ZDOTDIR directory.  The name of the file is
       composed from  the  TERM,  VENDOR  and  OSTYPE  parameters,  joined  by

       You  may  read  this file into your .zshrc or another startup file with
       the `source' or `.' commands, then reference the key parameter in bind-
       key commands, like this:

              source ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.zkbd/$TERM-$VENDOR-$OSTYPE
              [[ -n ${key[Left]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Left]}" backward-char
              [[ -n ${key[Right]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Right]}" forward-char
              # etc.

       Note  that  in order for `autoload zkbd' to work, the zkdb file must be
       in one of the directories named in your fpath array (see  zshparam(1)).
       This  should  already  be the case if you have a standard zsh installa-
       tion; if it is not, copy Functions/Misc/zkbd to an  appropriate  direc-

   Dumping Shell State
       Occasionally  you  may encounter what appears to be a bug in the shell,
       particularly if you are using a beta version of zsh  or  a  development
       release.  Usually it is sufficient to send a description of the problem
       to one of the zsh mailing lists (see zsh(1)), but sometimes one of  the
       zsh developers will need to recreate your environment in order to track
       the problem down.

       The script named reporter, found in the Util directory of the distribu-
       tion,  is  provided for this purpose.  (It is also possible to autoload
       reporter, but reporter is not installed in  fpath  by  default.)   This
       script  outputs  a  detailed  dump  of  the shell state, in the form of
       another script that can be read with `zsh -f' to recreate that state.

       To use reporter, read the script into your shell with the  `.'  command
       and redirect the output into a file:

              . ~/zsh-5.0.2/Util/reporter >

       You should check the file for any sensitive information such
       as passwords and delete them by hand before sending the script  to  the
       developers.   Also,  as the output can be voluminous, it's best to wait
       for the developers to ask for this information before sending it.

       You can also use reporter to dump only a subset  of  the  shell  state.
       This is sometimes useful for creating startup files for the first time.
       Most of the output from reporter is far more detailed than  usually  is
       necessary  for  a  startup  file, but the aliases, options, and zstyles
       states may be  useful  because  they  include  only  changes  from  the
       defaults.   The bindings state may be useful if you have created any of
       your own keymaps, because reporter arranges to dump the keymap creation
       commands as well as the bindings for every keymap.

       As  is  usual  with  automated tools, if you create a startup file with
       reporter, you should edit the results to remove  unnecessary  commands.
       Note  that  if  you're  using the new completion system, you should not
       dump the functions state to your startup files with reporter;  use  the
       compdump function instead (see zshcompsys(1)).

       reporter [ state ... ]
              Print  to  standard  output  the indicated subset of the current
              shell state.  The state arguments may be one or more of:

              all    Output everything listed below.
                     Output alias definitions.
                     Output ZLE key maps and bindings.
                     Output old-style compctl  commands.   New  completion  is
                     covered by functions and zstyles.
                     Output autoloads and function definitions.
              limits Output limit commands.
                     Output setopt commands.
              styles Same as zstyles.
                     Output  shell parameter assignments, plus export commands
                     for any environment variables.
                     Output zstyle commands.

              If the state is omitted, all is assumed.

       With the exception of `all', every state can be abbreviated by any pre-
       fix, even a single letter; thus a is the same as aliases, z is the same
       as zstyles, etc.

   Manipulating Hook Functions
       add-zsh-hook [-dD] hook function
              Several functions are special to the shell, as described in  the
              section  SPECIAL  FUNCTIONS,  see  zshmisc(1),  in that they are
              automatic called at a specific  point  during  shell  execution.
              Each has an associated array consisting of names of functions to
              be called at the same point; these  are  so-called  `hook  func-
              tions'.   The  shell function add-zsh-hook provides a simple way
              of adding or removing functions from the array.

              hook is one of chpwd, periodic, precmd, preexec,  zshaddhistory,
              zshexit,  or  zsh_directory_name, the special functions in ques-
              tion.  Note that zsh_directory_name is called in a different way
              from  the  other  functions,  but  may still be manipulated as a

              function is name of an ordinary shell function.  If  no  options
              are  given  this  will  be added to the array of functions to be
              executed in the given context.

              If the option -d is given, the  function  is  removed  from  the
              array of functions to be executed.

              If  the option -D is given, the function is treated as a pattern
              and any matching names of functions are removed from  the  array
              of functions to be executed.

              The  options  -U,  -z and -k are passed as arguments to autoload
              for function.  For functions contributed with zsh,  the  options
              -Uz are appropriate.


       The function cdr allows you to change the working directory to a previ-
       ous working directory from a list maintained automatically.  It is sim-
       ilar  in  concept  to the directory stack controlled by the pushd, popd
       and dirs builtins, but is more  configurable,  and  as  it  stores  all
       entries  in  files  it  is  maintained across sessions and (by default)
       between terminal emulators in the current session.  (The  pushd  direc-
       tory stack is not actually modified or used by cdr unless you configure
       it to do so as described in the configuration section below.)

       The system works by means of a hook function that is called every  time
       the  directory  changes.   To install the system, autoload the required
       functions and use the add-zsh-hook function described above:

              autoload -Uz chpwd_recent_dirs cdr add-zsh-hook
              add-zsh-hook chpwd chpwd_recent_dirs

       Now every time you change directly interactively, no matter which  com-
       mand  you  use, the directory to which you change will be remembered in
       most-recent-first order.

       All direct user interaction is via the cdr function.

       The argument to cdr is  a  number  N  corresponding  to  the  Nth  most
       recently  changed-to  directory.  1 is the immediately preceding direc-
       tory; the current directory is remembered but is not offered as a  des-
       tination.  Note that if you have multiple windows open 1 may refer to a
       directory changed to in another window; you can avoid  this  by  having
       per-terminal   files   for  storing  directory  as  described  for  the
       recent-dirs-file style below.

       If you set the  recent-dirs-default  style  described  below  cdr  will
       behave the same as cd if given a non-numeric argument, or more than one
       argument.  The recent directory list is updated just the  same  however
       you change directory.

       If  the  argument is omitted, 1 is assumed.  This is similar to pushd's
       behaviour of swapping the two most recent directories on the stack.

       Completion for the argument to cdr is available if  compinit  has  been
       run; menu selection is recommended, using:

              zstyle ':completion:*:*:cdr:*:*' menu selection

       to  allow  you  to  cycle through recent directories; the order is pre-
       served, so the first choice is the most  recent  directory  before  the
       current  one.   The  verbose  style  is  also recommended to ensure the
       directory is shown; this style  is  on  by  default  so  no  action  is
       required unless you have changed it.

       The behaviour of cdr may be modified by the following options.

       -l     lists  the numbers and the corresponding directories in abbrevi-
              ated form (i.e. with ~ substitution reapplied),  one  per  line.
              The directories here are not quoted (this would only be an issue
              if a directory name contained a newline).  This is used  by  the
              completion system.

       -r     sets  the  variable  reply  to  the  current set of directories.
              Nothing is printed and the directory is not changed.

       -e     allows you to edit the list of directories, one per  line.   The
              list can be edited to any extent you like; no sanity checking is
              performed.  Completion is available.  No  quoting  is  necessary
              (except  for  newlines,  where  I have in any case no sympathy);
              directories are in unabbreviated from and  contain  an  absolute
              path, i.e. they start with /.  Usually the first entry should be
              left as the current directory.

       Configuration is by means of the styles mechanism that should be famil-
       iar  from completion; if not, see the description of the zstyle command
       in see  zshmodules(1).   The  context  for  setting  styles  should  be
       ':chpwd:*'  in  case  the meaning of the context is extended in future,
       for example:

              zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-max 0

       sets the value of the recent-dirs-max style  to  0.   In  practice  the
       style name is specific enough that a context of '*' should be fine.

       An  exception  is  recent-dirs-insert, which is used exclusively by the
       completion system and  so  has  the  usual  completion  system  context
       (':completion:*'  if nothing more specific is needed), though again '*'
       should be fine in practice.

              If true, and the command is expecting a recent directory  index,
              and  either  there  is more than one argument or the argument is
              not an integer, then fall through to "cd".  This allows the lazy
              to  use  only  one  command  for directory changing.  Completion
              recognises this, too; see recent-dirs-insert for how to  control
              completion when this option is in use.

              The file where the list of directories is saved.  The default is
              ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.chpwd-recent-dirs, i.e. this is in your  home
              directory  unless  you  have  set  the variable ZDOTDIR to point
              somewhere else.  Directory names  are  saved  in  $'...'  quoted
              form,  so  each line in the file can be supplied directly to the
              shell as an argument.

              The value of this style may be an  array.   In  this  case,  the
              first  file  in the list will always be used for saving directo-
              ries while any other files are left untouched.  When reading the
              recent  directory list, if there are fewer than the maximum num-
              ber of entries in the first file, the contents of later files in
              the array will be appended with duplicates removed from the list
              shown.  The contents of the two files are not  sorted  together,
              i.e.  all  the  entries  in the first file are shown first.  The
              special value + can appear in the list to indicate  the  default
              file should be read at that point.  This allows effects like the

                     zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file \
                     ~/.chpwd-recent-dirs-${TTY##*/} +

              Recent directories are read from a file  numbered  according  to
              the  terminal.   If  there  are insufficient entries the list is
              supplemented from the default file.

              It is possible to use zstyle -e to make  the  directory  config-
              urable at run time:

                     zstyle -e ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file pick-recent-dirs-file
                     pick-recent-dirs-file() {
                       if [[ $PWD = ~/text/writing(|/*) ]]; then

              In this example, if the current directory is ~/text/writing or a
              directory under it, then use a special file  for  saving  recent
              directories, else use the default.

              Used  by  completion.  If recent-dirs-default is true, then set-
              ting this to true causes the actual directory, rather  than  its
              index,  to  be  inserted  on the command line; this has the same
              effect as using the corresponding index, but makes  the  history
              clearer and the line easier to edit.  With this setting, if part
              of an argument was already typed,  normal  directory  completion
              rather than recent directory completion is done; this is because
              recent directory completion is expected to be  done  by  cycling
              through entries menu fashion.

              If  the  value of the style is always, then only recent directo-
              ries will be completed; in that case, use the  cd  command  when
              you want to complete other directories.

              If  the  value  is  fallback,  recent  directories will be tried
              first, then normal directory completion is performed  if  recent
              directory completion failed to find a match.

              Finally,  if the value is both then both sets of completions are
              presented; the usual tag mechanism can be  used  to  distinguish
              results,  with  recent  directories tagged as recent-dirs.  Note
              that the recent directories inserted are abbreviated with direc-
              tory names where appropriate.

              The  maximum number of directories to save to the file.  If this
              is zero or negative there is no maximum.   The  default  is  20.
              Note  this  includes the current directory, which isn't offered,
              so the highest number of directories you will be offered is  one
              less than the maximum.

              This  style  is an array determining what directories should (or
              should not) be added to the recent list.  Elements of the  array
              can include:

              parent Prune  parents  (more  accurately,  ancestors)  from  the
                     recent list.  If present, changing directly down  by  any
                     number  of directories causes the current directory to be
                     overwritten.   For  example,  changing   from   ~pws   to
                     ~pws/some/other/dir  causes  ~pws  not  to be left on the
                     recent directory stack.   This  only  applies  to  direct
                     changes to descendant directories; earlier directories on
                     the list are not  pruned.   For  example,  changing  from
                     ~pws/yet/another  to  ~pws/some/other/dir  does not cause
                     ~pws to be pruned.

                     Gives a zsh pattern for directories that  should  not  be
                     added  to  the  recent list (if not already there).  This
                     element can be repeated to add different  patterns.   For
                     example,  'pattern:/tmp(|/*)'  stops  /tmp or its descen-
                     dants from being  added.   The  EXTENDED_GLOB  option  is
                     always turned on for these patterns.

              If  set  to true, cdr will use pushd instead of cd to change the
              directory, so the directory is saved on the directory stack.  As
              the  directory  stack  is  completely  separate from the list of
              files saved by the mechanism used in this file there is no obvi-
              ous reason to do this.

   Use with dynamic directory naming
       It  is possible to refer to recent directories using the dynamic direc-
       tory name syntax by using the supplied function  zsh_directory_name_cdr
       a hook:

              autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook
              add-zsh-hook -Uz zsh_directory_name zsh_directory_name_cdr

       When  this  is done, ~[1] will refer to the most recent directory other
       than $PWD, and so on.  Completion after ~[...  also works.

   Details of directory handling
       This section is for the curious or confused; most users will  not  need
       to know this information.

       Recent  directories  are saved to a file immediately and hence are pre-
       served across sessions.  Note currently no file locking is applied: the
       list  is  updated  immediately on interactive commands and nowhere else
       (unlike history), and it is assumed you are only going to change direc-
       tory  in  one window at once.  This is not safe on shared accounts, but
       in any case the system has limited utility when someone else is  chang-
       ing to a different set of directories behind your back.

       To make this a little safer, only directory changes instituted from the
       command line, either directly  or  indirectly  through  shell  function
       calls  (but  not  through subshells, evals, traps, completion functions
       and the like) are saved.  Shell functions should use cd -q or pushd  -q
       to avoid side effects if the change to the directory is to be invisible
       at  the   command   line.    See   the   contents   of   the   function
       chpwd_recent_dirs for more details.


       In  a  lot  of  cases, it is nice to automatically retrieve information
       from version control systems (VCSs), such as subversion, CVS or git, to
       be  able  to  provide it to the user; possibly in the user's prompt. So
       that you can instantly tell which branch  you  are  currently  on,  for

       In order to do that, you may use the vcs_info function.

       The following VCSs are supported, showing the abbreviated name by which
       they are referred to within the system:
       Bazaar (bzr)
       Codeville (cdv)
       Concurrent Versioning System (cvs)
       Darcs (darcs)
       Fossil (fossil)
       Git (git)
       GNU arch (tla)
       Mercurial (hg)
       Monotone (mtn)
       Perforce (p4)
       Subversion (svn)
       SVK (svk)

       There  is  also  support  for  the  patch   management   system   quilt
       (  See  Quilt  Support below
       for details.

       To load vcs_info:

              autoload -Uz vcs_info

       It can be used in any existing prompt, because it does not require  any
       $psvar entries to be left available.

       To  get this feature working quickly (including colors), you can do the
       following (assuming, you loaded vcs_info properly - see above):

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' actionformats \
                  '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{3}|%F{1}%a%F{5}]%f '
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' formats       \
                  '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{5}]%f '
              zstyle ':vcs_info:(sv[nk]|bzr):*' branchformat '%b%F{1}:%F{3}%r'
              precmd () { vcs_info }
              PS1='%F{5}[%F{2}%n%F{5}] %F{3}%3~ ${vcs_info_msg_0_}%f%# '

       Obviously, the last two lines are there for demonstration. You need  to
       call  vcs_info  from your precmd function. Once that is done you need a
       single quoted '${vcs_info_msg_0_}' in your prompt.

