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zshbuiltins(1)                                                  zshbuiltins(1)




NAME

       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands


SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

       - simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       . file [ arg ... ]
              Read  commands  from  file and execute them in the current shell
              environment.

              If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS  is  set,  the
              shell  looks  in  the  components of $path to find the directory
              containing file.  Files in the current directory  are  not  read
              unless  `.'  appears  somewhere  in  $path.   If  a  file  named
              `file.zwc' is found, is newer than file,  and  is  the  compiled
              form  (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands
              are read from that file instead of file.

              If any arguments arg  are  given,  they  become  the  positional
              parameters;  the old positional parameters are restored when the
              file is done executing.  If file was not found the return status
              is  127;  if  file  was  found  but contained a syntax error the
              return status is 126; else the return status is the exit  status
              of the last command executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
              This  command  does nothing, although normal argument expansions
              is performed which may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero
              exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              For  each  name with a corresponding value, define an alias with
              that value.  A trailing space in value causes the next  word  to
              be  checked  for  alias  expansion.   If the -g flag is present,
              define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if  they
              do not occur in command position.

              If  the  -s flags is present, define a suffix alias: if the com-
              mand word on a command line is in the  form  `text.name',  where
              text  is any non-empty string, it is replaced by the text `value
              text.name'.  Note that name is treated as a literal string,  not
              a  pattern.   A  trailing  space in value is not special in this
              case.  For example,

                     alias -s ps=gv

              will cause the command `*.ps' to be expanded to `gv  *.ps'.   As
              alias expansion is carried out earlier than globbing, the `*.ps'
              will then be expanded.  Suffix aliases  constitute  a  different
              name  space  from  other  aliases (so in the above example it is
              still possible to create an alias for the command  ps)  and  the
              two sets are never listed together.

              For  each  name  with no value, print the value of name, if any.
              With no arguments, print all  currently  defined  aliases  other
              than  suffix aliases.  If the -m flag is given the arguments are
              taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve  them  from
              being  interpreted  as  glob patterns), and the aliases matching
              these patterns are printed.  When printing aliases  and  one  of
              the  -g,  -r  or  -s  flags is present, restrict the printing to
              global, regular or suffix aliases, respectively; a regular alias
              is one which is neither a global nor a suffix alias.   Using `+'
              instead of `-', or ending the option list  with  a  single  `+',
              prevents the values of the aliases from being printed.

              If  the  -L  flag  is present, then print each alias in a manner
              suitable for putting in a startup script.  The  exit  status  is
              nonzero  if  a  name (with no value) is given for which no alias
              has been defined.

              For more on aliases, include common problems,  see  the  section
              ALIASING in zshmisc(1).

       autoload [ {+|-}UXkmtz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
              Equivalent  to functions -u, with the exception of -X/+X and -w.

              The flag -X may be used only inside a shell  function,  and  may
              not be followed by a name.  It causes the calling function to be
              marked for autoloading and then immediately loaded and executed,
              with  the  current  array of positional parameters as arguments.
              This replaces the previous definition of the  function.   If  no
              function  definition is found, an error is printed and the func-
              tion remains undefined and marked for autoloading.

              The flag +X attempts to load each name as  an  autoloaded  func-
              tion,  but  does  not execute it.  The exit status is zero (suc-
              cess) if the function was not previously defined and  a  defini-
              tion for it was found.  This does not replace any existing defi-
              nition of the function.  The exit status is nonzero (failure) if
              the  function  was  already  defined  or  when no definition was
              found.  In the latter case the function  remains  undefined  and
              marked  for  autoloading.   If ksh-style autoloading is enabled,
              the function created will contain the contents of the file  plus
              a call to the function itself appended to it, thus giving normal
              ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the function.  If
              the  -m flag is also given each name is treated as a pattern and
              all functions already marked for autoload that match the pattern
              are loaded.

              With the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled
              with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are
              marked for autoloading.

              The flags -z and -k mark the function to be autoloaded using the
              zsh or ksh style, as if the option KSH_AUTOLOAD  were  unset  or
              were  set,  respectively.  The flags override the setting of the
              option at the time the function is loaded.

              Note that the autoload command makes no attempt  to  ensure  the
              shell  options  set  during the loading or execution of the file
              have any particular value.  For this, the emulate command can be
              used:

                     emulate zsh -c 'autoload -Uz func'

              arranges  that  when  func  is loaded the shell is in native zsh
              emulation, and this emulation is also applied when func is  run.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
              Put  each specified job in the background, or the current job if
              none is specified.

       bindkey
              See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
              Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.
              If n is specified, then break n levels instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
              Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -qsLP ] old new
       cd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change  the  current  directory.   In the first form, change the
              current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not
              specified.  If arg is `-', change to the previous directory.

              Otherwise,  if arg begins with a slash, attempt to change to the
              directory given by arg.

              If arg does not begin with a slash,  the  behaviour  depends  on
              whether the current directory `.' occurs in the list of directo-
              ries contained in the shell parameter cdpath.  If it  does  not,
              first  attempt  to change to the directory arg under the current
              directory, and if that fails but cdpath is set and  contains  at
              least  one  element attempt to change to the directory arg under
              each component of cdpath  in  turn  until  successful.   If  `.'
              occurs  in  cdpath, then cdpath is searched strictly in order so
              that `.' is only tried at the appropriate point.

              The order of testing cdpath is modified if the  option  POSIX_CD
              is set, as described in the documentation for the option.

              If  no  directory is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a
              parameter named arg exists whose  value  begins  with  a  slash,
              treat  its  value as the directory.  In that case, the parameter
              is added to the named directory hash table.

              The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the  string
              old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to
              this new directory.

              The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack,
              and  changes  to  that  directory.  An argument of the form `+n'
              identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of  the  list
              shown  by  the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of
              the form `-n' counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS  option
              is set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook  function  chpwd
              and  the  functions in the array chpwd_functions are not called.
              This is useful for calls to cd that do not change  the  environ-
              ment seen by an interactive user.

              If  the -s option is specified, cd refuses to change the current
              directory if the given pathname contains symlinks.   If  the  -P
              option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links
              are resolved to their true values.  If the -L  option  is  given
              symbolic  links are retained in the directory (and not resolved)
              regardless of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
              The simple command argument is  taken  as  an  external  command
              instead  of  a  function  or  builtin  and  is  executed. If the
              POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also be executed but
              certain  special  properties of them are suppressed. The -p flag
              causes a default path to be searched instead of that  in  $path.
              With  the  -v flag, command is similar to whence and with -V, it
              is equivalent to whence -v.

              See also the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       comparguments
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
              Resume the next iteration of the enclosing  for,  while,  until,
              select  or  repeat  loop.   If  n is specified, break out of n-1
              loops and resume at the nth enclosing loop.

       declare
              Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
              With no arguments, print the contents of  the  directory  stack.
              Directories  are added to this stack with the pushd command, and
              removed with the cd or popd commands.  If arguments  are  speci-
              fied,  load  them  onto  the directory stack, replacing anything
              that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack.

              -c     clear the directory stack.

              -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~
                     expressions.

              -p     print directory entries one per line.

              -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.


       disable [ -afmrs ] name ...
              Temporarily  disable the named hash table elements.  The default
              is to disable builtin commands.   This  allows  you  to  use  an
              external  command  with the same name as a builtin command.  The
              -a option causes disable to act on regular  or  global  aliases.
              The  -s  option causes disable to act on suffix aliases.  The -f
              option causes disable to act on shell functions.  The -r options
              causes  disable to act on reserved words.  Without arguments all
              disabled hash table elements from the corresponding  hash  table
              are  printed.   With the -m flag the arguments are taken as pat-
              terns (which should be quoted to prevent  them  from  undergoing
              filename expansion), and all hash table elements from the corre-
              sponding hash table matching these patterns are disabled.   Dis-
              abled objects can be enabled with the enable command.

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
              Remove  the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no
              longer report their status, and will not complain if you try  to
              exit  an  interactive shell with them running or stopped.  If no
              job is specified, disown the current job.

              If the jobs are currently stopped and the  AUTO_CONTINUE  option
              is  not  set,  a warning is printed containing information about
              how to make them running after they have been disowned.  If  one
              of  the latter two forms is used, the jobs will automatically be
              made running, independent of the setting  of  the  AUTO_CONTINUE
              option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
              Write  each  arg on the standard output, with a space separating
              each one.  If the -n flag is not present, print a newline at the
              end.  echo recognizes the following escape sequences:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress final newline
              \e     escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0NNN  character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal

              The  -E  flag,  or  the  BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable
              these escape sequences.  In the latter case, -e flag can be used
              to enable them.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -LR ] [ {zsh|sh|ksh|csh} [ flags ... ] ]
              Without any argument print current emulation mode.

              With single argument set up zsh options to emulate the specified
              shell as much as possible.  csh will never  be  fully  emulated.
              If  the argument is not one of the shells listed above, zsh will
              be used as a default; more precisely, the tests performed on the
              argument  are  the same as those used to determine the emulation
              at startup based on the shell name, see the section  COMPATIBIL-
              ITY in zsh(1) .

              If  the  emulate  command occurs inside a function that has been
              marked for execution tracing with functions -t then  the  xtrace
              option  will  be turned on regardless of emulation mode or other
              options.  Note that code executed inside the function by the  .,
              source,  or  eval  commands  is  not  considered  to  be running
              directly from the function, hence does not provoke  this  behav-
              iour.

              If  the  -R  switch  is given, all settable options are reset to
              their default value corresponding  to  the  specified  emulation
              mode,  except  for  certain  options  describing the interactive
              environment; otherwise,  only  those  options  likely  to  cause
              portability  problems  in scripts and functions are altered.  If
              the  -L  switch  is  given,  the   options   LOCAL_OPTIONS   and
              LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects of the emu-
              late command and any setopt and trap commands to be local to the
              immediately  surrounding  shell function, if any; normally these
              options are turned off in all emulation modes except ksh. The -L
              switch is mutually exclusive with the use of -c in flags.

