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zshzle(1)                                                            zshzle(1)




NAME

       zshzle - zsh command line editor


DESCRIPTION

       If the ZLE option is set (which it is by default in interactive shells)
       and the shell input is attached to the terminal, the user  is  able  to
       edit command lines.

       There  are  two  display  modes.   The  first,  multiline  mode, is the
       default.  It only works if the TERM parameter is set to a valid  termi-
       nal type that can move the cursor up.  The second, single line mode, is
       used if TERM is invalid or incapable of moving the cursor up, or if the
       SINGLE_LINE_ZLE  option  is set.  This mode is similar to ksh, and uses
       no termcap sequences.  If TERM is "emacs", the ZLE option will be unset
       by default.

       The  parameters BAUD, COLUMNS, and LINES are also used by the line edi-
       tor. See Parameters Used By The Shell in zshparam(1).

       The parameter zle_highlight is also used by the line editor; see  Char-
       acter  Highlighting  below.  Highlighting of special characters and the
       region between the cursor and the mark (as set with set-mark-command in
       Emacs  mode,  or by visual-mode in Vi mode) is enabled by default; con-
       sult this reference for more information.  Irascible conservatives will
       wish  to  know  that  all highlighting may be disabled by the following
       setting:

              zle_highlight=(none)

       In many places, references are made to the numeric argument.  This  can
       by default be entered in emacs mode by holding the alt key and typing a
       number, or pressing escape before each digit, and in vi command mode by
       typing  the  number  before  entering a command.  Generally the numeric
       argument causes the next command entered to be repeated  the  specified
       number  of  times, unless otherwise noted below. See also the Arguments
       subsection of the Widgets section for some other ways the numeric argu-
       ment  can  be  modified.  The  default  bindings mentioned here use the
       digit-argument widget.




KEYMAPS

       A keymap in ZLE contains a set of bindings between  key  sequences  and
       ZLE commands.  The empty key sequence cannot be bound.

       There can be any number of keymaps at any time, and each keymap has one
       or more names.  If all of a keymap's names are deleted, it  disappears.
       bindkey can be used to manipulate keymap names.

       Initially, there are eight keymaps:

       emacs  EMACS emulation
       viins  vi emulation - insert mode
       vicmd  vi emulation - command mode
       viopp  vi emulation - operator pending
       visual vi emulation - selection active
       isearch
              incremental search mode
       command
              read a command name
       .safe  fallback keymap

       The  `.safe'  keymap is special.  It can never be altered, and the name
       can never be removed.  However, it can be linked to other names,  which
       can  be  removed.   In  the  future other special keymaps may be added;
       users should avoid  using  names  beginning  with  `.'  for  their  own
       keymaps.

       In addition to these names, either `emacs' or `viins' is also linked to
       the name `main'.  If one of the VISUAL or EDITOR environment  variables
       contain  the  string  `vi'  when  the  shell  starts up then it will be
       `viins', otherwise it will be `emacs'.  bindkey's  -e  and  -v  options
       provide a convenient way to override this default choice.

       When  the  editor starts up, it will select the `main' keymap.  If that
       keymap doesn't exist, it will use `.safe' instead.

       In the `.safe' keymap, each single key is bound to self-insert,  except
       for  ^J  (line  feed)  and  ^M (return) which are bound to accept-line.
       This is deliberately not pleasant to use; if you are using it, it means
       you deleted the main keymap, and you should put it back.

   Reading Commands
       When ZLE is reading a command from the terminal, it may read a sequence
       that is bound to some command and is also a prefix of  a  longer  bound
       string.  In this case ZLE will wait a certain time to see if more char-
       acters are typed, and if not (or they don't match any longer string) it
       will  execute  the  binding.  This timeout is defined by the KEYTIMEOUT
       parameter; its default is 0.4 sec.  There is no timeout if  the  prefix
       string is not itself bound to a command.

       The  key  timeout  is also applied when ZLE is reading the bytes from a
       multibyte character string when it is in the appropriate  mode.   (This
       requires that the shell was compiled with multibyte mode enabled; typi-
       cally also the locale has characters with the UTF-8 encoding,  although
       any multibyte encoding known to the operating system is supported.)  If
       the second or a subsequent byte is not read within the timeout  period,
       the shell acts as if ? were typed and resets the input state.

       As  well  as ZLE commands, key sequences can be bound to other strings,
       by using `bindkey -s'.  When such a sequence is read,  the  replacement
       string  is pushed back as input, and the command reading process starts
       again using these fake keystrokes.  This input can itself  invoke  fur-
       ther replacement strings, but in order to detect loops the process will
       be stopped if there are twenty such replacements without a real command
       being read.

       A  key sequence typed by the user can be turned into a command name for
       use in user-defined widgets with the read-command widget, described  in
       the subsection `Miscellaneous' of the section `Standard Widgets' below.

   Local Keymaps
       While for normal editing a single keymap is used exclusively,  in  many
       modes  a  local keymap allows for some keys to be customised. For exam-
       ple, in an incremental search mode, a binding  in  the  isearch  keymap
       will  override  a  binding in the main keymap but all keys that are not
       overridden can still be used.

       If a key sequence is defined in a local keymap,  it  will  hide  a  key
       sequence  in  the  global  keymap that is a prefix of that sequence. An
       example of this occurs with the binding of iw in viopp  as  this  hides
       the  binding  of  i  in vicmd. However, a longer sequence in the global
       keymap that shares the same prefix can still apply so for  example  the
       binding  of  ^Xa in the global keymap will be unaffected by the binding
       of ^Xb in the local keymap.



ZLE BUILTINS

       The ZLE module contains three related  builtin  commands.  The  bindkey
       command manipulates keymaps and key bindings; the vared command invokes
       ZLE on the value of a shell parameter; and the zle command  manipulates
       editing  widgets  and  allows  command line access to ZLE commands from
       within shell functions.

       bindkey [ options ] -l [ -L ] [ keymap ... ]
       bindkey [ options ] -d
       bindkey [ options ] -D keymap ...
       bindkey [ options ] -A old-keymap new-keymap
       bindkey [ options ] -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
       bindkey [ options ] -m
       bindkey [ options ] -r in-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] -s in-string out-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] in-string command ...
       bindkey [ options ] [ in-string ]
              bindkey's options can be divided into three  categories:  keymap
              selection for the current command, operation selection, and oth-
              ers.  The keymap selection options are:

              -e     Selects keymap `emacs' for any operations by the  current
                     command,  and  also links `emacs' to `main' so that it is
                     selected by default the next time the editor starts.

              -v     Selects keymap `viins' for any operations by the  current
                     command,  and  also links `viins' to `main' so that it is
                     selected by default the next time the editor starts.

              -a     Selects keymap `vicmd' for any operations by the  current
                     command.

              -M keymap
                     The  keymap  specifies a keymap name that is selected for
                     any operations by the current command.

