manpagez: man pages & more
man zshmodules(1)
Home | html | info | man
zshmodules(1)                                                    zshmodules(1)


       zshmodules - zsh loadable modules


       Some  optional  parts  of zsh are in modules, separate from the core of
       the shell.  Each of these modules may be linked  in  to  the  shell  at
       build  time, or can be dynamically linked while the shell is running if
       the installation supports this feature.  Modules are linked at  runtime
       with the zmodload command, see zshbuiltins(1).

       The modules that are bundled with the zsh distribution are:

              Builtins for manipulating extended attributes (xattr).

              Builtins  for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capability (privi-
              lege) sets.

              A builtin that can clone a running shell onto another  terminal.

              The compctl builtin for controlling completion.

              The basic completion code.

              Completion listing extensions.

              A  module  with  utility  builtins needed for the shell function
              based completion system.

              curses windowing commands

              Some date/time commands and parameters.

              A ZLE function duplicating EMACS' zap-to-char.

              An example of how to write a module.

              Some basic file manipulation commands as builtins.

              Interface to locale information.

              Access to external files via a special associative array.

              Standard scientific functions for use  in  mathematical  evalua-

              Arrange for files for new users to be installed.

              Access to internal hash tables via special associative arrays.

              Interface to the PCRE library.

              Interface to the POSIX regex library.

              A  builtin  that  provides a timed execution facility within the

              Manipulation of Unix domain sockets

              A builtin command interface to the stat system call.

              A builtin interface to various low-level system features.

              Manipulation of TCP sockets

              Interface to the termcap database.

              Interface to the terminfo database.

              A builtin FTP client.

              The Zsh Line Editor, including the bindkey and vared builtins.

              Access to internals of the Zsh Line Editor via parameters.

              A module allowing profiling for shell functions.

              A builtin for starting a command in a pseudo-terminal.

              Block and return when file descriptors are ready.

              Some utility builtins, e.g. the one for supporting configuration
              via styles.


       The  zsh/attr module is used for manipulating extended attributes.  The
       -h option causes all commands to operate on symbolic links  instead  of
       their targets.  The builtins in this module are:

       zgetattr [ -h ] filename attribute [ parameter ]
              Get  the  extended  attribute attribute from the specified file-
              name. If the optional argument parameter is given, the attribute
              is set on that parameter instead of being printed to stdout.

       zsetattr [ -h ] filename attribute value
              Set  the  extended attribute attribute on the specified filename
              to value.

       zdelattr [ -h ] filename attribute
              Remove the extended attribute attribute from the specified file-

       zlistattr [ -h ] filename [ parameter ]
              List  the  extended  attributes  currently  set on the specified
              filename. If the optional argument parameter is given, the  list
              of  attributes is set on that parameter instead of being printed
              to stdout.

       zgetattr and zlistattr allocate memory dynamically.  If  the  attribute
       or  list of attributes grows between the allocation and the call to get
       them, they return 2.  On all other errors, 1 is returned.  This  allows
       the calling function to check for this case and retry.


       The zsh/cap module is used for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capabil-
       ity sets.  If the operating system does not support this interface, the
       builtins  defined by this module will do nothing.  The builtins in this
       module are:

       cap [ capabilities ]
              Change the shell's process  capability  sets  to  the  specified
              capabilities,  otherwise  display  the shell's current capabili-

       getcap filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.
              It displays the capability sets on each specified filename.

       setcap capabilities filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.
              It sets the capability sets on each specified  filename  to  the
              specified capabilities.


       The zsh/clone module makes available one builtin command:

       clone tty
              Creates  a forked instance of the current shell, attached to the
              specified tty.  In the new shell, the PID, PPID and TTY  special
              parameters  are changed appropriately.  $! is set to zero in the
              new shell, and to the new shell's PID in the original shell.

              The return status of the builtin is zero in both shells if  suc-
              cessful, and non-zero on error.

              The  target  of  clone  should be an unused terminal, such as an
              unused virtual console or a virtual terminal created by

              xterm -e sh -c 'trap : INT QUIT TSTP; tty;  while  :;  do  sleep
              100000000; done'

              Some  words  of  explanation are warranted about this long xterm
              command line: when doing clone on a pseudo-terminal, some  other
              session  ("session"  meant  as  a unix session group, or SID) is
              already owning the terminal. Hence the cloned zsh cannot acquire
              the pseudo-terminal as a controlling tty. That means two things:

              the job control  signals  will  go  to  the  sh-started-by-xterm
                    group  (that's why we disable INT QUIT and TSTP with trap;
                    the while loop could get suspended or killed)

              the cloned shell will have job control disabled, and the job
                    control keys (control-C, control-\ and control-Z) will not

              This does not apply when cloning to an unused vc.

              Cloning  to  a used (and unprepared) terminal will result in two
              processes reading simultaneously from the  same  terminal,  with
              input bytes going randomly to either process.

              clone  is  mostly  useful  as  a  shell built-in replacement for


       The zsh/compctl module makes available two builtin  commands.  compctl,
       is the old, deprecated way to control completions for ZLE.  See zshcom-
       pctl(1).   The  other  builtin  command,  compcall  can  be   used   in
       user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).


       The  zsh/complete module makes available several builtin commands which
       can be used in user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).


       The zsh/complist module offers three extensions to completion listings:
       the  ability to highlight matches in such a list, the ability to scroll
       through long lists and a different style of menu completion.

   Colored completion listings
       Whenever one of the parameters ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS is set and the
       zsh/complist  module  is  loaded  or  linked into the shell, completion
       lists will be colored.  Note, however, that complist will not automati-
       cally  be loaded if it is not linked in:  on systems with dynamic load-
       ing, `zmodload zsh/complist' is required.

       The parameters ZLS_COLORS and  ZLS_COLOURS  describe  how  matches  are
       highlighted.  To turn on highlighting an empty value suffices, in which
       case all the default values given below will be used.   The  format  of
       the value of these parameters is the same as used by the GNU version of
       the ls command: a colon-separated list of specifications  of  the  form
       `name=value'.   The  name  may be one of the following strings, most of
       which specify file types for which the value will be used.  The strings
       and their default values are:

       no 0   for  normal  text  (i.e.  when displaying something other than a
              matched file)

       fi 0   for regular files

       di 32  for directories

       ln 36  for symbolic links.  If this has the special value target,  sym-
              bolic  links are dereferenced and the target file used to deter-
              mine the display format.

       pi 31  for named pipes (FIFOs)

       so 33  for sockets

       bd 44;37
              for block devices

       cd 44;37
              for character devices

       or none
              for a symlink to nonexistent file (default is the value  defined
              for ln)

       mi none
              for  a  non-existent file (default is the value defined for fi);
              this code is currently not used

       su 37;41
              for files with setuid bit set

       sg 30;43
              for files with setgid bit set

       tw 30;42
              for world writable directories with sticky bit set

       ow 34;43
              for world writable directories without sticky bit set

       sa none
              for files with an associated suffix alias; this is  only  tested
              after specific suffixes, as described below

       st 37;44
              for directories with sticky bit set but not world writable

       ex 35  for executable files

       lc \e[ for the left code (see below)

       rc m   for the right code

       tc 0   for  the character indicating the file type  printed after file-
              names if the LIST_TYPES option is set

       sp 0   for the spaces printed after matches to align the next column

       ec none
              for the end code

       Apart from these strings, the name may also be an asterisk  (`*')  fol-
       lowed by any string. The value given for such a string will be used for
       all files whose name ends with the string.  The name  may  also  be  an
       equals  sign (`=') followed by a pattern; the EXTENDED_GLOB option will
       be turned on for evaluation of the pattern.  The value given  for  this
       pattern will be used for all matches (not just filenames) whose display
       string are matched by the pattern.  Definitions for the form  with  the
       leading  equal  sign  take  precedence over the values defined for file
       types, which in turn take precedence over the  form  with  the  leading
       asterisk (file extensions).

       The  leading-equals  form  also allows different parts of the displayed
       strings to be colored differently.  For this, the pattern  has  to  use
       the `(#b)' globbing flag and pairs of parentheses surrounding the parts
       of the strings that are to be colored differently.  In  this  case  the
       value may consist of more than one color code separated by equal signs.
       The first code will be used for all parts for which no explicit code is
       specified and the following codes will be used for the parts matched by
       the  sub-patterns  in  parentheses.   For  example,  the  specification
       `=(#b)(?)*(?)=0=3=7'  will  be  used for all matches which are at least
       two characters long and will use the code `3' for the first  character,
       `7' for the last character and `0' for the rest.

       All  three  forms  of name may be preceded by a pattern in parentheses.
       If this is given, the value will be used only  for  matches  in  groups
       whose  names  are matched by the pattern given in the parentheses.  For
       example, `(g*)m*=43' highlights  all  matches  beginning  with  `m'  in
       groups  whose names  begin with `g' using the color code `43'.  In case
       of the `lc', `rc', and `ec' codes, the group pattern is ignored.

       Note also that all patterns are tried in the order in which they appear
       in  the parameter value until the first one matches which is then used.

       When printing a match, the code prints the value of lc, the  value  for
       the  file-type or the last matching specification with a `*', the value
       of rc, the string to display for the match itself, and then  the  value
       of  ec  if that is defined or the values of lc, no, and rc if ec is not

       The default values are ISO 6429 (ANSI) compliant and  can  be  used  on
       vt100 compatible terminals such as xterms.  On monochrome terminals the
       default values will have no visible effect.  The colors  function  from
       the  contribution  can be used to get associative arrays containing the
       codes for ANSI terminals (see the section `Other Functions' in  zshcon-
       trib(1)).   For  example,  after  loading  colors, one could use `$col-
       ors[red]'  to  get  the  code  for  foreground  color  red  and  `$col-
       ors[bg-green]' for the code for background color green.

       If  the completion system invoked by compinit is used, these parameters
       should not be set directly because the  system  controls  them  itself.
       Instead, the list-colors style should be used (see the section `Comple-
       tion System Configuration' in zshcompsys(1)).

   Scrolling in completion listings
       To enable scrolling through a completion list, the LISTPROMPT parameter
       must  be set.  Its value will be used as the prompt; if it is the empty
       string, a default prompt will be used.  The value may  contain  escapes
       of  the  form  `%x'.   It  supports the escapes `%B', `%b', `%S', `%s',
       `%U', `%u', `%F', `%f', `%K', `%k' and `%{...%}'  used  also  in  shell
       prompts  as well as three pairs of additional sequences: a `%l' or `%L'
       is replaced by the number of the last line shown and the  total  number
       of  lines  in  the form `number/total'; a `%m' or `%M' is replaced with
       the number of the last match shown and the total number of matches; and
       `%p'  or  `%P'  is replaced with `Top', `Bottom' or the position of the
       first line shown in percent of the total number of lines, respectively.
       In  each  of  these  cases  the  form with the uppercase letter will be
       replaced with a string of fixed width, padded to the right with spaces,
       while the lowercase form will not be padded.

       If the parameter LISTPROMPT is set, the completion code will not ask if
       the list should be shown.  Instead it immediately starts displaying the
       list,  stopping  after  the  first screenful, showing the prompt at the
       bottom, waiting for a  keypress  after  temporarily  switching  to  the
       listscroll  keymap.   Some  of the zle functions have a special meaning
       while scrolling lists:

              stops listing discarding the key pressed

       accept-line, down-history, down-line-or-history
       down-line-or-search, vi-down-line-or-history
              scrolls forward one line

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-complete-or-expand
              scrolls forward one screenful

              stop listing but take no other action

       Every other character stops listing and immediately processes  the  key
       as  usual.   Any key that is not bound in the listscroll keymap or that
       is bound  to  undefined-key  is  looked  up  in  the  keymap  currently

       As for the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters, LISTPROMPT should not
       be set directly when using the shell function based completion  system.
       Instead, the list-prompt style should be used.

   Menu selection
       The  zsh/complist  module also offers an alternative style of selecting
       matches from a list, called menu selection, which can be  used  if  the
       shell is set up to return to the last prompt after showing a completion
       list (see the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option in zshoptions(1)).

       Menu selection can  be  invoked  directly  by  the  widget  menu-select
       defined  by  this  module.   This  is a standard ZLE widget that can be
       bound to a key in the usual way as described in zshzle(1).

       Alternatively, the parameter MENUSELECT can be set to an integer, which
       gives  the  minimum  number of matches that must be present before menu
       selection is automatically turned on.  This second method requires that
       menu  completion  be  started,  either  directly  from a widget such as
       menu-complete, or due to one of the options MENU_COMPLETE or  AUTO_MENU
       being  set.  If MENUSELECT is set, but is 0, 1 or empty, menu selection
       will always be started during an ambiguous menu completion.

       When using the completion system based on shell functions, the  MENUSE-
       LECT  parameter should not be used (like the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS
       parameters described above).  Instead, the menu style  should  be  used
       with the select=... keyword.

       After  menu  selection is started, the matches will be listed. If there
       are more matches than fit on the screen, only the  first  screenful  is
       shown.   The  matches  to  insert into the command line can be selected
       from this list.  In the list one match is highlighted using  the  value
       for ma from the ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS parameter.  The default value
       for this is `7' which forces the selected match to be highlighted using
       standout  mode  on  a vt100-compatible terminal.  If neither ZLS_COLORS
       nor ZLS_COLOURS is set, the same terminal control sequence as  for  the
       `%S' escape in prompts is used.

       If  there  are  more  matches  than fit on the screen and the parameter
       MENUPROMPT is set, its value will be shown below the matches.  It  sup-
       ports  the  same  escape sequences as LISTPROMPT, but the number of the
       match or line shown will be that of the one where the mark  is  placed.
       If its value is the empty string, a default prompt will be used.