              The  flags  may be any of the invocation-time flags described in
              the section INVOCATION in zsh(1), except that `-o EMACS' and `-o
              VI'  may not be used.  Flags such as `+r'/`+o RESTRICTED' may be
              prohibited in some circumstances.

              If -c arg appears in flags, arg is evaluated while the requested
              emulation  is temporarily in effect.  In this case the emulation
              mode and all options  are  restored  to  their  previous  values
              before  emulate  returns.  The -R switch may precede the name of
              the shell to emulate; note this  has  a  meaning  distinct  from
              including -R in flags.

              Use  of -c enables `sticky' emulation mode for functions defined
              within the evaluated expression:  the emulation mode is  associ-
              ated  thereafter with the function so that whenever the function
              is executed the emulation (respecting the -R switch, if present)
              and  all  options  are  set  before  entry  to the function, and
              restored after exit.  If the function is called when the  sticky
              emulation  is already in effect, either within an `emulate shell
              -c' expression or within another function with the  same  sticky
              emulation, entry and exit from the function do not cause options
              to be altered (except due to standard  processing  such  as  the
              LOCAL_OPTIONS  option).   This  also applies to functions marked
              for autoload within the sticky emulation; the appropriate set of
              options  will  be applied at the point the function is loaded as
              well as when it is run.

              For example:

                     emulate sh -c 'fni() { setopt cshnullglob; }
                     fno() { fni; }'
                     fno

              The two functions fni and fno are defined with sticky sh  emula-
              tion.   fno  is  then  executed, causing options associated with
              emulations to be set to their values in sh.  fni then calls fno;
              because  fno  is  also marked for sticky sh emulation, no option
              changes take place on entry to  or  exit  from  it.   Hence  the
              option  cshnullglob,  turned off by sh emulation, will be turned
              on within fni and remain on on return to fno.  On exit from fno,
              the emulation mode and all options will be restored to the state
              they were in before entry to the temporary emulation.

              The documentation above is typically sufficient for the intended
              purpose  of  executing code designed for other shells in a suit-
              able environment.  More detailed rules follow.
              1.     The sticky emulation  environment  provided  by  `emulate
                     shell  -c'  is  identical  to that provided by entry to a
                     function marked for sticky emulation as a consequence  of
                     being  defined  in such an environment.  Hence, for exam-
                     ple, the sticky emulation is  inherited  by  subfunctions
                     defined within functions with sticky emulation.
              2.     No change of options takes place on entry to or exit from
                     functions that are not marked for sticky emulation, other
                     than  those that would normally take place, even if those
                     functions are called within sticky emulation.
              3.     No special handling is provided for functions marked  for
                     autoload nor for functions present in wordcode created by
                     the zcompile command.
              4.     The presence or absence of the -R switch to emulate  cor-
                     responds  to  different  sticky  emulation  modes, so for
                     example `emulate sh -c', `emulate -R sh -c' and  `emulate
                     csh  -c' are treated as three distinct sticky emulations.
              5.     Difference in shell options supplied in addition  to  the
                     basic  emulation also mean the sticky emulations are dif-
                     ferent, so for example `emulate zsh -c' and `emulate  zsh
                     -o  cbases -c' are treated as distinct sticky emulations.

       enable [ -afmrs ] name ...
              Enable the named hash table elements, presumably  disabled  ear-
              lier  with  disable.  The default is to enable builtin commands.
              The -a option causes enable to act on regular or global aliases.
              The  -s  option  causes enable to act on suffix aliases.  The -f
              option causes enable to act on shell functions.  The  -r  option
              causes  enable  to act on reserved words.  Without arguments all
              enabled hash table elements from the  corresponding  hash  table
              are  printed.   With the -m flag the arguments are taken as pat-
              terns (should be quoted) and all hash table  elements  from  the
              corresponding  hash  table  matching these patterns are enabled.
              Enabled objects can be disabled with the  disable  builtin  com-
              mand.

       eval [ arg ... ]
              Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the result-
              ing command(s) in the current shell process.  The return  status
              is the same as if the commands had been executed directly by the
              shell; if there are no args or they contain  no  commands  (i.e.
              are an empty string or whitespace) the return status is zero.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ] simple command
              Replace  the  current shell with an external command rather than
              forking.  With -c clear the environment; with -l  prepend  -  to
              the  argv[0] string of the command executed (to simulate a login
              shell); with -a argv0 set the argv[0] string of the command exe-
              cuted.  See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       exit [ n ]
              Exit  the  shell with the exit status specified by n; if none is
              specified, use the exit status from the last  command  executed.
              An  EOF  condition will also cause the shell to exit, unless the
              IGNORE_EOF option is set.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
              The specified names are marked for automatic export to the envi-
              ronment  of subsequently executed commands.  Equivalent to type-
              set -gx.  If a parameter specified does not already exist, it is
              created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.

       fc [ -e ename ] [ -m match ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -l [ -nrdfEiD ] [ -t timefmt ] [ -m match ]
             [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
              Select  a  range of commands from first to last from the history
              list.  The arguments first and last may be specified as a number
              or  as  a string.  A negative number is used as an offset to the
              current history event  number.   A  string  specifies  the  most
              recent event beginning with the given string.  All substitutions
              old=new, if any, are then performed on the commands.

              If the -l flag is given, the resulting commands  are  listed  on
              standard  output.   If the -m flag is also given the first argu-
              ment is taken as a pattern (should be quoted) and only the  his-
              tory  events matching this pattern will be shown.  Otherwise the
              editor program ename is invoked on a file containing these  his-
              tory  events.  If ename is not given, the value of the parameter
              FCEDIT is used; if that is not set the value  of  the  parameter
              EDITOR  is  used;  if that is not set a builtin default, usually
              `vi' is used.  If ename is `-',  no  editor  is  invoked.   When
              editing is complete, the edited command is executed.

              If first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent
              event), or to -16 if the -l flag is given.  If last is not spec-
              ified,  it  will  be  set  to  first, or to -1 if the -l flag is
              given.

              The flag -r reverses the order of the commands and the  flag  -n
              suppresses command numbers when listing.

              Also when listing,
              -d     prints timestamps for each command
              -f     prints  full  time-date stamps in the US `MM/DD/YY hh:mm'
                     format
              -E     prints full time-date stamps in the European  `dd.mm.yyyy
                     hh:mm' format
              -i     prints  full  time-date  stamps  in  ISO8601  `yyyy-mm-dd
                     hh:mm' format
              -t fmt prints time and date stamps in the given format;  fmt  is
                     formatted  with the strftime function with the zsh exten-
                     sions described for the %D{string} prompt format  in  the
                     section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).  The
                     resulting formatted string must be no more than 256 char-
                     acters or will not be printed.
              -D     prints  elapsed  times;  may  be combined with one of the
                     options above.


              `fc -p' pushes  the  current  history  list  onto  a  stack  and
              switches to a new history list.  If the -a option is also speci-
              fied, this history list will be automatically  popped  when  the
              current  function  scope is exited, which is a much better solu-
              tion than creating a trap function to call `fc -P' manually.  If
              no  arguments  are  specified,  the  history list is left empty,
              $HISTFILE is unset, and $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are set  to  their
              default  values.   If one argument is given, $HISTFILE is set to
              that filename, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are left unchanged, and the
              history  file  is  read  in (if it exists) to initialize the new
              list.  If a second argument is specified, $HISTSIZE &  $SAVEHIST
              are instead set to the single specified numeric value.  Finally,
              if a third argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set to a separate
              value  from $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these environment
              values for the new history list however you desire in  order  to
              manipulate the new history list.

              `fc -P' pops the history list back to an older list saved by `fc
              -p'.  The current list is saved to its $HISTFILE  before  it  is
              destroyed  (assuming that $HISTFILE and $SAVEHIST are set appro-
              priately, of course).  The values of $HISTFILE,  $HISTSIZE,  and
              $SAVEHIST  are  restored to the values they had when `fc -p' was
              called.  Note that this restoration  can  conflict  with  making
              these variables "local", so your best bet is to avoid local dec-
              larations for these variables in functions  that  use  `fc  -p'.
              The  one  other  guaranteed-safe  combination is declaring these
              variables to be local at the top of your function and using  the
              automatic  option  (-a)  with `fc -p'.  Finally, note that it is
              legal to manually pop a push marked for automatic popping if you
              need to do so before the function exits.

              `fc  -R'  reads  the history from the given file, `fc -W' writes
              the history out to the given file, and `fc -A' appends the  his-
              tory  out  to  the given file.  If no filename is specified, the
              $HISTFILE is assumed.  If the -I option is  added  to  -R,  only
              those  events that are not already contained within the internal
              history list are added.  If the -I option is added to -A or  -W,
              only   those   events   that  are  new  since  last  incremental
              append/write to the history file are appended/written.   In  any
              case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
              Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground.  If  no  job
              is specified, resume the current job.

       float [ {+|-}EFHghlprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent  to  typeset  -E,  except  that options irrelevant to
              floating point numbers are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UXkmtTuz ] [ name ... ]
       functions -M mathfn [ min [ max [ shellfn ] ] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn
              Equivalent to typeset -f, with the exception of the  -M  option.
              Use of the -M option may not be combined with any of the options
              handled by typeset -f.

              functions -M mathfn defines mathfn as the name of a mathematical
              function  recognised  in  all forms of arithmetical expressions;
              see the  section  `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1).   By
              default mathfn may take any number of comma-separated arguments.
              If min is given, it must have exactly min args; if min  and  max
              are  both given, it must have at least min and at most max args.
              max may be -1 to indicate that there is no upper limit.