       To be able to use '${vcs_info_msg_0_}' directly  in  your  prompt  like
       this, you will need to have the PROMPT_SUBST option enabled.

       Now call the vcs_info_printsys utility from the command line:

              % vcs_info_printsys
              ## list of supported version control backends:
              ## disabled systems are prefixed by a hash sign (#)
              ## flavours (cannot be used in the enable or disable styles; they
              ## are enabled and disabled with their master [git-svn -> git])
              ## they *can* be used in contexts: ':vcs_info:git-svn:*'.

       You  may not want all of these because there is no point in running the
       code to detect systems you do not use.  So there is a  way  to  disable
       some backends altogether:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr cdv darcs mtn svk tla

       You may also pick a few from that list and enable only those:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable git cvs svn

       If  you  rerun  vcs_info_printsys after one of these commands, you will
       see the backends listed in the disable style (or backends  not  in  the
       enable  style  -  if  you used that) marked as disabled by a hash sign.
       That means the detection of these systems  is  skipped  completely.  No
       wasted time there.

       The vcs_info feature can be configured via zstyle.

       First, the context in which we are working:

              is  one  of:  git, git-svn, git-p4, hg, hg-git, hg-hgsubversion,
              hg-hgsvn, darcs, bzr, cdv, mtn, svn, cvs, svk, tla, p4  or  fos-
              sil.  When hooks are active the hooks name is added after a `+'.
              (See Hooks in vcs_info below.)

              is a freely configurable string, assignable by the user  as  the
              first argument to vcs_info (see its description below).

              is  the name of a repository in which you want a style to match.
              So, if you want a setting specific to  /usr/src/zsh,  with  that
              being  a CVS checkout, you can set repo-root-name to zsh to make
              it so.

       There are three special values  for  vcs-string:  The  first  is  named
       -init-,  that  is  in  effect as long as there was no decision what VCS
       backend to use. The second is -preinit-; it is used before vcs_info  is
       run,  when initializing the data exporting variables. The third special
       value is formats and is used by the vcs_info_lastmsg for looking up its

       The  initial  value  of repo-root-name is -all- and it is replaced with
       the actual name, as soon as it is known. Only use this part of the con-
       text for defining the formats, actionformats or branchformat styles, as
       it is guaranteed that repo-root-name is  set  up  correctly  for  these
       only. For all other styles, just use '*' instead.

       There are two pre-defined values for user-context:
              the one used if none is specified
              used by vcs_info_lastmsg to lookup its styles

       You  can of course use ':vcs_info:*' to match all VCSs in all user-con-
       texts at once.

       This is a description of all styles that are looked up.

              A list of formats, used when actionformats is not used (which is
              most of the time).

              A list of formats, used if there is a special action going on in
              your current repository; like an interactive rebase or  a  merge

              Some backends replace %b in the formats and actionformats styles
              above, not only by a branch name but also by a revision  number.
              This style lets you modify how that string should look.

              These  "formats"  are  exported  when we didn't detect a version
              control system for the current directory or  vcs_info  was  dis-
              abled.  This  is  useful if you want vcs_info to completely take
              over the generation of your prompt. You would do something  like
              PS1='${vcs_info_msg_0_}' to accomplish that.

              hg  uses  both  a hash and a revision number to reference a spe-
              cific changeset in a repository. With this style you can  format
              the  revision  string  (see  branchformat)  to include either or
              both. It's only useful when get-revision is true. Note, the full
              40-character revision id is not available (except when using the
              use-simple option) because  executing  hg  more  than  once  per
              prompt is too slow; you may customize this behavior using hooks.

              Defines the maximum number of vcs_info_msg_*_ variables vcs_info
              will export.

       enable A  list  of backends you want to use. Checked in the -init- con-
              text. If this list contains an item called NONE  no  backend  is
              used  at all and vcs_info will do nothing. If this list contains
              ALL, vcs_info will use all known  backends.  Only  with  ALL  in
              enable  will the disable style have any effect. ALL and NONE are
              case insensitive.

              A list of VCSs you don't want vcs_info to test for  repositories
              (checked  in  the -init- context, too). Only used if enable con-
              tains ALL.

              A list of patterns that are checked against $PWD. If  a  pattern
              matches, vcs_info will be disabled. This style is checked in the
              :vcs_info:-init-:*:-all- context.

              Say, ~/.zsh is a directory under version control, in  which  you
              do not want vcs_info to be active, do:
                     zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable-patterns "$HOME/.zsh(|/*)"

              If  enabled,  the  quilt support code is active in `addon' mode.
              See Quilt Support for details.

              If enabled, `standalone' mode detection is attempted if  no  VCS
              is active in a given directory. See Quilt Support for details.

              Overwrite  the value of the $QUILT_PATCHES environment variable.
              See Quilt Support for details.

              When quilt itself is called in quilt support the value  of  this
              style is used as the command name.

              If  enabled,  this  style causes the %c and %u format escapes to
              show when the working directory  has  uncommitted  changes.  The
              strings  displayed  by  these  escapes can be controlled via the
              stagedstr and unstagedstr styles. The only  backends  that  cur-
              rently  support  this  option  are  git and hg (hg only supports

              For this  style  to  be  evaluated  with  the  hg  backend,  the
              get-revision  style  needs  to  be  set and the use-simple style
              needs to be unset. The latter is the default; the former is not.

              Note, the actions taken if this style is enabled are potentially
              expensive (read: they may be slow, depending on how big the cur-
              rent repository is).  Therefore, it is disabled by default.

              This  string  will  be used in the %c escape if there are staged
              changes in the repository.

              This string will be used in the %u escape if there are  unstaged
              changes in the repository.

              This  style  causes  vcs_info  to use the supplied string as the
              command to use as the VCS's binary. Note, that setting  this  in
              ':vcs_info:*' is not a good idea.

              If  the value of this style is empty (which is the default), the
              used binary name is the name of the backend in use (e.g. svn  is
              used in an svn repository).

              The  repo-root-name  part  in  the context is always the default
              -all- when this style is looked up.

              For example, this  style  can  be  used  to  use  binaries  from
              non-default  installation  directories. Assume, git is installed
              in /usr/bin but your  sysadmin  installed  a  newer  version  in
              /usr/bin/local.  Instead  of  changing  the  order of your $PATH
              parameter, you can do this:
                     zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*:-all-' command /usr/local/bin/git

              This is used by the Perforce backend (p4) to decide if it should
              contact  the  Perforce server to find out if a directory is man-
              aged by Perforce.  This is the only reliable way of doing  this,
              but runs the risk of a delay if the server name cannot be found.
              If the server (more specifically, the host:port pair  describing
              the  server) cannot be contacted, its name is put into the asso-
              ciative array  vcs_info_p4_dead_servers  and  is  not  contacted
              again during the session until it is removed by hand.  If you do
              not set this style, the p4 backend is only usable  if  you  have
              set  the  environment  variable P4CONFIG to a file name and have
              corresponding files in the root  directories  of  each  Perforce
              client.   See  comments  in  the function VCS_INFO_detect_p4 for
              more detail.

              If there are two different ways of  gathering  information,  you
              can  select  the  simpler one by setting this style to true; the
              default is to use the not-that-simple code, which is potentially
              a  lot  slower but might be more accurate in all possible cases.
              This style is used by the bzr and hg backends. In the case of hg
              it  will invoke the external hexdump program to parse the binary
              dirstate cache file; this method will not return the local revi-
              sion number.

              If  set  to true, vcs_info goes the extra mile to figure out the
              revision of a repository's work tree (currently for the git  and
              hg  backends,  where  this  kind  of  information  is not always
              vital). For git, the hash value of  the  currently  checked  out
              commit  is  available  via  the %i expansion. With hg, the local
              revision number and the corresponding global hash are  available
              via %i.

       get-mq If  set  to true, the hg backend will look for a Mercurial Queue
              (mq) patch directory. Information will be available via the `%m'

              If set to true, the hg backend will try to get a list of current
              bookmarks. They will be available via the `%m' replacement.

              Determines if we assume that the assembled string from  vcs_info
              includes prompt escapes. (Used by vcs_info_lastmsg.)

       debug  Enable  debugging  output  to track possible problems. Currently
              this style is only used by vcs_info's hooks system.

       hooks  A list style that defines  hook-function  names.  See  Hooks  in
              vcs_info below for details.

       The default values for these styles in all contexts are:

              " (%s)-[%b]%u%c-"
              " (%s)-[%b|%a]%u%c-"
              "%b:%r" (for bzr, svn, svk and hg)
       enable ALL
              (empty list)
              (empty list)
              (string: "S")
              (string: "U")
              (empty string)
       get-mq true
       debug  false
       hooks  (empty list)
              empty - use $QUILT_PATCHES

       In  normal  formats  and  actionformats  the following replacements are

       %s     The VCS in use (git, hg, svn, etc.).
       %b     Information about the current branch.
       %a     An identifier that describes the action.  Only  makes  sense  in
       %i     The  current revision number or identifier. For hg the hgrevfor-
              mat style may be used to customize the output.
       %c     The string from the stagedstr style if there are staged  changes
              in the repository.
       %u     The  string  from  the  unstagedstr  style if there are unstaged
              changes in the repository.
       %R     The base directory of the repository.
       %r     The repository name. If %R is /foo/bar/repoXY, %r is repoXY.
       %S     A   subdirectory   within   a    repository.    If    $PWD    is
              /foo/bar/repoXY/beer/tasty, %S is beer/tasty.
       %m     A  "misc" replacement. It is at the discretion of the backend to
              decide what this replacement expands to. It is currently used by
              the hg and git backends to display patch information from the mq
              and stgit extensions.

       In branchformat these replacements are done:

       %b     The branch name.
       %r     The current revision number or the hgrevformat style for hg.

       In hgrevformat these replacements are done:

       %r     The current local revision number.
       %h     The current global revision identifier.

       In patch-format and nopatch-format these replacements are done:

       %p     The name of the top-most applied patch (applied-string).
       %u     The number of unapplied patches (unapplied-string).
       %n     The number of applied patches.
       %c     The number of unapplied patches.
       %a     The number of all patches.
       %g     The names of active mq guards (hg backend).
       %G     The number of active mq guards (hg backend).

       Not all VCS backends have to support all replacements. For  nvcsformats
       no replacements are performed at all, it is just a string.

       If you want to use the %b (bold off) prompt expansion in formats, which
       expands %b itself, use %%b. That will cause the vcs_info  expansion  to
       replace  %%b with %b, so that zsh's prompt expansion mechanism can han-
       dle it. Similarly, to hand down %b from branchformat, use %%%%b.  Sorry
       for  this inconvenience, but it cannot be easily avoided. Luckily we do
       not clash with a lot of prompt expansions and this  only  needs  to  be
       done for those.

   Quilt Support
       Quilt  is  not  a  version control system, therefore this is not imple-
       mented as a backend. It can help keeping track of a series of  patches.
       People use it to keep a set of changes they want to use on top of soft-
       ware packages (which is  tightly  integrated  into  the  package  build
       process - the Debian project does this for a large number of packages).
       Quilt can also help individual  developers  keep  track  of  their  own
       patches on top of real version control systems.

       The  vcs_info  integration tries to support both ways of using quilt by
       having two slightly different modes  of  operation:  `addon'  mode  and
       `standalone' mode).

       For `addon' mode to become active vcs_info must have already detected a
       real version control system controlling the directory. If that  is  the
       case,  a  directory  that holds quilt's patches needs to be found. That
       directory is configurable via the `QUILT_PATCHES' environment variable.
       If  that  variable  exists  its  value  is  used,  otherwise  the value
       `patches' is assumed. The value from $QUILT_PATCHES can be  overwritten
       using  the  `quilt-patches'  style. (Note: you can use vcs_info to keep
       the value of $QUILT_PATCHES correct all the  time  via  the  post-quilt

       When the directory in question is found, quilt is assumed to be active.
       To gather more information,  vcs_info  looks  for  a  directory  called
       `.pc';  Quilt  uses  that directory to track its current state. If this
       directory does not exist we know that quilt has not  done  anything  to
       the working directory (read: no patches have been applied yet).

       If  patches  are  applied,  vcs_info will try to find out which. If you
       want to know which patches of a series are not yet applied, you need to
       activate the get-unapplied style in the appropriate context.

       vcs_info  allows for very detailed control over how the gathered infor-
       mation is presented (see  the  below  sections,  Styles  and  Hooks  in
       vcs_info),  all  of which are documented below. Note there are a number
       of other patch tracking systems that work on top of a  certain  version
       control  system  (like  stgit for git, or mq for hg); the configuration
       for systems like that are generally configured  the  same  way  as  the
       quilt support.

       If the quilt support is working in `addon' mode, the produced string is
       available as a simple format replacement (%Q to be precise), which  can
       be used in formats and actionformats; see below for details).

       If,  on  the  other  hand,  the support code is working in `standalone'
       mode, vcs_info will pretend as if quilt were an actual version  control
       system.  That  means  that the version control system identifier (which
       otherwise would be something like  `svn'  or  `cvs')  will  be  set  to
       `-quilt-'.  This  has implications on the used style context where this
       identifier is the second element. vcs_info will have filled in a proper
       value  for  the "repository's" root directory and the string containing
       the information about quilt's state will be  available  as  the  `misc'
       replacement (and %Q for compatibility with `addon' mode.

       What  is  left  to  discuss  is  how `standalone' mode is detected. The
       detection itself is a series of searches for directories. You can  have
       this detection enabled all the time in every directory that is not oth-
       erwise under version control. If you know there is only a  limited  set
       of  trees  where  you  would like vcs_info to try and look for Quilt in
       `standalone' mode to minimise the amount of searching on every call  to
       vcs_info, there are a number of ways to do that:

       Essentially,  `standalone'  mode  detection  is  controlled  by a style
       called `quilt-standalone'. It is a string style and its value can  have
       different  effects.  The simplest values are: `always' to run detection
       every time vcs_info is run, and  `never'  to  turn  the  detection  off

       If  the  value of quilt-standalone is something else, it is interpreted
       differently. If the value is the name of a scalar variable the value of
       that   variable  is  checked  and  that  value  is  used  in  the  same
       `always'/`never' way as described above.

       If the value of quilt-standalone is an  array,  the  elements  of  that
       array are used as directory names under which you want the detection to
       be active.

       If quilt-standalone is an associative array,  the  keys  are  taken  as
       directory  names  under  which you want the detection to be active, but
       only if the corresponding value is the string `true'.

       Last, but not least, if the value of quilt-standalone is the name of  a
       function, the function is called without arguments and the return value
       decides whether detection should be active. A `0' return value is true;
       a non-zero return value is interpreted as false.