       The  MENUSCROLL  parameter  can  be  used  to  specify  how the list is
       scrolled.  If the parameter is unset, this is done line by line, if  it
       is  set to `0' (zero), the list will scroll half the number of lines of
       the screen.  If the value is positive, it gives the number of lines  to
       scroll  and  if it is negative, the list will be scrolled the number of
       lines of the screen minus the (absolute) value.

       As for the ZLS_COLORS, ZLS_COLOURS and LISTPROMPT  parameters,  neither
       MENUPROMPT  nor  MENUSCROLL should be set directly when using the shell
       function based  completion  system.   Instead,  the  select-prompt  and
       select-scroll styles should be used.

       The completion code sometimes decides not to show all of the matches in
       the list.  These hidden matches are either matches for which  the  com-
       pletion  function  which  added them explicitly requested that they not
       appear in the list (using the -n option of the compadd builtin command)
       or  they  are  matches  which  duplicate  a  string already in the list
       (because they differ only in things like prefixes or suffixes that  are
       not  displayed).   In  the  list used for menu selection, however, even
       these matches are shown so that it is  possible  to  select  them.   To
       highlight such matches the hi and du capabilities in the ZLS_COLORS and
       ZLS_COLOURS parameters are supported for hidden matches  of  the  first
       and second kind, respectively.

       Selecting matches is done by moving the mark around using the zle move-
       ment functions.  When not all matches can be shown on the screen at the
       same  time,  the  list will scroll up and down when crossing the top or
       bottom line.  The following zle functions have special  meaning  during
       menu  selection.   Note that the following always perform the same task
       within the menu selection map and cannot be replaced  by  user  defined
       widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended:

       accept-line, accept-search
              accept  the  current  match and leave menu selection (but do not
              cause the command line to be accepted)

              leaves menu selection and restores the previous contents of  the
              command line

       redisplay, clear-screen
              execute their normal function without leaving menu selection

       accept-and-hold, accept-and-menu-complete
              accept  the  currently  inserted  match  and  continue selection
              allowing to select the next match to insert into the line

              accepts the current match and then tries  completion  with  menu
              selection again;  in the case of files this allows one to select
              a directory and immediately attempt to complete files in it;  if
              there are no matches, a message is shown and one can use undo to
              go back to completion on the previous  level,  every  other  key
              leaves  menu  selection (including the other zle functions which
              are otherwise special during menu selection)

       undo   removes matches inserted during the menu selection by one of the
              three functions before

       down-history, down-line-or-history
       vi-down-line-or-history,  down-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line down

       up-history, up-line-or-history
       vi-up-line-or-history, up-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line up

       forward-char, vi-forward-char
              moves the mark one column right

       backward-char, vi-backward-char
              moves the mark one column left

       forward-word, vi-forward-word
       vi-forward-word-end, emacs-forward-word
              moves the mark one screenful down

       backward-word, vi-backward-word, emacs-backward-word
              moves the mark one screenful up

       vi-forward-blank-word, vi-forward-blank-word-end
              moves the mark to the first line of the next group of matches

              moves the mark to the last line of the previous group of matches

              moves the mark to the first line

              moves the mark to the last line

       beginning-of-buffer-or-history, beginning-of-line
       beginning-of-line-hist, vi-beginning-of-line
              moves the mark to the leftmost column

       end-of-buffer-or-history, end-of-line
       end-of-line-hist, vi-end-of-line
              moves the mark to the rightmost column

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-expand-or-complete
              moves the mark to the next match

              moves the mark to the previous match

              this toggles between normal and interactive mode; in interactive
              mode the keys bound to self-insert and self-insert-unmeta insert
              into the command line as in  normal  editing  mode  but  without
              leaving menu selection; after each character completion is tried
              again and the list changes to contain only the new matches;  the
              completion  widgets  make  the  longest  unambiguous  string  be
              inserted in the command line and undo  and  backward-delete-char
              go back to the previous set of matches

              this starts incremental searches in the list of completions dis-
              played;  in  this  mode,  accept-line  only  leaves  incremental
              search, going back to the normal menu selection mode

       All movement functions wrap around at the edges; any other zle function
       not listed leaves menu selection and executes  that  function.   It  is
       possible  to  make  widgets  in the above list do the same by using the
       form of the widget with a  `.'  in  front.   For  example,  the  widget
       `.accept-line'  has  the effect of leaving menu selection and accepting
       the entire command line.

       During this selection the widget uses the keymap menuselect.   Any  key
       that is not defined in this keymap or that is bound to undefined-key is
       looked up in the keymap currently selected.  This  is  used  to  ensure
       that  the  most important keys used during selection (namely the cursor
       keys, return, and TAB) have sensible defaults.  However,  keys  in  the
       menuselect  keymap  can  be modified directly using the bindkey builtin
       command (see zshmodules(1)). For example, to make the return key  leave
       menu selection without accepting the match currently selected one could

              bindkey -M menuselect '^M' send-break

       after loading the zsh/complist module.


       The zsh/computil module adds several builtin commands that are used  by
       some  of  the  completion  functions  in the completion system based on
       shell functions (see  zshcompsys(1)  ).   Except  for  compquote  these
       builtin  commands  are  very  specialised and thus not very interesting
       when writing your own completion functions.  In summary, these  builtin
       commands are:

              This  is  used by the _arguments function to do the argument and
              command line parsing.  Like compdescribe it has an option -i  to
              do  the  parsing  and initialize some internal state and various
              options to access the state information to decide what should be

              This is used by the _describe function to build the displays for
              the matches and to get the strings to add as matches with  their
              options.   On  the first call one of the options -i or -I should
              be supplied as the first argument.  In the first  case,  display
              strings  without the descriptions will be generated, in the sec-
              ond case, the string used to separate  the  matches  from  their
              descriptions  must  be  given  as  the  second  argument and the
              descriptions (if any) will be shown.  All  other  arguments  are
              like the definition arguments to _describe itself.

              Once  compdescribe  has been called with either the -i or the -I
              option, it can be repeatedly called with the -g option  and  the
              names  of  five arrays as its arguments.  This will step through
              the different sets of matches and store the options in the first
              array,  the strings with descriptions in the second, the matches
              for these in the third, the strings without descriptions in  the
              fourth,  and the matches for them in the fifth array.  These are
              then directly given to compadd to register the matches with  the
              completion code.

              Used  by  the _path_files function to optimize complex recursive
              filename generation (globbing).  It does three things.  With the
              -p  and -P options it builds the glob patterns to use, including
              the paths already handled and trying to  optimize  the  patterns
              with  respect  to  the  prefix  and suffix from the line and the
              match specification currently used.   The  -i  option  does  the
              directory  tests  for the ignore-parents style and the -r option
              tests if a component for some of the matches are  equal  to  the
              string  on  the  line  and  removes all other matches if that is

              Used by the _tags function to implement  the  internals  of  the
              group-order  style.   This  only takes its arguments as names of
              completion groups and creates the groups for it (all six  types:
              sorted  and  unsorted,  both  without  removing duplicates, with
              removing all duplicates and  with  removing  consecutive  dupli-

       compquote [ -p ] names ...
              There  may be reasons to write completion functions that have to
              add the matches using the -Q option to compadd and perform quot-
              ing  themselves.  Instead of interpreting the first character of
              the all_quotes key of  the  compstate  special  association  and
              using  the  q  flag  for  parameter expansions, one can use this
              builtin command.  The arguments are the names of scalar or array
              parameters  and  the  values  of  these parameters are quoted as
              needed for the innermost quoting level.  If  the  -p  option  is
              given,  quoting  is  done  as if there is some prefix before the
              values of the parameters, so that a leading equal sign will  not
              be quoted.

              The  return status is non-zero in case of an error and zero oth-

              These implement the internals of the tags mechanism.

              Like comparguments, but for the _values function.


       The zsh/curses module makes available one builtin command  and  various

       zcurses init
       zcurses end
       zcurses addwin targetwin nlines ncols begin_y begin_x [ parentwin ]
       zcurses delwin targetwin
       zcurses refresh [ targetwin ... ]
       zcurses touch targetwin ...
       zcurses move targetwin new_y new_x
       zcurses clear targetwin [ redraw | eol | bot ]
       zcurses position targetwin array
       zcurses char targetwin character
       zcurses string targetwin string
       zcurses border targetwin border
       zcurses attr targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col ] [...]
       zcurses bg targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col | @char ] [...]
       zcurses scroll targetwin [ on | off | {+/-}lines ]
       zcurses input targetwin [ param [ kparam [ mparam ] ] ]
       zcurses mouse [ delay num | {+/-}motion ]
       zcurses timeout targetwin intval
       zcurses querychar targetwin [ param ]
              Manipulate  curses  windows.  All uses of this command should be
              bracketed by `zcurses init' to initialise  use  of  curses,  and
              `zcurses  end'  to  end it; omitting `zcurses end' can cause the
              terminal to be in an unwanted state.

              The subcommand addwin creates a window  with  nlines  lines  and
              ncols  columns.   Its  upper  left  corner will be placed at row
              begin_y and column begin_x of the screen.  targetwin is a string
              and  refers  to  the  name  of  a  window  that is not currently
              assigned.  Note in particular the curses convention that  verti-
              cal values appear before horizontal values.

              If addwin is given an existing window as the final argument, the
              new window is created as a subwindow of parentwin.  This differs
              from  an  ordinary  new  window in that the memory of the window
              contents is shared with the parent's memory.  Subwindows must be
              deleted  before their parent.  Note that the coordinates of sub-
              windows are relative to the screen,  not  the  parent,  as  with
              other windows.

              Use  the  subcommand  delwin  to  delete  a  window created with
              addwin.  Note that end does not implicitly delete  windows,  and
              that delwin does not erase the screen image of the window.

              The  window  corresponding  to the full visible screen is called
              stdscr; it always exists after  `zcurses  init'  and  cannot  be
              delete with delwin.

              The  subcommand  refresh  will refresh window targetwin; this is
              necessary to make any pending changes (such  as  characters  you
              have  prepared  for  output  with  char)  visible on the screen.
              refresh without an argument causes the screen to be cleared  and
              redrawn.   If  multiple windows are given, the screen is updated
              once at the end.

              The subcommand touch marks the  targetwins  listed  as  changed.
              This is necessary before refreshing windows if a window that was
              in front of another window (which may be stdscr) is deleted.

              The subcommand move moves the cursor position  in  targetwin  to
              new  coordinates  new_y  and  new_x.   Note  that the subcommand
              string (but not the subcommand char) advances the  cursor  posi-
              tion over the characters added.

              The subcommand clear erases the contents of targetwin.  One (and
              no more than one) of three options may be specified.   With  the
              option  redraw,  in  addition the next refresh of targetwin will
              cause the screen to be cleared and repainted.  With  the  option
              eol,  targetwin is only cleared to the end of the current cursor
              line.  With the option bot, targetwin is cleared to the  end  of
              the  window, i.e everything to the right and below the cursor is

              The subcommand position writes various positions associated with
              targetwin into the array named array.  These are, in order:

              The y and x coordinates of the cursor relative to the top left
                     of targetwin

              The y and x coordinates of the top left of targetwin on the

              The size of targetwin in y and x dimensions.

              Outputting  characters  and  strings  are  achieved  by char and
              string respectively.

              To draw a border around window targetwin, use border.  Note that
              the  border  is  not  subsequently  handled specially:  in other
              words, the border is simply a set of characters  output  at  the
              edge of the window.  Hence it can be overwritten, can scroll off
              the window, etc.

              The subcommand attr will set  targetwin's  attributes  or  fore-
              ground/background  color  pair for any successive character out-
              put.  Each attribute given on the line may be prepended by  a  +
              to  set  or a - to unset that attribute; + is assumed if absent.
              The attributes supported are blink, bold, dim,  reverse,  stand-
              out, and underline.

              Each  fg_col/bg_col attribute (to be read as `fg_col on bg_col')
              sets the foreground and background color for  character  output.
              The  color  default is sometimes available (in particular if the
              library is ncurses), specifying  the  foreground  or  background
              color   with   which  the  terminal  started.   The  color  pair
              default/default is always available.

              bg overrides the color and other attributes of all characters in
              the  window.   Its usual use is to set the background initially,
              but it will overwrite the attributes of any  characters  at  the
              time  when  it  is called.  In addition to the arguments allowed
              with attr, an argument @char specifies a character to  be  shown
              in otherwise blank areas of the window.  Owing to limitations of
              curses this cannot be a multibyte character (use of ASCII  char-
              acters only is recommended).  As the specified set of attributes
              override the existing background, turning attributes off in  the
              arguments is not useful, though this does not cause an error.

              The  subcommand  scroll can be used with on or off to enabled or
              disable scrolling of a window when the  cursor  would  otherwise
              move  below  the window due to typing or output.  It can also be
              used with a positive or negative integer to scroll the window up
              or  down  the given number of lines without changing the current
              cursor position (which therefore appears to move in the opposite
              direction  relative  to  the  window).   In  the second case, if
              scrolling is off it is temporarily turned on to allow the window
              to be scrolled.

              The  subcommand  input  reads a single character from the window
              without echoing it back.  If param is supplied the character  is
              assigned  to  the  parameter  param,  else it is assigned to the
              parameter REPLY.

              If both param and kparam are supplied, the key is read in  `key-
              pad'  mode.  In this mode special keys such as function keys and
              arrow keys return the name of the key in the  parameter  kparam.
              The  key  names  are  the  macros  defined  in  the  curses.h or
              ncurses.h with the prefix `KEY_' removed; see also the  descrip-
              tion  of the parameter zcurses_keycodes below.  Other keys cause
              a value to be set in param as before.  On  a  successful  return
              only  one  of  param  or kparam contains a non-empty string; the
              other is set to an empty string.