              By default the function is implemented by a  shell  function  of
              the  same name; if shellfn is specified it gives the name of the
              corresponding shell function while mathfn remains the name  used
              in  arithmetical expressions.  The name of the function in $0 is
              mathfn (not shellfn as would usually be the case), provided  the
              option FUNCTION_ARGZERO is in effect.  The positional parameters
              in the shell function correspond to the arguments of the  mathe-
              matical  function  call.   The  result  of the last arithmetical
              expression evaluated inside the shell function (even if it is  a
              form  that  normally  only returns a status) gives the result of
              the mathematical function.

              functions -M with no arguments lists all such user-defined func-
              tions  in  the  same  form as a definition.  With the additional
              option -m and a list of arguments, all  functions  whose  mathfn
              matches one of the pattern arguments are listed.

              function +M removes the list of mathematical functions; with the
              additional option -m the arguments are treated as  patterns  and
              all  functions  whose  mathfn  matches  the pattern are removed.
              Note that the shell function implementing the behaviour  is  not
              removed  (regardless of whether its name coincides with mathfn).

              For example, the following prints the cube of 3:

                     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
                     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
                     print $(( cube(3) ))

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
              Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell
              parameter name.  Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
              Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are omitted, use
              the positional parameters.  A valid option argument begins  with
              a  `+' or a `-'.  An argument not beginning with a `+' or a `-',
              or the argument `--', ends the options.  Note that a single  `-'
              is  not  considered a valid option argument.  optstring contains
              the letters that getopts recognizes.  If a letter is followed by
              a  `:',  that  option  requires an argument.  The options can be
              separated from the argument by blanks.

              Each time it is invoked, getopts places  the  option  letter  it
              finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a `+' when arg
              begins with a `+'.  The index of  the  next  arg  is  stored  in
              OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

              The  first  option  to  be examined may be changed by explicitly
              assigning to OPTIND.  OPTIND has an initial value of 1,  and  is
              normally  reset to 1 upon exit from a shell function.  OPTARG is
              not reset and retains its value from the  most  recent  call  to
              getopts.   If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset, it
              remains unset, and the index or option argument is  not  stored.
              The option itself is still stored in name in this case.

              A leading `:' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of
              any invalid option in OPTARG, and to set  name  to  `?'  for  an
              unknown  option  and to `:' when a required argument is missing.
              Otherwise, getopts sets name to `?' and prints an error  message
              when  an  option  is  invalid.   The exit status is nonzero when
              there are no more options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
              hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the  command
              hash  table,  and  the named directory hash table.  Normally one
              would modify these tables by modifying one's PATH (for the  com-
              mand  hash  table)  or  by creating appropriate shell parameters
              (for the named directory hash table).  The choice of hash  table
              to  work  on  is determined by the -d option; without the option
              the command hash table is used, and with the  option  the  named
              directory hash table is used.

              Given  no  arguments,  and  neither  the  -r  or -f options, the
              selected hash table will be listed in full.

              The -r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied.   It
              will  be  subsequently  rebuilt  in  the normal fashion.  The -f
              option causes the selected hash table to be fully rebuilt  imme-
              diately.   For  the command hash table this hashes all the abso-
              lute directories in the PATH, and for the named  directory  hash
              table  this adds all users' home directories.  These two options
              cannot be used with any arguments.

              The -m option causes the  arguments  to  be  taken  as  patterns
              (which  should  be  quoted)  and  the elements of the hash table
              matching those patterns are printed.  This is the  only  way  to
              display a limited selection of hash table elements.

              For  each  name  with  a  corresponding value, put `name' in the
              selected hash table, associating it with the  pathname  `value'.
              In  the  command  hash table, this means that whenever `name' is
              used as a command argument, the shell will try  to  execute  the
              file  given by `value'.  In the named directory hash table, this
              means that `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

              For each name with no corresponding value, attempt to  add  name
              to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the
              normal manner for that hash  table.   If  an  appropriate  value
              can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

              The -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are
              added by explicit specification.  If has no effect if used  with
              -f.

              If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed
              in the form of a call to hash.

       history
              Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghilprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -i,  except  that  options  irrelevant  to
              integers are not permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
              Lists  information  about  each given job, or all jobs if job is
              omitted.  The -l flag lists process IDs, and the -p  flag  lists
              process  groups.   If the -r flag is specified only running jobs
              will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped jobs are
              shown.   If  the  -d flag is given, the directory from which the
              job was started (which may not be the current directory  of  the
              job) will also be shown.

              The  -Z  option  replaces  the  shell's argument and environment
              space with the given string,  truncated  if  necessary  to  fit.
              This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings.  This fea-
              ture is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
              Sends either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the  given  jobs
              or  processes.  Signals are given by number or by names, with or
              without the `SIG' prefix.  If  the  signal  being  sent  is  not
              `KILL'  or  `CONT', then the job will be sent a `CONT' signal if
              it is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a  job
              not in the job list.  In the second form, kill -l, if sig is not
              specified the signal names are listed.  Otherwise, for each  sig
              that  is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed.  For
              each sig that is a signal number or a  number  representing  the
              exit  status  of  a process which was terminated or stopped by a
              signal the name of the signal is printed.

              On some systems, alternative signal names are allowed for a  few
              signals.  Typical examples are SIGCHLD and SIGCLD or SIGPOLL and
              SIGIO, assuming they correspond to the same signal number.  kill
              -l  will  only list the preferred form, however kill -l alt will
              show if the alternative form corresponds  to  a  signal  number.
              For example, under Linux kill -l IO and kill -l POLL both output
              29, hence kill -IO and kill -POLL have the same effect.

              Many systems will allow process IDs to be  negative  to  kill  a
              process group or zero to kill the current process group.

       let arg ...
              Evaluate  each arg as an arithmetic expression.  See the section
              `Arithmetic Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1)  for  a  description  of
              arithmetic  expressions.   The  exit status is 0 if the value of
              the last expression is nonzero, 1 if it is zero,  and  2  if  an
              error occurred.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
              Set  or  display  resource limits.  Unless the -s flag is given,
              the limit applies only the children of  the  shell.   If  -s  is
              given  without  other arguments, the resource limits of the cur-
              rent shell is set to the previously set resource limits  of  the
              children.

              If  limit  is  not  specified, print the current limit placed on
              resource, otherwise set the limit to the  specified  value.   If
              the  -h  flag  is given, use hard limits instead of soft limits.
              If no resource is given, print all limits.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort imme-
              diately  if  it detects a badly formed argument.  However, if it
              fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue try-
              ing to set the remaining limits.

              resource can be one of:

              addressspace
                     Maximum amount of address space used.
              aiomemorylocked
                     Maximum  amount  of  memory  locked in RAM for AIO opera-
                     tions.
              aiooperations
                     Maximum number of AIO operations.
              cachedthreads
                     Maximum number of cached threads.
              coredumpsize
                     Maximum size of a core dump.
              cputime
                     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
              datasize
                     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
              descriptors
                     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
              filesize
                     Largest single file allowed.
              maxproc
                     Maximum number of processes.
              maxpthreads
                     Maximum number of threads per process.
              memorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
              memoryuse
                     Maximum resident set size.
              msgqueue
                     Maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues.
              resident
                     Maximum resident set size.
              sigpending
                     Maximum number of pending signals.
              sockbufsize
                     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
              stacksize
                     Maximum stack size for each process.
              vmemorysize
                     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

              Which of these resource limits are available depends on the sys-
              tem.  resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.  It
              can also be an integer, which corresponds to the integer defined
              for the resource by the operating system.

              If argument corresponds to a number which is out of the range of
              the resources configured into the shell, the shell will  try  to
              read or write the limit anyway, and will report an error if this
              fails.  As the shell does not store such  resources  internally,
              an  attempt  to  set the limit will fail unless the -s option is
              present.

              limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

              nh     hours
              nk     kilobytes (default)
              nm     megabytes or minutes
              [mm:]ss
                     minutes and seconds

              The limit command is not made  available  by  default  when  the
              shell  starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:limit'.

       local [ {+|-}AEFHUahlprtux ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ] ...
              Same as typeset, except that the options -g, and -f are not per-
              mitted.   In  this  case the -x option does not force the use of
              -g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions.

       log    List all users currently logged in who are affected by the  cur-
              rent setting of the watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
              Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       popd [ [-q] {+|-}n ]
              Remove  an  entry  from the directory stack, and perform a cd to
              the new top directory.  With no argument, the current top  entry
              is  removed.   An  argument  of the form `+n' identifies a stack
              entry by counting from the left of the list shown  by  the  dirs
              command,  starting with zero.  An argument of the form -n counts
              from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the  meanings
              of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If  the  -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd
              and the functions in the array $chpwd_functions are not  called,
              and  the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful for
              calls to popd that do not change  the  environment  seen  by  an
              interactive user.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsSz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
         [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
              With  the  `-f' option the arguments are printed as described by
              printf.  With no flags or with the flag `-', the  arguments  are
              printed  on  the  standard output as described by echo, with the
              following differences: the escape sequence `\M-x'  metafies  the
              character  x  (sets  the highest bit), `\C-x' produces a control
              character  (`\C-@'  and  `\C-?'  give  the  characters  NUL  and
              delete),  and `\E' is a synonym for `\e'.  Finally, if not in an
              escape sequence, `\' escapes the following character and is  not
              printed.

              -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only
                     useful with the -c and -C options.

              -b     Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the  bind-
                     key command, see zshzle(1).

              -c     Print the arguments in columns.  Unless -a is also given,
                     arguments are printed with the row incrementing first.

              -C cols
                     Print the arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a  is  also
                     given,  arguments  are  printed with the row incrementing
                     first.