       Note,  if  there  is  both  a  function  and  a variable by the name of
       quilt-standalone, the function will take precedence.

   Function Descriptions (Public API)
       vcs_info [user-context]
              The main function, that runs all backends and assembles all data
              into  ${vcs_info_msg_*_}.  This is the function you want to call
              from precmd if you want to  include  up-to-date  information  in
              your  prompt (see Variable description below). If an argument is
              given, that string will  be  used  instead  of  default  in  the
              user-context field of the style context.

              Statically  registers a number of functions to a given hook. The
              hook needs to be given as the first argument; what follows is  a
              list  of hook-function names to register to the hook. The `+vi-'
              prefix needs to be left out here. See Hooks  in  vcs_info  below
              for details.

              Remove  hook-functions  from  a given hook. The hook needs to be
              given as the first non-option argument; what follows is  a  list
              of  hook-function names to un-register from the hook. If `-a' is
              used as the first argument, all occurances of the functions  are
              unregistered. Otherwise only the last occurance is removed (if a
              function was registered to a hook more than once) .  The  `+vi-'
              prefix  needs  to  be left out here. See Hooks in vcs_info below
              for details.

              Outputs the last ${vcs_info_msg_*_} value.  Takes  into  account
              the  value  of  the  use-prompt-escapes style in ':vcs_info:for-
              mats:command:-all-'. It also only prints max-exports values.

       vcs_info_printsys [user-context]
              Prints a list of all supported version control  systems.  Useful
              to find out possible contexts (and which of them are enabled) or
              values for the disable style.

              Initializes vcs_info's internal list of available backends. With
              this function, you can add support for new VCSs without restart-
              ing the shell.

       All functions named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Variable Description
       ${vcs_info_msg_N_} (Note the trailing underscore)
              Where N is an integer, e.g.,  vcs_info_msg_0_.  These  variables
              are  the storage for the informational message the last vcs_info
              call has assembled. These are strongly connected to the formats,
              actionformats  and  nvcsformats  styles  described  above. Those
              styles are lists. The first member of that  list  gets  expanded
              into  ${vcs_info_msg_0_}, the second into ${vcs_info_msg_1_} and
              the Nth into ${vcs_info_msg_N-1_}. These parameters are exported
              into the environment. (See the max-exports style above.)

       All variables named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Hooks in vcs_info
       Hooks are places in vcs_info where you can run your own code. That code
       can communicate with the code that called it and through  that,  change
       the system's behaviour.

       For configuration, hooks change the style context:

       To  register  functions  to  a hook, you need to list them in the hooks
       style in the appropriate context.

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+foo:*' hooks bar baz

       This registers functions to the hook `foo' for all backends.  In  order
       to   avoid  namespace  problems,  all  registered  function  names  are
       prepended by a `+vi-', so the actual functions  called  for  the  `foo'
       hook are `+vi-bar' and `+vi-baz'.

       If  you  would  like to register a function to a hook regardless of the
       current context, you may use the vcs_info_hookadd function. To remove a
       function that was added like that, the vcs_info_hookdel function can be

       If something seems weird, you can enable the `debug' boolean  style  in
       the  proper  context and the hook-calling code will print what it tried
       to execute and whether the function in question existed.

       When you register more than one function to a hook, all  functions  are
       executed one after another until one function returns non-zero or until
       all functions have been called. Context-sensitive  hook  functions  are
       executed   before   statically  registered  ones  (the  ones  added  by

       You  may  pass  data  between  functions  via  an  associative   array,
       user_data.  For example:
                  # do something with ${user_data[myval]}

       There are a number of variables that are special in hook contexts:

       ret    The  return  value  that  the  hooks  system  will return to the
              caller. The default is an integer `zero'. If and how  a  changed
              ret  value  changes  the  execution of the caller depends on the
              specific hook. See the hook documentation below for details.

              An associated array which is used for  bidirectional  communica-
              tion  from the caller to hook functions. The used keys depend on
              the specific hook.

              The active context of the hook. Functions that  wish  to  change
              this variable should make it local scope first.

       vcs    The current VCS after it was detected. The same values as in the
              enable/disable style are used. Available  in  all  hooks  except

       Finally, the full list of currently available hooks:

              Called after starting vcs_info but before the VCS in this direc-
              tory is determined. It can be used to deactivate vcs_info tempo-
              rarily  if  necessary. When ret is set to 1, vcs_info aborts and
              does nothing; when set to 2, vcs_info sets up everything  as  if
              no version control were active and exits.

              Same as start-up but after the VCS was detected.

              Called in the Mercurial backend when a bookmark string is gener-
              ated; the get-revision and get-bookmarks styles must be true.

              This hook  gets  the  names  of  the  Mercurial  bookmarks  that
              vcs_info collected from `hg'.

              When  setting ret to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[hg-book-
              mark-string]} will be used in  the  %m  escape  in  formats  and
              actionformats  and  will  be availabe in the global backend_misc
              array as ${backend_misc[bookmarks]}.

              Called in the git (with stgit), and hg (with mq) backends and in
              quilt   support   when  the  applied-string  is  generated;  the
              use-quilt zstyle must be true for quilt (the mq and stgit  back-
              ends are active by default).

              This  hook  gets the names of all applied patches which vcs_info
              collected so far in the opposite order,  which  means  that  the
              first argument is the top-most patch and so forth.

              When    setting    ret    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[applied-string]} will be used in  the  %m  escape  in
              formats  and  actionformats;  it will be available in the global
              backend_misc array as $backend_misc[patches]}; and  it  will  be
              available as %p in the patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

              Called  in the git (with stgit), and hg (with mq) backend and in
              quilt  support  when  the  unapplied-string  is  generated;  the
              get-unapplied style must be true.

              This hook gets the names of all unapplied patches which vcs_info
              collected so far in the opposite  order,  which  mean  that  the
              first  argument  is  the patch next-in-line to be applied and so

              When setting ret to non-zero,  the  string  in  ${hook_com[unap-
              plied-string]}  will  be available as %u in the patch-format and
              nopatch-format styles.

              Called in the hg backend when guards-string  is  generated;  the
              get-mq style must be true (default).

              This hook gets the names of any active mq guards.

              When    setting    ret    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[guards-string]} will be used in the %g escape in  the
              patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

       no-vcs This  hooks  is  called  when  no  version  control  system  was

              The `hook_com' parameter is not used.

              Called after the quilt support is done. The  following  informa-
              tion  is  passed  as arguments to the hook: 1. the quilt-support
              mode (`addon' or `standalone'); 2. the directory  that  contains
              the  patch  series;  3.  the directory that holds quilt's status
              information (the `.pc' directory) or the string "-nopc-" if that
              directory wasn't found.

              The `hook_com' parameter is not used.

              Called  before  `branchformat'  is set. The only argument to the
              hook is the format that is configured at this point.

              The `hook_com' keys  considered  are  `branch'  and  `revision'.
              They  are  set  to the values figured out so far by vcs_info and
              any change will be used directly when the actual replacement  is

              If    ret    is    set    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[branch-replace]} will be used unchanged as  the  `%b'
              replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

              Called  before  a `hgrevformat' is set. The only argument to the
              hook is the format that is configured at this point.

              The `hook_com' keys considered are `hash' and `localrev'.   They
              are  set  to  the  values figured out so far by vcs_info and any
              change will be used directly  when  the  actual  replacement  is

              If    ret    is    set    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[rev-replace]} will be  used  unchanged  as  the  `%i'
              replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

              Called  each time before a `vcs_info_msg_N_' message is set.  It
              takes two arguments; the first being  the  `N'  in  the  message
              variable name, the second is the currently configured formats or

              There are a number of  `hook_com'  keys,  that  are  used  here:
              `action',  `branch',  `base',  `base-name',  `subdir', `staged',
              `unstaged', `revision', `misc', `vcs' and one `miscN' entry  for
              each  backend-specific data field (N starting at zero). They are
              set to the values figured out so far by vcs_info and any  change
              will be used directly when the actual replacement is done.

              Since  this hook is triggered multiple times (once for each con-
              figured formats or actionformats), each of the  `hook_com'  keys
              mentioned  above  (except  for the miscN entries) has an `_orig'
              counterpart, so even if you changed a value to your  liking  you
              can  still  get the original value in the next run. Changing the
              `_orig' values is probably not a good idea.

              If ret is set to non-zero, the  string  in  ${hook_com[message]}
              will be used unchanged as the message by vcs_info.

       If  all  of  this  sounds rather confusing, take a look at the Examples
       section below and also in the Misc/vcs_info-examples file  in  the  Zsh
       source.  They contain some explanatory code.

       Don't use vcs_info at all (even though it's in your prompt):
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable NONE

       Disable the backends for bzr and svk:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr svk

       Disable everything but bzr and svk:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable bzr svk

       Provide a special formats for git:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' formats       ' GIT, BABY! [%b]'
              zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' actionformats ' GIT ACTION! [%b|%a]'

       All  %x  expansion in all sorts of formats ("formats", "actionformats",
       branchformat, you name it) are done using the  `zformat'  builtin  from
       the  `zsh/zutil' module. That means you can do everything with these %x
       items what zformat supports. In particular, if you want something  that
       is  really  long  to  have  a  fixed  width, like a hash in a mercurial
       branchformat, you can do this: %12.12i. That'll shrink the 40 character
       hash  to  its  12 leading characters. The form is actually `%min.maxx'.
       More is possible.  See the section `The zsh/zutil  Module'  in  zshmod-
       ules(1) for details.

       Use the quicker bzr backend
              zstyle ':vcs_info:bzr:*' use-simple true

       If    you    do    use   use-simple,   please   report   if   it   does

       Display the revision number in yellow for bzr and svn:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:(svn|bzr):*' branchformat '%b%{'${fg[yellow]}'%}:%r'

       If you want colors, make sure you enclose the color codes in %{...%} if
       you want to use the string provided by vcs_info in prompts.

       Here  is  how  to  print  the  VCS  information  as a command (not in a
              alias vcsi='vcs_info command; vcs_info_lastmsg'

       This way,  you  can  even  define  different  formats  for  output  via
       vcs_info_lastmsg in the ':vcs_info:*:command:*' namespace.

       Now  as promised, some code that uses hooks: say, you'd like to replace
       the string `svn' by `subversion' in vcs_info's %s formats  replacement.

       First,  we  will  tell  vcs_info to call a function when populating the
       message variables with the gathered information:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion

       Nothing happens. Which is reasonable, since we didn't define the actual
       function  yet.  To see what the hooks subsystem is trying to do, enable
       the `debug' style:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug true

       That should give you an idea what is going on. Specifically, the  func-
       tion  that we are looking for is `+vi-svn2subversion'. Note, the `+vi-'
       prefix. So, everything is in order, just as documented.  When  you  are
       done checking out the debugging output, disable it again:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug false

       Now, let's define the function:
              function +vi-svn2subversion() {
                  [[ ${hook_com[vcs_orig]} == svn ]] && hook_com[vcs]=subversion

       Simple enough. And it could have even been simpler, if only we had reg-
       istered our function in a less generic context. If we do it only in the
       `svn' backend's context, we don't need to test which the active backend
              zstyle ':vcs_info:svn+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion
              function +vi-svn2subversion() {

       And finally a little more elaborate example, that uses a hook to create
       a customised bookmark string for the hg backend.

       Again, we start off by registering a function:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:hg+gen-hg-bookmark-string:*' hooks hgbookmarks

       And then we define the `+vi-hgbookmarks function:
              function +vi-hgbookmarks() {
                  # The default is to connect all bookmark names by
                  # commas. This mixes things up a little.
                  # Imagine, there's one type of bookmarks that is
                  # special to you. Say, because it's *your* work.
                  # Those bookmarks look always like this: "sh/*"
                  # (because your initials are sh, for example).
                  # This makes the bookmarks string use only those
                  # bookmarks. If there's more than one, it
                  # concatenates them using commas.
                  local s i
                  # The bookmarks returned by `hg' are available in
                  # the functions positional parameters.
                  (( $# == 0 )) && return 0
                  for i in "$@"; do
                      if [[ $i == sh/* ]]; then
                          [[ -n $s ]] && s=$s,
                  # Now, the communication with the code that calls
                  # the hook functions is done via the hook_com[]
                  # hash. The key, at which the `gen-hg-bookmark-string'
                  # hook looks at is `hg-bookmark-string'. So:
                  # And to signal, that we want to use the sting we
                  # just generated, set the special variable `ret' to
                  # something other than the default zero:
                  return 0

       Some longer examples and code snippets which might be useful are avail-
       able in the examples file located at Misc/vcs_info-examples in the  Zsh
       source directory.

       This concludes our guided tour through zsh's vcs_info.


       You  should  make  sure  all  the  functions from the Functions/Prompts
       directory of the source distribution are available; they all begin with
       the  string `prompt_' except for the special function`promptinit'.  You
       also need the `colors' function  from  Functions/Misc.   All  of  these
       functions  may  already have been installed on your system; if not, you
       will need to find them and copy them.  The directory should  appear  as
       one of the elements of the fpath array (this should already be the case
       if they were installed), and at least the function promptinit should be
       autoloaded;  it will autoload the rest.  Finally, to initialize the use
       of the system you need to call the promptinit function.  The  following
       code  in  your  .zshrc  will arrange for this; assume the functions are
       stored in the directory ~/myfns:

              fpath=(~/myfns $fpath)
              autoload -U promptinit

   Theme Selection
       Use the prompt command to select your preferred  theme.   This  command
       may  be  added to your .zshrc following the call to promptinit in order
       to start zsh with a theme already selected.

       prompt [ -c | -l ]
       prompt [ -p | -h ] [ theme ... ]
       prompt [ -s ] theme [ arg ... ]
              Set or examine the prompt theme.  With no options  and  a  theme
              argument,  the theme with that name is set as the current theme.
              The available themes are determined at  run  time;  use  the  -l
              option  to  see  a  list.  The special theme `random' selects at
              random one of the available themes and sets your prompt to that.

              In  some  cases  the  theme may be modified by one or more argu-
              ments, which should be given after the theme name.  See the help
              for each theme for descriptions of these arguments.

              Options are:

              -c     Show  the currently selected theme and its parameters, if
              -l     List all available prompt themes.
              -p     Preview the theme named by theme, or  all  themes  if  no
                     theme is given.
              -h     Show help for the theme named by theme, or for the prompt
                     function if no theme is given.
              -s     Set theme as the current theme and save state.