              If a keymap selection is required and none of the options  above
              are  used,  the  `main'  keymap is used.  Some operations do not
              permit a keymap to be selected, namely:

              -l     List all existing keymap  names;  if  any  arguments  are
                     given, list just those keymaps.

                     If  the -L option is also used, list in the form of bind-
                     key commands to create or link the keymaps.  `bindkey -lL
                     main' shows which keymap is linked to `main', if any, and
                     hence if the standard emacs or vi emulation is in effect.
                     This  option  does  not  show the .safe keymap because it
                     cannot be created in that fashion;  however,  neither  is
                     `bindkey  -lL .safe' reported as an error, it simply out-
                     puts nothing.

              -d     Delete all existing keymaps  and  reset  to  the  default
                     state.

              -D keymap ...
                     Delete the named keymaps.

              -A old-keymap new-keymap
                     Make the new-keymap name an alias for old-keymap, so that
                     both names refer to the  same  keymap.   The  names  have
                     equal  standing; if either is deleted, the other remains.
                     If there is already a keymap with the new-keymap name, it
                     is deleted.

              -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
                     Create  a  new  keymap,  named  new-keymap.   If a keymap
                     already has that name, it is deleted.  If  an  old-keymap
                     name  is  given,  the  new  keymap is initialized to be a
                     duplicate of it, otherwise the new keymap will be  empty.

              To  use  a  newly  created  keymap, it should be linked to main.
              Hence the sequence of commands to create and use  a  new  keymap
              `mymap'   initialized  from  the  emacs  keymap  (which  remains
              unchanged) is:

                     bindkey -N mymap emacs
                     bindkey -A mymap main

              Note that while `bindkey -A newmap main' will work  when  newmap
              is emacs or viins, it will not work for vicmd, as switching from
              vi insert to command mode becomes impossible.

              The following operations act on the `main' keymap if  no  keymap
              selection option was given:

              -m     Add the built-in set of meta-key bindings to the selected
                     keymap.   Only  keys  that  are  unbound  or   bound   to
                     self-insert are affected.

              -r in-string ...
                     Unbind  the  specified in-strings in the selected keymap.
                     This is exactly equivalent  to  binding  the  strings  to
                     undefined-key.

                     When -R is also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

                     When -p is also used, the  in-strings  specify  prefixes.
                     Any binding that has the given in-string as a prefix, not
                     including the binding for the in-string itself,  if  any,
                     will be removed.  For example,

                            bindkey -rpM viins '^['

                     will  remove  all bindings in the vi-insert keymap begin-
                     ning with an escape character (probably cursor keys), but
                     leave the binding for the escape character itself (proba-
                     bly vi-cmd-mode).  This is incompatible with  the  option
                     -R.

              -s in-string out-string ...
                     Bind  each  in-string to each out-string.  When in-string
                     is typed, out-string will be pushed back and  treated  as
                     input  to  the line editor.  When -R is also used, inter-
                     pret the in-strings as ranges.

                     Note that both in-string and out-string  are  subject  to
                     the same form of interpretation, as described below.

              in-string command ...
                     Bind  each  in-string  to each command.  When -R is used,
                     interpret the in-strings as ranges.

              [ in-string ]
                     List key bindings.  If an  in-string  is  specified,  the
                     binding  of  that  string  in the selected keymap is dis-
                     played.  Otherwise, all  key  bindings  in  the  selected
                     keymap  are  displayed.  (As a special case, if the -e or
                     -v option is used alone, the keymap is  not  displayed  -
                     the  implicit  linking  of keymaps is the only thing that
                     happens.)

                     When the  option  -p  is  used,  the  in-string  must  be
                     present.   The  listing shows all bindings which have the
                     given key sequence as a prefix, not including  any  bind-
                     ings for the key sequence itself.

                     When  the  -L  option is used, the list is in the form of
                     bindkey commands to create the key bindings.

              When the -R option is used as noted above, a  valid  range  con-
              sists of two characters, with an optional `-' between them.  All
              characters between the two specified, inclusive,  are  bound  as
              specified.

              For   either  in-string  or  out-string,  the  following  escape
              sequences are recognised:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \e, \E escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \NNN   character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \M[-]X character with meta bit set
              \C[-]X control character
              ^X     control character

              In all other cases, `\' escapes the following character.  Delete
              is  written  as  `^?'.   Note that `\M^?' and `^\M?' are not the
              same, and that (unlike emacs), the bindings `\M-X' and `\eX' are
              entirely  distinct,  although  they  are initialized to the same
              bindings by `bindkey -m'.


       vared [ -Aache ] [ -p prompt ] [ -r rprompt ]
             [ -M main-keymap ] [ -m vicmd-keymap ]
             [ -i init-widget ] [ -f finish-widget ]
             [ -t tty ] name
              The value of the parameter name is loaded into the edit  buffer,
              and  the line editor is invoked.  When the editor exits, name is
              set to the string value returned by the  editor.   When  the  -c
              flag  is  given,  the parameter is created if it doesn't already
              exist.  The -a flag may be given with  -c  to  create  an  array
              parameter,  or  the  -A flag to create an associative array.  If
              the type of an existing parameter does not match the type to  be
              created, the parameter is unset and recreated.

              If an array or array slice is being edited, separator characters
              as defined in $IFS will be shown quoted  with  a  backslash,  as
              will  backslashes  themselves.  Conversely, when the edited text
              is split into an array, a backslash quotes an  immediately  fol-
              lowing  separator  character or backslash; no other special han-
              dling of backslashes, or any handling of quotes, is performed.

              Individual elements  of  existing  array  or  associative  array
              parameters may be edited by using subscript syntax on name.  New
              elements are created automatically, even without -c.

              If the -p flag is given, the following string will be  taken  as
              the prompt to display at the left.  If the -r flag is given, the
              following string gives the prompt to display at the  right.   If
              the  -h flag is specified, the history can be accessed from ZLE.
              If the -e flag is given, typing ^D (Control-D) on an empty  line
              causes vared to exit immediately with a non-zero return value.

              The  -M  option gives a keymap to link to the main keymap during
              editing, and the -m option gives a keymap to link to  the  vicmd
              keymap during editing.  For vi-style editing, this allows a pair
              of keymaps to override viins and vicmd.  For  emacs-style  edit-
              ing,  only  -M is normally needed but the -m option may still be
              used.  On exit, the previous keymaps will be restored.

              Vared calls  the  usual  `zle-line-init'  and  `zle-line-finish'
              hooks  before  and  after  it takes control. Using the -i and -f
              options, it is possible to replace these with other custom  wid-
              gets.