              -D     Treat the arguments as directory  names,  replacing  pre-
                     fixes with ~ expressions, as appropriate.

              -i     If  given  together  with  -o or -O, sorting is performed
                     case-independently.

              -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spa-
                     ces.

              -m     Take  the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted),
                     and remove it from the argument list together with subse-
                     quent arguments that do not match this pattern.

              -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

              -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

              -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

              -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

              -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

              -P     Perform   prompt   expansion  (see  EXPANSION  OF  PROMPT
                     SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).

              -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

              -R     Emulate the BSD echo  command,  which  does  not  process
                     escape  sequences  unless  the  -e flag is given.  The -n
                     flag suppresses the trailing newline.  Only the -e and -n
                     flags  are  recognized  after -R; all other arguments and
                     options are printed.

              -s     Place the results in the history list instead of  on  the
                     standard  output.   Each argument to the print command is
                     treated as a single word in the  history,  regardless  of
                     its content.

              -S     Place  the  results in the history list instead of on the
                     standard output.  In this case only a single argument  is
                     allowed; it will be split into words as if it were a full
                     shell command line.  The effect is similar to reading the
                     line  from  a history file with the HIST_LEX_WORDS option
                     active.

              -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

              -z     Push the arguments onto the editing buffer  stack,  sepa-
                     rated by spaces.

              If  any  of `-m', `-o' or `-O' are used in combination with `-f'
              and there are no arguments (after the  removal  process  in  the
              case of `-m') then nothing is printed.

       printf format [ arg ... ]
              Print  the arguments according to the format specification. For-
              matting rules are the  same  as  used  in  C.  The  same  escape
              sequences  as  for echo are recognised in the format. All C con-
              version specifications ending in one of csdiouxXeEfgGn are  han-
              dled.  In  addition to this, `%b' can be used instead of `%s' to
              cause escape sequences in the argument to be recognised and `%q'
              can  be  used to quote the argument in such a way that allows it
              to be reused as shell input. With the numeric format specifiers,
              if the corresponding argument starts with a quote character, the
              numeric value of the following character is used as  the  number
              to  print  otherwise  the argument is evaluated as an arithmetic
              expression. See the  section  `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in  zsh-
       misc(1)  for a description of arithmetic expressions. With `%n',
              the corresponding argument is taken as an  identifier  which  is
              created as an integer parameter.

              Normally, conversion specifications are applied to each argument
              in order but they can explicitly specify the nth argument is  to
              be  used by replacing `%' by `%n$' and `*' by `*n$'.  It is rec-
              ommended that you do not mix references of this  explicit  style
              with  the normal style and the handling of such mixed styles may
              be subject to future change.

              If arguments remain unused after formatting, the  format  string
              is reused until all arguments have been consumed. With the print
              builtin, this can be suppressed by using the -r option. If  more
              arguments  are  required by the format than have been specified,
              the behaviour is as if zero or an empty string had  been  speci-
              fied as the argument.

       pushd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -qsLP ] old new
       pushd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory, and push the old current directory
              onto the directory stack.  In the first form, change the current
              directory to arg.  If arg is not specified, change to the second
              directory on the stack (that is, exchange the top two  entries),
              or  change  to  $HOME  if  the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if
              there is only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is  inter-
              preted  as it would be by cd.  The meaning of old and new in the
              second form is also the same as for cd.

              The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the direc-
              tory  list.   An  argument  of  the form `+n' identifies a stack
              entry by counting from the left of the list shown  by  the  dirs
              command,  starting  with  zero.   An  argument  of the form `-n'
              counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option  is  set,  the
              meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If  the  -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd
              and the functions in the array $chpwd_functions are not  called,
              and  the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful for
              calls to pushd that do not change the  environment  seen  by  an
              interactive user.

              If  the  option  -q  is  not  specified  and  the  shell  option
              PUSHD_SILENT is not set, the directory  stack  will  be  printed
              after a pushd is performed.

              The  options  -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for the cd
              builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
              Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
              Print the absolute pathname of the  current  working  directory.
              If the -r or the -P flag is specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option
              is set and the -L flag is not given, the printed path  will  not
              contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.

       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
        [ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
              Read  one  line and break it into fields using the characters in
              $IFS as separators, except as noted below.  The first  field  is
              assigned to the first name, the second field to the second name,
              etc., with leftover fields assigned to the last name.   If  name
              is  omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays.

              -r     Raw mode: a `\' at the end of a  line  does  not  signify
                     line continuation and backslashes in the line don't quote
                     the following character and are not removed.

              -s     Don't echo back characters if reading from the  terminal.
                     Currently does not work with the -q option.

              -q     Read only one character from the terminal and set name to
                     `y' if this character was `y' or `Y' and  to  `n'  other-
                     wise.   With this flag set the return status is zero only
                     if the character was `y' or `Y'.  This option may be used
                     with  a timeout; if the read times out, or encounters end
                     of file, status 2 is returned.  Input is  read  from  the
                     terminal  unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option
                     may also be used within zle widgets.

              -k [ num ]
                     Read only one (or num) characters.  All are  assigned  to
                     the  first  name,  without  word splitting.  This flag is
                     ignored when -q is present.  Input is read from the  ter-
                     minal unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option may
                     also be used within zle widgets.

                     Note that despite the mnemonic  `key'  this  option  does
                     read full characters, which may consist of multiple bytes
                     if the option MULTIBYTE is set.

              -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it
                     to  the  first  name,  without  word  splitting.  Text is
                     pushed onto the stack with `print -z' or  with  push-line
                     from  the  line  editor  (see  zshzle(1)).   This flag is
                     ignored when the -k or -q flags are present.

              -e
              -E     The input read is printed (echoed) to the  standard  out-
                     put.  If the -e flag is used, no input is assigned to the
                     parameters.

              -A     The first name is taken as the name of an array  and  all
                     words are assigned to it.

              -c
              -l     These  flags are allowed only if called inside a function
                     used for completion (specified with the -K flag  to  com-
                     pctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words of the current
                     command are read. If the -l flag is given, the whole line
                     is  assigned  as a scalar.  If both flags are present, -l
                     is used and -c is ignored.

              -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on
                     is  read.  With -l, the index of the character the cursor
                     is on is read.  Note that the command name is word number
                     1,  not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end of
                     the line, its character index is the length of  the  line
                     plus one.

              -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

              -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

              -d delim
                     Input  is  terminated  by  the  first  character of delim
                     instead of by newline.

              -t [ num ]
                     Test if input is available before attempting to read.  If
                     num  is  present,  it must begin with a digit and will be
                     evaluated to give a number of seconds,  which  may  be  a
                     floating point number; in this case the read times out if
                     input is not available within this time.  If num  is  not
                     present,  it  is  taken  to be zero, so that read returns
                     immediately if no input is available.   If  no  input  is
                     available,  return status 1 and do not set any variables.

                     This option is not available when reading from the editor
                     buffer  with  -z, when called from within completion with
                     -c or -l, with -q which clears  the  input  queue  before
                     reading,  or  within zle where other mechanisms should be
                     used to test for input.

                     Note that read does not attempt to alter the  input  pro-
                     cessing  mode.   The  default mode is canonical input, in
                     which an entire line is read at a time, so usually  `read
                     -t'  will not read anything until an entire line has been
                     typed.  However, when reading from the terminal  with  -k
                     input  is processed one key at a time; in this case, only
                     availability of the first character is  tested,  so  that
                     e.g. `read -t -k 2' can still block on the second charac-
                     ter.  Use two instances of `read -t -k' if  this  is  not
                     what is wanted.

              If the first argument contains a `?', the remainder of this word
              is used as a prompt on standard error when the shell is interac-
              tive.

              The  value  (exit  status)  of  read is 1 when an end-of-file is
              encountered, or when -c or -l is present and the command is  not
              called  from a compctl function, or as described for -q.  Other-
              wise the value is 0.

              The behavior of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u  and  -z
              flags  is  undefined.   Presently  -q cancels all the others, -p
              cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z cancels both -p  and
              -u.

              The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
              Same as typeset -r.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
              Causes  a shell function or `.' script to return to the invoking
              script with the return status specified by n.  If n is  omitted,
              the return status is that of the last command executed.

              If  return  was  executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the
              effect is different for zero and non-zero return  status.   With
              zero  status  (or  after  an  implicit  return at the end of the
              trap), the shell will return to whatever it was previously  pro-
              cessing; with a non-zero status, the shell will behave as inter-
              rupted except that the return status of the  trap  is  retained.
              Note  that the numeric value of the signal which caused the trap
              is passed as  the  first  argument,  so  the  statement  `return
              $((128+$1))'  will  return  the same status as if the signal had
              not been trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).

       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ] [
       arg ... ]
              Set the options for the shell and/or set the positional  parame-
              ters,  or  declare and set an array.  If the -s option is given,
              it causes the specified arguments to be sorted before  assigning
              them to the positional parameters (or to the array name if -A is
              used).  With +s sort arguments in  descending  order.   For  the
              meaning  of  the  other  flags, see zshoptions(1).  Flags may be
              specified by name using the -o option. If no option name is sup-
              plied  with  -o, the current option states are printed:  see the
              description of setopt below for more information on the  format.
              With  +o they are printed in a form that can be used as input to
              the shell.

              If the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array  containing
              the  given args; if no name is specified, all arrays are printed
              together with their values.

              If +A is used and name is an array,  the  given  arguments  will
              replace the initial elements of that array; if no name is speci-
              fied, all arrays are printed without their values.

              The behaviour of arguments after -A name or +A name  depends  on
              whether  the  option  KSH_ARRAYS  is set.  If it is not set, all
              arguments following name are treated as values  for  the  array,
              regardless  of  their form.  If the option is set, normal option
              processing continues at that point; only regular  arguments  are
              treated as values for the array.  This means that

                     set -A array -x -- foo

              sets array to `-x -- foo' if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the
              array to foo and turns on the option `-x' if it is set.