              Each available theme has a setup function which is called by the
              prompt function to install that theme.  This function may define
              other functions as necessary to maintain the  prompt,  including
              functions  used  to  preview  the prompt or provide help for its
              use.  You should not normally  call  a  theme's  setup  function


       These  functions all implement user-defined ZLE widgets (see zshzle(1))
       which can be bound to keystrokes in interactive shells.  To  use  them,
       your .zshrc should contain lines of the form

              autoload function
              zle -N function

       followed  by  an  appropriate bindkey command to associate the function
       with a key sequence.  Suggested bindings are described below.

       bash-style word functions
              If you are looking for functions to implement  moving  over  and
              editing  words  in  the  manner of bash, where only alphanumeric
              characters are considered word characters, you can use the func-
              tions  described  in  the next section.  The following is suffi-

                     autoload -U select-word-style
                     select-word-style bash

       forward-word-match, backward-word-match
       kill-word-match, backward-kill-word-match
       transpose-words-match, capitalize-word-match
       up-case-word-match, down-case-word-match
       select-word-style, match-word-context, match-words-by-style
              The eight `-match' functions are drop-in  replacements  for  the
              builtin widgets without the suffix.  By default they behave in a
              similar way.  However, by the use of  styles  and  the  function
              select-word-style, the way words are matched can be altered.

              The  simplest  way  of  configuring  the  functions  is  to  use
              select-word-style, which can either be called as a normal  func-
              tion with the appropriate argument, or invoked as a user-defined
              widget that will prompt for the  first  character  of  the  word
              style  to  be  used.   The  first  time it is invoked, the eight
              -match functions will automatically  replace  the  builtin  ver-
              sions, so they do not need to be loaded explicitly.

              The  word styles available are as follows.  Only the first char-
              acter is examined.

              bash   Word characters are alphanumeric characters only.

              normal As  in  normal  shell  operation:   word  characters  are
                     alphanumeric  characters  plus  any characters present in
                     the string given by the parameter $WORDCHARS.

              shell  Words are  complete  shell  command  arguments,  possibly
                     including  complete quoted strings, or any tokens special
                     to the shell.

                     Words are any set of characters delimited by  whitespace.

                     Restore the default settings; this is usually the same as

              All but `default' can be input as an upper case character, which
              has  the  same  effect  but with subword matching turned on.  In
              this case, words with upper case  characters  are  treated  spe-
              cially:  each separate run of upper case characters, or an upper
              case character followed by any number of  other  characters,  is
              considered a word.  The style subword-range can supply an alter-
              native character range to the default `[:upper:]'; the value  of
              the  style is treated as the contents of a `[...]' pattern (note
              that the outer brackets should not be supplied, only those  sur-
              rounding named ranges).

              More  control  can  be  obtained  using  the  zstyle command, as
              described in zshmodules(1).  Each style is looked up in the con-
              text  :zle:widget  where  widget is the name of the user-defined
              widget, not the name of the function implementing it, so in  the
              case of the definitions supplied by select-word-style the appro-
              priate contexts are :zle:forward-word, and so on.  The  function
              select-word-style  itself  always defines styles for the context
              `:zle:*' which can be overridden by more specific (longer)  pat-
              terns as well as explicit contexts.

              The  style word-style specifies the rules to use.  This may have
              the following values.

              normal Use the standard  shell  rules,  i.e.  alphanumerics  and
                     $WORDCHARS, unless overridden by the styles word-chars or

                     Similar to normal, but only the specified characters, and
                     not also alphanumerics, are considered word characters.

                     The  negation  of  specified.   The  given characters are
                     those which will not be considered part of a word.

              shell  Words are obtained by using the syntactic rules for  gen-
                     erating  shell  command  arguments.  In addition, special
                     tokens which are never command arguments such as `()' are
                     also treated as words.

                     Words are whitespace-delimited strings of characters.

              The  first  three of those rules usually use $WORDCHARS, but the
              value  in  the  parameter  can  be  overridden  by   the   style
              word-chars,  which  works in exactly the same way as $WORDCHARS.
              In addition, the style word-class uses character class syntax to
              group  characters  and  takes precedence over word-chars if both
              are set.  The word-class style does not include the  surrounding
              brackets of the character class; for example, `-:[:alnum:]' is a
              valid word-class to include all alphanumerics plus  the  charac-
              ters  `-'  and  `:'.   Be  careful including `]', `^' and `-' as
              these are special inside character classes.

              word-style may also have `-subword' appended  to  its  value  to
              turn on subword matching, as described above.

              The  style  skip-chars  is mostly useful for transpose-words and
              similar functions.  If set,  it  gives  a  count  of  characters
              starting  at  the  cursor  position which will not be considered
              part of the word and are treated as space,  regardless  of  what
              they actually are.  For example, if

                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words' skip-chars 1

              has  been set, and transpose-words-match is called with the cur-
              sor on the X of fooXbar, where X can be any character, then  the
              resulting expression is barXfoo.

              Finer  grained  control  can  be  obtained  by setting the style
              word-context to an array of pairs  of  entries.   Each  pair  of
              entries consists of a pattern and a subcontext.  The shell argu-
              ment the cursor is on is matched against each  pattern  in  turn
              until  one  matches;  if  it  does, the context is extended by a
              colon and the corresponding subcontext.  Note that the  test  is
              made against the original word on the line, with no stripping of
              quotes.  Special handling is done  between  words:  the  current
              context is examined and if it contains the string back, the word
              before the cursor is considered, else the word after  cursor  is
              considered. Some examples are given below.

              The  style  skip-whitespace-first  is  only  used  with the for-
              ward-word widget.  If it is set to true, then forward-word skips
              any  non-word-characters,  followed  by any non-word-characters:
              this is similar to the behaviour of other  word-orientated  wid-
              gets,  and  also  that used by other editors, however it differs
              from the standard zsh behaviour.  When  using  select-word-style
              the  widget  is  set  in  the context :zle:* to true if the word
              style is bash and false otherwise.  It may be overridden by set-
              ting it in the more specific context :zle:forward-word*.

              Here are some examples of use of the styles, actually taken from
              the simplified interface in select-word-style:

                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-style standard
                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-chars ''

              Implements bash-style word handling for all widgets,  i.e.  only
              alphanumerics  are  word  characters;  equivalent to setting the
              parameter WORDCHARS empty for the given context.

                     style ':zle:*kill*' word-style space

              Uses space-delimited words for widgets with the word  `kill'  in
              the  name.   Neither  of the styles word-chars nor word-class is
              used in this case.

              Here are some examples of  use  of  the  word-context  style  to
              extend the context.

                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-context "*/*" file "[[:space:]]" whitespace
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:whitespace' word-style shell
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-style normal
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-chars ''

              This  provides  two  different  ways  of  using  transpose-words
              depending on whether the cursor is on whitespace  between  words
              or  on a filename, here any word containing a /.  On whitespace,
              complete arguments as defined by standard shell  rules  will  be
              transposed.   In  a  filename, only alphanumerics will be trans-
              posed.  Elsewhere, words will be transposed  using  the  default
              style for :zle:transpose-words.

              The  word  matching  and  all the handling of zstyle settings is
              actually implemented by the function match-words-by-style.  This
              can  be  used  to  create new user-defined widgets.  The calling
              function should set the local parameter curcontext to  :zle:wid-
              get,   create   the   local  parameter  matched_words  and  call
              match-words-by-style   with   no    arguments.     On    return,
              matched_words will be set to an array with the elements: (1) the
              start of the line  (2)  the  word  before  the  cursor  (3)  any
              non-word  characters  between  that  word and the cursor (4) any
              non-word character at the cursor  position  plus  any  remaining
              non-word  characters before the next word, including all charac-
              ters specified by the skip-chars style, (5) the word at or  fol-
              lowing  the  cursor  (6)  any non-word characters following that
              word (7) the remainder of the line.  Any of the elements may  be
              an  empty  string;  the calling function should test for this to
              decide whether it can perform its function.

              It   is   possible   to   pass   options   with   arguments   to
              match-words-by-style to override the use of styles.  The options
              -w     word-style
              -s     skip-chars
              -c     word-class
              -C     word-chars
              -r     subword-range

              For example, match-words-by-style -w shell -c 0 may be  used  to
              extract the command argument around the cursor.

              The   word-context   style   is   implemented  by  the  function
              match-word-context.  This should not usually need to  be  called

              This  widget  works  like  a combination of insert-last-word and
              copy-prev-shell-word.   Repeated  invocations  of   the   widget
              retrieve  earlier  words  on  the relevant history line.  With a
              numeric argument N, insert the Nth word from the history line; N
              may be negative to count from the end of the line.

              If insert-last-word has been used to retrieve the last word on a
              previous history line, repeated invocations  will  replace  that
              word with earlier words from the same line.

              Otherwise,  the  widget  applies  to words on the line currently
              being edited.  The widget style  can  be  set  to  the  name  of
              another  widget  that  should be called to retrieve words.  This
              widget must accept the same three arguments as insert-last-word.

              After inserting an unambiguous string into the command line, the
              new function based completion system  may  know  about  multiple
              places  in  this  string  where characters are missing or differ
              from at least one of the possible matches.  It will  then  place
              the cursor on the position it considers to be the most interest-
              ing one, i.e. the one where one can disambiguate between as many
              matches as possible with as little typing as possible.

              This  widget  allows  the cursor to be easily moved to the other
              interesting spots.   It  can  be  invoked  repeatedly  to  cycle
              between all positions reported by the completion system.

              This  is  another function which works like the -match functions
              described immediately above, i.e. using  styles  to  decide  the
              word  boundaries.   However,  it  is  not  a replacement for any
              existing function.

              The basic behaviour is to delete the  word  around  the  cursor.
              There is no numeric prefix handling; only the single word around
              the cursor is considered.  If the  widget  contains  the  string
              kill,  the  removed  text  will  be  placed in the cutbuffer for
              future   yanking.    This   can   be   obtained   by    defining
              kill-whole-word-match as follows:

                     zle -N kill-whole-word-match delete-whole-word-match

              and then binding the widget kill-whole-word-match.

       up-line-or-beginning-search, down-line-or-beginning-search
              These   widgets   are   similar   to   the   builtin   functions
              up-line-or-search and down-line-or-search:  if  in  a  multiline
              buffer  they  move  up or down within the buffer, otherwise they
              search for a history line matching  the  start  of  the  current
              line.   In  this  case,  however,  they  search for a line which
              matches the current line up to the current cursor  position,  in
              the  manner  of  history-beginning-search-backward and -forward,
              rather than the first word on the line.

              Edit the command line using your visual editor, as in ksh.

                     bindkey -M vicmd v edit-command-line

              This   function   implements    the    widgets    history-begin-
              ning-search-backward-end    and    history-beginning-search-for-
              ward-end.  These commands work by first calling the  correspond-
              ing builtin widget (see `History Control' in zshzle(1)) and then
              moving the cursor to the end of the line.  The  original  cursor
              position  is  remembered and restored before calling the builtin
              widget a second time, so that the same  search  is  repeated  to
              look farther through the history.

              Although  you autoload only one function, the commands to use it
              are slightly different because it implements two widgets.

                     zle -N history-beginning-search-backward-end \
                     zle -N history-beginning-search-forward-end \
                     bindkey '\e^P' history-beginning-search-backward-end
                     bindkey '\e^N' history-beginning-search-forward-end

              This function implements yet another form of history  searching.
              The text before the cursor is used to select lines from the his-
              tory, as for history-beginning-search-backward except  that  all
              matches  are  shown  in a numbered menu.  Typing the appropriate
              digits inserts the full history line.  Note that leading  zeroes
              must  be  typed (they are only shown when necessary for removing
              ambiguity).  The entire history is searched; there  is  no  dis-
              tinction between forwards and backwards.

              With  a prefix argument, the search is not anchored to the start
              of the line; the string typed by the use may appear anywhere  in
              the line in the history.

              If  the  widget  name contains `-end' the cursor is moved to the
              end of the line inserted.  If the widget name contains  `-space'
              any  space  in  the  text typed is treated as a wildcard and can
              match anything (hence a leading space is equivalent to giving  a
              prefix argument).  Both forms can be combined, for example:

                     zle -N history-beginning-search-menu-space-end \

              The  function  history-pattern-search  implements  widgets which
              prompt for a pattern with which to search the history  backwards
              or  forwards.   The  pattern is in the usual zsh format, however
              the first character may be ^ to anchor the search to  the  start
              of  the  line,  and  the  last  character may be $ to anchor the
              search to the end of the line.  If the search was  not  anchored
              to  the  end of the line the cursor is positioned just after the
              pattern found.

              The commands to create bindable widgets are similar to those  in
              the example immediately above:

                     autoload -U history-pattern-search
                     zle -N history-pattern-search-backward history-pattern-search
                     zle -N history-pattern-search-forward history-pattern-search

       incarg Typing  the keystrokes for this widget with the cursor placed on
              or to the left of an integer causes that integer  to  be  incre-
              mented  by  one.   With a numeric prefix argument, the number is
              incremented by the amount of the argument  (decremented  if  the
              prefix argument is negative).  The shell parameter incarg may be
              set to change the default increment to something other than one.

                     bindkey '^X+' incarg

              This  allows  incremental  completion of a word.  After starting
              this command, a list of completion choices can  be  shown  after
              every  character  you type, which you can delete with ^H or DEL.
              Pressing return accepts the completion so far and returns you to
              normal  editing  (that  is,  the command line is not immediately
              executed).  You can hit TAB to do normal completion, ^G to abort
              back  to the state when you started, and ^D to list the matches.

              This works only with the new function based completion system.

                     bindkey '^Xi' incremental-complete-word

              This function allows you to compose characters that don't appear
              on  the keyboard to be inserted into the command line.  The com-
              mand is followed by two keys corresponding to  ASCII  characters
              (there is no prompt).  For accented characters, the two keys are
              a base character followed by a code for the  accent,  while  for
              other  special  characters  the  two  characters together form a
              mnemonic for the character to be  inserted.   The  two-character
              codes  are  a subset of those given by RFC 1345 (see for example

              The function may optionally be followed by up to two  characters
              which  replace  one or both of the characters read from the key-
              board; if both characters are supplied, no input is  read.   For
              example,  insert-composed-char a: can be used within a widget to
              insert an a with umlaut into the command  line.   This  has  the
              advantages  over use of a literal character that it is more por-

              For best results zsh should have been  built  with  support  for
              multibyte  characters (configured with --enable-multibyte); how-
              ever, the function works for the  limited  range  of  characters
              available in single-byte character sets such as ISO-8859-1.

              The  character  is  converted  into the local representation and
              inserted into the command line at  the  cursor  position.   (The
              conversion  is  done within the shell, using whatever facilities
              the C library provides.)  With a numeric argument, the character
              and its code are previewed in the status line

              The  function may be run outside zle in which case it prints the
              character (together with a newline) to standard  output.   Input
              is still read from keystrokes.

              See insert-unicode-char for an alternative way of inserting Uni-
              code characters using their hexadecimal character number.