              If mparam is also  supplied,  input  attempts  to  handle  mouse
              input.   This  is only available with the ncurses library; mouse
              handling can be detected by checking  for  the  exit  status  of
              `zcurses mouse' with no arguments.  If a mouse button is clicked
              (or double- or triple-clicked, or pressed  or  released  with  a
              configurable delay from being clicked) then kparam is set to the
              string MOUSE, and mparam is set to an array  consisting  of  the
              following elements:
              -      An  identifier  to  discriminate different input devices;
                     this is only rarely useful.
              -      The x, y and z coordinates of the mouse click relative to
                     the  full  screen,  as three elements in that order (i.e.
                     the y coordinate is, unusually, after the x  coordinate).
                     The  z  coordinate  is  only  available for a few unusual
                     input devices and is otherwise set to zero.
              -      Any events that occurred as separate items; usually there
                     will   be  just  one.   An  event  consists  of  PRESSED,
                     lowed  immediately (in the same element) by the number of
                     the button.
              -      If the shift key was pressed, the string SHIFT.
              -      If the control key was pressed, the string CTRL.
              -      If the alt key was pressed, the string ALT.

              Not all mouse events may be passed through to the terminal  win-
              dow;  most  terminal  emulators  handle  some mouse events them-
              selves.  Note that the ncurses manual implies that  using  input
              both  with and without mouse handling may cause the mouse cursor
              to appear and disappear.

              The subcommand mouse can be used to configure  the  use  of  the
              mouse.   There  is no window argument; mouse options are global.
              `zcurses mouse' with no arguments returns status 0 if mouse han-
              dling is possible, else status 1.  Otherwise, the possible argu-
              ments (which may be combined on the same command  line)  are  as
              follows.   delay  num  sets  the  maximum  delay in milliseconds
              between press and release events to be considered  as  a  click;
              the  value  0  disables click resolution, and the default is one
              sixth of a second.  motion proceeded by  an  optional  `+'  (the
              default) or - turns on or off reporting of mouse motion in addi-
              tion to clicks, presses and releases, which are always reported.
              However,  it  appears reports for mouse motion are not currently

              The subcommand timeout specifies a timeout value for input  from
              targetwin.  If intval is negative, `zcurses input' waits indefi-
              nitely for a character to be typed; this  is  the  default.   If
              intval is zero, `zcurses input' returns immediately; if there is
              typeahead it is returned, else no input is done and status 1  is
              returned.   If  intval is positive, `zcurses input' waits intval
              milliseconds for input and if there is none at the end  of  that
              period returns status 1.

              The  subcommand  querychar  queries the character at the current
              cursor position.  The return values  are  stored  in  the  array
              named  param  if  supplied,  else in the array reply.  The first
              value is the character (which may be a  multibyte  character  if
              the  system  supports them); the second is the color pair in the
              usual fg_col/bg_col notation, or 0 if color  is  not  supported.
              Any  attributes other than color that apply to the character, as
              set with the subcommand attr, appear as additional elements.

              Readonly integer.  The maximum number  of  colors  the  terminal
              supports.   This  value is initialised by the curses library and
              is not available until the first time zcurses init is run.

              Readonly  integer.   The   maximum   number   of   color   pairs
              fg_col/bg_col  that  may  be defined in `zcurses attr' commands;
              note this limit applies to all color pairs that have  been  used
              whether  or  not  they are currently active.  This value is ini-
              tialised by the curses library and is not  available  until  the
              first time zcurses init is run.

              Readonly  array.  The attributes supported by zsh/curses; avail-
              able as soon as the module is loaded.

              Readonly array.  The colors supported by  zsh/curses;  available
              as soon as the module is loaded.

              Readonly  array.   The values that may be returned in the second
              parameter supplied to `zcurses input' in the order in which they
              are  defined  internally  by  curses.  Not all function keys are
              listed, only F0; curses reserves space for F0 up to F63.

              Readonly array.  The current list of windows, i.e.  all  windows
              that  have  been  created  with `zcurses addwin' and not removed
              with `zcurses delwin'.


       The zsh/datetime module makes available one builtin command:

       strftime [ -s scalar ] format epochtime
       strftime -r [ -q ] [ -s scalar ] format timestring
              Output the date denoted by epochtime in the format specified.

              With the option -r (reverse), use the format format to parse the
              input  string  timestring and output the number of seconds since
              the epoch at which the time occurred.  If no timezone is parsed,
              the  current  timezone is used; other parameters are set to zero
              if not present.  If timestring does not match format the command
              returns  status  1;  it will additionally print an error message
              unless the option -q (quiet) is given.   If  timestring  matches
              format  but not all characters in timestring were used, the con-
              version succeeds; however, a warning is issued unless the option
              -q is given.  The matching is implemented by the system function
              strptime; see strptime(3).  This means that  zsh  format  exten-
              sions are not available, however for reverse lookup they are not
              required.  If the  function  is  not  implemented,  the  command
              returns status 2 and (unless -q is given) prints a message.

              If  -s scalar is given, assign the date string (or epoch time in
              seconds if -r is given) to scalar instead of printing it.

       The zsh/datetime module makes available  several  parameters;  all  are

              A  floating point value representing the number of seconds since
              the epoch.  The notional  accuracy  is  to  nanoseconds  if  the
              clock_gettime  call  is available and to microseconds otherwise,
              but in practice the range of double precision floating point and
              shell scheduling latencies may be significant effects.

              An  integer  value  representing the number of seconds since the

              An array value containing the number of seconds since the  epoch
              in  the  first  element  and the remainder of the time since the
              epoch in nanoseconds in the second element.  To ensure  the  two
              elements  are consistent the array should be copied or otherwise
              referenced as a single substitution before the values are  used.
              The following idiom may be used:

                     for secs nsecs in $epochtime; do


       The zsh/deltochar module makes available two ZLE functions:

              Read  a  character from the keyboard, and delete from the cursor
              position up to and including the next (or, with repeat count  n,
              the  nth)  instance  of  that character.  Negative repeat counts
              mean delete backwards.

              This behaves like delete-to-char, except that the  final  occur-
              rence of the character itself is not deleted.


       The zsh/example module makes available one builtin command:

       example [ -flags ] [ args ... ]
              Displays the flags and arguments it is invoked with.

       The  purpose  of the module is to serve as an example of how to write a


       The zsh/files module makes available  some  common  commands  for  file
       manipulation  as  builtins;  these commands are probably not needed for
       many normal situations but can be useful in emergency  recovery  situa-
       tions  with  constrained  resources.  The commands do not implement all
       features now required by relevant standards committees.

       For all commands, a variant beginning zf_ is also available and  loaded
       automatically.   Using the features capability of zmodload will let you
       load only those names you want.

       The commands loaded by default are:

       chgrp [ -hRs ] group filename ...
              Changes group of files specified.  This is equivalent  to  chown
              with a user-spec argument of `:group'.

       chown [ -hRs ] user-spec filename ...
              Changes ownership and group of files specified.

              The user-spec can be in four forms:

              user   change owner to user; do not change group
              user:: change owner to user; do not change group
              user:  change  owner  to  user;  change  group to user's primary
                     change owner to user; change group to group
              :group do not change owner; change group to group

              In each case, the `:' may instead be a `.'.  The rule is that if
              there  is a `:' then the separator is `:', otherwise if there is
              a `.' then the separator is `.', otherwise there is  no  separa-

              Each  of user and group may be either a username (or group name,
              as appropriate) or a decimal user ID (group ID).  Interpretation
              as  a name takes precedence, if there is an all-numeric username
              (or group name).

              If the target is a symbolic link, the -h option causes chown  to
              set the ownership of the link instead of its target.

              The  -R option causes chown to recursively descend into directo-
              ries, changing the ownership of all files in the directory after
              changing the ownership of the directory itself.

              The  -s  option  is  a zsh extension to chown functionality.  It
              enables paranoid behaviour, intended to avoid security  problems
              involving  a chown being tricked into affecting files other than
              the ones intended.  It will refuse to follow symbolic links,  so
              that  (for  example) ``chown luser /tmp/foo/passwd'' can't acci-
              dentally chown /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be a  link  to
              /etc.  It will also check where it is after leaving directories,
              so that a recursive chown of a deep directory tree can't end  up
              recursively chowning /usr as a result of directories being moved
              up the tree.

       ln [ -dfhins ] filename dest
       ln [ -dfhins ] filename ... dir
              Creates hard (or, with -s, symbolic) links.  In the first  form,
              the specified destination is created, as a link to the specified
              filename.  In the second form, each of the filenames is taken in
              turn,  and  linked to a pathname in the specified directory that
              has the same last pathname component.

              Normally, ln will not attempt to create hard links  to  directo-
              ries.   This check can be overridden using the -d option.  Typi-
              cally only the super-user can actually succeed in creating  hard
              links  to directories.  This does not apply to symbolic links in
              any case.

              By default, existing files cannot be replaced by links.  The  -i
              option  causes  the  user to be queried about replacing existing
              files.  The -f option  causes  existing  files  to  be  silently
              deleted, without querying.  -f takes precedence.

              The  -h and -n options are identical and both exist for compati-
              bility; either one indicates that if the  target  is  a  symlink
              then  it  should not be dereferenced.  Typically this is used in
              combination with -sf so that if an existing  link  points  to  a
              directory then it will be removed, instead of followed.  If this
              option is used with multiple filenames and the target is a  sym-
              bolic  link pointing to a directory then the result is an error.

       mkdir [ -p ] [ -m mode ] dir ...
              Creates directories.  With the -p  option,  non-existing  parent
              directories are first created if necessary, and there will be no
              complaint if the directory already exists.  The -m option can be
              used  to  specify  (in  octal) a set of file permissions for the
              created directories, otherwise mode 777 modified by the  current
              umask (see umask(2)) is used.

       mv [ -fi ] filename dest
       mv [ -fi ] filename ... dir
              Moves files.  In the first form, the specified filename is moved
              to the specified destination.  In the second form, each  of  the
              filenames is taken in turn, and moved to a pathname in the spec-
              ified directory that has the same last pathname component.

              By default, the user will be queried before replacing  any  file
              that  the  user  cannot  write  to,  but  writable files will be
              silently removed.  The -i option causes the user to  be  queried
              about  replacing  any  existing files.  The -f option causes any
              existing files to be silently  deleted,  without  querying.   -f
              takes precedence.

              Note  that this mv will not move files across devices.  Histori-
              cal versions of mv, when actual  renaming  is  impossible,  fall
              back  on  copying  and  removing  files;  if  this  behaviour is
              desired, use cp and rm manually.  This may change  in  a  future

       rm [ -dfirs ] filename ...
              Removes files and directories specified.

              Normally,  rm  will  not  remove directories (except with the -r
              option).  The -d option causes rm to  try  removing  directories
              with  unlink  (see  unlink(2)),  the same method used for files.
              Typically only the super-user can actually succeed in  unlinking
              directories in this way.  -d takes precedence over -r.

              By  default,  the  user will be queried before removing any file
              that the user cannot  write  to,  but  writable  files  will  be
              silently  removed.   The -i option causes the user to be queried
              about removing any files.  The -f  option  causes  files  to  be
              silently  deleted,  without  querying,  and suppresses all error
              indications.  -f takes precedence.

              The -r option causes rm to recursively descend into directories,
              deleting  all  files in the directory before removing the direc-
              tory with the rmdir system call (see rmdir(2)).

              The -s option is  a  zsh  extension  to  rm  functionality.   It
              enables  paranoid  behaviour,  intended to avoid common security
              problems involving a root-run rm  being  tricked  into  removing
              files  other  than  the ones intended.  It will refuse to follow
              symbolic links, so that  (for  example)  ``rm  /tmp/foo/passwd''
              can't  accidentally remove /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be
              a link to /etc.  It will also check where it  is  after  leaving
              directories,  so  that  a  recursive removal of a deep directory
              tree can't end up recursively  removing  /usr  as  a  result  of
              directories being moved up the tree.

       rmdir dir ...
              Removes empty directories specified.

       sync   Calls  the  system  call  of  the same name (see sync(2)), which
              flushes dirty buffers to disk.  It might return before  the  I/O
              has actually been completed.


       The zsh/langinfo module makes available one parameter:

              An  associative  array that maps langinfo elements to their val-

              Your implementation may support a number of the following keys:

              NOEXPR,   CRNCYSTR,   ABDAY_{1..7},  DAY_{1..7},  ABMON_{1..12},
              MON_{1..12},  T_FMT_AMPM,  AM_STR,   PM_STR,   ERA,   ERA_D_FMT,
              ERA_D_T_FMT, ERA_T_FMT, ALT_DIGITS


       The zsh/mapfile module provides one special associative array parameter
       of the same name.

              This associative array takes as keys the  names  of  files;  the
              resulting  value  is  the  content  of  the  file.  The value is
              treated identically to any other text coming from  a  parameter.
              The  value  may  also  be assigned to, in which case the file in
              question is written (whether or not it originally  existed);  or
              an element may be unset, which will delete the file in question.
              For example, `vared mapfile[myfile]' works as expected,  editing
              the file `myfile'.

              When the array is accessed as a whole, the keys are the names of
              files in the current directory, and the  values  are  empty  (to
              save  a  huge  overhead  in memory).  Thus ${(k)mapfile} has the
              same affect as the glob operator  *(D),  since  files  beginning
              with a dot are not special.  Care must be taken with expressions
              such as rm ${(k)mapfile}, which will delete every  file  in  the
              current directory without the usual `rm *' test.