              If the -A flag is not present, but there  are  arguments  beyond
              the  options,  the positional parameters are set.  If the option
              list (if any) is terminated by `--', and there  are  no  further
              arguments, the positional parameters will be unset.

              If no arguments and no `--' are given, then the names and values
              of all parameters are printed on the standard  output.   If  the
              only argument is `+', the names of all parameters are printed.

              For historical reasons, `set -' is treated as `set +xv' and `set
              - args' as `set +xv -- args' when in any  other  emulation  mode
              than zsh's native mode.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Set  the  options  for  the shell.  All options specified either
              with flags or by name are set.

              If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently
              set  are printed.  The form is chosen so as to minimize the dif-
              ferences from the default options for the current emulation (the
              default  emulation  being  native  zsh,  shown  as <Z> in zshop-
       tions(1)).  Options that are on by default for the emulation are
              shown  with  the  prefix  no  only  if they are off, while other
              options are shown without the prefix no and only if they are on.
              In  addition  to  options  changed from the default state by the
              user, any options activated  automatically  by  the  shell  (for
              example,  SHIN_STDIN  or INTERACTIVE) will be shown in the list.
              The format is further modified by the  option  KSH_OPTION_PRINT,
              however  the  rationale for choosing options with or without the
              no prefix remains the same in this case.

              If the -m flag is given the  arguments  are  taken  as  patterns
              (which  should  be  quoted  to protect them from filename expan-
              sion), and all options with names matching  these  patterns  are
              set.

              Note  that  a bad option name does not cause execution of subse-
              quent shell code to be aborted; this is behaviour  is  different
              from  that  of  `set  -o'.  This is because set is regarded as a
              special builtin by the POSIX standard, but setopt is not.

       shift [ n ] [ name ... ]
              The positional parameters ${n+1} ...  are  renamed  to  $1  ...,
              where  n is an arithmetic expression that defaults to 1.  If any
              names are given then the arrays with  these  names  are  shifted
              instead of the positional parameters.

       source file [ arg ... ]
              Same  as  `.',  except  that  the  current  directory  is always
              searched and is always searched  first,  before  directories  in
              $path.

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
              Suspend  the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until it
              receives a SIGCONT.  Unless the -f option is  given,  this  will
              refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
              Like  the  system version of test.  Added for compatibility; use
              conditional expressions instead (see  the  section  `Conditional
              Expressions').   The  main  differences  between the conditional
              expression syntax and the test and [ builtins are:   these  com-
              mands  are  not  handled  syntactically, so for example an empty
              variable expansion may cause an argument to be  omitted;  syntax
              errors  cause  status 2 to be returned instead of a shell error;
              and arithmetic operators expect integer  arguments  rather  than
              arithmetic expressions.

              The command attempts to implement POSIX and its extensions where
              these are specified.  Unfortunately there are intrinsic ambigui-
              ties  in  the  syntax;  in  particular  there  is no distinction
              between test operators and  strings  that  resemble  them.   The
              standard  attempts  to  resolve these for small numbers of argu-
              ments (up to four); for five  or  more  arguments  compatibility
              cannot  be  relied on.  Users are urged wherever possible to use
              the `[[' test syntax which does not have these ambiguities.

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for  the  shell  and
              for processes run from the shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
              arg  is  a series of commands (usually quoted to protect it from
              immediate evaluation by the shell) to be read and executed  when
              the  shell  receives any of the signals specified by one or more
              sig args.  Each sig can be given as a number, or as the name  of
              a signal either with or without the string SIG in front (e.g. 1,
              HUP, and SIGHUP are all the same signal).

              If arg is `-', then the specified signals  are  reset  to  their
              defaults, or, if no sig args are present, all traps are reset.

              If  arg  is  an  empty  string,  then  the specified signals are
              ignored by the shell (and by the commands it invokes).

              If arg is omitted but one or more sig args  are  provided  (i.e.
              the first argument is a valid signal number or name), the effect
              is the same as if arg had been specified as `-'.

              The trap command with no arguments prints  a  list  of  commands
              associated with each signal.

              If sig is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command with
              a nonzero exit status.  ERR is an alias for ZERR on systems that
              have no SIGERR signal (this is the usual case).

              If sig is DEBUG then arg will be executed before each command if
              the option DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set (as it is by  default),  else
              after each command.  Here, a `command' is what is described as a
              `sublist' in the shell grammar, see the section SIMPLE  COMMANDS
              &  PIPELINES  in zshmisc(1).  If DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set various
              additional features are available.  First,  it  is  possible  to
              skip  the  next  command by setting the option ERR_EXIT; see the
              description of the ERR_EXIT option in zshoptions(1).  Also,  the
              shell parameter ZSH_DEBUG_CMD is set to the string corresponding
              to the command to be executed following  the  trap.   Note  that
              this  string  is  reconstructed from the internal format and may
              not be formatted the same way as the original text.  The parame-
              ter is unset after the trap is executed.

              If  sig  is  0 or EXIT and the trap statement is executed inside
              the body of a function, then the command arg is  executed  after
              the  function completes.  The value of $? at the start of execu-
              tion is the exit status of the shell or the return status of the
              function exiting.  If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is
              not executed inside the body of a function, then the command arg
              is  executed when the shell terminates; the trap runs before any
              zshexit hook functions.

              ZERR, DEBUG, and EXIT traps are not executed inside other traps.
              ZERR  and  DEBUG  traps  are  kept within subshells, while other
              traps are reset.

              Note that traps defined with the trap builtin are slightly  dif-
              ferent from those defined as `TRAPNAL () { ... }', as the latter
              have their own function environment (line numbers,  local  vari-
              ables, etc.) while the former use the environment of the command
              in which they were called.  For example,

                     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

              will print the line number of a command executed  after  it  has
              run, while

                     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

              will always print the number zero.

              Alternative  signal  names  are  allowed as described under kill
              above.  Defining a trap under either name causes any trap  under
              an  alternative  name to be removed.  However, it is recommended
              that for consistency users stick  exclusively  to  one  name  or
              another.

       true [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl -fu
              The  -f  option  freezes the tty, and -u unfreezes it.  When the
              tty is frozen, no changes made to the tty settings  by  external
              programs will be honored by the shell, except for changes in the
              size of the screen; the shell will simply reset the settings  to
              their  previous  values as soon as each command exits or is sus-
              pended.  Thus, stty and similar programs have no effect when the
              tty  is frozen.  Without options it reports whether the terminal
              is frozen or not.

       type [ -wfpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -v.

       typeset [ {+|-}AEFHUafghklprtuxmz ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Urux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] SCALAR[=value] array [ sep ]
              Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

              A parameter is created for each name that does not already refer
              to  one.  When inside a function, a new parameter is created for
              every name (even those that already exist), and is  unset  again
              when  the  function  completes.   See `Local Parameters' in zsh-
       param(1).  The same rules apply  to  special  shell  parameters,
              which retain their special attributes when made local.

              For  each  name=value  assignment,  the parameter name is set to
              value.  Note that arrays currently cannot be assigned in typeset
              expressions,  only  scalars  and  integers.   Unless  the option
              KSH_TYPESET is set, normal expansion rules apply  to  assignment
              arguments,  so  value  may  be split into separate words; if the
              option is set, assignments which can be recognised  when  expan-
              sion  is performed are treated as single words.  For example the
              command typeset vbl=$(echo one two) is  treated  as  having  one
              argument if KSH_TYPESET is set, but otherwise is treated as hav-
              ing the two arguments vbl=one and two.

              If the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not set, for each  remain-
              ing  name  that  refers to a parameter that is set, the name and
              value of the parameter are printed in the form of an assignment.
              Nothing  is  printed  for  newly-created parameters, or when any
              attribute flags listed below are  given  along  with  the  name.
              Using  `+'  instead  of minus to introduce an attribute turns it
              off.

              If the -p option is given, parameters and values are printed  in
              the  form  of a typeset command and an assignment (which will be
              printed separately for arrays and associative  arrays),  regard-
              less  of  other  flags  and  options.   Note that the -h flag on
              parameters is respected; no value will be shown for these param-
              eters.

              If  the  -T  option  is  given,  two  or three arguments must be
              present (an exception is that zero arguments are allowed to show
              the  list of parameters created in this fashion).  The first two
              are the name of a scalar and an array parameter (in that  order)
              that  will  be  tied  together in the manner of $PATH and $path.
              The optional third  argument  is  a  single-character  separator
              which will be used to join the elements of the array to form the
              scalar; if absent, a colon is used, as  with  $PATH.   Only  the
              first  character  of the separator is significant; any remaining
              characters are  ignored.   Only  the  scalar  parameter  may  be
              assigned  an  initial  value.  Both the scalar and the array may
              otherwise be manipulated as normal.  If one is unset, the  other
              will automatically be unset too.  There is no way of untying the
              variables without unsetting them, or converting the type of  one
              of  them with another typeset command; +T does not work, assign-
              ing an array to SCALAR is an error, and assigning  a  scalar  to
              array  sets  it  to  be  a single-element array.  Note that both
              `typeset -xT ...' and `export -T ...' work, but only the  scalar
              will  be  marked for export.  Setting the value using the scalar
              version causes a  split  on  all  separators  (which  cannot  be
              quoted).  It is possible to use the same two tied variables with
              a different separator character  in  which  case  the  variables
              remain joined as before but the separator is changed.  This flag
              has a different meaning when used with -f; see below.