              The set of accented characters is reasonably complete up to Uni-
              code  character  U+0180,  the set of special characters less so.
              However, it is very sporadic from that point.  Adding new  char-
              acters is easy, however; see the function define-composed-chars.
              Please send any additions to

              The codes for the second character when used to accent the first
              are  as  follows.   Note that not every character can take every
              !      Grave.
              '      Acute.
              >      Circumflex.
              ?      Tilde.  (This is not ~ as RFC 1345 does not  assume  that
                     character is present on the keyboard.)
              -      Macron.  (A horizontal bar over the base character.)
              (      Breve.  (A shallow dish shape over the base character.)
              .      Dot above the base character, or in the case of i no dot,
                     or in the case of L and l a centered dot.
              :      Diaeresis (Umlaut).
              c      Cedilla.
              _      Underline, however  there  are  currently  no  underlined
              /      Stroke through the base character.
              "      Double acute (only supported on a few letters).
              ;      Ogonek.   (A  little  forward  facing  hook at the bottom
                     right of the character.)
              <      Caron.  (A little v over the letter.)
              0      Circle over the base character.
              2      Hook over the base character.
              9      Horn over the base character.

              The most common characters from the Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek  and
              Hebrew  alphabets are available; consult RFC 1345 for the appro-
              priate sequences.  In addition, a set of two letter codes not in
              RFC  1345  are  available for the double-width characters corre-
              sponding to ASCII characters from !  to ~ (0x21 to 0x7e) by pre-
              ceding  the  character with ^, for example ^A for a double-width

              The following other two-character sequences are understood.

              ASCII characters
                     These are already present on most keyboards:
              <(     Left square bracket
              //     Backslash (solidus)
              )>     Right square bracket
              (!     Left brace (curly bracket)
              !!     Vertical bar (pipe symbol)
              !)     Right brace (curly bracket)
              '?     Tilde

              Special letters
                     Characters found in various variants of the Latin  alpha-
              ss     Eszett (scharfes S)
              D-, d- Eth
              TH, th Thorn
              kk     Kra
              'n     'n
              NG, ng Ng
              OI, oi Oi
              yr     yr
              ED     ezh

              Currency symbols
              Ct     Cent
              Pd     Pound sterling (also lira and others)
              Cu     Currency
              Ye     Yen
              Eu     Euro (N.B. not in RFC 1345)

              Punctuation characters
                     References to "right" quotes indicate the shape (like a 9
                     rather than 6) rather than their grammatical  use.   (For
                     example,  a "right" low double quote is used to open quo-
                     tations in German.)
              !I     Inverted exclamation mark
              BB     Broken vertical bar
              SE     Section
              Co     Copyright
              -a     Spanish feminine ordinal indicator
              <<     Left guillemet
              --     Soft hyphen
              Rg     Registered trade mark
              PI     Pilcrow (paragraph)
              -o     Spanish masculine ordinal indicator
              >>     Right guillemet
              ?I     Inverted question mark
              -1     Hyphen
              -N     En dash
              -M     Em dash
              -3     Horizontal bar
              :3     Vertical ellipsis
              .3     Horizontal midline ellipsis
              !2     Double vertical line
              =2     Double low line
              '6     Left single quote
              '9     Right single quote
              .9     "Right" low quote
              9'     Reversed "right" quote
              "6     Left double quote
              "9     Right double quote
              :9     "Right" low double quote
              9"     Reversed "right" double quote
              /-     Dagger
              /=     Double dagger

              Mathematical symbols
              DG     Degree
              -2, +-, -+
                     - sign, +/- sign, -/+ sign
              2S     Superscript 2
              3S     Superscript 3
              1S     Superscript 1
              My     Micro
              .M     Middle dot
              14     Quarter
              12     Half
              34     Three quarters
              *X     Multiplication
              -:     Division
              %0     Per mille
              FA, TE, /0
                     For all, there exists, empty set
              dP, DE, NB
                     Partial derivative, delta (increment), del (nabla)
              (-, -) Element of, contains
              *P, +Z Product, sum
              *-, Ob, Sb
                     Asterisk, ring, bullet
              RT, 0(, 00
                     Root sign, proportional to, infinity

              Other symbols
              cS, cH, cD, cC
                     Card suits: spades, hearts, diamonds, clubs
              Md, M8, M2, Mb, Mx, MX
                     Musical notation: crotchet (quarter note), quaver (eighth
                     note),  semiquavers (sixteenth notes), flag sign, natural
                     sign, sharp sign
              Fm, Ml Female, male

              Accents on their own
              '>     Circumflex (same as caret, ^)
              '!     Grave (same as backtick, `)
              ',     Cedilla
              ':     Diaeresis (Umlaut)
              'm     Macron
              ''     Acute

              This function allows you  type  a  file  pattern,  and  see  the
              results of the expansion at each step.  When you hit return, all
              expansions are inserted into the command line.

                     bindkey '^Xf' insert-files

              When first executed, the user inputs a set of  hexadecimal  dig-
              its.   This  is  terminated  with  another  call  to insert-uni-
              code-char.  The digits are then turned  into  the  corresponding
              Unicode  character.  For example, if the widget is bound to ^XU,
              the character sequence `^XU 4 c ^XU' inserts L (Unicode U+004c).

              See insert-composed-char for a way of inserting characters using
              a two-character mnemonic.

       narrow-to-region [ -p pre ] [ -P post ]
           [ -S statepm | -R statepm ] [ -n ] [ start end ])
              Narrow the editable portion of the buffer to the region  between
              the  cursor  and  the  mark,  which may be in either order.  The
              region may not be empty.

              narrow-to-region may be used as a widget or called as a function
              from  a  user-defined  widget;  by default, the text outside the
              editable area remains visible.  A  recursive-edit  is  performed
              and  the  original  widening  status  is then restored.  Various
              options and arguments are available when it is called as a func-

              The  options  -p  pretext and -P posttext may be used to replace
              the text before and after the display for the  duration  of  the
              function; either or both may be an empty string.

              If the option -n is also given, pretext or posttext will only be
              inserted if there is text before or  after  the  region  respec-
              tively which will be made invisible.

              Two numeric arguments may be given which will be used instead of
              the cursor and mark positions.

              The option -S statepm is used to narrow according to  the  other
              options  while  saving  the original state in the parameter with
              name statepm, while the option -R statepm is used to restore the
              state  from  the  parameter;  note in both cases the name of the
              parameter is required.  In the second case,  other  options  and
              arguments  are  irrelevant.  When this method is used, no recur-
              sive-edit is performed; the  calling  widget  should  call  this
              function with the option -S, perform its own editing on the com-
              mand line or pass control to the user via `zle  recursive-edit',
              then  call  this  function  with  the  option  -R.  The argument
              statepm must be a  suitable  name  for  an  ordinary  parameter,
              except  that  parameters  beginning  with  the  prefix _ntr_ are
              reserved for use within narrow-to-region.  Typically the parame-
              ter will be local to the calling function.

              narrow-to-region-invisible  is  a simple widget which calls nar-
              row-to-region with arguments which replace any text outside  the
              region with `...'.

              The  display  is  restored (and the widget returns) upon any zle
              command which would usually cause the line  to  be  accepted  or
              aborted.  Hence an additional such command is required to accept
              or abort the current line.

              The return status of both  widgets  is  zero  if  the  line  was
              accepted, else non-zero.

              Here is a trivial example of a widget using this feature.
                     local state
                     narrow-to-region -p $'Editing restricted region\n' \
                       -P '' -S state
                     zle recursive-edit
                     narrow-to-region -R state

              This set of functions implements predictive typing using history
              search.  After predict-on, typing characters causes  the  editor
              to  look  backward  in  the history for the first line beginning
              with what you have typed so  far.   After  predict-off,  editing
              returns  to normal for the line found.  In fact, you often don't
              even need to use predict-off, because if the line doesn't  match
              something in the history, adding a key performs standard comple-
              tion, and then inserts itself  if  no  completions  were  found.
              However,  editing  in  the middle of a line is liable to confuse
              prediction; see the toggle style below.

              With the function based completion system (which is  needed  for
              this),  you  should  be  able to type TAB at almost any point to
              advance the cursor to the next ``interesting''  character  posi-
              tion  (usually  the end of the current word, but sometimes some-
              where in the middle of the word).  And of course as soon as  the
              entire  line is what you want, you can accept with return, with-
              out needing to move the cursor to the end first.

              The first time predict-on is used, it creates several additional
              widget functions:

                     Replaces  the  backward-delete-char  widget.   You do not
                     need to bind this yourself.
                     Implements predictive typing by replacing the self-insert
                     widget.  You do not need to bind this yourself.
                     Turns off predictive typing.

              Although you autoload only the predict-on function, it is neces-
              sary to create a keybinding for predict-off as well.

                     zle -N predict-on
                     zle -N predict-off
                     bindkey '^X^Z' predict-on
                     bindkey '^Z' predict-off

              This is most useful when called as a function from inside a wid-
              get,  but  will work correctly as a widget in its own right.  It
              prompts for a value below the current command line; a value  may
              be  input  using  all  of  the  standard zle operations (and not
              merely the restricted set available when executing, for example,
              execute-named-cmd).   The  value is then returned to the calling
              function in the parameter $REPLY and the editing buffer restored
              to  its  previous  state.  If the read was aborted by a keyboard
              break (typically ^G), the function returns status 1  and  $REPLY
              is not set.

              If  one  argument  is  supplied to the function it is taken as a
              prompt, otherwise `? ' is used.  If two arguments are  supplied,
              they  are the prompt and the initial value of $LBUFFER, and if a
              third argument is given it is the  initial  value  of  $RBUFFER.
              This  provides  a  default  value and starting cursor placement.
              Upon return the entire buffer is the value of $REPLY.

              One option is available: `-k num' specifies that num  characters
              are  to be read instead of a whole line.  The line editor is not
              invoked recursively in this case, so depending on  the  terminal
              settings  the  input may not be visible, and only the input keys
              are placed in $REPLY, not the entire buffer.  Note  that  unlike
              the read builtin num must be given; there is no default.

              The  name  is  a  slight  misnomer,  as  in fact the shell's own
              minibuffer is not used.  Hence it is still possible to call exe-
              cuted-named-cmd and similar functions while reading a value.

       replace-string, replace-pattern
       replace-string-again, replace-pattern-again
              The   function  replace-string  implements  three  widgets.   If
              defined under the same name as the function, it prompts for  two
              strings;  the first (source) string will be replaced by the sec-
              ond everywhere it occurs in the line editing buffer.

              If the widget name contains the word `pattern', for  example  by
              defining  the  widget  using the command `zle -N replace-pattern
              replace-string', then the matching is performed using  zsh  pat-
              terns.   All  zsh  extended globbing patterns can be used in the
              source string; note that unlike filename generation the  pattern
              does  not  need  to match an entire word, nor do glob qualifiers
              have any effect.  In addition, the replacement string  can  con-
              tain  parameter or command substitutions.  Furthermore, a `&' in
              the replacement string will be replaced with the matched  source
              string,  and a backquoted digit `\N' will be replaced by the Nth
              parenthesised expression matched.  The form `\{N}' may  be  used
              to protect the digit from following digits.

              If  the  widget instead contains the word `regex' (or `regexp'),
              then  the  matching  is  performed  using  regular  expressions,
              respecting  the  setting  of  the  option RE_MATCH_PCRE (see the
              description of the function regexp-replace below).  The  special
              replacement  facilities described above for pattern matching are

              By default the previous source or replacement string will not be
              offered  for editing.  However, this feature can be activated by
              setting the style edit-previous in the context :zle:widget  (for
              example,  :zle:replace-string) to true.  In addition, a positive
              numeric argument forces the previous values  to  be  offered,  a
              negative or zero argument forces them not to be.

              The function replace-string-again can be used to repeat the pre-
              vious   replacement;   no   prompting   is   done.    As    with
              replace-string,  if  the  name  of  the widget contains the word
              `pattern' or `regex', pattern or regular expression matching  is
              performed,  else  a  literal  string replacement.  Note that the
              previous source and replacement text are the same  whether  pat-
              tern, regular expression or string matching is used.

              In addition, replace-string shows the previous replacement above
              the prompt, so long as there was one during the current session;
              if the source string is empty, that replacement will be repeated
              without the widget prompting for a replacement string.

              For example, starting from the line:

                     print This line contains fan and fond

              and invoking replace-pattern with the source string `f(?)n'  and
              the replacement string `c\1r' produces the not very useful line:

                     print This line contains car and cord

              The range of the replacement string can be limited by using  the
              narrow-to-region-invisible  widget.   One limitation of the cur-
              rent version is that undo will  cycle  through  changes  to  the
              replacement  and  source  strings before undoing the replacement

              This is similar to read-from-minibuffer in that it may be called
              as  a  function  from  a  widget  or as a widget of its own, and
              interactively reads input from the keyboard.  However, the input
              being  typed  is  concealed  and  a string of asterisks (`*') is
              shown instead.  The value is saved in the  parameter  $INVISIBLE
              to  which a reference is inserted into the editing buffer at the
              restored cursor position.  If the read was aborted by a keyboard
              break  (typically  ^G)  or  another  escape from editing such as
              push-line, $INVISIBLE is set to empty and the original buffer is
              restored unchanged.

              If  one  argument  is  supplied to the function it is taken as a
              prompt, otherwise `Non-echoed text: ' is used (as in emacs).  If
              a  second and third argument are supplied they are used to begin
              and end the reference to $INVISIBLE that is  inserted  into  the
              buffer.   The  default  is  to open with ${, then INVISIBLE, and
              close with }, but many other effects are possible.

              This function may replace the insert-last-word widget, like so:

                     zle -N insert-last-word smart-insert-last-word

              With a numeric prefix, or when passed command line arguments  in
              a  call  from  another widget, it behaves like insert-last-word,
              except that words in comments are ignored when  INTERACTIVE_COM-
              MENTS is set.

              Otherwise,  the rightmost ``interesting'' word from the previous
              command is  found  and  inserted.   The  default  definition  of
              ``interesting''  is  that  the word contains at least one alpha-
              betic character, slash, or backslash.  This  definition  may  be
              overridden  by use of the match style.  The context used to look
              up the style is the widget  name,  so  usually  the  context  is
              :insert-last-word.   However, you can bind this function to dif-
              ferent widgets to use different patterns:

                     zle -N insert-last-assignment smart-insert-last-word
                     zstyle :insert-last-assignment match '[[:alpha:]][][[:alnum:]]#=*'
                     bindkey '\e=' insert-last-assignment

              If no interesting word is found and the auto-previous  style  is
              set  to  a  true  value, the search continues upward through the
              history.  When auto-previous is unset or  false  (the  default),
              the widget must be invoked repeatedly in order to search earlier
              history lines.

              Only useful with a multi-line editing buffer; the lines here are
              lines  within  the  current on-screen buffer, not history lines.
              The effect is similar to the function of the same name in Emacs.