              The parameter mapfile may be made read-only; in that case, files
              referenced may not be written or deleted.

              A file may conveniently be read into an array as  one  line  per
              element  with the form `array=("${(f)mapfile[filename]}")'.  The
              double quotes are necessary to prevent empty  lines  from  being

       Although  reading  and  writing  of the file in question is efficiently
       handled, zsh's internal memory management may be  arbitrarily  baroque;
       however,  mapfile  is  usually  very  much more efficient than anything
       involving a loop.  Note in particular that the whole  contents  of  the
       file  will  always  reside physically in memory when accessed (possibly
       multiple times, due to standard parameter substitution operations).  In
       particular,  this  means  handling  of sufficiently long files (greater
       than the machine's swap space, or than the range of the  pointer  type)
       will be incorrect.

       No  errors  are  printed  or  flagged  for non-existent, unreadable, or
       unwritable files, as the parameter mechanism is too low  in  the  shell
       execution hierarchy to make this convenient.

       It  is  unfortunate that the mechanism for loading modules does not yet
       allow the user to specify the name of the shell parameter to  be  given
       the special behaviour.


       The  zsh/mathfunc  module  provides standard mathematical functions for
       use when evaluating mathematical formulae.  The syntax agrees with nor-
       mal C and FORTRAN conventions, for example,

              (( f = sin(0.3) ))

       assigns the sine of 0.3 to the parameter f.

       Most  functions  take  floating  point  arguments and return a floating
       point value.  However, any necessary conversions  from  or  to  integer
       type  will  be  performed  automatically by the shell.  Apart from atan
       with a second argument and the abs, int and float functions, all  func-
       tions  behave as noted in the manual page for the corresponding C func-
       tion, except that any arguments out of range for the function in  ques-
       tion will be detected by the shell and an error reported.

       The  following  functions  take a single floating point argument: acos,
       acosh, asin, asinh, atan, atanh, cbrt, ceil, cos, cosh, erf, erfc, exp,
       expm1,  fabs,  floor,  gamma,  j0, j1, lgamma, log, log10, log1p, logb,
       sin, sinh, sqrt, tan, tanh, y0, y1.  The atan function  can  optionally
       take  a  second  argument, in which case it behaves like the C function
       atan2.  The ilogb function takes a single floating point argument,  but
       returns an integer.

       The  function signgam takes no arguments, and returns an integer, which
       is the C variable of the same name, as  described  in  gamma(3).   Note
       that  it  is therefore only useful immediately after a call to gamma or
       lgamma.  Note also  that  `signgam(RPAR'  and  `signgam'  are  distinct

       The  following  functions  take two floating point arguments: copysign,
       fmod, hypot, nextafter.

       The following take an integer first argument and a floating point  sec-
       ond argument: jn, yn.

       The  following take a floating point first argument and an integer sec-
       ond argument: ldexp, scalb.

       The function abs does not convert the type of its single  argument;  it
       returns  the  absolute  value  of  either a floating point number or an
       integer.  The functions float and int convert their  arguments  into  a
       floating point or integer value (by truncation) respectively.

       Note  that  the C pow function is available in ordinary math evaluation
       as the `**' operator and is not provided here.

       The function rand48 is available if your system's mathematical  library
       has the function erand48(3).  It returns a pseudo-random floating point
       number between 0 and 1.  It takes a single string optional argument.

       If the argument is not present, the random number seed  is  initialised
       by  three calls to the rand(3) function --- this produces the same ran-
       dom numbers as the next three values of $RANDOM.

       If the argument is present, it gives the name  of  a  scalar  parameter
       where  the  current  random  number  seed will be stored.  On the first
       call, the value must contain at least twelve  hexadecimal  digits  (the
       remainder of the string is ignored), or the seed will be initialised in
       the same manner as for a call to rand48 with no  argument.   Subsequent
       calls  to  rand48(param)  will  then maintain the seed in the parameter
       param as a string of twelve hexadecimal digits, with no base signifier.
       The  random  number  sequences  for different parameters are completely
       independent, and are also independent from that used by calls to rand48
       with no argument.

       For example, consider

              print $(( rand48(seed) ))
              print $(( rand48() ))
              print $(( rand48(seed) ))

       Assuming  $seed  does  not  exist,  it will be initialised by the first
       call.  In the second call, the default seed is initialised; note,  how-
       ever,  that  because of the properties of rand() there is a correlation
       between the seeds used for the two initialisations, so for more  secure
       uses,  you  should  generate  your  own  12-byte  seed.  The third call
       returns to the same sequence of random numbers used in the first  call,
       unaffected by the intervening rand48().


       The  zsh/newuser  module  is loaded at boot if it is available, the RCS
       option is set, and the PRIVILEGED option is not set (all three are true
       by default).  This takes place immediately after commands in the global
       zshenv file (typically /etc/zshenv), if any, have  been  executed.   If
       the  module  is  not available it is silently ignored by the shell; the
       module may safely be removed from $MODULE_PATH by the administrator  if
       it is not required.

       On  loading,  the  module  tests  if any of the start-up files .zshenv,
       .zprofile, .zshrc or .zlogin exist in the directory given by the  envi-
       ronment  variable  ZDOTDIR, or the user's home directory if that is not
       set.  The test is not performed and the module halts processing if  the
       shell  was  in  an  emulation mode (i.e. had been invoked as some other
       shell than zsh).

       If none of the start-up files were found, the module then looks for the
       file  newuser  first in a sitewide directory, usually the parent direc-
       tory of the site-functions directory, and if that is not found the mod-
       ule searches in a version-specific directory, usually the parent of the
       functions  directory  containing  version-specific  functions.   (These
       directories   can   be   configured   when   zsh  is  built  using  the
       --enable-site-scriptdir=dir and --enable-scriptdir=dir flags to config-
       ure,   respectively;   the   defaults  are  prefix/share/zsh  and  pre-
       fix/share/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION where the default prefix is /usr/local.)

       If the file newuser is found, it is then sourced in the same manner  as
       a  start-up  file.   The  file  is  expected to contain code to install
       start-up files for the user, however any valid shell code will be  exe-

       The zsh/newuser module is then unconditionally unloaded.

       Note  that  it  is  possible  to achieve exactly the same effect as the
       zsh/newuser module by adding code to /etc/zshenv.   The  module  exists
       simply  to  allow  the shell to make arrangements for new users without
       the need for intervention by package maintainers and system administra-

       The  script  supplied  with  the  module  invokes  the  shell  function
       zsh-newuser-install.  This may be invoked directly by the user even  if
       the  zsh/newuser module is disabled.  Note, however, that if the module
       is not installed the function will not be installed either.  The  func-
       tion  is documented in the section User Configuration Functions in zsh-


       The zsh/parameter module gives access to  some  of  the  internal  hash
       tables used by the shell by defining some special parameters.

              The keys for this associative array are the names of the options
              that can  be  set  and  unset  using  the  setopt  and  unsetopt
              builtins.  The  value of each key is either the string on if the
              option is currently set, or the string  off  if  the  option  is
              unset.  Setting a key to one of these strings is like setting or
              unsetting the option, respectively.  Unsetting  a  key  in  this
              array is like setting it to the value off.

              This  array gives access to the command hash table. The keys are
              the names of external commands, the values are the pathnames  of
              the  files  that  would  be  executed  when the command would be
              invoked. Setting a key in this array defines a new entry in this
              table  in the same way as with the hash builtin. Unsetting a key
              as in `unset "commands[foo]"' removes the entry  for  the  given
              key from the command hash table.

              This  associative array maps names of enabled functions to their
              definitions. Setting a key in it is  like  defining  a  function
              with  the name given by the key and the body given by the value.
              Unsetting a key removes the definition for the function named by
              the key.

              Like functions but for disabled functions.

              This  associative array gives information about the builtin com-
              mands currently enabled. The keys are the names of  the  builtin
              commands  and the values are either `undefined' for builtin com-
              mands that will automatically be loaded from a module if invoked
              or `defined' for builtin commands that are already loaded.

              Like builtins but for disabled builtin commands.

              This array contains the enabled reserved words.

              Like reswords but for disabled reserved words.

              This  maps the names of the regular aliases currently enabled to
              their expansions.

              Like aliases but for disabled regular aliases.

              Like aliases, but for global aliases.

              Like galiases but for disabled global aliases.

              Like raliases, but for suffix aliases.

              Like saliases but for disabled suffix aliases.

              The keys in this associative array are the names of the  parame-
              ters  currently  defined.  The values are strings describing the
              type of the parameter, in the same format used by the t  parame-
              ter  flag,  see  zshexpn(1) .  Setting or unsetting keys in this
              array is not possible.

              An associative array giving information about modules. The  keys
              are   the   names  of  the  modules  loaded,  registered  to  be
              autoloaded, or aliased. The value says  which  state  the  named
              module  is  in and is one of the strings `loaded', `autoloaded',
              or `alias:name', where name is the name the  module  is  aliased

              Setting or unsetting keys in this array is not possible.

              A normal array holding the elements of the directory stack. Note
              that the output of the dirs builtin command  includes  one  more
              directory, the current working directory.

              This  associative  array  maps history event numbers to the full
              history lines.

              A special array containing the words stored in the history.

              This associative array maps job numbers to the directories  from
              which  the  job was started (which may not be the current direc-
              tory of the job).

              The keys of the associative arrays are usually  valid  job  num-
              bers,  and  these  are  the  values  output  with,  for example,
              ${(k)jobdirs}.  Non-numeric job  references  may  be  used  when
              looking  up  a  value; for example, ${jobdirs[%+]} refers to the
              current job.

              This associative array maps job numbers to the texts of the com-
              mand lines that were used to start the jobs.

              Handling  of  the  keys of the associative array is as described
              for jobdirs above.

              This associative array gives information about the states of the
              jobs  currently known. The keys are the job numbers and the val-
              ues are strings of the form  `job-state:mark:pid=state...'.  The
              job-state  gives the state the whole job is currently in, one of
              `running', `suspended', or `done'. The mark is `+' for the  cur-
              rent  job, `-' for the previous job and empty otherwise. This is
              followed by one `pid=state' for every process in  the  job.  The
              pids are, of course, the process IDs and the state describes the
              state of that process.

              Handling of the keys of the associative array  is  as  described
              for jobdirs above.

              This  associative  array  maps the names of named directories to
              the pathnames they stand for.

              This associative array maps user names to the pathnames of their
              home directories.

              This  associative array maps names of system groups of which the
              current user is a member to the corresponding group identifiers.
              The  contents  are  the same as the groups output by the id com-

              This array contains the absolute line numbers and  corresponding
              file  names  for  the  point where the current function, sourced
              file, or (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval command was  called.   The
              array  is  of  the same length as funcsourcetrace and functrace,
              but differs from funcsourcetrace in that the line and  file  are
              the point of call, not the point of definition, and differs from
              functrace in that all values are absolute line numbers in files,
              rather than relative to the start of a function, if any.

              This  array  contains  the  file  names  and line numbers of the
              points where the functions, sourced files, and  (if  EVAL_LINENO
              is  set)  eval  commands  currently being executed were defined.
              The line number is the line where the `function name'  or  `name
              ()'  started.   In  the case of an autoloaded function  the line
              number is reported as zero.  The format of each element is file-
              name:lineno.  For functions autoloaded from a file in native zsh
              format, where only the body of the function occurs in the  file,
              or  for  files  that  have  been  executed  by the source or `.'
              builtins, the trace information is shown  as  filename:0,  since
              the entire file is the definition.

              Most  users  will  be interested in the information in the func-
              filetrace array instead.

              This array contains the names of the functions,  sourced  files,
              and  (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval commands. currently being exe-
              cuted. The first element is the name of the function  using  the

              This  array  contains  the names and line numbers of the callers
              corresponding to the functions currently  being  executed.   The
              format  of  each element is name:lineno.  Callers are also shown
              for sourced files; the caller is the point where the  source  or
              `.' command was executed.


       The zsh/pcre module makes some commands available as builtins:

       pcre_compile [ -aimxs ] PCRE
              Compiles a perl-compatible regular expression.

              Option -a will force the pattern to be anchored.  Option -i will
              compile a case-insensitive pattern.  Option -m  will  compile  a
              multi-line  pattern; that is, ^ and $ will match newlines within
              the pattern.   Option  -x  will  compile  an  extended  pattern,
              wherein  whitespace and # comments are ignored.  Option -s makes
              the dot metacharacter match all characters, including those that
              indicate newline.

              Studies  the previously-compiled PCRE which may result in faster

       pcre_match [ -v var ] [ -a arr ] [ -n offset ] [ -b ] string
              Returns successfully if string matches  the  previously-compiled

              Upon  successful  match,  if  the expression captures substrings
              within parentheses, pcre_match will  set  the  array  $match  to
              those  substrings,  unless the -a option is given, in which case
              it will set the array arr.  Similarly, the variable  MATCH  will
              be  set  to the entire matched portion of the string, unless the
              -v option is given, in which case the variable var will be  set.
              No  variables are altered if there is no successful match.  A -n
              option starts searching for a match from the byte  offset  posi-
              tion  in  string.   If  the  -b  option  is  given, the variable
              ZPCRE_OP will be set to an offset pair string, representing  the
              byte  offset  positions of the entire matched portion within the
              string.  For example, a ZPCRE_OP set to "32 45"  indicates  that
              the  matched  portion  began on byte offset 32 and ended on byte
              offset 44.  Here,  byte  offset  position  45  is  the  position
              directly  after the matched portion.  Keep in mind that the byte
              position isn't necessarily the same as  the  character  position
              when UTF-8 characters are involved.  Consequently, the byte off-
              set positions are only to be relied on in the context  of  using
              them for subsequent searches on string, using an offset position
              as an argument to the -n option.  This is mostly used to  imple-
              ment the "find all non-overlapping matches" functionality.