              The -g (global) flag is treated specially:  it  means  that  any
              resulting parameter will not be restricted to local scope.  Note
              that this does not necessarily mean that the parameter  will  be
              global,  as  the flag will apply to any existing parameter (even
              if unset) from an enclosing function.  This flag does not affect
              the  parameter after creation, hence it has no effect when list-
              ing existing parameters, nor does the flag +g  have  any  effect
              except in combination with -m (see below).

              If  no  name  is present, the names and values of all parameters
              are printed.  In this case the attribute flags restrict the dis-
              play   to   only   those  parameters  that  have  the  specified
              attributes, and using `+' rather than `-' to introduce the  flag
              suppresses printing of the values of parameters when there is no
              parameter name.  Also, if the last option is the word `+',  then
              names are printed but values are not.

              If the -m flag is given the name arguments are taken as patterns
              (which should be quoted).  With no attribute flags, all  parame-
              ters  (or  functions  with  the -f flag) with matching names are
              printed (the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is  not  used  in  this
              case).   Note  that  -m is ignored if no patterns are given.  If
              the +g flag is combined with -m, a new local parameter  is  cre-
              ated  for  every  matching  parameter that is not already local.
              Otherwise -m applies all  other  flags  or  assignments  to  the
              existing  parameters.   Except  when  assignments  are made with
              name=value, using  +m  forces  the  matching  parameters  to  be
              printed, even inside a function.

              If no attribute flags are given and either no -m flag is present
              or the +m form was used, each parameter name printed is preceded
              by  a  list of the attributes of that parameter (array, associa-
              tion,  exported,  integer,  readonly).   If  +m  is  used   with
              attribute  flags, and all those flags are introduced with +, the
              matching parameter names are printed but their values are not.

              Attribute flags that transform the final value (-L, -R, -Z,  -l,
              u)  are  only  applied  to  the expanded value at the point of a
              parameter expansion expression using `$'.  They are not  applied
              when  a  parameter  is retrieved internally by the shell for any
              purpose.

              The following attribute flags may be specified:

              -A     The names refer  to  associative  array  parameters;  see
                     `Array Parameters' in zshparam(1).

              -L     Left  justify and remove leading blanks from value.  If n
                     is nonzero, it defines the width of the field.  If  n  is
                     zero,  the  width is determined by the width of the value
                     of the first assignment.  In the case of numeric  parame-
                     ters,  the  length  of the complete value assigned to the
                     parameter is used to determine the width, not  the  value
                     that would be output.

                     The width is the count of characters, which may be multi-
                     byte characters if the MULTIBYTE  option  is  in  effect.
                     Note  that the screen width of the character is not taken
                     into account; if  this  is  required,  use  padding  with
                     parameter  expansion  flags ${(ml...)...} as described in
                     `Parameter Expansion Flags' in zshexpn(1).

                     When the parameter is expanded, it is filled on the right
                     with  blanks  or truncated if necessary to fit the field.
                     Note truncation  can  lead  to  unexpected  results  with
                     numeric  parameters.  Leading zeros are removed if the -Z
                     flag is also set.

              -R     Similar to -L, except that right justification  is  used;
                     when  the parameter is expanded, the field is left filled
                     with blanks or truncated from the end.  May not  be  com-
                     bined with the -Z flag.

              -U     For  arrays  (but  not for associative arrays), keep only
                     the first occurrence of each duplicated value.  This  may
                     also  be  set for colon-separated special parameters like
                     PATH or FIGNORE, etc.  This flag has a different  meaning
                     when used with -f; see below.

              -Z     Specially  handled if set along with the -L flag.  Other-
                     wise, similar to -R, except that leading zeros  are  used
                     for  padding  instead  of  blanks  if the first non-blank
                     character is a digit.  Numeric parameters  are  specially
                     handled:  they  are  always  eligible  for  padding  with
                     zeroes, and the zeroes are  inserted  at  an  appropriate
                     place in the output.

              -a     The  names refer to array parameters.  An array parameter
                     may be created this way, but it may not be assigned to in
                     the  typeset statement.  When displaying, both normal and
                     associative arrays are shown.

              -f     The names refer to functions rather than parameters.   No
                     assignments  can  be made, and the only other valid flags
                     are -t, -T, -k, -u, -U and -z.  The flag -t turns on exe-
                     cution  tracing  for  this function; the flag -T does the
                     same, but turns off tracing on any function  called  from
                     the  present one, unless that function also has the -t or
                     -T flag.  The -u and -U flags cause the  function  to  be
                     marked for autoloading; -U also causes alias expansion to
                     be suppressed when the function  is  loaded.   The  fpath
                     parameter  will  be searched to find the function defini-
                     tion when the function is first referenced; see the  sec-
                     tion  `Functions'.  The -k and -z flags make the function
                     be  loaded  using  ksh-style  or  zsh-style   autoloading
                     respectively.  If  neither  is  given, the setting of the
                     KSH_AUTOLOAD  option  determines  how  the  function   is
                     loaded.

              -h     Hide:  only  useful  for special parameters (those marked
                     `<S>' in the table in zshparam(1)), and for local parame-
                     ters  with  the  same name as a special parameter, though
                     harmless for  others.   A  special  parameter  with  this
                     attribute  will  not  retain its special effect when made
                     local.  Thus after `typeset -h PATH', a function contain-
                     ing  `typeset PATH' will create an ordinary local parame-
                     ter without the usual behaviour of PATH.   Alternatively,
                     the  local  parameter may itself be given this attribute;
                     hence inside a function  `typeset  -h  PATH'  creates  an
                     ordinary  local  parameter and the special PATH parameter
                     is not altered in any way.  It is also possible to create
                     a  local  parameter using `typeset +h special', where the
                     local copy of special will retain its special  properties
                     regardless  of  having  the -h attribute.  Global special
                     parameters loaded from shell modules (currently those  in
                     zsh/mapfile  and  zsh/parameter)  are automatically given
                     the -h attribute to avoid name clashes.

              -H     Hide value: specifies that typeset will not  display  the
                     value  of the parameter when listing parameters; the dis-
                     play for such parameters is always as if the `+' flag had
                     been  given.   Use  of the parameter is in other respects
                     normal, and the option does not apply if the parameter is
                     specified  by  name,  or  by  pattern with the -m option.
                     This  is  on  by  default  for  the  parameters  in   the
                     zsh/parameter  and  zsh/mapfile  modules.  Note, however,
                     that unlike the -h flag this is also useful for  non-spe-
                     cial parameters.

              -i     Use  an internal integer representation.  If n is nonzero
                     it defines the output arithmetic base,  otherwise  it  is
                     determined  by  the first assignment.  Bases from 2 to 36
                     inclusive are allowed.

              -E     Use an internal double-precision floating point represen-
                     tation.  On output the variable will be converted to sci-
                     entific notation.  If n is nonzero it defines the  number
                     of significant figures to display; the default is ten.

              -F     Use an internal double-precision floating point represen-
                     tation.  On output the  variable  will  be  converted  to
                     fixed-point decimal notation.  If n is nonzero it defines
                     the number of digits to display after the decimal  point;
                     the default is ten.

              -l     Convert  the  result to lower case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted when assigned.

              -r     The given names are marked readonly.  Note that  if  name
                     is  a  special  parameter,  the readonly attribute can be
                     turned on, but cannot then be turned off.

              -t     Tags the named parameters.  Tags have no special  meaning
                     to  the  shell.   This  flag has a different meaning when
                     used with -f; see above.

              -u     Convert the result to upper case whenever  the  parameter
                     is  expanded.   The value is not converted when assigned.
                     This flag has a different meaning when used with -f;  see
                     above.

              -x     Mark  for  automatic  export to the environment of subse-
                     quently executed commands.  If the  option  GLOBAL_EXPORT
                     is  set,  this  implies  the option -g, unless +g is also
                     explicitly given; in other words  the  parameter  is  not
                     made  local  to the enclosing function.  This is for com-
                     patibility with previous versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ [ -SHacdfilmnpqrstvx | -N resource [ limit ] ... ]
              Set or display resource limits of the shell  and  the  processes
              started by the shell.  The value of limit can be a number in the
              unit specified below or one of  the  values  `unlimited',  which
              removes  the  limit  on  the resource, or `hard', which uses the
              current value of the hard limit on the resource.

              By default, only soft limits are manipulated. If the -H flag  is
              given use hard limits instead of soft limits.  If the -S flag is
              given together with the -H flag set both hard and soft limits.

              If no options are used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.

              If limit is omitted the current value of the specified resources
              are  printed.  When more than one resource value is printed, the
              limit name and unit is printed before each value.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort imme-
              diately  if  it detects a badly formed argument.  However, if it
              fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue try-
              ing to set the remaining limits.

              Not  all  the  following resources are supported on all systems.
              Running ulimit -a will show which are supported.

              -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
              -b     Socket buffer size in bytes (N.B. not kilobytes)
              -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
              -d     Kilobytes on the size of the data segment.
              -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
              -i     The number of pending signals.
              -l     Kilobytes on the size of locked-in memory.
              -m     Kilobytes on the size of physical memory.
              -n     open file descriptors.
              -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
              -s     Kilobytes on the size of the stack.
              -t     CPU seconds to be used.
              -r     The number of simultaneous threads available to the user.
              -u     The number of processes available to the user.
              -v     Kilobytes on the size of virtual memory.  On some systems
                     this refers to the limit called `address space'.
              -x     The number of locks on files.

              A resource may also be specified by  integer  in  the  form  `-N
              resource', where resource corresponds to the integer defined for
              the resource by the operating system.  This may be used  to  set
              the  limits for resources known to the shell which do not corre-
              spond to option letters.  Such limits will be shown by number in
              the output of `ulimit -a'.