              If `-t tty' is given, tty is the name of a terminal device to be
              used instead of the default /dev/tty.  If tty does not refer  to
              a terminal an error is reported.

       zle
       zle -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ... ]
       zle -D widget ...
       zle -A old-widget new-widget
       zle -N widget [ function ]
       zle -f flag [ flag... ]
       zle -C widget completion-widget function
       zle -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
       zle -M string
       zle -U string
       zle -K keymap
       zle -F [ -L | -w ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
       zle -I
       zle -T [ tc function | -r tc | -L ]
       zle widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
              The  zle builtin performs a number of different actions concern-
              ing ZLE.

              With no options and no arguments, only the return status will be
              set.  It is zero if ZLE is currently active and widgets could be
              invoked using this builtin command and non-zero otherwise.  Note
              that  even  if  non-zero  status  is  returned, zle may still be
              active as part of the completion system;  this  does  not  allow
              direct calls to ZLE widgets.

              Otherwise, which operation it performs depends on its options:

              -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ]
                     List all existing user-defined widgets.  If the -L option
                     is used, list in the form of zle commands to  create  the
                     widgets.

                     When  combined  with  the -a option, all widget names are
                     listed, including the builtin ones. In this case  the  -L
                     option is ignored.

                     If  at least one string is given, and -a is present or -L
                     is not used, nothing will be printed.  The return  status
                     will be zero if all strings are names of existing widgets
                     and non-zero if at least one string is not a  name  of  a
                     defined  widget.  If -a is also present, all widget names
                     are used for the comparison  including  builtin  widgets,
                     else only user-defined widgets are used.

                     If  at  least  one string is present and the -L option is
                     used, user-defined widgets matching any string are listed
                     in the form of zle commands to create the widgets.

              -D widget ...
                     Delete the named widgets.

              -A old-widget new-widget
                     Make the new-widget name an alias for old-widget, so that
                     both names refer to the  same  widget.   The  names  have
                     equal  standing; if either is deleted, the other remains.
                     If there is already a widget with the new-widget name, it
                     is deleted.

              -N widget [ function ]
                     Create a user-defined widget.  If there is already a wid-
                     get with the specified name, it is overwritten.  When the
                     new  widget is invoked from within the editor, the speci-
                     fied shell function is called.  If no  function  name  is
                     specified,  it  defaults  to the same name as the widget.
                     For further information, see the section `Widgets' below.

              -f flag [ flag... ]
                     Set various flags on the running widget.  Possible values
                     for flag are:

                     yank for indicating that the widget has yanked text  into
                     the buffer.  If the widget is wrapping an existing inter-
                     nal widget, no further action is necessary, but if it has
                     inserted the text manually, then it should also take care
                     to set YANK_START  and  YANK_END  correctly.   yankbefore
                     does  the  same  but is used when the yanked text appears
                     after the cursor.

                     kill for indicating that text has been  killed  into  the
                     cutbuffer.   When repeatedly invoking a kill widget, text
                     is appended to the cutbuffer instead of replacing it, but
                     when  wrapping such widgets, it is necessary to call `zle
                     -f kill' to retain this effect.

                     vichange for indicating that the widget represents  a  vi
                     change   that   can   be   repeated   as   a  whole  with
                     `vi-repeat-change'. The flag should be set early  in  the
                     function before inspecting the value of NUMERIC or invok-
                     ing other widgets.  This  has  no  effect  for  a  widget
                     invoked  from  insert mode. If insert mode is active when
                     the  widget  finishes,  the  change  extends  until  next
                     returning to command mode.

              -C widget completion-widget function
                     Create a user-defined completion widget named widget. The
                     completion widget will behave like the  built-in  comple-
                     tion-widget  whose name is given as completion-widget. To
                     generate the completions,  the  shell  function  function
                     will  be  called.   For further information, see zshcomp-
                     wid(1).

              -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
                     Redisplay the command line; this is  to  be  called  from
                     within  a  user-defined widget to allow changes to become
                     visible.  If a display-string is  given  and  not  empty,
                     this  is  shown in the status line (immediately below the
                     line being edited).

                     If the optional strings are given they are  listed  below
                     the  prompt  in  the  same  way  as  completion lists are
                     printed. If no strings are given but  the  -c  option  is
                     used such a list is cleared.

                     Note  that this option is only useful for widgets that do
                     not exit immediately after using it because  the  strings
                     displayed  will  be  erased immediately after return from
                     the widget.

                     This command can safely be called  outside  user  defined
                     widgets; if zle is active, the display will be refreshed,
                     while if zle is not active, the command  has  no  effect.
                     In this case there will usually be no other arguments.

                     The status is zero if zle was active, else one.

              -M string
                     As with the -R option, the string will be displayed below
                     the command line; unlike the -R option, the  string  will
                     not  be  put  into  the  status  line but will instead be
                     printed normally below the prompt.  This means  that  the
                     string  will  still be displayed after the widget returns
                     (until it is overwritten by subsequent commands).

              -U string
                     This pushes the characters in the string onto  the  input
                     stack  of  ZLE.  After the widget currently executed fin-
                     ishes ZLE will behave as if the characters in the  string
                     were typed by the user.

                     As  ZLE  uses  a stack, if this option is used repeatedly
                     the last string pushed onto the stack will  be  processed
                     first.   However,  the  characters in each string will be
                     processed in the  order  in  which  they  appear  in  the
                     string.

              -K keymap
                     Selects  the  keymap named keymap.  An error message will
                     be displayed if there is no such keymap.

                     This keymap selection affects the interpretation of  fol-
                     lowing  keystrokes  within  this  invocation of ZLE.  Any
                     following invocation (e.g., the next command  line)  will
                     start as usual with the `main' keymap selected.

              -F [ -L | -w ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
                     Only  available if your system supports one of the `poll'
                     or `select' system calls; most modern systems do.

                     Installs handler (the name of a shell function) to handle
                     input  from file descriptor fd.  Installing a handler for
                     an fd which is already handled causes the  existing  han-
                     dler to be replaced.  Any number of handlers for any num-
                     ber of readable file descriptors may be installed.   Note
                     that  zle  makes  no  attempt to check whether this fd is
                     actually readable when installing the handler.  The  user
                     must  make  their  own arrangements for handling the file
                     descriptor when zle is not active.

                     When zle is attempting to read data, it will examine both
                     the  terminal  and  the  list  of  handled fd's.  If data
                     becomes available on a handled fd, zle calls handler with
                     the  fd which is ready for reading as the first argument.
                     Under normal circumstances this is the only argument, but
                     if  an  error  was  detected,  a second argument provides
                     details: `hup' for a disconnect, `nval' for a  closed  or
                     otherwise invalid descriptor, or `err' for any other con-
                     dition.  Systems that support only  the  `select'  system
                     call always use `err'.

                     If  the option -w is also given, the handler is instead a
                     line editor widget, typically a shell function made  into
                     a  widget  using  `zle -N'.  In that case handler can use
                     all the facilities of zle to update the  current  editing
                     line.   Note, however, that as handling fd takes place at
                     a low level changes to the display will not automatically
                     appear;  the  widget should call `zle -R' to force redis-
                     play.  As of this writing, widget handlers only support a
                     single  argument  and  thus are never passed a string for
                     error state, so widgets must  be  prepared  to  test  the
                     descriptor themselves.