              A simple example of "find all non-overlapping matches":

                     string="The following zip codes: 78884 90210 99513"
                     pcre_compile -m "\d{5}"
                     pcre_match -b -- $string
                     while [[ $? -eq 0 ]] do
                         pcre_match -b -n $b[2] -- $string
                     print -l $accum

       The zsh/pcre module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -pcre-match pcre
              Matches a string against a perl-compatible regular expression.

              For example,

              [[  "$text"  -pcre-match ^d+$ ]] && print text variable contains
              only "d's".


       The zsh/regex module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -regex-match regex
              Matches a string against a POSIX  extended  regular  expression.
              On successful match, matched portion of the string will normally
              be placed in the MATCH variable.  If  there  are  any  capturing
              parentheses within the regex, then the match array variable will
              contain those.  If the match is not successful, then  the  vari-
              ables will not be altered.

              For example,

                     [[ alphabetical -regex-match ^a([^a]+)a([^a]+)a ]] &&
                     print -l $MATCH X $match

              If the option REMATCH_PCRE is not set, then the =~ operator will
              automatically load this module as needed  and  will  invoke  the
              -regex-match operator.

              If  BASH_REMATCH is set, then the array BASH_REMATCH will be set
              instead of MATCH and match.


       The zsh/sched module makes available one builtin command and one param-

       sched [-o] [+]hh:mm[:ss] command ...
       sched [-o] [+]seconds command ...
       sched [ -item ]
              Make an entry in the scheduled list of commands to execute.  The
              time may be specified in either absolute or relative  time,  and
              either as hours, minutes and (optionally) seconds separated by a
              colon, or seconds alone.  An absolute number  of  seconds  indi-
              cates  the time since the epoch (1970/01/01 00:00); this is use-
              ful in combination with the features in the zsh/datetime module,
              see the zsh/datetime module entry in zshmodules(1).

              With  no  arguments,  prints the list of scheduled commands.  If
              the scheduled command has the -o flag set, this is shown at  the
              start of the command.

              With the argument `-item', removes the given item from the list.
              The numbering of the list is continuous and entries are in  time
              order,  so  the  numbering  can change when entries are added or

              Commands are executed either immediately  before  a  prompt,  or
              while the shell's line editor is waiting for input.  In the lat-
              ter case it is useful to be able to produce output that does not
              interfere  with  the line being edited.  Providing the option -o
              causes the shell to clear the command line before the event  and
              redraw  it  afterwards.   This should be used with any scheduled
              event that produces visible output to the terminal;  it  is  not
              needed,  for example, with output that updates a terminal emula-
              tor's title bar.

              The sched builtin is not made  available  by  default  when  the
              shell  starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/sched b:sched'.

              A readonly array corresponding to the events  scheduled  by  the
              sched  builtin.  The indices of the array correspond to the num-
              bers shown when sched is run with no  arguments  (provided  that
              the  KSH_ARRAYS option is not set).  The value of the array con-
              sists of the scheduled time in seconds since the epoch (see  the
              section  `The zsh/datetime Module' for facilities for using this
              number), followed by a colon, followed by any options (which may
              be empty but will be preceded by a `-' otherwise), followed by a
              colon, followed by the command to be executed.

              The sched builtin should be used for  manipulating  the  events.
              Note  that this will have an immediate effect on the contents of
              the array, so that indices may become invalid.


       The zsh/net/socket module makes available one builtin command:

       zsocket [ -altv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              zsocket is implemented as a builtin to allow full use  of  shell
              command line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

   Outbound Connections
       zsocket [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              Open a new Unix domain connection to filename.  The shell param-
              eter REPLY will be set to the file  descriptor  associated  with
              that  connection.   Currently,  only stream connections are sup-

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       zsocket -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              zsocket  -l will open a socket listening on filename.  The shell
              parameter REPLY will be set to the  file  descriptor  associated
              with that listener.

              If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       zsocket -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              zsocket -a will accept an  incoming  connection  to  the  socket
              associated with listenfd.  The shell parameter REPLY will be set
              to the file descriptor associated with the inbound connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              If  -t  is specified, zsocket will return if no incoming connec-
              tion is pending.  Otherwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.


       The zsh/stat module makes available one builtin command under two  pos-
       sible names:

       zstat  [  -gnNolLtTrs ] [ -f fd ] [ -H hash ] [ -A array ] [ -F fmt ] [
       +element ] [ file ... ]
       stat ...
              The  command  acts  as  a front end to the stat system call (see
              stat(2)).  The same command is provided with two names;  as  the
              name stat is often used by an external command it is recommended
              that only the zstat form of the command is used.   This  can  be
              arranged  by  loading  the  module with the command `zmodload -F
              zsh/stat b:zstat'.

              If the stat call fails, the  appropriate  system  error  message
              printed  and  status  1  is returned.  The fields of struct stat
              give information about the files provided as  arguments  to  the
              command.   In addition to those available from the stat call, an
              extra element `link' is provided.  These elements are:

              device The number of the device on which the file resides.

              inode  The unique number of the file  on  this  device  (`inode'

              mode   The mode of the file; that is, the file's type and access
                     permissions.  With the -s option, this will  be  returned
                     as a string corresponding to the first column in the dis-
                     play of the ls -l command.

              nlink  The number of hard links to the file.

              uid    The user ID of the  owner  of  the  file.   With  the  -s
                     option, this is displayed as a user name.

              gid    The  group  ID  of the file.  With the -s option, this is
                     displayed as a group name.

              rdev   The raw device number.  This is only useful  for  special

              size   The size of the file in bytes.

              ctime  The  last  access, modification and inode change times of
                     the file, respectively, as the number  of  seconds  since
                     midnight  GMT  on 1st January, 1970.  With the -s option,
                     these are printed as strings for the local time zone; the
                     format can be altered with the -F option, and with the -g
                     option the times are in GMT.

                     The number of bytes in one allocation block on the device
                     on which the file resides.

              block  The number of disk blocks used by the file.

              link   If  the  file  is  a link and the -L option is in effect,
                     this contains the name of the file linked  to,  otherwise
                     it  is  empty.   Note  that  if  this element is selected
                     (``zstat +link'') then the  -L  option  is  automatically

              A  particular element may be selected by including its name pre-
              ceded by a `+' in the option list; only one element is  allowed.
              The  element may be shortened to any unique set of leading char-
              acters.  Otherwise, all elements will be shown for all files.


              -A array
                     Instead of displaying the  results  on  standard  output,
                     assign  them  to  an  array,  one struct stat element per
                     array element for each file in order.  In this case  nei-
                     ther  the  name  of the element nor the name of the files
                     appears in array unless the -t or -n options were  given,
                     respectively.   If  -t is given, the element name appears
                     as a prefix to the appropriate array element;  if  -n  is
                     given,  the file name appears as a separate array element
                     preceding all the others.  Other formatting  options  are

              -H hash
                     Similar  to  -A,  but  instead assign the values to hash.
                     The keys are the elements listed above.  If the -n option
                     is  provided then the name of the file is included in the
                     hash with key name.

              -f fd  Use the file on  file  descriptor  fd  instead  of  named
                     files; no list of file names is allowed in this case.

              -F fmt Supplies a strftime (see strftime(3)) string for the for-
                     matting of the time elements.  The -s option is  implied.

              -g     Show  the  time  elements  in  the GMT time zone.  The -s
                     option is implied.

              -l     List the names of the type elements (to  standard  output
                     or  an  array  as  appropriate)  and  return immediately;
                     options other than -A and arguments are ignored.

              -L     Perform an lstat (see lstat(2)) rather than a stat system
                     call.   In  this case, if the file is a link, information
                     about the link itself rather  than  the  target  file  is
                     returned.   This option is required to make the link ele-
                     ment useful.  It's important to note  that  this  is  the
                     exact opposite from ls(1), etc.

              -n     Always  show  the names of files.  Usually these are only
                     shown when output is to standard output and there is more
                     than one file in the list.

              -N     Never show the names of files.

              -o     If a raw file mode is printed, show it in octal, which is
                     more useful for human consumption  than  the  default  of
                     decimal.   A  leading  zero will be printed in this case.
                     Note that this does not affect whether a raw or formatted
                     file  mode is shown, which is controlled by the -r and -s
                     options, nor whether a mode is shown at all.

              -r     Print raw data (the default format) alongside string data
                     (the  -s  format); the string data appears in parentheses
                     after the raw data.

              -s     Print mode, uid, gid  and  the  three  time  elements  as
                     strings  instead  of numbers.  In each case the format is
                     like that of ls -l.

              -t     Always show the type names for  the  elements  of  struct
                     stat.   Usually  these  are  only shown when output is to
                     standard  output  and  no  individual  element  has  been

              -T     Never show the type names of the struct stat elements.


       The  zsh/system  module  makes  available  various builtin commands and

       syserror [ -e errvar ] [ -p prefix ] [ errno | errname ]
              This command prints out the error message associated with errno,
              a  system error number, followed by a newline to standard error.

              Instead of the error number, a name errname, for example ENOENT,
              may  be  used.   The set of names is the same as the contents of
              the array errnos, see below.

              If the string prefix is given, it is printed  in  front  of  the
              error message, with no intervening space.

              If errvar is supplied, the entire message, without a newline, is
              assigned to the parameter names errvar and nothing is output.

              A return status of 0  indicates  the  message  was  successfully
              printed  (although  it may not be useful if the error number was
              out of the system's range), a return status of  1  indicates  an
              error  in the parameters, and a return status of 2 indicates the
              error name was not recognised (no message is printed for  this).

       sysread [ -c countvar ] [ -i infd ] [ -o outfd ]
         [ -s bufsize ] [ -t timeout ] [ param ]
              Perform  a single system read from file descriptor infd, or zero
              if that is not given.  The result of the read is stored in param
              or REPLY if that is not given.  If countvar is given, the number
              of bytes read is assigned to the parameter named by countvar.

              The maximum number of bytes read is bufsize or 8192 if  that  is
              not  given, however the command returns as soon as any number of
              bytes was successfully read.

              If timeout is given, it specifies a timeout  in  seconds,  which
              may be zero to poll the file descriptor.  This is handled by the
              poll system call if available, otherwise the select system  call
              if available.

              If  outfd  is  given,  an attempt is made to write all the bytes
              just read to the file descriptor outfd.  If this fails,  because
              of a system error other than EINTR or because of an internal zsh
              error during an interrupt, the bytes read but  not  written  are
              stored  in  the parameter named by param if supplied (no default
              is used in this case), and the number  of  bytes  read  but  not
              written  is stored in the parameter named by countvar if that is
              supplied.  If it was successful, countvar contains the full num-
              ber of bytes transferred, as usual, and param is not set.

              The  error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled internally
              so that shell interrupts are transparent  to  the  caller.   Any
              other error causes a return.

              The possible return statuses are
              0      At  least  one byte of data was successfully read and, if
                     appropriate, written.

              1      There was an error in  the  parameters  to  the  command.
                     This  is the only error for which a message is printed to
                     standard error.

              2      There was an error on the read, or on polling  the  input
                     file descriptor for a timeout.  The parameter ERRNO gives
                     the error.

              3      Data were successfully read, but there was an error writ-
                     ing  them to outfd.  The parameter ERRNO gives the error.

              4      The attempt to read timed out.  Note this  does  not  set
                     ERRNO as this is not a system error.

              5      No system error occurred, but zero bytes were read.  This
                     usually indicates end of file.  The  parameters  are  set
                     according  to  the  usual  rules;  no  write  to outfd is

       syswrite [ -c countvar ] [ -o outfd ] data
              The data (a single string of bytes)  are  written  to  the  file
              descriptor  outfd,  or  1  if that is not given, using the write
              system call.  Multiple write operations may be used if the first
              does not write all the data.

              If  countvar  is  given, the number of byte written is stored in
              the parameter named by countvar; this may not be the full length
              of data if an error occurred.

              The  error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled internally
              by retrying; otherwise an error causes the  command  to  return.
              For  example, if the file descriptor is set to non-blocking out-
              put, an error EAGAIN (on some systems, EWOULDBLOCK)  may  result
              in the command returning early.

              The  return  status  may be 0 for success, 1 for an error in the
              parameters to the command, or 2 for an error on  the  write;  no
              error  message  is  printed  in the last case, but the parameter
              ERRNO will reflect the error that occurred.

       zsystem flock [ -t timeout ] [ -f var ] [-er] file
       zsystem flock -u fd_expr
              The builtin zsystem's subcommand flock  performs  advisory  file
              locking  (via the fcntl(2) system call) over the entire contents
              of the given file.  This form of locking requires the  processes
              accessing the file to cooperate; its most obvious use is between
              two instances of the shell itself.

              In the first form the named file, which must already  exist,  is
              locked  by  opening a file descriptor to the file and applying a
              lock to the file descriptor.  The lock terminates when the shell
              process  that created the lock exits; it is therefore often con-
              venient to create file locks within subshells, since the lock is
              automatically  released  when  the  subshell exits.  Status 0 is
              returned if the lock succeeds, else status 1.

              In the second form the file descriptor given by  the  arithmetic
              expression  fd_expr  is  closed,  releasing  a  lock.   The file
              descriptor can be queried by using the `-f var' form during  the
              lock; on a successful lock, the shell variable var is set to the
              file descriptor used for locking.  The lock will be released  if
              the  file  descriptor  is closed by any other means, for example
              using `exec {var}>&-'; however, the form described here performs
              a safety check that the file descriptor is in use for file lock-

              By default the shell waits indefinitely for the lock to succeed.
              The  option  -t timeout specifies a timeout for the lock in sec-
              onds; currently this must be an integer.  The shell will attempt
              to  lock  the  file  once  a  second during this period.  If the
              attempt times out, status 2 is returned.