              The  number may alternatively be out of the range of limits com-
              piled into the shell.  The shell will try to read or  write  the
              limit anyway, and will report an error if this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
              The umask is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or
              a symbolic value as described in chmod(1).  If mask is  omitted,
              the  current value is printed.  The -S option causes the mask to
              be printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask is  printed
              as  an octal number.  Note that in the symbolic form the permis-
              sions you specify are those which are to be allowed (not denied)
              to the users specified.

       unalias
              Same as unhash -a.

       unfunction
              Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
              Remove  the element named name from an internal hash table.  The
              default is remove elements from the command hash table.  The  -a
              option  causes  unhash to remove regular or global aliases; note
              when removing a global aliases that the argument must be  quoted
              to  prevent  it  from  being expanded before being passed to the
              command.  The -s option causes unhash to remove suffix  aliases.
              The  -f  option causes unhash to remove shell functions.  The -d
              options causes unhash to remove named directories.   If  the  -m
              flag  is  given  the  arguments are taken as patterns (should be
              quoted) and all elements of the corresponding  hash  table  with
              matching names will be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
              The  resource  limit for each resource is set to the hard limit.
              If the -h flag is given and the  shell  has  appropriate  privi-
              leges,  the  hard  resource  limit for each resource is removed.
              The resources of the shell process are only changed  if  the  -s
              flag is given.

              The  unlimit  command  is not made available by default when the
              shell starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be  made
              available  with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:unlimit'.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
              Each named parameter is unset.  Local  parameters  remain  local
              even  if unset; they appear unset within scope, but the previous
              value will still reappear when the scope ends.

              Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset
              by  using  subscript  syntax on name, which should be quoted (or
              the entire command prefixed with noglob)  to  protect  the  sub-
              script from filename generation.

              If  the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns
              (should be quoted) and all parameters with  matching  names  are
              unset.  Note that this cannot be used when unsetting associative
              array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part of  the
              pattern.

              The  -v  flag  specifies that name refers to parameters. This is
              the default behaviour.

              unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Unset the options for the shell.  All options  specified  either
              with  flags or by name are unset.  If no arguments are supplied,
              the names of all options currently unset are printed.  If the -m
              flag  is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should
              be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as  glob  pat-
              terns),  and  all options with names matching these patterns are
              unset.

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
              Wait for the specified jobs or processes.  If job is  not  given
              then  all currently active child processes are waited for.  Each
              job can be either a job specification or the process ID of a job
              in  the job table.  The exit status from this command is that of
              the job waited for.

       whence [ -vcwfpams ] name ...
              For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a
              command name.

              -v     Produce a more verbose report.

              -c     Print  the  results  in  a  csh-like  format.  This takes
                     precedence over -v.

              -w     For each name, print `name: word' where word  is  one  of
                     alias,  builtin,  command,  function, hashed, reserved or
                     none, according  as  name  corresponds  to  an  alias,  a
                     built-in  command, an external command, a shell function,
                     a command defined with the hash builtin, a reserved word,
                     or  is not recognised.  This takes precedence over -v and
                     -c.

              -f     Causes the contents of a shell function to be  displayed,
                     which  would otherwise not happen unless the -c flag were
                     used.

              -p     Do a path search  for  name  even  if  it  is  an  alias,
                     reserved word, shell function or builtin.

              -a     Do  a  search  for all occurrences of name throughout the
                     command path.  Normally  only  the  first  occurrence  is
                     printed.

              -m     The  arguments  are taken as patterns (should be quoted),
                     and the information is displayed for each command  match-
                     ing one of these patterns.

              -s     If  a  pathname contains symlinks, print the symlink-free
                     pathname as well.

       where [ -wpms ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
              This builtin  command  can  be  used  to  compile  functions  or
              scripts,  storing  the  compiled  form in a file, and to examine
              files  containing  the  compiled  form.   This   allows   faster
              autoloading  of  functions  and execution of scripts by avoiding
              parsing of the text when the files are read.

              The first form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a com-
              piled file.  If only the file argument is given, the output file
              has the name `file.zwc' and will be placed in the same directory
              as  the  file.  The shell will load the compiled file instead of
              the normal function file when the function  is  autoloaded;  see
              the section `Autoloading Functions' in zshmisc(1) for a descrip-
              tion of how autoloaded functions are  searched.   The  extension
              .zwc stands for `zsh word code'.

              If  there is at least one name argument, all the named files are
              compiled into the output file given as the first  argument.   If
              file  does  not  end  in  .zwc,  this extension is automatically
              appended.  Files  containing  multiple  compiled  functions  are
              called  `digest'  files, and are intended to be used as elements
              of the FPATH/fpath special array.

              The second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the  compiled
              definitions  for all the named functions into file.  For -c, the
              names must be functions currently  defined  in  the  shell,  not
              those  marked  for  autoloading.   Undefined  functions that are
              marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in
              which case the fpath is searched and the contents of the defini-
              tion files for those functions,  if  found,  are  compiled  into
              file.   If both -c and -a are given, names of both defined func-
              tions and functions marked for autoloading  may  be  given.   In
              either  case,  the  functions in files written with the -c or -a
              option will be autoloaded as if  the  KSH_AUTOLOAD  option  were
              unset.

              The reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with
              different options is that some definition files for  autoloading
              define  multiple functions, including the function with the same
              name as the file, and, at the end, call that function.  In  such
              cases  the  output  of  `zcompile -c' does not include the addi-
              tional functions defined in the file, and any other  initializa-
              tion code in the file is lost.  Using `zcompile -a' captures all
              this extra information.

              If the -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names  are  used
              as  patterns  and  all  functions whose names match one of these
              patterns will be written. If no name is given,  the  definitions
              of  all functions currently defined or marked as autoloaded will
              be written.

              The third form, with the -t option, examines  an  existing  com-
              piled  file.  Without further arguments, the names of the origi-
              nal files compiled into it are listed.  The first line of output
              shows  the  version of the shell which compiled the file and how
              the file will be used (i.e. by reading it directly or by mapping
              it  into  memory).   With  arguments,  nothing is output and the
              return status is set to zero if definitions for all  names  were
              found  in  the compiled file, and non-zero if the definition for
              at least one name was not found.

              Other options:

              -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named  files.

              -R     When  the  compiled file is read, its contents are copied
                     into the shell's memory, rather than  memory-mapped  (see
                     -M).   This  happens automatically on systems that do not
                     support memory mapping.

                     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions,
                     it  is  often desirable to use this option; otherwise the
                     whole file, including the code to define functions  which
                     have  already  been  defined,  will remain mapped, conse-
                     quently wasting memory.

              -M     The compiled file is mapped into the shell's memory  when
                     read.  This is done in such a way that multiple instances
                     of the shell running on the same  host  will  share  this
                     mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is given, the zcompile
                     builtin decides what to do based on the size of the  com-
                     piled file.

              -k
              -z     These  options  are  used when the compiled file contains
                     functions which are to be autoloaded. If -z is given, the
                     function will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option
                     is not set, even if it is set at the  time  the  compiled
                     file is read, while if the -k is given, the function will
                     be loaded as if KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  These options  also
                     take  precedence  over  any -k or -z options specified to
                     the autoload builtin. If  neither  of  these  options  is
                     given,  the  function will be loaded as determined by the
                     setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD option at the time  the  com-
                     piled file is read.

                     These  options may also appear as many times as necessary
                     between the listed names to specify the loading style  of
                     all following functions, up to the next -k or -z.

                     The created file always contains two versions of the com-
                     piled format, one for big-endian  machines  and  one  for
                     small-endian  machines.   The  upshot of this is that the
                     compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or
                     mapped,  only  one half of the file is actually used (and
                     mapped).

       zformat
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -F [ -lLme -P param ] module [+-]feature...
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
              Performs operations relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading
              of  modules  while the shell is running (`dynamical loading') is
              not available on all operating systems, or on all  installations
              on  a particular operating system, although the zmodload command
              itself is always available and can be used to manipulate modules
              built  into  versions  of the shell executable without dynamical
              loading.

              Without arguments the names of all currently loaded binary  mod-
              ules  are  printed.  The -L option causes this list to be in the
              form of a series of zmodload  commands.   Forms  with  arguments
              are:

              zmodload [ -i ] name ...
              zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
                     In  the  simplest  case,  zmodload loads a binary module.
                     The module must be in a file with a  name  consisting  of
                     the specified name followed by a standard suffix, usually
                     `.so' (`.sl' on HPUX).  If the module  to  be  loaded  is
                     already loaded the duplicate module is ignored.  If zmod-
                     load detects an inconsistency, such as an invalid  module
                     name  or circular dependency list, the current code block
                     is aborted.   Hence `zmodload module 2>/dev/null' is suf-
                     ficient  to test whether a module is available.  If it is
                     available, the module is loaded if necessary, while if it
                     is  not  available, non-zero status is silently returned.
                     The option -i is accepted for compatibility  but  has  no
                     effect.

                     The  named  module is searched for in the same way a com-
                     mand is, using $module_path instead of  $path.   However,
                     the  path  search  is performed even when the module name
                     contains a `/', which it usually does.  There is  no  way
                     to prevent the path search.

                     If  the  module  supports  features (see below), zmodload
                     tries to enable all features when loading a  module.   If
                     the  module  was successfully loaded but not all features
                     could be enabled, zmodload returns status 2.

                     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must be
                     given  that  was given when the module was loaded, but it
                     is not necessary for the module to exist in the file sys-
                     tem.  The -i option suppresses the error if the module is
                     already unloaded (or was never loaded).