                     If  either  type of handler produces output to the termi-
                     nal, it should call `zle -I' before doing so (see below).
                     Handlers should not attempt to read from the terminal.

                     If no handler is given, but an fd is present, any handler
                     for that fd is removed.  If there is none, an error  mes-
                     sage is printed and status 1 is returned.

                     If  no arguments are given, or the -L option is supplied,
                     a list of handlers is printed in  a  form  which  can  be
                     stored for later execution.

                     An  fd  (but  not a handler) may optionally be given with
                     the -L option; in this case, the function will  list  the
                     handler if any, else silently return status 1.

                     Note  that this feature should be used with care.  Activ-
                     ity on one of the fd's which is not properly handled  can
                     cause  the  terminal  to become unusable.  Removing an fd
                     handler from within a signal trap may cause unpredictable
                     behavior.

                     Here  is  a simple example of using this feature.  A con-
                     nection to a remote TCP port is created  using  the  ztcp
                     command; see the description of the zsh/net/tcp module in
                     zshmodules(1).  Then a handler is installed which  simply
                     prints  out  any  data  which arrives on this connection.
                     Note that `select' will indicate that the file descriptor
                     needs  handling if the remote side has closed the connec-
                     tion; we handle that by testing for a failed read.

                            if ztcp pwspc 2811; then
                              tcpfd=$REPLY
                              handler() {
                                zle -I
                                local line
                                if ! read -r line <&$1; then
                                  # select marks this fd if we reach EOF,
                                  # so handle this specially.
                                  print "[Read on fd $1 failed, removing.]" >&2
                                  zle -F $1
                                  return 1
                                fi
                                print -r - $line
                              }
                              zle -F $tcpfd handler
                            fi

              -I     Unusually, this option is most  useful  outside  ordinary
                     widget  functions, though it may be used within if normal
                     output to the terminal is required.  It  invalidates  the
                     current  zle display in preparation for output; typically
                     this will be from a trap function.  It has no  effect  if
                     zle  is  not active.  When a trap exits, the shell checks
                     to see if the display needs restoring, hence the  follow-
                     ing will print output in such a way as not to disturb the
                     line being edited:

                            TRAPUSR1() {
                              # Invalidate zle display
                              [[ -o zle ]] && zle -I
                              # Show output
                              print Hello
                            }

                     In general, the trap function may need  to  test  whether
                     zle  is  active before using this method (as shown in the
                     example), since  the  zsh/zle  module  may  not  even  be
                     loaded; if it is not, the command can be skipped.

                     It is possible to call `zle -I' several times before con-
                     trol is returned to the editor; the display will only  be
                     invalidated the first time to minimise disruption.

                     Note  that there are normally better ways of manipulating
                     the display from within zle widgets;  see,  for  example,
                     `zle -R' above.

                     The  returned status is zero if zle was invalidated, even
                     though this may have been by a previous call to `zle  -I'
                     or by a system notification.  To test if a zle widget may
                     be called at this point, execute zle  with  no  arguments
                     and examine the return status.

              -T     This  is used to add, list or remove internal transforma-
                     tions on the processing performed by the line editor.  It
                     is  typically  used  only for debugging or testing and is
                     therefore of little interest to the general user.

                     `zle -T transformation func'  specifies  that  the  given
                     transformation  (see below) is effected by shell function
                     func.

                     `zle -Tr transformation' removes the given transformation
                     if it was present (it is not an error if none was).

                     `zle  -TL'  can  be used to list all transformations cur-
                     rently in operation.

                     Currently the only transformation is tc.   This  is  used
                     instead  of  outputting  termcap  codes  to the terminal.
                     When the transformation is in operation the  shell  func-
                     tion  is  passed the termcap code that would be output as
                     its first argument; if the operation required  a  numeric
                     argument, that is passed as a second argument.  The func-
                     tion should set the shell variable REPLY  to  the  trans-
                     formed  termcap  code.  Typically this is used to produce
                     some simply formatted version of the  code  and  optional
                     argument for debugging or testing.  Note that this trans-
                     formation is not applied to other non-printing characters
                     such as carriage returns and newlines.

              widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
                     Invoke  the specified widget.  This can only be done when
                     ZLE  is  active;  normally  this   will   be   within   a
                     user-defined widget.

                     With  the options -n and -N, the current numeric argument
                     will be saved and then restored after the call to widget;
                     `-n  num'  sets  the numeric argument temporarily to num,
                     while `-N' sets it to the default, i.e. as if there  were
                     none.

                     With  the  option  -K, keymap will be used as the current
                     keymap during the execution of the widget.  The  previous
                     keymap will be restored when the widget exits.

                     Normally,  calling  a widget in this way does not set the
                     special parameter WIDGET and related parameters, so  that
                     the environment appears as if the top-level widget called
                     by the user were still active.  With the option -w,  WID-
                     GET  and related parameters are set to reflect the widget
                     being executed by the zle call.

                     Any further arguments will be passed to the widget;  note
                     that as standard argument handling is performed, any gen-
                     eral argument list should be preceded by --.  If it is  a
                     shell  function,  these  are  passed  down  as positional
                     parameters; for builtin widgets it is up to the widget in
                     question what it does with them.  Currently arguments are
                     only handled by the incremental-search commands, the his-
                     tory-search-forward  and  -backward and the corresponding
                     functions prefixed by vi-, and by universal-argument.  No
                     error  is  flagged  if the command does not use the argu-
                     ments, or only uses some of them.

                     The return status reflects the success or failure of  the
                     operation  carried  out  by  the  widget,  or  if it is a
                     user-defined widget the return status of the shell  func-
                     tion.

                     A  non-zero  return  status causes the shell to beep when
                     the widget exits, unless the BEEP options  was  unset  or
                     the  widget  was  called  via the zle command.  Thus if a
                     user defined widget requires an immediate beep, it should
                     call the beep widget directly.



WIDGETS

       All  actions  in the editor are performed by `widgets'.  A widget's job
       is simply to perform some small action.   The  ZLE  commands  that  key
       sequences  in keymaps are bound to are in fact widgets.  Widgets can be
       user-defined or built in.

       The standard widgets built into ZLE  are  listed  in  Standard  Widgets
       below.   Other  built-in  widgets  can be defined by other modules (see
       zshmodules(1)).  Each built-in widget has two names: its normal canoni-
       cal  name,  and  the same name preceded by a `.'.  The `.' name is spe-
       cial: it can't be rebound to a different widget.  This makes the widget
       available even when its usual name has been redefined.

       User-defined  widgets  are  defined  using `zle -N', and implemented as
       shell functions.  When the widget is executed, the corresponding  shell
       function  is  executed, and can perform editing (or other) actions.  It
       is recommended that user-defined widgets should not have names starting
       with `.'.