              If the option -e is given, the file descriptor for the  lock  is
              preserved  when the shell uses exec to start a new process; oth-
              erwise it is closed at that point and the lock released.

              If the option -r is given, the lock is only for reading,  other-
              wise  it  is  for  reading  and writing.  The file descriptor is
              opened accordingly.

       zsystem supports subcommand
              The builtin zsystem's subcommand supports tests whether a  given
              subcommand is supported.  It returns status 0 if so, else status
              1.  It operates silently unless there was a syntax  error  (i.e.
              the  wrong  number  of  arguments),  in which case status 255 is
              returned.  Status 1 can indicate one of two things:   subcommand
              is  known  but not supported by the current operating system, or
              subcommand is not known (possibly because this is an older  ver-
              sion of the shell before it was implemented).

       errnos A  readonly  array of the names of errors defined on the system.
              These are typically macros defined in C by including the  system
              header  file  errno.h.   The  index  of  each name (assuming the
              option KSH_ARRAYS is unset) corresponds  to  the  error  number.
              Error numbers num before the last known error which have no name
              are given the name Enum in the array.

              Note that aliases for errors are not handled; only the canonical
              name is used.

              A readonly associative array.  The keys are:
       pid    Returns  the  process  ID  of  the current process, even in sub-
              shells.  Compare $$, which returns the process ID  of  the  main
              shell process.

       ppid   Returns  the  process  ID  of the parent of the current process,
              even in subshells.  Compare $PPID, which returns the process  ID
              of the parent of the main shell process.


       The zsh/net/tcp module makes available one builtin command:

       ztcp [ -acflLtv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              ztcp is implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell com-
              mand line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

              If ztcp is run with no options, it will output the  contents  of
              its session table.

              If  it  is  run with only the option -L, it will output the con-
              tents of the session table in a format  suitable  for  automatic
              parsing.   The option is ignored if given with a command to open
              or close a session.  The output consists of a set of lines,  one
              per session, each containing the following elements separated by

              File descriptor
                     The file descriptor in use for the connection.  For  nor-
                     mal  inbound (I) and outbound (O) connections this may be
                     read and written by the usual shell mechanisms.  However,
                     it should only be close with `ztcp -c'.

              Connection type
                     A letter indicating how the session was created:

                     Z      A session created with the zftp command.

                     L      A  connection opened for listening with `ztcp -l'.

                     I      An inbound connection accepted with `ztcp -a'.

                     O      An outbound connection  created  with  `ztcp  host

              The local host
                     This  is  usually  set  to  an all-zero IP address as the
                     address of the localhost is irrelevant.

              The local port
                     This is likely to be zero unless the  connection  is  for

              The remote host
                     This  is  the fully qualified domain name of the peer, if
                     available, else an IP address.   It  is  an  all-zero  IP
                     address for a session opened for listening.

              The remote port
                     This is zero for a connection opened for listening.

   Outbound Connections
       ztcp [ -v ] [ -d fd ] host [ port ]
              Open  a  new TCP connection to host.  If the port is omitted, it
              will default to port 23.  The connection will be  added  to  the
              session  table  and the shell parameter REPLY will be set to the
              file descriptor associated with that connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       ztcp -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] port
              ztcp  -l  will  open a socket listening on TCP port.  The socket
              will be added to the session table and the shell parameter REPLY
              will  be  set  to  the file descriptor associated with that lis-

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       ztcp -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              ztcp  -a  will accept an incoming connection to the port associ-
              ated with listenfd.  The connection will be added to the session
              table  and  the  shell  parameter  REPLY will be set to the file
              descriptor associated with the inbound connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              If  -t  is specified, ztcp will return if no incoming connection
              is pending.  Otherwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Closing Connections
       ztcp -cf [ -v ] [ fd ]
       ztcp -c [ -v ] [ fd ]
              ztcp -c will close the socket associated with  fd.   The  socket
              will be removed from the session table.  If fd is not specified,
              ztcp will close everything in the session table.

              Normally, sockets registered by zftp (see zshmodules(1) ) cannot
              be closed this way.  In order to force such a socket closed, use

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       Here is how to create a TCP connection between two  instances  of  zsh.
       We  need  to  pick  an unassigned port; here we use the randomly chosen

       On host1,
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp -l 5123
              ztcp -a $listenfd
       The second from last command blocks until there is an incoming  connec-

       Now  create  a connection from host2 (which may, of course, be the same
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp host1 5123

       Now on each host, $fd contains a file descriptor  for  talking  to  the
       other.  For example, on host1:
              print This is a message >&$fd
       and on host2:
              read -r line <&$fd; print -r - $line
       prints `This is a message'.

       To tidy up, on host1:
              ztcp -c $listenfd
              ztcp -c $fd
       and on host2
              ztcp -c $fd


       The zsh/termcap module makes available one builtin command:

       echotc cap [ arg ... ]
              Output  the  termcap  value corresponding to the capability cap,
              with optional arguments.

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps termcap capability codes to their


       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one builtin command:

       echoti cap [ arg ]
              Output  the  terminfo value corresponding to the capability cap,
              instantiated with arg if applicable.

       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that  maps  terminfo  capability  names  to
              their values.


       The zsh/zftp module makes available one builtin command:

       zftp subcommand [ args ]
              The  zsh/zftp  module  is a client for FTP (file transfer proto-
              col).  It is implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell
              command  line  editing,  file  I/O,  and job control mechanisms.
              Often, users will access it via shell functions providing a more
              powerful  interface; a set is provided with the zsh distribution
              and is described in zshzftpsys(1).  However, the zftp command is
              entirely usable in its own right.

              All  commands  consist  of the command name zftp followed by the
              name of a subcommand.  These are listed below.  The return  sta-
              tus  of  each  subcommand  is supposed to reflect the success or
              failure of the remote operation.  See a description of the vari-
              able ZFTP_VERBOSE for more information on how responses from the
              server may be printed.

       open host[:port] [ user [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Open a new FTP session to host, which  may  be  the  name  of  a
              TCP/IP  connected host or an IP number in the standard dot nota-
              tion.  If the argument is in the form host:port, open a  connec-
              tion to TCP port port instead of the standard FTP port 21.  This
              may be the name of a TCP service or a number:  see the  descrip-
              tion of ZFTP_PORT below for more information.

              If  IPv6  addresses in colon format are used, the host should be
              surrounded by quoted square brackets to distinguish it from  the
              port, for example '[fe80::203:baff:fe02:8b56]'.  For consistency
              this is allowed with all forms of host.

              Remaining arguments are passed to the  login  subcommand.   Note
              that  if  no  arguments  beyond host are supplied, open will not
              automatically call login.  If no arguments at all are  supplied,
              open will use the parameters set by the params subcommand.

              After   a   successful  open,  the  shell  variables  ZFTP_HOST,
              ZFTP_PORT, ZFTP_IP and ZFTP_SYSTEM  are  available;  see  `Vari-
              ables' below.

       login [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
       user [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Login  the  user name with parameters password and account.  Any
              of the parameters can be omitted, and will be read from standard
              input if needed (name is always needed).  If standard input is a
              terminal, a prompt for each one  will  be  printed  on  standard
              error and password will not be echoed.  If any of the parameters
              are not used, a warning message is printed.

              After  a  successful  login,  the  shell  variables   ZFTP_USER,
              ZFTP_ACCOUNT  and ZFTP_PWD are available; see `Variables' below.

              This command may be re-issued when a user is already logged  in,
              and the server will first be reinitialized for a new user.

       params [ host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
       params -
              Store  the  given  parameters  for  a later open command with no
              arguments.  Only those given on the command line will be  remem-
              bered.   If no arguments are given, the parameters currently set
              are printed, although the password will  appear  as  a  line  of
              stars;  the return status is one if no parameters were set, zero

              Any of the parameters may be specified as a `?', which may  need
              to  be quoted to protect it from shell expansion.  In this case,
              the appropriate parameter will be read from stdin  as  with  the
              login  subcommand,  including  special handling of password.  If
              the `?' is followed by a string, that is used as the prompt  for
              reading the parameter instead of the default message (any neces-
              sary punctuation and whitespace should be included at the end of
              the  prompt).   The  first letter of the parameter (only) may be
              quoted with a `\'; hence an argument "\\$word"  guarantees  that
              the string from the shell parameter $word will be treated liter-
              ally, whether or not it begins with a `?'.

              If instead a single `-' is given, the  existing  parameters,  if
              any,  are deleted.  In that case, calling open with no arguments
              will cause an error.

              The list of parameters is not deleted after a close, however  it
              will be deleted if the zsh/zftp module is unloaded.

              For example,

                     zftp params ftp.elsewhere.xx juser '?Password for juser: '

              will store the host ftp.elsewhere.xx and the user juser and then
              prompt the user for the corresponding password  with  the  given

       test   Test  the  connection;  if  the  server has reported that it has
              closed the connection (maybe due to a timeout), return status 2;
              if  no  connection was open anyway, return status 1; else return
              status 0.  The test subcommand is silent,  apart  from  messages
              printed by the $ZFTP_VERBOSE mechanism, or error messages if the
              connection closes.  There is no network overhead for this  test.

              The  test is only supported on systems with either the select(2)
              or poll(2) system calls; otherwise the message `not supported on
              this system' is printed instead.

              The test subcommand will automatically be called at the start of
              any other subcommand for the current session when  a  connection
              is open.

       cd directory
              Change the remote directory to directory.  Also alters the shell
              variable ZFTP_PWD.

       cdup   Change the remote directory to the one higher in  the  directory
              tree.  Note that cd .. will also work correctly on non-UNIX sys-

       dir [ args... ]
              Give a (verbose) listing of the remote directory.  The args  are
              passed directly to the server. The command's behaviour is imple-
              mentation dependent, but a UNIX server will typically  interpret
              args as arguments to the ls command and with no arguments return
              the result of `ls -l'. The directory is listed to standard  out-

       ls [ args ]
              Give  a  (short) listing of the remote directory.  With no args,
              produces a raw list of the files in the directory, one per line.
              Otherwise,  up to vagaries of the server implementation, behaves
              similar to dir.

       type [ type ]
              Change the type for the transfer to type, or print  the  current
              type if type is absent.  The allowed values are `A' (ASCII), `I'
              (Image, i.e. binary), or `B' (a synonym for `I').

              The FTP default for a transfer is ASCII.  However, if zftp finds
              that  the remote host is a UNIX machine with 8-bit byes, it will
              automatically switch to using binary  for  file  transfers  upon
              open.  This can subsequently be overridden.

              The  transfer type is only passed to the remote host when a data
              connection is established;  this  command  involves  no  network

       ascii  The same as type A.

       binary The same as type I.

       mode [ S | B ]
              Set  the  mode  type to stream (S) or block (B).  Stream mode is
              the default; block mode is not widely supported.

       remote files...
       local [ files... ]
              Print the size and last modification time of the remote or local
              files.   If there is more than one item on the list, the name of
              the file is printed first.  The first number is the  file  size,
              the second is the last modification time of the file in the for-
              mat CCYYMMDDhhmmSS consisting of year, month, date,  hour,  min-
              utes  and  seconds in GMT.  Note that this format, including the
              length, is guaranteed, so that time strings can be directly com-
              pared  via  the [[ builtin's < and > operators, even if they are
              too long to be represented as integers.

              Not all servers support the commands for retrieving this  infor-
              mation.  In that case, the remote command will print nothing and
              return status 2, compared with status 1 for a file not found.

              The local command (but not remote) may be  used  with  no  argu-
              ments,  in  which case the information comes from examining file
              descriptor zero.  This is the same file as seen by a put command
              with no further redirection.

       get file [...]
              Retrieve all files from the server, concatenating them and send-
              ing them to standard output.

       put file [...]
              For each file, read a file from standard input and send that  to
              the remote host with the given name.

       append file [...]
              As  put, but if the remote file already exists, data is appended
              to it instead of overwriting it.

       getat file point
       putat file point
       appendat file point
              Versions of get, put and append which will start the transfer at
              the  given point in the remote file.  This is useful for append-
              ing to an incomplete local file.  However, note that this  abil-
              ity  is  not  universally supported by servers (and is not quite
              the behaviour specified by the standard).

       delete file [...]
              Delete the list of files on the server.

       mkdir directory
              Create a new directory directory on the server.

       rmdir directory
              Delete the directory directory  on the server.

       rename old-name new-name
              Rename file old-name to new-name on the server.

       site args...
              Send a host-specific command to the server.  You  will  probably
              only need this if instructed by the server to use it.

       quote args...
              Send  the raw FTP command sequence to the server.  You should be
              familiar with the FTP command set as defined  in  RFC959  before
              doing  this.   Useful  commands may include STAT and HELP.  Note
              also the mechanism for returning messages as described  for  the
              variable  ZFTP_VERBOSE  below,  in  particular that all messages
              from the control connection are sent to standard error.

       quit   Close the current data connection.  This unsets the shell param-

       session [ sessname ]
              Allows multiple FTP sessions to be used at once.   The  name  of
              the  session  is  an arbitrary string of characters; the default
              session is called `default'.  If this command is called  without
              an  argument,  it  will  list  all the current sessions; with an
              argument, it will either switch to the existing  session  called
              sessname, or create a new session of that name.