              Transpose  the  current line with the previous line and move the
              cursor to the start of the next line.  Repeating this (which can
              be done by providing a positive numeric prefix argument) has the
              effect of moving the line above the cursor down by a  number  of

              With  a  negative  numeric  prefix  argument, requires two lines
              above the cursor.  These two lines are transposed and the cursor
              moved to the start of the previous line.  Using a numeric prefix
              less than -1 has the effect of moving the line above the  cursor
              up by minus that number of lines.

              This  function  is  a drop-in replacement for the builtin widget
              which-command.  It has enhanced behaviour, in that it  correctly
              detects  whether or not the command word needs to be expanded as
              an alias; if so, it continues tracing the command word from  the
              expanded  alias  until  it reaches the command that will be exe-

              The style whence is available in the context :zle:$WIDGET;  this
              may be set to an array to give the command and options that will
              be used to investigate the command word found.  The  default  is
              whence -c.

   Utility Functions
       These  functions  are  useful  in constructing widgets.  They should be
       loaded with  `autoload  -U  function'  and  called  as  indicated  from
       user-defined widgets.

              This  function splits the line currently being edited into shell
              arguments and whitespace.  The result is  stored  in  the  array
              reply.   The  array contains all the parts of the line in order,
              starting with any whitespace before the first argument, and fin-
              ishing  with  any whitespace after the last argument.  Hence (so
              long as the option KSH_ARRAYS is not set) whitespace is given by
              odd  indices  in  the array and arguments by even indices.  Note
              that no stripping of quotes is done; joining  together  all  the
              elements of reply in order is guaranteed to produce the original

              The parameter REPLY is set to the index of  the  word  in  reply
              which  contains  the character after the cursor, where the first
              element has index 1.  The parameter REPLY2 is set to  the  index
              of  the character under the cursor in that word, where the first
              character has index 1.

              Hence reply, REPLY and REPLY2 should all be made  local  to  the
              enclosing function.

              See  the  function modify-current-argument, described below, for
              an example of how to call this function.

       modify-current-argument expr-using-$ARG
              This function provides a simple method of allowing  user-defined
              widgets to modify the command line argument under the cursor (or
              immediately to the left of the cursor if the cursor  is  between
              arguments).   The  argument  should  be an expression which when
              evaluated operates on the shell parameter ARG, which  will  have
              been  set  to  the  command line argument under the cursor.  The
              expression should be suitably quoted to prevent it being  evalu-
              ated too early.

              For example, a user-defined widget containing the following code
              converts the characters in the argument under  the  cursor  into
              all upper case:

                     modify-current-argument '${(U)ARG}'

              The  following strips any quoting from the current word (whether
              backslashes or one of the styles of  quotes),  and  replaces  it
              with single quoting throughout:

                     modify-current-argument '${(qq)${(Q)ARG}}'

       The  behavior  of several of the above widgets can be controlled by the
       use of the zstyle mechanism.  In particular, widgets that interact with
       the  completion system pass along their context to any completions that
       they invoke.

              This style is used by the incremental-complete-word widget.  Its
              value  should  be  a pattern, and all keys matching this pattern
              will cause the widget to stop incremental completion without the
              key  having any further effect. Like all styles used directly by
              incremental-complete-word, this style is  looked  up  using  the
              context `:incremental'.

              The incremental-complete-word and insert-and-predict widgets set
              up their top-level context name before calling completion.  This
              allows  one  to define different sets of completer functions for
              normal completion and for these widgets.  For  example,  to  use
              completion,  approximation and correction for normal completion,
              completion and correction for incremental  completion  and  only
              completion for prediction one could use:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' completer \
                             _complete _correct _approximate
                     zstyle ':completion:incremental:*' completer \
                             _complete _correct
                     zstyle ':completion:predict:*' completer \

              It is a good idea to restrict the completers used in prediction,
              because they may be automatically  invoked  as  you  type.   The
              _list and _menu completers should never be used with prediction.
              The _approximate, _correct, _expand, and _match  completers  may
              be  used,  but be aware that they may change characters anywhere
              in the word behind the cursor, so you need  to  watch  carefully
              that the result is what you intended.

       cursor The  insert-and-predict  widget  uses this style, in the context
              `:predict', to decide where to place the cursor after completion
              has been tried.  Values are:

                     The cursor is left where it was when completion finished,
                     but only if it is after a character equal to the one just
                     inserted  by the user.  If it is after another character,
                     this value is the same as `key'.

              key    The cursor is left after the nth occurrence of the  char-
                     acter  just inserted, where n is the number of times that
                     character appeared in  the  word  before  completion  was
                     attempted.   In short, this has the effect of leaving the
                     cursor after the character just typed even if the comple-
                     tion  code  found out that no other characters need to be
                     inserted at that position.

              Any other value for this style unconditionally leaves the cursor
              at the position where the completion code left it.

       list   When using the incremental-complete-word widget, this style says
              if the matches should be listed on every key press (if they  fit
              on  the  screen).  Use the context prefix `:completion:incremen-

              The insert-and-predict widget uses this style to decide  if  the
              completion  should  be  shown even if there is only one possible
              completion.  This is done if the value  of  this  style  is  the
              string  always.   In  this  case  the context is `:predict' (not

       match  This style is used by smart-insert-last-word to provide  a  pat-
              tern (using full EXTENDED_GLOB syntax) that matches an interest-
              ing word.  The context is  the  name  of  the  widget  to  which
              smart-insert-last-word is bound (see above).  The default behav-
              ior of smart-insert-last-word is equivalent to:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:]/\\]*'

              However, you might want to include words that contain spaces:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:][:space:]/\\]*'

              Or include numbers as long as the word is at least  two  charac-
              ters long:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*([[:digit:]]?|[[:alpha:]/\\])*'

              The  above example causes redirections like "2>" to be included.

       prompt The incremental-complete-word widget shows  the  value  of  this
              style  in  the  status  line during incremental completion.  The
              string value may contain any of the following substrings in  the
              manner of the PS1 and other prompt parameters:

              %c     Replaced  by the name of the completer function that gen-
                     erated the matches (without the leading underscore).

              %l     When the list style is set, replaced by `...' if the list
                     of  matches  is too long to fit on the screen and with an
                     empty string otherwise.  If the list style is `false'  or
                     not set, `%l' is always removed.

              %n     Replaced by the number of matches generated.

              %s     Replaced  by  `-no  match-',  `-no  prefix-', or an empty
                     string if there is no completion matching the word on the
                     line, if the matches have no common prefix different from
                     the word on the line, or if there is such a  common  pre-
                     fix, respectively.

              %u     Replaced by the unambiguous part of all matches, if there
                     is any, and if it is different from the word on the line.

              Like `break-keys', this uses the `:incremental' context.

              This style is used by the incremental-complete-word widget.  Its
              value is treated similarly to the one for the  break-keys  style
              (and  uses  the same context: `:incremental').  However, in this
              case all keys matching the pattern given as its value will  stop
              incremental  completion  and will then execute their usual func-

       toggle This boolean style is used by predict-on and its related widgets
              in the context `:predict'.  If set to one of the standard `true'
              values, predictive typing is automatically toggled off in situa-
              tions  where it is unlikely to be useful, such as when editing a
              multi-line buffer or after moving into the middle of a line  and
              then  deleting  a character.  The default is to leave prediction
              turned on until an explicit call to predict-off.

              This boolean style is used by predict-on and its related widgets
              in the context `:predict'.  If set to one of the standard `true'
              values, these widgets display a message below  the  prompt  when
              the  predictive state is toggled.  This is most useful in combi-
              nation with the toggle style.   The  default  does  not  display
              these messages.

       widget This style is similar to the command style: For widget functions
              that use zle to call other widgets, this style can sometimes  be
              used  to  override  the widget which is called.  The context for
              this style is the name of the calling widget (not  the  name  of
              the  calling function, because one function may be bound to mul-
              tiple widget names).

                     zstyle :copy-earlier-word widget smart-insert-last-word

              Check the documentation for the calling widget  or  function  to
              determine whether the widget style is used.


       Two  functions are provided to enable zsh to provide exception handling
       in a form that should be familiar from other languages.

       throw exception
              The function throw throws the named exception.  The name  is  an
              arbitrary  string  and is only used by the throw and catch func-
              tions.  An exception is for the most part treated the same as  a
              shell error, i.e. an unhandled exception will cause the shell to
              abort all processing in a function or script and  to  return  to
              the top level in an interactive shell.

       catch exception-pattern
              The  function  catch  returns  status  zero  if an exception was
              thrown and the pattern exception-pattern matches its name.  Oth-
              erwise  it  returns  status  1.  exception-pattern is a standard
              shell  pattern,  respecting   the   current   setting   of   the
              EXTENDED_GLOB option.  An alias catch is also defined to prevent
              the argument to the function from matching  filenames,  so  pat-
              terns  may  be  used  unquoted.  Note that as exceptions are not
              fundamentally different from other shell errors it  is  possible
              to  catch shell errors by using an empty string as the exception
              name.  The shell variable CAUGHT is set by catch to the name  of
              the exception caught.  It is possible to rethrow an exception by
              calling the throw function again  once  an  exception  has  been

       The  functions  are  designed  to be used together with the always con-
       struct described in zshmisc(1).  This is important as  only  this  con-
       struct provides the required support for exceptions.  A typical example
       is as follows.

                # "try" block
                # ... nested code here calls "throw MyExcept"
              } always {
                # "always" block
                if catch MyExcept; then
                  print "Caught exception MyExcept"
                elif catch ''; then
                  print "Caught a shell error.  Propagating..."
                  throw ''
                # Other exceptions are not handled but may be caught further
                # up the call stack.

       If all exceptions should  be  caught,  the  following  idiom  might  be

                # ... nested code here throws an exception
              } always {
                if catch *; then
                  case $CAUGHT in
                    print "Caught my own exception"
                    print "Caught some other exception"

       In common with exception handling in other languages, the exception may
       be thrown by code deeply nested inside the `try' block.  However,  note
       that  it  must  be  thrown  inside the current shell, not in a subshell
       forked for a pipeline, parenthesised current-shell construct,  or  some
       form of command or process substitution.

       The  system  internally uses the shell variable EXCEPTION to record the
       name of the exception between throwing and catching.  One  drawback  of
       this scheme is that if the exception is not handled the variable EXCEP-
       TION remains set and may be incorrectly recognised as the  name  of  an
       exception if a shell error subsequently occurs.  Adding unset EXCEPTION
       at the start of the outermost layer of any  code  that  uses  exception
       handling will eliminate this problem.


       Three  functions  are available to provide handling of files recognised
       by extension, for example to dispatch a file when executed as a
       command to an appropriate viewer.

       zsh-mime-setup [ -fv ] [ -l [ suffix ... ] ]
       zsh-mime-handler [-l] command arguments ...
              These   two   functions   use   the   files   ~/.mime.types  and
              /etc/mime.types, which associate types and extensions,  as  well
              as  ~/.mailcap and /etc/mailcap files, which associate types and
              the programs that handle them.  These are provided on many  sys-
              tems with the Multimedia Internet Mail Extensions.

              To  enable  the  system,  the  function zsh-mime-setup should be
              autoloaded and run.  This allows files  with  extensions  to  be
              treated  as  executable; such files be completed by the function
              completion system.  The  function  zsh-mime-handler  should  not
              need to be called by the user.

              The  system  works by setting up suffix aliases with `alias -s'.
              Suffix aliases already installed by the user will not  be  over-

              For  suffixes  defined  in  lower case, upper case variants will
              also automatically be handled (e.g. PDF is automatically handled
              if  handling for the suffix pdf is defined), but not vice versa.

              Repeated calls to zsh-mime-setup do not  override  the  existing
              mapping  between suffixes and executable files unless the option
              -f is given.  Note, however, that this does not override  exist-
              ing suffix aliases assigned to handlers other than zsh-mime-han-

              Calling zsh-mime-setup with the option  -l  lists  the  existing
              mappings  without  altering  them.   Suffixes to list (which may
              contain pattern characters that should be quoted from  immediate
              interpretation  on  the command line) may be given as additional
              arguments, otherwise all suffixes are listed.

              Calling zsh-mime-setup with the option -v causes verbose  output
              to be shown during the setup operation.

              The  system  respects  the mailcap flags needsterminal and copi-
              ousoutput, see mailcap(4).

              The functions use the following styles, which are  defined  with
              the  zstyle builtin command (see zshmodules(1)).  They should be
              defined before zsh-mime-setup is run.   The  contexts  used  all
              start with :mime:, with additional components in some cases.  It
              is recommended that a trailing * (suitably quoted)  be  appended
              to  style  patterns  in  case  the system is extended in future.
              Some examples are given below.

              For files that have multiple suffixes, e.g. .pdf.gz,  where  the
              context  includes  the suffix it will be looked up starting with
              the longest possible suffix until  a  match  for  the  style  is
              found.   For  example,  if .pdf.gz produces a match for the han-
              dler, that will be used; otherwise the handler for .gz  will  be
              used.   Note  that,  owing to the way suffix aliases work, it is
              always required that there be a handler for the shortest  possi-
              ble  suffix,  so  in this example .pdf.gz can only be handled if
              .gz is also handled (though not necessarily in  the  same  way).
              Alternatively, if no handling for .gz on its own is needed, sim-
              ply adding the command

                     alias -s gz=zsh-mime-handler

              to the initialisation code is sufficient; .gz will not  be  han-
              dled  on its own, but may be in combination with other suffixes.

                     If this boolean style is true, the  mailcap  handler  for
                     the  context  in  question  is run using the eval builtin
                     instead of by starting a new sh process.   This  is  more
                     efficient, but may not work in the occasional cases where
                     the mailcap handler uses strict POSIX syntax.

                     This style gives a list of patterns to be matched against
                     files  passed  for  execution with a handler program.  If
                     the file matches the pattern, the entire command line  is
                     executed  in  its current form, with no handler.  This is
                     useful for files which might have suffixes  but  nonethe-
                     less  be  executable in their own right.  If the style is
                     not set, the pattern *(*) *(/) is used; hence  executable
                     files  are executed directly and not passed to a handler,
                     and the option AUTO_CD may be used to change to  directo-
                     ries that happen to have MIME suffixes.

                     Used  if the style find-file-in-path is true for the same
                     context.  Set to an array of directories  that  are  used
                     for  searching for the file to be handled; the default is
                     the command path given by  the  special  parameter  path.
                     The  shell option PATH_DIRS is respected; if that is set,
                     the appropriate path will be searched even if the name of
                     the  file to be handled as it appears on the command line
                     contains a `/'.  The full context is  :mime:.suffix:,  as
                     described for the style handler.