USER-DEFINED WIDGETS

       User-defined widgets, being implemented as shell functions, can execute
       any normal shell command.  They can also  run  other  widgets  (whether
       built-in  or user-defined) using the zle builtin command.  The standard
       input of the function is closed to prevent external commands from unin-
       tentionally  blocking  ZLE by reading from the terminal, but read -k or
       read -q can be used to read characters.  Finally, they can examine  and
       edit  the  ZLE  buffer  being edited by reading and setting the special
       parameters described below.

       These special parameters are always available in widget functions,  but
       are not in any way special outside ZLE.  If they have some normal value
       outside ZLE, that value is temporarily inaccessible,  but  will  return
       when  the widget function exits.  These special parameters in fact have
       local scope, like parameters created in a function using local.

       Inside completion widgets and traps called while ZLE is  active,  these
       parameters are available read-only.

       Note  that  the  parameters  appear as local to any ZLE widget in which
       they appear.  Hence if it is desired to override them this needs to  be
       done within a nested function:

              widget-function() {
                # $WIDGET here refers to the special variable
                # that is local inside widget-function
                () {
                   # This anonymous nested function allows WIDGET
                   # to be used as a local variable.  The -h
                   # removes the special status of the variable.
                   local -h WIDGET
                }
              }

       BUFFER (scalar)
              The  entire  contents  of the edit buffer.  If it is written to,
              the cursor remains at the same offset, unless that would put  it
              outside the buffer.

       BUFFERLINES (integer)
              The  number of screen lines needed for the edit buffer currently
              displayed on screen (i.e. without any changes to  the  preceding
              parameters done after the last redisplay); read-only.

       CONTEXT (scalar)
              The  context  in which zle was called to read a line; read-only.
              One of the values:

              start  The start of a command line (at prompt PS1).

              cont   A continuation to a command line (at prompt PS2).

              select In a select loop (at prompt PS3).

              vared  Editing a variable in vared.

       CURSOR (integer)
              The offset of the cursor, within the edit buffer.   This  is  in
              the  range  0  to  $#BUFFER,  and  is  by  definition  equal  to
              $#LBUFFER.  Attempts to move the cursor outside the buffer  will
              result  in  the cursor being moved to the appropriate end of the
              buffer.

       CUTBUFFER (scalar)
              The last item cut using one of the `kill-' commands; the  string
              which  the next yank would insert in the line.  Later entries in
              the kill ring are in the array killring.  Note that the  command
              `zle  copy-region-as-kill string' can be used to set the text of
              the cut buffer from a shell function and cycle the kill ring  in
              the same way as interactively killing text.

       HISTNO (integer)
              The current history number.  Setting this has the same effect as
              moving up or down in the history to  the  corresponding  history
              line.  An attempt to set it is ignored if the line is not stored
              in the history.  Note this is not  the  same  as  the  parameter
              HISTCMD, which always gives the number of the history line being
              added to the main shell's history.  HISTNO refers  to  the  line
              being retrieved within zle.

       ISEARCHMATCH_ACTIVE (integer)
       ISEARCHMATCH_START (integer)
       ISEARCHMATCH_END (integer)
              ISEARCHMATCH_ACTIVE  indicates  whether  a part of the BUFFER is
              currently matched by an  incremental  search  pattern.  ISEARCH-
              MATCH_START  and  ISEARCHMATCH_END  give  the  location  of  the
              matched part and are in the same units as CURSOR. They are  only
              valid for reading when ISEARCHMATCH_ACTIVE is non-zero.

              All parameters are read-only.

       KEYMAP (scalar)
              The name of the currently selected keymap; read-only.

       KEYS (scalar)
              The  keys  typed  to  invoke  this  widget, as a literal string;
              read-only.

       killring (array)
              The array of previously killed items,  with  the  most  recently
              killed first.  This gives the items that would be retrieved by a
              yank-pop in the  same  order.   Note,  however,  that  the  most
              recently killed item is in $CUTBUFFER; $killring shows the array
              of previous entries.

              The default size for the kill ring is eight, however the  length
              may  be changed by normal array operations.  Any empty string in
              the kill ring is ignored by the yank-pop command, hence the size
              of  the  array  effectively  sets the maximum length of the kill
              ring, while the number of non-zero  strings  gives  the  current
              length, both as seen by the user at the command line.

       LASTABORTEDSEARCH (scalar)
              The  last  search  string used by an interactive search that was
              aborted by the user (status 3 returned by the search widget).

       LASTSEARCH (scalar)
              The last search string used by an interactive search; read-only.
              This is set even if the search failed (status 0, 1 or 2 returned
              by the search widget), but not if it was aborted by the user.

       LASTWIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the last widget that was executed; read-only.

       LBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to the left of the cursor posi-
              tion.   If  it  is  assigned to, only that part of the buffer is
              replaced, and the cursor remains between the  new  $LBUFFER  and
              the old $RBUFFER.

       MARK (integer)
              Like  CURSOR, but for the mark. With vi-mode operators that wait
              for a movement command to select a region of text, setting  MARK
              allows  the selection to extend in both directions from the ini-
              tial cursor position.

       NUMERIC (integer)
              The numeric argument. If no numeric  argument  was  given,  this
              parameter  is  unset. When this is set inside a widget function,
              builtin widgets called with the zle builtin command will use the
              value assigned. If it is unset inside a widget function, builtin
              widgets called behave as if no numeric argument was given.

       PENDING (integer)
              The number of bytes pending for input, i.e. the number of  bytes
              which  have  already  been typed and can immediately be read. On
              systems where the shell is not able  to  get  this  information,
              this parameter will always have a value of zero.  Read-only.

       PREBUFFER (scalar)
              In  a  multi-line  input at the secondary prompt, this read-only
              parameter contains the contents of the lines before the one  the
              cursor is currently in.

       PREDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text  to  be  displayed  before  the  start of the editable text
              buffer.  This does not have to be a complete line; to display  a
              complete  line, a newline must be appended explicitly.  The text
              is reset on each new invocation (but not  recursive  invocation)
              of zle.

       POSTDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text  to be displayed after the end of the editable text buffer.
              This does not have to be a complete line; to display a  complete
              line, a newline must be prepended explicitly.  The text is reset
              on each new invocation (but not recursive invocation) of zle.

       RBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to  the  right  of  the  cursor
              position.  If it is assigned to, only that part of the buffer is
              replaced, and the cursor remains between the  old  $LBUFFER  and
              the new $RBUFFER.