              Each  session remembers the status of the connection, the set of
              connection-specific shell parameters (the same set as are  unset
              when a connection closes, as given in the description of close),
              and any user parameters specified with  the  params  subcommand.
              Changing  to  a previous session restores those values; changing
              to a new session initialises them in the same way as if zftp had
              just  been  loaded.  The name of the current session is given by
              the parameter ZFTP_SESSION.

       rmsession [ sessname ]
              Delete a session; if a name is not given, the current session is
              deleted.  If the current session is deleted, the earliest exist-
              ing session becomes the new current session, otherwise the  cur-
              rent  session  is  not changed.  If the session being deleted is
              the only one, a new session  called  `default'  is  created  and
              becomes  the  current  session;  note that this is a new session
              even if the session being deleted is also called  `default'.  It
              is  recommended  that  sessions  not be deleted while background
              commands which use zftp are still active.

       The following shell parameters are used by  zftp.   Currently  none  of
       them are special.

              Integer.  The time in seconds to wait for a network operation to
              complete before returning an error.  If this is not set when the
              module  is  loaded,  it  will  be given the default value 60.  A
              value of zero turns off timeouts.  If a timeout  occurs  on  the
              control  connection  it  will  be closed.  Use a larger value if
              this occurs too frequently.

              Readonly.  The IP address of the current connection in dot nota-

              Readonly.   The  hostname  of the current remote server.  If the
              host was  opened  as  an  IP  number,  ZFTP_HOST  contains  that
              instead;  this  saves the overhead for a name lookup, as IP num-
              bers are most commonly used when a nameserver is unavailable.

              Readonly.  The number of the remote TCP port to which  the  con-
              nection  is open (even if the port was originally specified as a
              named service).  Usually this is the standard FTP port, 21.

              In the unlikely event that your system does not have the  appro-
              priate conversion functions, this appears in network byte order.
              If your system is little-endian, the port then consists  of  two
              swapped  bytes  and  the standard port will be reported as 5376.
              In that case, numeric ports passed to zftp open will  also  need
              to be in this format.

              Readonly.   The  system  type  string  returned by the server in
              response to an FTP SYST request.  The most interesting case is a
              string beginning "UNIX Type: L8", which ensures maximum compati-
              bility with a local UNIX host.

              Readonly.  The type to be used for data transfers ,  either  `A'
              or `I'.   Use the type subcommand to change this.

              Readonly.  The username currently logged in, if any.

              Readonly.   The  account name of the current user, if any.  Most
              servers do not require an account name.

              Readonly.  The current directory on the server.

              Readonly.  The three digit code of the last FTP reply  from  the
              server as a string.  This can still be read after the connection
              is closed, and is not changed when the current session  changes.

              Readonly.   The  last line of the last reply sent by the server.
              This can still be read after the connection is  closed,  and  is
              not changed when the current session changes.

              Readonly.  The name of the current FTP session; see the descrip-
              tion of the session subcommand.

              A string of preferences for altering aspects  of  zftp's  behav-
              iour.  Each preference is a single character.  The following are

              P      Passive:  attempt to make the remote server initiate data
                     transfers.  This is slightly more efficient than sendport
                     mode.  If the letter S occurs later in the  string,  zftp
                     will  use sendport mode if passive mode is not available.

              S      Sendport:  initiate transfers by the  FTP  PORT  command.
                     If  this  occurs before any P in the string, passive mode
                     will never be attempted.

              D      Dumb:  use only the bare minimum of FTP  commands.   This
                     prevents  the  variables  ZFTP_SYSTEM  and  ZFTP_PWD from
                     being set, and will mean all connections default to ASCII
                     type.   It  may prevent ZFTP_SIZE from being set during a
                     transfer if the server does  not  send  it  anyway  (many
                     servers do).

              If  ZFTP_PREFS is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set to
              a default of `PS', i.e. use passive mode if available, otherwise
              fall back to sendport mode.

              A  string  of digits between 0 and 5 inclusive, specifying which
              responses from the server should be printed.  All  responses  go
              to  standard  error.  If any of the numbers 1 to 5 appear in the
              string, raw responses from the server with reply codes beginning
              with  that  digit  will be printed to standard error.  The first
              digit of the three digit reply code is defined by RFC959 to cor-
              respond to:

              1.     A positive preliminary reply.

              2.     A positive completion reply.

              3.     A positive intermediate reply.

              4.     A transient negative completion reply.

              5.     A permanent negative completion reply.

              It should be noted that, for unknown reasons, the reply `Service
              not available', which forces termination  of  a  connection,  is
              classified  as  421,  i.e.  `transient negative', an interesting
              interpretation of the word `transient'.

              The code 0 is special:  it indicates that all but the last  line
              of  multiline  replies  read  from the server will be printed to
              standard error in a processed format.   By  convention,  servers
              use this mechanism for sending information for the user to read.
              The appropriate reply code, if it  matches  the  same  response,
              takes priority.

              If  ZFTP_VERBOSE  is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set
              to the default value 450, i.e., messages destined for  the  user
              and  all  errors  will  be  printed.  A null string is valid and
              specifies that no messages should be printed.

              If this function is set by the user, it is called every time the
              directory changes on the server, including when a user is logged
              in, or when a connection is closed.  In the last case, $ZFTP_PWD
              will be unset; otherwise it will reflect the new directory.

              If  this function is set by the user, it will be called during a
              get, put or append operation each time sufficient data has  been
              received from the host.  During a get, the data is sent to stan-
              dard output, so it is vital that this function should  write  to
              standard error or directly to the terminal, not to standard out-

              When it is called with a transfer  in  progress,  the  following
              additional shell parameters are set:

                     The name of the remote file being transferred from or to.

                     A G for a get operation and a P for a put operation.

                     The total size of the complete  file  being  transferred:
                     the  same  as  the first value provided by the remote and
                     local subcommands for a particular file.  If  the  server
                     cannot   supply  this  value  for  a  remote  file  being
                     retrieved, it will not be set.  If input is from  a  pipe
                     the  value  may  be  incorrect and correspond simply to a
                     full pipe buffer.

                     The amount of data so far transferred; a  number  between
                     zero  and  $ZFTP_SIZE,  if  that  is set.  This number is
                     always available.

              The function is initially called with ZFTP_TRANSFER  set  appro-
              priately and ZFTP_COUNT set to zero.  After the transfer is fin-
              ished,  the  function  will  be  called  one  more   time   with
              ZFTP_TRANSFER set to GF or PF, in case it wishes to tidy up.  It
              is  otherwise  never  called  twice  with  the  same  value   of

              Sometimes  the progress meter may cause disruption.  It is up to
              the user to decide whether the function should be defined and to
              use unfunction when necessary.

       A  connection may not be opened in the left hand side of a pipe as this
       occurs in a subshell and the file information is  not  updated  in  the
       main shell.  In the case of type or mode changes or closing the connec-
       tion in a subshell, the information is returned but variables  are  not
       updated until the next call to zftp.  Other status changes in subshells
       will not be reflected by changes to the variables (but should be other-
       wise harmless).

       Deleting  sessions while a zftp command is active in the background can
       have unexpected effects, even if it does  not  use  the  session  being
       deleted.   This  is because all shell subprocesses share information on
       the state of all connections, and deleting a session changes the order-
       ing of that information.

       On  some operating systems, the control connection is not valid after a
       fork(), so that operations in subshells, on the left  hand  side  of  a
       pipeline,  or  in  the  background are not possible, as they should be.
       This is presumably a bug in the operating system.


       The zsh/zle module contains the Zsh Line Editor.  See zshzle(1).


       The zsh/zleparameter module defines two special parameters that can  be
       used  to  access  internal information of the Zsh Line Editor (see zsh-

              This array contains the names of the keymaps currently  defined.

              This  associative  array  contains one entry per widget defined.
              The name of the widget is the key and the value  gives  informa-
              tion  about  the  widget.  It is either the string `builtin' for
              builtin  widgets,  a  string  of  the   form   `user:name'   for
              user-defined  widgets, where name is the name of the shell func-
              tion implementing the widget, or it is  a  string  of  the  form
              `completion:type:name', for completion widgets. In the last case
              type is the name of the builtin widgets  the  completion  widget
              imitates in its behavior and name is the name of the shell func-
              tion implementing the completion widget.


       When loaded, the zsh/zprof causes shell functions to be profiled.   The
       profiling  results  can be obtained with the zprof builtin command made
       available by this module.  There is no way to turn profiling off  other
       than unloading the module.

       zprof [ -c ]
              Without the -c option, zprof lists profiling results to standard
              output.  The format is  comparable  to  that  of  commands  like

              At  the  top  there is a summary listing all functions that were
              called at least once.  This  summary  is  sorted  in  decreasing
              order  of  the  amount of time spent in each.  The lines contain
              the number of the function in order,  which  is  used  in  other
              parts of the list in suffixes of the form `[num]', then the num-
              ber of calls made to the function.  The next three columns  list
              the  time  in milliseconds spent in the function and its descen-
              dants, the average time in milliseconds spent  in  the  function
              and its descendants per call and the percentage of time spent in
              all shell functions used in this function and  its  descendants.
              The  following  three  columns  give  the  same information, but
              counting only the time spent in the function itself.  The  final
              column shows the name of the function.

              After  the  summary,  detailed  information about every function
              that was invoked is listed, sorted in decreasing  order  of  the
              amount of time spent in each function and its descendants.  Each
              of these entries consists of descriptions for the functions that
              called  the  function  described,  the  function itself, and the
              functions that were called from it.   The  description  for  the
              function itself has the same format as in the summary (and shows
              the same information).  The other lines don't show the number of
              the  function  at  the  beginning  and have their function named
              indented to make it easier to distinguish the line  showing  the
              function described in the section from the surrounding lines.

              The  information shown in this case is almost the same as in the
              summary, but only refers to the call hierarchy being  displayed.
              For example, for a calling function the column showing the total
              running time lists the time spent in the described function  and
              its  descendants only for the times when it was called from that
              particular calling function.  Likewise, for a  called  function,
              this  columns  lists the total time spent in the called function
              and its descendants only for the times when it was  called  from
              the function described.

              Also  in  this case, the column showing the number of calls to a
              function also shows a slash and then the total number of invoca-
              tions made to the called function.

              As  long  as  the  zsh/zprof module is loaded, profiling will be
              done and multiple invocations of the zprof builtin command  will
              show the times and numbers of calls since the module was loaded.
              With the -c option, the zprof builtin  command  will  reset  its
              internal counters and will not show the listing.


       The zsh/zpty module offers one builtin:

       zpty [ -e ] [ -b ] name [ arg ... ]
              The  arguments  following  name  are  concatenated  with  spaces
              between, then executed as a command, as if passed  to  the  eval
              builtin.   The command runs under a newly assigned pseudo-termi-
              nal; this is useful for running commands non-interactively which
              expect  an interactive environment.  The name is not part of the
              command, but is used to refer to this command in later calls  to

              With  the -e option, the pseudo-terminal is set up so that input
              characters are echoed.

              With the -b option, input to and output from the pseudo-terminal
              are made non-blocking.

       zpty -d [ names ... ]
              The  second form, with the -d option, is used to delete commands
              previously started, by supplying a list of their names.   If  no
              names  are  given, all commands are deleted.  Deleting a command
              causes the HUP signal to be sent to the corresponding process.

       zpty -w [ -n ] name [ strings ... ]
              The -w option can be used to send the to command name the  given
              strings as input (separated by spaces).  If the -n option is not
              given, a newline is added at the end.

              If no strings are provided, the standard input is copied to  the
              pseudo-terminal;  this may stop before copying the full input if
              the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.

              Note that the command under the pseudo-terminal sees this  input
              as  if  it were typed, so beware when sending special tty driver
              characters such as word-erase, line-kill, and end-of-file.

       zpty -r [ -mt ] name [ param [ pattern ] ]
              The -r option can be used to read  the  output  of  the  command
              name.   With  only a name argument, the output read is copied to
              the standard output.  Unless the pseudo-terminal  is  non-block-
              ing, copying continues until the command under the pseudo-termi-
              nal exits; when non-blocking, only as much output as is  immedi-
              ately  available  is  copied.   The return status is zero if any
              output is copied.

              When also given a param argument, at most one line is  read  and
              stored  in the parameter named param.  Less than a full line may
              be read if the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.  The return sta-
              tus is zero if at least one character is stored in param.

              If  a  pattern  is given as well, output is read until the whole
              string read matches the pattern, even in the non-blocking  case.
              The  return  status  is zero if the string read matches the pat-
              tern, or if the command has exited but at  least  one  character
              could  still  be  read.  If the option -m is present, the return
              status is zero only if the pattern matches.  As of this writing,
              a maximum of one megabyte of output can be consumed this way; if
              a full megabyte is read without matching the pattern, the return
              status is non-zero.

              In  all cases, the return status is non-zero if nothing could be
              read, and is 2 if this is because the command has finished.

              If the -r option is combined with  the  -t  option,  zpty  tests
              whether output is available before trying to read.  If no output
              is available, zpty immediately returns the status 1.  When  used
              with  a  pattern,  the  behaviour on a failed poll is similar to
              when the command has exited:  the return value  is  zero  if  at
              least  one  character  could  still  be read even if the pattern
              failed to match.

       zpty -t name
              The -t option without the -r option can be used to test  whether
              the  command name is still running.  It returns a zero status if
              the command is running and a non-zero value otherwise.

       zpty [ -L ]
              The last form, without any arguments, is used to list  the  com-
              mands  currently  defined.   If  the -L option is given, this is
              done in the form of calls to the zpty builtin.


       The zsh/zselect module makes available one builtin command:

       zselect [ -rwe -t timeout -a array ] [ fd ... ]
              The zselect builtin is a front-end to the `select' system  call,
              which  blocks  until  a  file descriptor is ready for reading or
              writing, or has an error condition, with  an  optional  timeout.
              If  this  is not available on your system, the command prints an
              error message and returns status 2 (normal errors return  status
              1).   For  more  information, see your systems documentation for
              select(3).  Note there is no connection with the  shell  builtin
              of the same name.