                     If  set, allows files whose names do not contain absolute
                     paths to be searched for in the command path or the  path
                     specified  by  the  file-path  style.  If the file is not
                     found in the path, it is looked for locally  (whether  or
                     not  the  current directory is in the path); if it is not
                     found locally, the handler will  abort  unless  the  han-
                     dle-nonexistent  style  is  set.  Files found in the path
                     are tested as described for the style execute-as-is.  The
                     full  context  is  :mime:.suffix:,  as  described for the
                     style handler.

              flags  Defines flags to go with a handler; the context is as for
                     the  handler style, and the format is as for the flags in

                     By default, arguments that don't correspond to files  are
                     not  passed  to  the  MIME handler in order to prevent it
                     from intercepting commands found in the path that  happen
                     to  have  suffixes.  This style may be set to an array of
                     extended glob patterns for arguments that will be  passed
                     to  the  handler  even if they don't exist.  If it is not
                     explicitly  set  it  defaults  to  [[:alpha:]]#:/*  which
                     allows  URLs to be passed to the MIME handler even though
                     they don't exist in that format in the file system.   The
                     full  context  is  :mime:.suffix:,  as  described for the
                     style handler.

                     Specifies a handler for a suffix; the suffix is given  by
                     the context as :mime:.suffix:, and the format of the han-
                     dler is exactly that in mailcap.  Note in particular  the
                     `.'  and  trailing  colon  to distinguish this use of the
                     context.  This overrides any  handler  specified  by  the
                     mailcap  files.   If the handler requires a terminal, the
                     flags style should be set to include the word needstermi-
                     nal,  or if the output is to be displayed through a pager
                     (but not if the handler is itself  a  pager),  it  should
                     include copiousoutput.

                     A   list  of  files  in  the  format  of  ~/.mailcap  and
                     /etc/mailcap to  be  read  during  setup,  replacing  the
                     default list which consists of those two files.  The con-
                     text is :mime:.  A + in the list will be replaced by  the
                     default files.

                     This  style  is  used to resolve multiple mailcap entries
                     for the same MIME type.  It consists of an array  of  the
                     following  elements,  in  descending  order  of priority;
                     later entries will be used if earlier entries are  unable
                     to  resolve  the  entries being compared.  If none of the
                     tests resolve the entries, the first entry encountered is

                     files  The  order of files (entries in the mailcap style)
                            read.  Earlier files are  preferred.   (Note  this
                            does not resolve entries in the same file.)

                            The  priority  flag  from  the mailcap entry.  The
                            priority is an  integer  from  0  to  9  with  the
                            default value being 5.

                     flags  The test given by the mailcap-prio-flags option is
                            used to resolve entries.

                     place  Later entries are preferred; as  the  entries  are
                            strictly ordered, this test always succeeds.

                     Note that as this style is handled during initialisation,
                     the context is always :mime:, with no  discrimination  by

                     This  style is used when the keyword flags is encountered
                     in the list of tests specified by the  mailcap-priorities
                     style.   It  should be set to a list of patterns, each of
                     which is tested against the flags specified in the  mail-
                     cap  entry (in other words, the sets of assignments found
                     with some entries in the mailcap file).  Earlier patterns
                     in the list are preferred to later ones, and matched pat-
                     terns are preferred to unmatched ones.

                     A list of  files  in  the  format  of  ~/.mime.types  and
                     /etc/mime.types  to  be  read during setup, replacing the
                     default list which consists of those two files.  The con-
                     text  is :mime:.  A + in the list will be replaced by the
                     default files.

                     If this boolean style is set, the handler for  the  given
                     context  is  always  run  in  the foreground, even if the
                     flags provided in the mailcap entry suggest it  need  not
                     be (for example, it doesn't require a terminal).

              pager  If  set, will be used instead of $PAGER or more to handle
                     suffixes where the copiousoutput flag is set.   The  con-
                     text  is as for handler, i.e. :mime:.suffix: for handling
                     a file with the given suffix.


                     zstyle ':mime:*' mailcap ~/.mailcap /usr/local/etc/mailcap
                     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' handler less %s
                     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' flags needsterminal

              When zsh-mime-setup is subsequently run, it will look for  mail-
              cap  entries  in the two files given.  Files of suffix .txt will
              be handled by running `less file.txt'.  The  flag  needsterminal
              is  set  to show that this program must run attached to a termi-

              As there are several steps to dispatching a command, the follow-
              ing  should be checked if attempting to execute a file by exten-
              sion .ext does not have the expected effect.

              The command `alias -s ext'  should  show  `ps=zsh-mime-handler'.
              If  it  shows  something  else, another suffix alias was already
              installed and was not overwritten.  If it shows nothing, no han-
              dler  was installed:  this is most likely because no handler was
              found in the .mime.types and mailcap combination for .ext files.
              In   that   case,   appropriate  handling  should  be  added  to
              ~/.mime.types and mailcap.

              If the extension is handled by zsh-mime-handler but the file  is
              not opened correctly, either the handler defined for the type is
              incorrect, or the flags associated with it are  in  appropriate.
              Running  zsh-mime-setup  -l  will show the handler and, if there
              are any, the flags.  A %s in the handler is replaced by the file
              (suitably  quoted if necessary).  Check that the handler program
              listed lists and can be run in the way shown.  Also  check  that
              the  flags needsterminal or copiousoutput are set if the handler
              needs to be run under a terminal; the second flag is used if the
              output  should  be  sent  to  a pager.  An example of a suitable
              mailcap entry for such a program is:

                     text/html; /usr/bin/lynx '%s'; needsterminal

              Running `zsh-mime-handler -l command line'  prints  the  command
              line  that would be executed, simplified to remove the effect of
              any flags, and quoted so that the output can be run  as  a  com-
              plete  zsh  command line.  This is used by the completion system
              to decide how to complete after a file handled by  zsh-mime-set-

              This  function is separate from the two MIME functions described
              above and can be assigned directly to a suffix:

                     autoload -U pick-web-browser
                     alias -s html=pick-web-browser

              It is provided as an intelligent front end  to  dispatch  a  web
              browser.   It may be run as either a function or a shell script.
              The status 255 is returned if no browser could be started.

              Various  styles  are  available  to  customize  the  choice   of

                     The  value of the style is an array giving preferences in
                     decreasing order for the type of  browser  to  use.   The
                     values of elements may be

                            Use  a GUI browser that is already running when an
                            X  Window  display  is  available.   The  browsers
                            listed  in the x-browsers style are tried in order
                            until one is found; if it is,  the  file  will  be
                            displayed in that browser, so the user may need to
                            check whether it  has  appeared.   If  no  running
                            browser  is  found,  one is not started.  Browsers
                            other  than  Firefox,  Opera  and  Konqueror   are
                            assumed to understand the Mozilla syntax for open-
                            ing a URL remotely.

                     x      Start a new GUI browser when an X  Window  display
                            is  available.  Search for the availability of one
                            of the browsers listed in the x-browsers style and
                            start  the  first  one that is found.  No check is
                            made for an already running browser.

                     tty    Start a terminal-based browser.   Search  for  the
                            availability  of one of the browsers listed in the
                            tty-browsers style and start the first one that is

                     If  the  style  is  not  set the default running x tty is

                     An array in decreasing order of preference of browsers to
                     use  when  running  under the X Window System.  The array
                     consists of the command name under  which  to  start  the
                     browser.  They are looked up in the context :mime: (which
                     may be extended in future, so  appending  `*'  is  recom-
                     mended).  For example,

                            zstyle ':mime:*' x-browsers opera konqueror firefox

                     specifies  that  pick-web-browser should first look for a
                     running instance of Opera, Konqueror or Firefox, in  that
                     order,  and  if  it  fails  to find any should attempt to
                     start Opera.  The default  is  firefox  mozilla  netscape
                     opera konqueror.

                     An  array  similar  to  x-browsers,  except that it gives
                     browsers to use when no X Window  display  is  available.
                     The default is elinks links lynx.

                     If  it is set this style is used to pick the command used
                     to  open  a  page  for  a  browser.    The   context   is
                     :mime:browser:new:$browser:  to  start  a  new browser or
                     :mime:browser:running:$browser:  to  open  a  URL  in   a
                     browser  already  running on the current X display, where
                     $browser is  the  value  matched  in  the  x-browsers  or
                     tty-browsers  style.   The  escape  sequence  %b  in  the
                     style's value will be replaced by the browser,  while  %u
                     will  be  replaced  by the URL.  If the style is not set,
                     the default for all new instances is equivalent to %b  %u
                     and  the  defaults for using running browsers are equiva-
                     lent to the values kfmclient openURL  %u  for  Konqueror,
                     firefox  -new-tab  %u  for Firefox, opera -newpage %u for
                     Opera, and %b -remote "openUrl(%u)" for all others.


       zcalc [ expression ... ]
              A reasonably powerful calculator based on zsh's arithmetic eval-
              uation  facility.   The syntax is similar to that of formulae in
              most programming languages; see the section `Arithmetic  Evalua-
              tion'  in  zshmisc(1)  for  details.   The  mathematical library
              zsh/mathfunc will be loaded if it is available; see the  section
              `The  zsh/mathfunc  Module'  in zshmodules(1).  The mathematical
              functions correspond to the raw system libraries, so trigonomet-
              ric functions are evaluated using radians, and so on.

              Each line typed is evaluated as an expression.  The prompt shows
              a number, which corresponds to a positional parameter where  the
              result  of  that calculation is stored.  For example, the result
              of the calculation on the line preceded by `4> ' is available as
              $4.   The  last value calculated is available as ans.  Full com-
              mand line editing, including the history  of  previous  calcula-
              tions,   is   available;  the  history  is  saved  in  the  file
              ~/.zcalc_history.  To exit, enter a blank line or type  `:q'  on
              its own (`q' is allowed for historical compatibility).

              If  arguments  are  given to zcalc on start up, they are used to
              prime the first few positional parameters.  A visual  indication
              of this is given when the calculator starts.

              The  constants  PI (3.14159...) and E (2.71828...) are provided.
              Parameter assignment is possible, but note that  all  parameters
              will be put into the global namespace.

              The  output  base  can  be  initialised  by  passing  the option
              `-#base', for example `zcalc -#16'  (the  `#'  may  have  to  be
              quoted, depending on the globbing options set).

              The  prompt is configurable via the parameter ZCALCPROMPT, which
              undergoes standard prompt expansion.  The index of  the  current
              entry is stored locally in the first element of the array psvar,
              which can be referred to in ZCALCPROMPT as `%1v'.   The  default
              prompt is `%1v> '.

              A  few special commands are available; these are introduced by a
              colon.  For backward compatibility, the colon may be omitted for
              certain  commands.  Completion is available if compinit has been

              The output precision may be specified within  zcalc  by  special
              commands familiar from many calculators.
              :norm  The  default output format.  It corresponds to the printf
                     %g specification.  Typically this shows six decimal  dig-

              :sci digits
                     Scientific  notation, corresponding to the printf %g out-
                     put format with the precision given by digits.  This pro-
                     duces  either fixed point or exponential notation depend-
                     ing on the value output.

              :fix digits
                     Fixed point notation, corresponding to the printf %f out-
                     put format with the precision given by digits.

              :eng digits
                     Exponential notation, corresponding to the printf %E out-
                     put format with the precision given by digits.

              :raw   Raw output:  this is the default form of the output  from
                     a math evaluation.  This may show more precision than the
                     number actually possesses.

              Other special commands:
                     Execute line... as a normal  shell  command  line.   Note
                     that  it is executed in the context of the function, i.e.
                     with local variables.  Space is optional after :!.

              :local arg ...
                     Declare variables local to the function.  Note that  cer-
                     tain  variables are used by the function for its own pur-
                     poses.  Other variables may be used, too, but  they  will
                     be taken from or put into the global scope.

              :function name [ body ]
                     Define  a  mathematical function or (with no body) delete
                     it.  The function  is  defined  using  zmathfuncdef,  see

                     Note  that  zcalc  takes  care of all quoting.  Hence for

                            function cube $1 * $1 * $1

                     defines a function to cube the sole argument.

                     This is not a special  command,  rather  part  of  normal
                     arithmetic  syntax;  however, when this form appears on a
                     line by itself the default output radix is set  to  base.
                     Use,  for  example, `[#16]' to display hexadecimal output
                     preceded by an indication of the base, or  `[##16]'  just
                     to display the raw number in the given base.  Bases them-
                     selves are always specified in  decimal.  `[#]'  restores
                     the  normal  output  format.  Note that setting an output
                     base suppresses  floating  point  output;  use  `[#]'  to
                     return to normal operation.

              See the comments in the function for a few extra tips.

       zmathfuncdef [ mathfunc [ body ] ]
              A convenient front end to functions -M.

              With  two  arguments, define a mathematical function named math-
              func which can be used in any  form  of  arithmetic  evaluation.
              body is a mathematical expression to implement the function.  It
              may contain references to position parameters $1,  $2,  ...   to
              refer  to  mandatory parameters and ${1:-defvalue} ...  to refer
              to optional parameters.  Note that the forms  must  be  strictly
              adhered  to  for the function to calculate the correct number of
              arguments.  The implementation is held in a shell function named
              zsh_math_func_mathfunc;  usually the user will not need to refer
              to the shell function directly.  Any existing  function  of  the
              same name is silently replaced.

              With  one argument, remove the mathematical function mathfunc as
              well as the shell function implementation.

              With no arguments, list all mathfunc functions in a  form  suit-
              able  for restoring the definition.  The functions have not nec-
              essarily been defined by zmathfuncdef.


       The zsh/newuser module comes with a  function  to  aid  in  configuring
       shell options for new users.  If the module is installed, this function
       can also be run by hand.  It is available even if the module's  default
       behaviour,  namely running the function for a new user logging in with-
       out startup files, is inhibited.

       zsh-newuser-install [ -f ]
              The function presents the user with  various  options  for  cus-
              tomizing  their initialization scripts.  Currently only ~/.zshrc
              is handled.  $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc is used instead  if  the  parameter
              ZDOTDIR  is set; this provides a way for the user to configure a
              file without altering an existing .zshrc.

              By default the function exits immediately if it finds any of the
              files  .zshenv, .zprofile, .zshrc, or .zlogin in the appropriate
              directory.  The option -f is required  in  order  to  force  the
              function  to  continue.   Note  this  may  happen even if .zshrc
              itself does not exist.

              As currently configured, the function will exit  immediately  if
              the  user has root privileges; this behaviour cannot be overrid-

              Once activated, the  function's  behaviour  is  supposed  to  be
              self-explanatory.   Menus are present allowing the user to alter
              the value of options and parameters.  Suggestions  for  improve-
              ments are always welcome.

              When the script exits, the user is given the opportunity to save
              the new file or not; changes are  not  irreversible  until  this
              point.   However,  the  script is careful to restrict changes to
              the file only to a group marked by the lines `# Lines configured
              by  zsh-newuser-install'  and  `#  End  of  lines  configured by
              zsh-newuser-install'.  In addition, the old version of .zshrc is
              saved to a file with the suffix .zni appended.