       REGION_ACTIVE (integer)
              Indicates if the region is currently active.  It can be assigned
              0 or 1 to deactivate and activate  the  region  respectively.  A
              value of 2 activates the region in line-wise mode with the high-
              lighted text extending for whole lines only; see Character High-
              lighting below.

       region_highlight (array)
              Each element of this array may be set to a string that describes
              highlighting for an arbitrary region of the  command  line  that
              will  take effect the next time the command line is redisplayed.
              Highlighting of the non-editable parts of the  command  line  in
              PREDISPLAY  and  POSTDISPLAY  are  possible, but note that the P
              flag is needed for character indexing to include PREDISPLAY.

              Each string consists of the following parts:

              o      Optionally, a `P' to signify that the start and end  off-
                     set  that follow include any string set by the PREDISPLAY
                     special parameter;  this  is  needed  if  the  predisplay
                     string  itself is to be highlighted.  Whitespace may fol-
                     low the `P'.

              o      A start offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.

              o      An  end offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.

              o      A highlight specification in the same format as used  for
                     contexts  in the parameter zle_highlight, see the section
                     `Character Highlighting' below; for example, standout  or
                     fg=red,bold

              For example,

                     region_highlight=("P0 20 bold")

              specifies that the first twenty characters of the text including
              any predisplay string should be highlighted in bold.

              Note that the effect of region_highlight is not saved and disap-
              pears as soon as the line is accepted.

              The  final  highlighting  on  the  command  line depends on both
              region_highlight and zle_highlight; see  the  section  CHARACTER
              HIGHLIGHTING below for details.

       registers (associative array)
              The contents of each of the vi register buffers. These are typi-
              cally set using vi-set-buffer followed by a  delete,  change  or
              yank command.

       SUFFIX_ACTIVE (integer)
       SUFFIX_START (integer)
       SUFFIX_END (integer)
              SUFFIX_ACTIVE  indicates  whether  an  auto-removable completion
              suffix is currently active. SUFFIX_START and SUFFIX_END give the
              location of the suffix and are in the same units as CURSOR. They
              are only valid for reading when SUFFIX_ACTIVE is non-zero.

              All parameters are read-only.

       UNDO_CHANGE_NO (integer)
              A number representing the state of the undo history.   The  only
              use  of  this  is  passing  as an argument to the undo widget in
              order to undo back to the recorded point.  Read-only.

       UNDO_LIMIT_NO (integer)
              A number corresponding to an existing change in  the  undo  his-
              tory; compare UNDO_CHANGE_NO.  If this is set to a value greater
              than zero, the undo command will not allow the line to be undone
              beyond  the  given  change  number.  It is still possible to use
              `zle undo change' in a widget to undo beyond that point; in that
              case, it will not be possible to undo at all until UNDO_LIMIT_NO
              is reduced.  Set to 0 to disable the limit.

              A typical use of this variable in a widget function is  as  fol-
              lows (note the additional function scope is required):

                     () {
                       local UNDO_LIMIT_NO=$UNDO_CHANGE_NO
                       # Perform some form of recursive edit.
                     }

       WIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the widget currently being executed; read-only.

       WIDGETFUNC (scalar)
              The  name of the shell function that implements a widget defined
              with either zle -N or zle -C.  In the former case, this  is  the
              second  argument  to the zle -N command that defined the widget,
              or the first argument if there was no second argument.   In  the
              latter  case  this  is  the third argument to the zle -C command
              that defined the widget.  Read-only.

       WIDGETSTYLE (scalar)
              Describes the implementation behind the completion  widget  cur-
              rently  being executed; the second argument that followed zle -C
              when the widget was defined.  This is the name of a builtin com-
              pletion  widget.  For widgets defined with zle -N this is set to
              the empty string.  Read-only.

       YANK_ACTIVE (integer)
       YANK_START (integer)
       YANK_END (integer)
              YANK_ACTIVE indicates whether text has just been yanked (pasted)
              into  the  buffer.  YANK_START and YANK_END give the location of
              the pasted text and are in the same units as CURSOR.   They  are
              only  valid  for reading when YANK_ACTIVE is non-zero.  They can
              also be assigned by widgets that  insert  text  in  a  yank-like
              fashion,  for example wrappers of bracketed-paste.  See also zle
              -f.

              YANK_ACTIVE is read-only.

       ZLE_STATE (scalar)
              Contains a set of space-separated words that describe  the  cur-
              rent zle state.

              Currently,  the  states  shown are the insert mode as set by the
              overwrite-mode or vi-replace widgets and  whether  history  com-
              mands   will   visit  imported  entries  as  controlled  by  the
              set-local-history widget.  The string contains `insert' if char-
              acters  to be inserted on the command line move existing charac-
              ters to the right or `overwrite' if characters  to  be  inserted
              overwrite  existing  characters.  It  contains `localhistory' if
              only local history commands will be visited  or  `globalhistory'
              if imported history commands will also be visited.

              The  substrings  are sorted in alphabetical order so that if you
              want to test for two specific substrings in a future-proof  way,
              you can do match by doing:

                     if [[ $ZLE_STATE == *globalhistory*insert* ]]; then ...; fi


   Special Widgets
       There  are  a  few user-defined widgets which are special to the shell.
       If they do not exist, no special action is taken.  The environment pro-
       vided is identical to that for any other editing widget.

       zle-isearch-exit
              Executed at the end of incremental search at the point where the
              isearch   prompt   is   removed   from   the    display.     See
              zle-isearch-update for an example.

       zle-isearch-update
              Executed  within incremental search when the display is about to
              be redrawn.  Additional  output  below  the  incremental  search
              prompt  can  be  generated  by using `zle -M' within the widget.
              For example,

                     zle-isearch-update() { zle -M "Line $HISTNO"; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-update

              Note the line output by `zle -M' is not  deleted  on  exit  from
              incremental  search.   This  can be done from a zle-isearch-exit
              widget:

                     zle-isearch-exit() { zle -M ""; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-exit

       zle-line-pre-redraw
              Executed whenever the input line is about to be redrawn, provid-
              ing an opportunity to update the region_highlight array.

       zle-line-init
              Executed  every  time  the  line editor is started to read a new
              line of input.  The following example puts the line editor  into
              vi command mode when it starts up.

                     zle-line-init() { zle -K vicmd; }
                     zle -N zle-line-init

              (The command inside the function sets the keymap directly; it is
              equivalent to zle vi-cmd-mode.)

       zle-line-finish
              This is similar to zle-line-init but is executed every time  the
              line editor has finished reading a line of input.

       zle-history-line-set
              Executed when the history line changes.

       zle-keymap-select
              Executed every time the keymap changes, i.e. the special parame-
              ter KEYMAP is set to a different value, while the line editor is
              active.   Initialising  the  keymap  when the line editor starts
              does not cause the widget to be called.

              The value $KEYMAP within the function reflects the  new  keymap.
              The old keymap is passed as the sole argument.

              This  can  be used for detecting switches between the vi command
              (vicmd) and insert (usually main) keymaps.



STANDARD WIDGETS

       The following is a list of all the standard widgets, and their  default
       bindings  in  emacs  mode,  vi  command  mode  and  vi insert mode (the
       `emacs', `vicmd' and `viins' keymaps, respectively).