              Arguments   and  options  may  be  intermingled  in  any  order.
              Non-option arguments are file descriptors, which must be decimal
              integers.   By  default,  file  descriptors are to be tested for
              reading, i.e. zselect will return when data is available  to  be
              read  from  the  file descriptor, or more precisely, when a read
              operation from the file descriptor will not block.  After a  -r,
              -w and -e, the given file descriptors are to be tested for read-
              ing, writing, or error conditions.  These options and  an  arbi-
              trary list of file descriptors may be given in any order.

              (The presence of an `error condition' is not well defined in the
              documentation for many  implementations  of  the  select  system
              call.   According to recent versions of the POSIX specification,
              it is really an exception condition, of which the only  standard
              example  is out-of-band data received on a socket.  So zsh users
              are unlikely to find the -e option useful.)

              The option `-t timeout' specifies a timeout in hundredths  of  a
              second.   This  may  be zero, in which case the file descriptors
              will simply be polled and zselect will return  immediately.   It
              is  possible  to  call  zselect  with  no file descriptors and a
              non-zero timeout for use  as  a  finer-grained  replacement  for
              `sleep';  note,  however,  the  return  status is always 1 for a

              The option `-a array' indicates that  array  should  be  set  to
              indicate  the file descriptor(s) which are ready.  If the option
              is not given, the array reply will be  used  for  this  purpose.
              The  array  will  contain  a string similar to the arguments for
              zselect.  For example,

                     zselect -t 0 -r 0 -w 1

              might return immediately with status 0 and $reply containing `-r
              0  -w  1'  to  show that both file descriptors are ready for the
              requested operations.

              The option `-A assoc' indicates that the associative array assoc
              should  be  set  to  indicate  the  file descriptor(s( which are
              ready.  This option overrides the option -a, nor will  reply  be
              modified.   The  keys of assoc are the file descriptors, and the
              corresponding values are any of the characters `rwe' to indicate
              the condition.

              The  command returns status 0 if some file descriptors are ready
              for reading.  If the operation timed out, or a timeout of 0  was
              given and no file descriptors were ready, or there was an error,
              it returns status 1 and the array will not be set (nor  modified
              in  any way).  If there was an error in the select operation the
              appropriate error message is printed.


       The zsh/zutil module only adds some builtins:

       zstyle [ -L [ pattern [ style ] ] ]
       zstyle [ -e | - | -- ] pattern style strings ...
       zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
       zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
       zstyle -abs context style name [ sep ]
       zstyle -Tt context style [ strings ...]
       zstyle -m context style pattern
              This builtin command  is  used  to  define  and  lookup  styles.
              Styles  are  pairs of names and values, where the values consist
              of any number of strings.  They are stored  together  with  pat-
              terns  and  lookup  is done by giving a string, called the `con-
              text', which is compared to the patterns.  The definition stored
              for the first matching pattern will be returned.

              For  ordering  of  comparisons,  patterns are searched from most
              specific to least specific, and patterns that are  equally  spe-
              cific  keep  the order in which they were defined.  A pattern is
              considered to be more specific than another if it contains  more
              components  (substrings  separated by colons) or if the patterns
              for the components are more specific, where simple  strings  are
              considered  to  be  more specific than patterns and complex pat-
              terns are considered to be more specific than the pattern `*'.

              The  first  form  (without  arguments)  lists  the  definitions.
              Styles  are  shown in alphabetic order and patterns are shown in
              the order zstyle will test them.

              If the -L option is given, listing is done in the form of  calls
              to  zstyle.  The optional first argument is a pattern which will
              be matched against the string supplied as the  pattern  for  the
              context; note that this means, for example, `zstyle -L ":comple-
              tion:*"' will match any  supplied  pattern  beginning  `:comple-
              tion:', not just ":completion:*":  use ":completion:\*" to match
              that.  The optional second argument limits the output to a  spe-
              cific  style  (not  a  pattern).   -L is not compatible with any
              other options.

              The other forms are the following:

              zstyle [ - | -- | -e ] pattern style strings ...
                     Defines the given style for the pattern with the  strings
                     as  the  value.   If  the -e option is given, the strings
                     will  be  concatenated  (separated  by  spaces)  and  the
                     resulting string will be evaluated (in the same way as it
                     is done by the eval builtin command) when  the  style  is
                     looked  up.   In  this case the parameter `reply' must be
                     assigned to set the strings returned  after  the  evalua-
                     tion.   Before  evaluating the value, reply is unset, and
                     if it is still unset after the evaluation, the  style  is
                     treated as if it were not set.

              zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
                     Delete  style  definitions. Without arguments all defini-
                     tions are deleted, with a  pattern  all  definitions  for
                     that  pattern  are  deleted  and if any styles are given,
                     then only those styles are deleted for the pattern.

              zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
                     Retrieve a style definition. The name is used as the name
                     of  an array in which the results are stored. Without any
                     further arguments, all  patterns  defined  are  returned.
                     With  a  pattern  the styles defined for that pattern are
                     returned and with both a pattern and a style,  the  value
                     strings of that combination is returned.

              The other forms can be used to look up or test patterns.

              zstyle -s context style name [ sep ]
                     The  parameter  name  is  set  to  the value of the style
                     interpreted as a string.  If the value  contains  several
                     strings  they  are  concatenated with spaces (or with the
                     sep string if that is given) between them.

              zstyle -b context style name
                     The value is stored in name as a  boolean,  i.e.  as  the
                     string  `yes'  if  the value has only one string and that
                     string is equal to one of `yes', `true', `on', or `1'. If
                     the  value  is  any  other  string  or  has more than one
                     string, the parameter is set to `no'.

              zstyle -a context style name
                     The value is stored in name  as  an  array.  If  name  is
                     declared as an associative array,  the first, third, etc.
                     strings are used as the keys and the  other  strings  are
                     used as the values.

              zstyle -t context style [ strings ...]
              zstyle -T context style [ strings ...]
                     Test  the  value  of  a  style,  i.e.  the -t option only
                     returns a status (sets  $?).   Without  any  strings  the
                     return  status  is  zero  if  the style is defined for at
                     least one matching pattern, has only one  string  in  its
                     value, and that is equal to one of `true', `yes', `on' or
                     `1'. If any strings are given the status is zero  if  and
                     only  if at least one of the strings is equal to at least
                     one of the strings in the value. If the style is  defined
                     but  doesn't  match, the return status is 1. If the style
                     is not defined, the status is 2.

                     The -T option tests the values of the style like -t,  but
                     it  returns  status  zero (rather than 2) if the style is
                     not defined for any matching pattern.

              zstyle -m context style pattern
                     Match a value. Returns status zero if the pattern matches
                     at least one of the strings in the value.

       zformat -f param format specs ...
       zformat -a array sep specs ...
              This  builtin  provides  two  different forms of formatting. The
              first form is selected with the -f option. In this case the for-
              mat string will be modified by replacing sequences starting with
              a percent sign in it with strings from  the  specs.   Each  spec
              should  be  of  the  form  `char:string'  which will cause every
              appearance of the sequence `%char' in format to be  replaced  by
              the  string.  The `%' sequence may also contain optional minimum
              and maximum field width specifications between the `%'  and  the
              `char'  in the form `%min.maxc', i.e. the minimum field width is
              given first and if the maximum field width is used, it has to be
              preceded  by  a dot.  Specifying a minimum field width makes the
              result be padded with spaces to  the  right  if  the  string  is
              shorter  than  the  requested width.  Padding to the left can be
              achieved by giving a negative minimum field width.  If a maximum
              field  width  is  specified,  the string will be truncated after
              that many characters.  After all `%'  sequences  for  the  given
              specs have been processed, the resulting string is stored in the
              parameter param.

              The %-escapes also understand ternary expressions  in  the  form
              used  by  prompts.  The % is followed by a `(' and then an ordi-
              nary format specifier character as described above.   There  may
              be a set of digits either before or after the `('; these specify
              a test number, which defaults to  zero.   Negative  numbers  are
              also allowed.  An arbitrary delimiter character follows the for-
              mat specifier, which is followed by a piece of `true' text,  the
              delimiter  character again, a piece of `false' text, and a clos-
              ing parenthesis.  The complete expression (without  the  digits)
              thus  looks like `%(X.text1.text2)', except that the `.' charac-
              ter is arbitrary.  The value given for the format  specifier  in
              the  char:string  expressions  is  evaluated  as  a mathematical
              expression, and compared with the test number.  If they are  the
              same,  text1 is output, else text2 is output.  A parenthesis may
              be escaped in text2 as %).  Either of text1 or text2 may contain
              nested %-escapes.

              For example:

                     zformat -f REPLY "The answer is '%3('." c:3

              outputs  "The answer is 'yes'." to REPLY since the value for the
              format specifier c is 3, agreeing with the digit argument to the
              ternary expression.

              The  second  form, using the -a option, can be used for aligning
              strings.  Here, the specs are of  the  form  `left:right'  where
              `left'  and  `right'  are  arbitrary strings.  These strings are
              modified by replacing the colons by the sep string  and  padding
              the  left  strings  with  spaces  to  the  right so that the sep
              strings in the result (and hence the right strings  after  them)
              are  all  aligned  if  the strings are printed below each other.
              All strings without a colon are left unchanged and  all  strings
              with  an empty right string have the trailing colon removed.  In
              both cases the lengths of the strings are not used to  determine
              how  the other strings are to be aligned.  The resulting strings
              are stored in the array.

              This implements some internals of the _regex_arguments function.

       zparseopts [ -D ] [ -K ] [ -M ] [ -E ] [ -a array ] [ -A assoc ] specs
              This  builtin  simplifies  the  parsing of options in positional
              parameters, i.e. the set of arguments given by  $*.   Each  spec
              describes  one option and must be of the form `opt[=array]'.  If
              an option described by opt is found in the positional parameters
              it is copied into the array specified with the -a option; if the
              optional `=array' is given,  it  is  instead  copied  into  that

              Note  that  it  is an error to give any spec without an `=array'
              unless one of the -a or -A options is used.

              Unless the -E option is given, parsing stops at the first string
              that isn't described by one of the specs.  Even with -E, parsing
              always stops at a positional parameter equal to `-' or `--'.

              The opt description must be one of the following.   Any  of  the
              special  characters can appear in the option name provided it is
              preceded by a backslash.

              name+  The name is the name of the option  without  the  leading
                     `-'.   To  specify  a  GNU-style  long option, one of the
                     usual two leading `-' must be included in name; for exam-
                     ple,  a  `--file'  option  is  represented  by  a name of

                     If a `+' appears after name, the option  is  appended  to
                     array each time it is found in the positional parameters;
                     without the `+' only the last occurrence of the option is

                     If  one of these forms is used, the option takes no argu-
                     ment, so parsing stops if the next  positional  parameter
                     does  not  also  begin  with `-' (unless the -E option is

              name:: If one or two colons are given, the option takes an argu-
                     ment;  with one colon, the argument is mandatory and with
                     two colons it is optional.  The argument is  appended  to
                     the array after the option itself.

                     An  optional  argument is put into the same array element
                     as the option name (note that this makes empty strings as
                     arguments  indistinguishable).   A  mandatory argument is
                     added as a separate element unless the `:-' form is used,
                     in  which case the argument is put into the same element.

                     A `+' as described above may appear between the name  and
                     the first colon.

       The options of zparseopts itself are:

       -a array
              As  described  above,  this  names the default array in which to
              store the recognised options.

       -A assoc
              If this is given, the options and their values are also put into
              an associative array with the option names as keys and the argu-
              ments (if any) as the values.

       -D     If this option is given, all options found are removed from  the
              positional parameters of the calling shell or shell function, up
              to but not including any not described by the  specs.   This  is
              similar to using the shift builtin.

       -K     With  this  option,  the  arrays  specified  with  the -a and -A
              options and with the `=array' forms are kept unchanged when none
              of  the  specs  for  them  is  used.   This allows assignment of
              default values to them before calling zparseopts.

       -M     This changes the assignment  rules  to  implement  a  map  among
              equivalent  option  names.   If any spec uses the `=array' form,
              the string array is interpreted as the  name  of  another  spec,
              which  is used to choose where to store the values.  If no other
              spec is found, the values are stored  as  usual.   This  changes
              only the way the values are stored, not the way $* is parsed, so
              results may be unpredicable if the  `name+'  specifier  is  used

       -E     This  changes  the parsing rules to not stop at the first string
              that isn't described by one of the specs.  It  can  be  used  to
              test for or (if used together with -D) extract options and their
              arguments, ignoring all other options and arguments that may  be
              in the positional parameters.

       For example,

              set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
              zparseopts a=foo b:=bar c+:=bar

       will have the effect of

              bar=(-b x -c y -c z)

       The arguments from `baz' on will not be used.

       As an example for the -E option, consider:

              set -- -a x -b y -c z arg1 arg2
              zparseopts -E -D b:=bar

       will have the effect of

              bar=(-b y)
              set -- -a x -c z arg1 arg2

       I.e.,  the  option  -b  and its arguments are taken from the positional
       parameters and put into the array bar.

       The -M option can be used like this:

              set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
              zparseopts -A bar -M a=foo b+: c:=b

       to have the effect of

              bar=(-a '' -b xyz)

zsh 5.0.2                      December 21, 2012                 zshmodules(1)

Mac OS X 10.9 - Generated Mon Oct 14 06:07:18 CDT 2013
© 2000-2022
Individual documents may contain additional copyright information.