                     Each module has a boot and a cleanup function.  The  mod-
                     ule will not be loaded if its boot function fails.  Simi-
                     larly a module can only be unloaded if its cleanup  func-
                     tion runs successfully.

              zmodload -F [ -almLe -P param ] module [+-]feature...
                     zmodload  -F  allows more selective control over the fea-
                     tures provided by modules.  With no  options  apart  from
                     -F,  the  module  named  module  is loaded, if it was not
                     already loaded, and the list of features is  set  to  the
                     required state.  If no features are specified, the module
                     is loaded, if it was not already loaded, but the state of
                     features is unchanged.  Each feature may be preceded by a
                     + to turn the feature on, or - to turn it off; the  +  is
                     assumed if neither character is present.  Any feature not
                     explicitly mentioned is left in its current state; if the
                     module was not previously loaded this means any such fea-
                     tures will remain disabled.  The return status is zero if
                     all  features  were  set, 1 if the module failed to load,
                     and 2 if some features could not be set (for  example,  a
                     parameter couldn't be added because there was a different
                     parameter of the same name) but the module was loaded.

                     The standard features are builtins,  conditions,  parame-
                     ters  and math functions; these are indicated by the pre-
                     fix `b:', `c:' (`C:' for an infix  condition),  `p:'  and
                     `f:',  respectively, followed by the name that the corre-
                     sponding feature would have in the shell.   For  example,
                     `b:strftime'  indicates  a  builtin  named  strftime  and
                     p:EPOCHSECONDS indicates a parameter named  EPOCHSECONDS.
                     The module may provide other (`abstract') features of its
                     own as indicated by its documentation; these have no pre-
                     fix.

                     With  -l  or  -L,  features  provided  by  the module are
                     listed.  With -l alone, a list of features together  with
                     their  states  is  shown,  one feature per line.  With -L
                     alone, a zmodload -F command  that  would  cause  enabled
                     features  of  the  module to be turned on is shown.  With
                     -lL, a zmodload -F command that would cause all the  fea-
                     tures  to be set to their current state is shown.  If one
                     of these combinations is given the option -P  param  then
                     the  parameter  param  is  set  to  an array of features,
                     either features together with their state or (if -L alone
                     is given) enabled features.

                     With the option -L the module name may be omitted; then a
                     list of all enabled features for  all  modules  providing
                     features  is printed in the form of zmodload -F commands.
                     If -l is also given, the state of both enabled  and  dis-
                     abled features is output in that form.

                     A  set of features may be provided together with -l or -L
                     and a module name; in that case only the state  of  those
                     features  is considered.  Each feature may be preceded by
                     + or - but the character has no effect.   If  no  set  of
                     features is provided, all features are considered.

                     With  -e,  the  command  first  tests  that the module is
                     loaded; if it is not, status 1 is returned.  If the  mod-
                     ule  is loaded, the list of features given as an argument
                     is examined.  Any feature given with no prefix is  simply
                     tested  to  see  if  the  module provides it; any feature
                     given with a prefix + or - is tested to see  if  is  pro-
                     vided  and  in the given state.  If the tests on all fea-
                     tures in the list succeed, status  0  is  returned,  else
                     status 1.

                     With  -m,  each  entry  in  the given list of features is
                     taken as a pattern to be matched against the list of fea-
                     tures  provided by the module.  An initial + or - must be
                     given explicitly.  This may not be combined with  the  -a
                     option as autoloads must be specified explicitly.

                     With  -a,  the  given  list  of  features  is  marked for
                     autoload from the specified module, which may not yet  be
                     loaded.   An  optional  +  may  appear before the feature
                     name.  If the feature is prefixed with  -,  any  existing
                     autoload  is  removed.  The options -l and -L may be used
                     to list autoloads.  Autoloading is specific to individual
                     features;  when  the  module is loaded only the requested
                     feature is enabled.  Autoload requests are  preserved  if
                     the  module  is  subsequently  unloaded until an explicit
                     `zmodload -Fa module -feature' is issued.  It is  not  an
                     error  to  request  an autoload for a feature of a module
                     that is already loaded.

                     When the  module  is  loaded  each  autoload  is  checked
                     against  the features actually provided by the module; if
                     the feature is  not  provided  the  autoload  request  is
                     deleted.   A  warning message is output; if the module is
                     being loaded to provide a  different  feature,  and  that
                     autoload  is successful, there is no effect on the status
                     of the current command.  If the module is already  loaded
                     at the time when zmodload -Fa is run, an error message is
                     printed and status 1 returned.

                     zmodload -Fa can be used with  the  -l,  -L,  -e  and  -P
                     options   for   listing  and  testing  the  existence  of
                     autoloadable features.  In this case -l is ignored if  -L
                     is  specified.   zmodload  -FaL with no module name lists
                     autoloads for all modules.

                     Note that only standard features as described  above  can
                     be  autoloaded;  other  features require the module to be
                     loaded before enabling.

              zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
              zmodload -d name dep ...
              zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
                     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.
                     The  modules named in the second and subsequent arguments
                     will be loaded before the module named in the first argu-
                     ment.

                     With  -d and one argument, all dependencies for that mod-
                     ule are listed.  With -d and  no  arguments,  all  module
                     dependencies are listed.  This listing is by default in a
                     Makefile-like format.  The -L option changes this  format
                     to a list of zmodload -d commands.

                     If -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If
                     only one argument is given,  all  dependencies  for  that
                     module are removed.

              zmodload -ab [ -L ]
              zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
                     The  -ab  option defines autoloaded builtins.  It defines
                     the specified builtins.  When any of  those  builtins  is
                     called,  the  module  specified  in the first argument is
                     loaded and all its features are  enabled  (for  selective
                     control  of  features  use  `zmodload -F -a' as described
                     above).  If only  the  name  is  given,  one  builtin  is
                     defined, with the same name as the module.  -i suppresses
                     the  error  if  the  builtin  is   already   defined   or
                     autoloaded,  but  not if another builtin of the same name
                     is already defined.

                     With -ab and no arguments, all  autoloaded  builtins  are
                     listed,  with  the  module  name  (if different) shown in
                     parentheses  after  the  builtin  name.   The  -L  option
                     changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

                     If  -b  is  used  together with the -u option, it removes
                     builtins previously defined with -ab.  This is only  pos-
                     sible  if  the  builtin is not yet loaded.  -i suppresses
                     the error if the builtin is  already  removed  (or  never
                     existed).

                     Autoload  requests  are  retained if the module is subse-
                     quently unloaded until an explicit `zmodload -ub builtin'
                     is issued.

              zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
              zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
              zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
                     The  -ac  option  is  used to define autoloaded condition
                     codes. The cond strings give the names of the  conditions
                     defined  by the module. The optional -I option is used to
                     define infix condition names. Without this option  prefix
                     condition names are defined.

                     If given no condition names, all defined names are listed
                     (as a series of zmodload commands if  the  -L  option  is
                     given).

                     The  -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded condi-
                     tions.

              zmodload -ap [ -L ]
              zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
              zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
                     The -p option is like the -b and -c  options,  but  makes
                     zmodload work on autoloaded parameters instead.

              zmodload -af [ -L ]
              zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
              zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
                     The  -f  option  is  like the -b, -p, and -c options, but
                     makes zmodload work on autoloaded math functions instead.

              zmodload -a [ -L ]
              zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
                     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

              zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
                     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules;
                     if the -A option is also  given,  module  aliases  corre-
                     sponding  to loaded modules are also shown.  If arguments
                     are provided, nothing is printed; the  return  status  is
                     set  to  zero if all strings given as arguments are names
                     of loaded modules and to one if at least on string is not
                     the  name  of  a loaded module.  This can be used to test
                     for the availability of things  implemented  by  modules.
                     In  this case, any aliases are automatically resolved and
                     the -A flag is not used.

              zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
                     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given,
                     define modalias to be an alias for the module module.  If
                     the  module  modalias  is  ever  subsequently  requested,
                     either  via  a  call to zmodload or implicitly, the shell
                     will attempt to load module instead.  If  module  is  not
                     given,  show the definition of modalias.  If no arguments
                     are given, list all defined module aliases.   When  list-
                     ing,  if  the -L flag was also given, list the definition
                     as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

                     The existence of aliases for modules is completely  inde-
                     pendent  of  whether the name resolved is actually loaded
                     as a module: while the alias exists, loading and  unload-
                     ing  the  module  under  any  alias  has exactly the same
                     effect as using the resolved name, and  does  not  affect
                     the  connection  between  the alias and the resolved name
                     which can be removed either by zmodload -R or by redefin-
                     ing  the  alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where the first
                     resolved name is itself an alias) are valid  so  long  as
                     these  are  not  circular.   As the aliases take the same
                     format as module names, they may include path separators:
                     in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the
                     path named to exist as the alias will be resolved  first.
                     For example, `any/old/alias' is always a valid alias.

                     Dependencies  added to aliased modules are actually added
                     to the resolved module; these  remain  if  the  alias  is
                     removed.   It  is  valid to create an alias whose name is
                     one of the standard shell modules and which resolves to a
                     different module.  However, if a module has dependencies,
                     it will not be possible to use  the  module  name  as  an
                     alias  as the module will already be marked as a loadable
                     module in its own right.

                     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload
                     command  anywhere  module  names  are required.  However,
                     aliases will not be shown in lists of loaded modules with
                     a bare `zmodload'.

              zmodload -R modalias ...
                     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as
                     a module alias via zmodload -A, delete the alias.  If any
                     was  not defined, an error is caused and the remainder of
                     the line is ignored.

              Note that zsh makes no distinction  between  modules  that  were
              linked  into  the shell and modules that are loaded dynamically.
              In both cases this builtin command has to be used to make avail-
              able  the  builtins  and other things defined by modules (unless
              the module is autoloaded on these  definitions).  This  is  true
              even  for systems that don't support dynamic loading of modules.

       zparseopts
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
              See the section `The zsh/net/socket Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section `The zsh/net/tcp Module' in zshmodules(1).



zsh 5.0.2                      December 21, 2012                zshbuiltins(1)

Mac OS X 10.9 - Generated Sun Oct 13 19:22:43 CDT 2013
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