       Note that cursor keys are bound to movement keys in all three  keymaps;
       the  shell assumes that the cursor keys send the key sequences reported
       by the  terminal-handling  library  (termcap  or  terminfo).   The  key
       sequences  shown  in  the  list are those based on the VT100, common on
       many modern terminals, but in fact these are not necessarily bound.  In
       the  case  of  the  viins  keymap,  the initial escape character of the
       sequences serves also to return to the vicmd keymap: whether this  hap-
       pens is determined by the KEYTIMEOUT parameter, see zshparam(1).

   Movement
       vi-backward-blank-word (unbound) (B) (unbound)
              Move  backward  one word, where a word is defined as a series of
              non-blank characters.

       vi-backward-blank-word-end (unbound) (gE) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the previous word, where a word is defined as
              a series of non-blank characters.

       backward-char (^B ESC-[D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move backward one character.

       vi-backward-char (unbound) (^H h ^?) (ESC-[D)
              Move backward one character, without changing lines.

       backward-word (ESC-B ESC-b) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       emacs-backward-word
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       vi-backward-word (unbound) (b) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word, vi-style.

       vi-backward-word-end (unbound) (ge) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the previous word, vi-style.

       beginning-of-line (^A) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move  to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning
              of the line, move to the beginning of the previous line, if any.

       vi-beginning-of-line
              Move to the beginning of the line, without changing lines.

       down-line (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move down a line in the buffer.

       end-of-line (^E) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the line,
              move to the end of the next line, if any.

       vi-end-of-line (unbound) ($) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If an argument is  given  to  this
              command,  the cursor will be moved to the end of the line (argu-
              ment - 1) lines down.

       vi-forward-blank-word (unbound) (W) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, where a word is defined as  a  series  of
              non-blank characters.

       vi-forward-blank-word-end (unbound) (E) (unbound)
              Move  to  the  end of the current word, or, if at the end of the
              current word, to the end of the  next  word,  where  a  word  is
              defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       forward-char (^F ESC-[C) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-forward-char (unbound) (space l) (ESC-[C)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-find-next-char (^X^F) (f) (unbound)
              Read  a character from the keyboard, and move to the next occur-
              rence of it in the line.

       vi-find-next-char-skip (unbound) (t) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and  move  to  the  position
              just before the next occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char (unbound) (F) (unbound)
              Read  a  character  from  the keyboard, and move to the previous
              occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char-skip (unbound) (T) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and  move  to  the  position
              just after the previous occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-first-non-blank (unbound) (^) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character in the line.

       vi-forward-word (unbound) (w) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, vi-style.

       forward-word (ESC-F ESC-f) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move  to the beginning of the next word.  The editor's idea of a
              word is specified with the WORDCHARS parameter.

       emacs-forward-word
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-forward-word-end (unbound) (e) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-goto-column (ESC-|) (|) (unbound)
              Move to the column specified by the numeric argument.

       vi-goto-mark (unbound) (`) (unbound)
              Move to the specified mark.

       vi-goto-mark-line (unbound) (') (unbound)
              Move to beginning of the line containing the specified mark.

       vi-repeat-find (unbound) (;) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command.

       vi-rev-repeat-find (unbound) (,) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command in the opposite direction.

       up-line (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move up a line in the buffer.

   History Control
       beginning-of-buffer-or-history (ESC-<) (gg) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the buffer, or if already  there,  move
              to the first event in the history list.

       beginning-of-line-hist
              Move  to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning
              of the buffer, move to the previous history line.

       beginning-of-history
              Move to the first event in the history list.

       down-line-or-history (^N ESC-[B) (j) (ESC-[B)
              Move down a line in the buffer, or  if  already  at  the  bottom
              line, move to the next event in the history list.

       vi-down-line-or-history (unbound) (+) (unbound)
              Move  down  a  line  in  the buffer, or if already at the bottom
              line, move to the next event in the history list.  Then move  to
              the first non-blank character on the line.

       down-line-or-search
              Move  down  a  line  in  the buffer, or if already at the bottom
              line, search forward in the history for a  line  beginning  with
              the first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as  the  string  for  which  to  search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       down-history (unbound) (^N) (unbound)
              Move to the next event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-backward
              Search  backward  in  the  history for a line beginning with the
              current line up to the cursor.  This leaves the  cursor  in  its
              original position.

       end-of-buffer-or-history (ESC->) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move  to the end of the buffer, or if already there, move to the
              last event in the history list.

       end-of-line-hist
              Move to the end of the line.  If  already  at  the  end  of  the
              buffer, move to the next history line.

       end-of-history
              Move to the last event in the history list.

       vi-fetch-history (unbound) (G) (unbound)
              Fetch  the history line specified by the numeric argument.  This
              defaults to the current history line (i.e. the  one  that  isn't
              history yet).

       history-incremental-search-backward (^R ^Xr) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  backward  incrementally  for  a  specified  string.  The
              search is case-insensitive if the search string  does  not  have
              uppercase letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string
              may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of  the
              line.  When called from a user-defined function returns the fol-
              lowing statuses: 0, if the search succeeded; 1,  if  the  search
              failed;  2,  if  the  search  term  was a bad pattern; 3, if the
              search was aborted by the send-break command.

              A restricted set  of  editing  functions  is  available  in  the
              mini-buffer.   Keys are looked up in the special isearch keymap,
              and if not found there in the main keymap (note that by  default
              the  isearch  keymap is empty).  An interrupt signal, as defined
              by the stty setting, will stop the search and  go  back  to  the
              original  line.   An  undefined  key  will have the same effect.
              Note that the following always  perform  the  same  task  within
              incremental searches and cannot be replaced by user defined wid-
              gets, nor can the set of functions be extended.   The  supported
              functions are:

              accept-and-hold
              accept-and-infer-next-history
              accept-line
              accept-line-and-down-history
                     Perform  the  usual  function  after  exiting incremental
                     search.  The command line displayed is executed.

              backward-delete-char
              vi-backward-delete-char
                     Back up one place in the search history.  If  the  search
                     has been repeated this does not immediately erase a char-
                     acter in the minibuffer.

              accept-search
                     Exit incremental search, retaining the command  line  but
                     performing no further action.  Note that this function is
                     not bound by default and has no effect outside  incremen-
                     tal search.

              backward-delete-word
              backward-kill-word
              vi-backward-kill-word
                     Back  up  one  character  in  the minibuffer; if multiple
                     searches have been  performed  since  the  character  was
                     inserted  the search history is rewound to the point just
                     before the character was entered.   Hence  this  has  the
                     effect of repeating backward-delete-char.

              clear-screen
                     Clear the screen, remaining in incremental search mode.

              history-incremental-search-backward
                     Find   the   next  occurrence  of  the  contents  of  the
                     mini-buffer. If the mini-buffer is empty, the most recent
                     previously used search string is reinstated.

              history-incremental-search-forward
                     Invert the sense of the search.

              magic-space
                     Inserts a non-magical space.

              quoted-insert
              vi-quoted-insert
                     Quote the character to insert into the minibuffer.

              redisplay
                     Redisplay  the  command  line,  remaining  in incremental
                     search mode.

              vi-cmd-mode
                     Select the `vicmd'  keymap;  the  `main'  keymap  (insert
                     mode) will be selected initially.