              If  the  function edits an existing .zshrc, it is up to the user
              to ensure that the changes made will take effect.  For  example,
              if  control  usually  returns early from the existing .zshrc the
              lines will not be executed; or a later initialization  file  may
              override  options or parameters, and so on.  The function itself
              does not attempt to detect any such conflicts.


       There are a large number of helpful  functions  in  the  Functions/Misc
       directory  of  the  zsh  distribution.  Most are very simple and do not
       require documentation here, but a few are worthy of special mention.

       colors This function initializes  several  associative  arrays  to  map
              color names to (and from) the ANSI standard eight-color terminal
              codes.  These are used by the prompt theme system  (see  above).
              You seldom should need to run colors more than once.

              The  eight  base  colors  are:  black, red, green, yellow, blue,
              magenta, cyan, and white.  Each of these  has  codes  for  fore-
              ground  and  background.   In addition there are eight intensity
              attributes: bold, faint, standout,  underline,  blink,  reverse,
              and  conceal.   Finally,  there  are  six  codes  used to negate
              attributes: none (reset all attributes to the defaults),  normal
              (neither  bold  nor faint), no-standout, no-underline, no-blink,
              and no-reverse.

              Some terminals do not support all  combinations  of  colors  and

              The associative arrays are:

              colour Map all the color names to their integer codes, and inte-
                     ger codes to the color names.  The eight base  names  map
                     to  the foreground color codes, as do names prefixed with
                     `fg-', such as `fg-red'.  Names prefixed with `bg-', such
                     as `bg-blue', refer to the background codes.  The reverse
                     mapping from code to color yields  base  name  for  fore-
                     ground codes and the bg- form for backgrounds.

                     Although  it  is  a misnomer to call them `colors', these
                     arrays also map the other fourteen attributes from  names
                     to codes and codes to names.

                     Map  the  eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape
                     sequences that  set  the  corresponding  foreground  text
                     properties.   The  fg  sequences change the color without
                     changing the eight intensity attributes.

                     Map the eight basic color names to ANSI  terminal  escape
                     sequences  that  set the corresponding background proper-
                     ties.  The bg sequences change the color without changing
                     the eight intensity attributes.

              In  addition,  the  scalar parameters reset_color and bold_color
              are  set  to  the  ANSI  terminal  escapes  that  turn  off  all
              attributes and turn on bold intensity, respectively.

       fned name
              Same  as  zed -f.  This function does not appear in the zsh dis-
              tribution, but can be created by linking zed to the name fned in
              some directory in your fpath.

       is-at-least needed [ present ]
              Perform  a  greater-than-or-equal-to  comparison  of two strings
              having the format of a zsh version number; that is, a string  of
              numbers  and text with segments separated by dots or dashes.  If
              the present string is not provided, $ZSH_VERSION is used.   Seg-
              ments  are  paired left-to-right in the two strings with leading
              non-number parts ignored.  If one string has fewer segments than
              the other, the missing segments are considered zero.

              This  is  useful in startup files to set options and other state
              that are not available in all versions of zsh.

                     is-at-least 3.1.6-15 && setopt NO_GLOBAL_RCS
                     is-at-least 3.1.0 && setopt HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS
                     is-at-least 2.6-17 || print "You can't use is-at-least here."

       nslookup [ arg ... ]
              This wrapper function for  the  nslookup  command  requires  the
              zsh/zpty  module  (see  zshmodules(1)).  It behaves exactly like
              the standard  nslookup  except  that  it  provides  customizable
              prompts  (including  a  right-side  prompt)  and  completion  of
              nslookup commands, host  names,  etc.  (if  you  use  the  func-
              tion-based  completion  system).   Completion  styles may be set
              with the context prefix `:completion:nslookup'.

              See also the pager, prompt and rprompt styles below.

       regexp-replace var regexp replace
              Use regular expressions to perform a global search  and  replace
              operation  on  a  variable.   If the option RE_MATCH_PCRE is not
              set, POSIX extended regular expressions are used, else Perl-com-
              patible  regular  expressions  (this  requires  the  shell to be
              linked against the pcre library).

              var is the name of the variable  containing  the  string  to  be
              matched.   The  variable  will be modified directly by the func-
              tion.  The variables MATCH, MBEGIN, MEND,  match,  mbegin,  mend
              should  be  avoided  as these are used by the regular expression

              regexp is the regular expression to match against the string.

              replace is the replacement text.  This  can  contain  parameter,
              command  and  arithmetic expressions which will be replaced:  in
              particular, a reference to $MATCH will be replaced by  the  text
              matched by the pattern.

              The return status is 0 if at least one match was performed, else

       run-help cmd
              This function is designed to be invoked by the run-help ZLE wid-
              get,  in  place  of  the  default alias.  See `Accessing On-Line
              Help' above for setup instructions.

              In the discussion which follows, if cmd is a file  system  path,
              it  is first reduced to its rightmost component (the file name).

              Help is first sought by looking for a  file  named  cmd  in  the
              directory  named by the HELPDIR parameter.  If no file is found,
              an assistant function, alias, or command named  run-help-cmd  is
              sought.   If  found,  the assistant is executed with the rest of
              the current command line (everything after the command name cmd)
              as its arguments.  When neither file nor assistant is found, the
              external command `man cmd' is run.

              An example assistant for the "ssh" command:

                     run-help-ssh() {
                         emulate -LR zsh
                         local -a args
                         # Delete the "-l username" option
                         zparseopts -D -E -a args l:
                         # Delete other options, leaving: host command
                         if [[ ${#args} -lt 2 ]]; then
                             man ssh
                             run-help $args[2]

              Several of these assistants are provided in  the  Functions/Misc
              directory.   These  must  be autoloaded, or placed as executable
              scripts in your search path, in order to be found  and  used  by

                     Assistant functions for the git, svk, and svn commands.

       tetris Zsh  was once accused of not being as complete as Emacs, because
              it lacked a Tetris game.  This function was  written  to  refute
              this vicious slander.

              This function must be used as a ZLE widget:

                     autoload -U tetris
                     zle -N tetris
                     bindkey keys tetris

              To  start  a game, execute the widget by typing the keys.  What-
              ever command line you were editing disappears  temporarily,  and
              your  keymap  is also temporarily replaced by the Tetris control
              keys.  The previous editor state is restored when you  quit  the
              game (by pressing `q') or when you lose.

              If  you quit in the middle of a game, the next invocation of the
              tetris widget will continue where you left off.  If you lost, it
              will start a new game.

       zargs [ option ... -- ] [ input ... ] [ -- command [ arg ... ] ]
              This  function  has  a similar purpose to GNU xargs.  Instead of
              reading lines of arguments from the  standard  input,  it  takes
              them  from  the command line.  This is useful because zsh, espe-
              cially with recursive glob operators, often can construct a com-
              mand  line  for  a  shell  function  that  is longer than can be
              accepted by an external command.

              The option list represents options of the zargs command  itself,
              which  are  the  same  as those of xargs.  The input list is the
              collection of strings (often file names) that become  the  argu-
              ments  of the command, analogous to the standard input of xargs.
              Finally, the arg  list  consists  of  those  arguments  (usually
              options)  that are passed to the command each time it runs.  The
              arg list precedes the elements from the input list in each  run.
              If no command is provided, then no arg list may be provided, and
              in that event the default command is `print' with arguments  `-r

              For  example, to get a long ls listing of all plain files in the
              current directory or its subdirectories:

                     autoload -U zargs
                     zargs -- **/*(.) -- ls -l

              Note that `--' is used both to mark the end of the  option  list
              and  to  mark the end of the input list, so it must appear twice
              whenever the input list may be empty.  If there is guaranteed to
              be  at least one input and the first input does not begin with a
              `-', then the first `--' may be omitted.

              In the event that the string `--' is or may be an input, the  -e
              option  may  be  used  to change the end-of-inputs marker.  Note
              that this does not change the end-of-options marker.  For  exam-
              ple, to use `..' as the marker:

                     zargs -e.. -- **/*(.) .. ls -l

              This  is a good choice in that example because no plain file can
              be named `..', but the best end-marker depends  on  the  circum-

              The  options  -i,  -I, -l, -L, and -n differ slightly from their
              usage in xargs.  There are no input lines for zargs to count, so
              -l and -L count through the input list, and -n counts the number
              of arguments passed to each execution of command, including  any
              arg  list.   Also, any time -i or -I is used, each input is pro-
              cessed separately as if by `-L 1'.

              For details of the other zargs options, see xargs(1)  (but  note
              the difference in function between zargs and xargs) or run zargs
              with the --help option.

       zed [ -f ] name
       zed -b This function uses the ZLE editor to edit a file or function.

              Only one name argument is allowed.  If the -f option  is  given,
              the  name  is taken to be that of a function; if the function is
              marked for autoloading, zed searches for it  in  the  fpath  and
              loads  it.   Note  that  functions edited this way are installed
              into the current shell, but not written  back  to  the  autoload

              Without  -f,  name  is  the path name of the file to edit, which
              need not exist; it is created on write, if necessary.

              While editing, the function sets the main keymap to zed and  the
              vi  command  keymap to zed-vicmd.  These will be copied from the
              existing main and vicmd keymaps if they do not exist  the  first
              time  zed is run.  They can be used to provide special key bind-
              ings used only in zed.

              If it creates the keymap, zed rebinds the return key to insert a
              line  break and `^X^W' to accept the edit in the zed keymap, and
              binds `ZZ' to accept the edit in the zed-vicmd keymap.

              The bindings alone can be installed by running `zed  -b'.   This
              is  suitable  for  putting  into  a startup file.  Note that, if
              rerun, this  will  overwrite  the  existing  zed  and  zed-vicmd

              Completion  is available, and styles may be set with the context
              prefix `:completion:zed'.

              A zle widget zed-set-file-name is available.  This can be called
              by  name  from  within  zed using `\ex zed-set-file-name' (note,
              however, that because of zed's rebindings you will have to  type
              ^j  at  the end instead of the return key), or can be bound to a
              key in either of the zed or zed-vicmd keymaps after `zed -b' has
              been  run.  When the widget is called, it prompts for a new name
              for the file being edited.  When zed  exits  the  file  will  be
              written  under  that  name  and  the  original file will be left
              alone.  The widget has no effect with `zed -f'.

              While zed-set-file-name is running, zed uses the keymap zed-nor-
              mal-keymap,  which  is  linked from the main keymap in effect at
              the time zed initialised its bindings.  (This  is  to  make  the
              return  key  operate  normally.)  The result is that if the main
              keymap has been changed, the widget won't notice.  This is not a
              concern for most users.

       zcp [ -finqQvwW ] srcpat dest
       zln [ -finqQsvwW ] srcpat dest
              Same as zmv -C and zmv -L, respectively.  These functions do not
              appear in the zsh distribution, but can be  created  by  linking
              zmv to the names zcp and zln in some directory in your fpath.

       zkbd   See `Keyboard Definition' above.

       zmv  [ -finqQsvwW ] [ -C | -L | -M | -p program ] [ -o optstring ] src-
       pat dest
              Move (usually, rename) files matching the pattern srcpat to cor-
              responding files having names of the form given by  dest,  where
              srcpat  contains  parentheses surrounding patterns which will be
              replaced in turn by $1, $2, ... in dest.  For example,

                     zmv '(*).lis' '$1.txt'

              renames   `foo.lis'   to   `foo.txt',   `my.old.stuff.lis'    to
              `my.old.stuff.txt', and so on.

              The  pattern is always treated as an EXTENDED_GLOB pattern.  Any
              file whose name is not changed by  the  substitution  is  simply
              ignored.  Any error (a substitution resulted in an empty string,
              two substitutions gave the same result, the destination  was  an
              existing  regular  file  and -f was not given) causes the entire
              function to abort without doing anything.


              -f     Force overwriting of destination  files.   Not  currently
                     passed  down  to  the mv/cp/ln command due to vagaries of
                     implementations (but you can use -o-f to do that).
              -i     Interactive: show each line to be executed  and  ask  the
                     user  whether to execute it.  `Y' or `y' will execute it,
                     anything else will skip it.  Note that you just  need  to
                     type one character.
              -n     No execution: print what would happen, but don't do it.
              -q     Turn bare glob qualifiers off: now assumed by default, so
                     this has no effect.
              -Q     Force bare glob qualifiers on.  Don't turn this on unless
                     you are actually using glob qualifiers in a pattern.
              -s     Symbolic, passed down to ln; only works with -L.
              -v     Verbose: print each command as it's being executed.
              -w     Pick  out  wildcard  parts  of  the pattern, as described
                     above, and implicitly add parentheses  for  referring  to
              -W     Just  like  -w, with the addition of turning wildcards in
                     the replacement pattern into sequential ${1} .. ${N} ref-
              -M     Force  cp, ln or mv, respectively, regardless of the name
                     of the function.
              -p program
                     Call program instead of cp, ln or mv.  Whatever it  does,
                     it  should  at least understand the form `program -- old-
                     name newname' where oldname  and  newname  are  filenames
                     generated by zmv.
              -o optstring
                     The  optstring is split into words and passed down verba-
                     tim to the cp, ln or mv command  called  to  perform  the
                     work.  It should probably begin with a `-'.

              Further examples:

                     zmv -v '(* *)' '${1// /_}'

              For any file in the current directory with at least one space in
              the name, replace every space by an underscore and  display  the
              commands executed.

              For more complete examples and other implementation details, see
              the zmv source file, usually located in one of  the  directories
              named in your fpath, or in Functions/Misc/zmv in the zsh distri-

              See `Recompiling Functions' above.

       zstyle+ context style value [ + subcontext style value ... ]
              This makes defining styles a bit simpler by using a  single  `+'
              as  a  special token that allows you to append a context name to
              the previously used context name.  Like this:

                     zstyle+ ':foo:bar' style1 value1 \
                           + ':baz'     style2 value2 \
                           + ':frob'    style3 value3

              This defines `style1' with `value1' for the context :foo:bar  as
              usual,  but  it also defines `style2' with `value2' for the con-
              text :foo:bar:baz and `style3' with `value3' for  :foo:bar:frob.
              Any  subcontext may be the empty string to re-use the first con-
              text unchanged.

              The zed function sets this style in context  `:completion:zed:*'
              to  turn  off completion when TAB is typed at the beginning of a
              line.  You may override this by setting your own value for  this
              context and style.

       pager  The  nslookup  function  looks  up  this  style  in  the context
              `:nslookup' to determine the program used to display output that
              does not fit on a single screen.

              The  nslookup  function  looks  up  this  style  in  the context
              `:nslookup' to set the prompt and the right-side prompt, respec-
              tively.   The  usual  expansions for the PS1 and RPS1 parameters
              may be used (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).

zsh 5.0.2                      December 21, 2012                 zshcontrib(1)

Mac OS X 10.9 - Generated Mon Oct 14 06:02:26 CDT 2013
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