                     In addition, the modifications that were made while in vi
                     insert mode are merged to form a single undo event.

              vi-repeat-search
              vi-rev-repeat-search
                     Repeat the search.  The direction of the search is  indi-
                     cated in the mini-buffer.

              Any  character  that is not bound to one of the above functions,
              or self-insert or self-insert-unmeta, will cause the mode to  be
              exited.   The  character  is  then looked up and executed in the
              keymap in effect at that point.

              When called from a widget  function  by  the  zle  command,  the
              incremental  search  commands  can take a string argument.  This
              will be treated as a string of keys, as  for  arguments  to  the
              bindkey command, and used as initial input for the command.  Any
              characters in the string which are  unused  by  the  incremental
              search will be silently ignored.  For example,

                     zle history-incremental-search-backward forceps

              will  search  backwards for forceps, leaving the minibuffer con-
              taining the string `forceps'.

       history-incremental-search-forward (^S ^Xs) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search forward incrementally for a specified string.  The search
              is case-insensitive if the search string does not have uppercase
              letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string may begin
              with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.  The
              functions available in the mini-buffer are the same as for  his-
              tory-incremental-search-backward.

       history-incremental-pattern-search-backward
       history-incremental-pattern-search-forward
              These widgets behave similarly to the corresponding widgets with
              no -pattern, but the search string typed by the user is  treated
              as  a  pattern,  respecting  the current settings of the various
              options affecting pattern matching.  See FILENAME GENERATION  in
              zshexpn(1)  for  a description of patterns.  If no numeric argu-
              ment was given lowercase letters in the search string may  match
              uppercase letters in the history.  The string may begin with `^'
              to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.

              The prompt changes to indicate an invalid pattern; this may sim-
              ply indicate the pattern is not yet complete.

              Note  that  only  non-overlapping  matches  are  reported, so an
              expression with wildcards may return fewer  matches  on  a  line
              than are visible by inspection.

       history-search-backward (ESC-P ESC-p) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  backward  in  the  history for a line beginning with the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first  argument  is  taken  as  the  string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-backward (unbound) (/) (unbound)
              Search backward in the history  for  a  specified  string.   The
              string  may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning
              of the line.

              A restricted set  of  editing  functions  is  available  in  the
              mini-buffer.   An  interrupt signal, as defined by the stty set-
              ting,  will stop the search.  The  functions  available  in  the
              mini-buffer  are:  accept-line,  backward-delete-char,  vi-back-
              ward-delete-char,   backward-kill-word,   vi-backward-kill-word,
              clear-screen, redisplay, quoted-insert and vi-quoted-insert.

              vi-cmd-mode  is treated the same as accept-line, and magic-space
              is treated as a space.  Any other character that is not bound to
              self-insert  or  self-insert-unmeta will beep and be ignored. If
              the function is called from vi command mode, the bindings of the
              current insert mode will be used.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as  the  string  for  which  to  search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       history-search-forward (ESC-N ESC-n) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  forward  in  the  history  for a line beginning with the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first  argument  is  taken  as  the  string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-forward (unbound) (?) (unbound)
              Search forward in the  history  for  a  specified  string.   The
              string  may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning
              of the line. The functions available in the mini-buffer are  the
              same  as  for  vi-history-search-backward.  Argument handling is
              also the same as for that command.

       infer-next-history (^X^N) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search in the history list for a line matching the  current  one
              and fetch the event following it.

       insert-last-word (ESC-_ ESC-.) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the last word from the previous history event at the cur-
              sor position.  If a positive numeric argument is  given,  insert
              that  word  from  the end of the previous history event.  If the
              argument is zero or negative insert  that  word  from  the  left
              (zero  inserts  the previous command word).  Repeating this com-
              mand replaces the word just inserted with the last word from the
              history  event prior to the one just used; numeric arguments can
              be used in the same way to pick a word from that event.

              When called from a shell function invoked  from  a  user-defined
              widget,  the command can take one to three arguments.  The first
              argument specifies a history offset which applies to  successive
              calls  to  this  widget:  if  it is -1, the default behaviour is
              used, while if it is 1,  successive  calls  will  move  forwards
              through  the  history.  The value 0 can be used to indicate that
              the history line examined by the previous execution of the  com-
              mand  will  be reexamined.  Note that negative numbers should be
              preceded by  a  `--'  argument  to  avoid  confusing  them  with
              options.

              If two arguments are given, the second specifies the word on the
              command line in normal array index notation (as a  more  natural
              alternative  to  the  numeric  argument).   Hence 1 is the first
              word, and -1 (the default) is the last word.

              If a third argument is given, its value is ignored,  but  it  is
              used  to signify that the history offset is relative to the cur-
              rent history line, rather than the one remembered after the pre-
              vious invocations of insert-last-word.

              For example, the default behaviour of the command corresponds to

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 -1

              while the command

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 1 -

              always copies the first word of the line in the history  immedi-
              ately  before  the  line being edited.  This has the side effect
              that later invocations of the widget will be  relative  to  that
              line.

       vi-repeat-search (unbound) (n) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search.

       vi-rev-repeat-search (unbound) (N) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search, but in reverse.

       up-line-or-history (^P ESC-[A) (k) (ESC-[A)
              Move  up  a  line  in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              move to the previous event in the history list.

       vi-up-line-or-history (unbound) (-) (unbound)
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already  at  the  top  line,
              move  to  the  previous event in the history list.  Then move to
              the first non-blank character on the line.

       up-line-or-search
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already  at  the  top  line,
              search  backward  in  the  history for a line beginning with the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first  argument  is  taken  as  the  string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       up-history (unbound) (^P) (unbound)
              Move to the previous event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-forward
              Search forward in the history for a line beginning with the cur-
              rent line up to the cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its orig-
              inal position.

       set-local-history
              By default, history movement commands visit the  imported  lines
              as  well as the local lines. This widget lets you toggle this on
              and off, or set it with the  numeric  argument.  Zero  for  both
              local and imported lines and nonzero for only local lines.

   Modifying Text
       vi-add-eol (unbound) (A) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-add-next (unbound) (a) (unbound)
              Enter  insert  mode  after  the current cursor position, without
              changing lines.

       backward-delete-char (^H ^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-delete-char (unbound) (X) (^H)
              Delete the character behind the cursor, without changing  lines.
              If in insert mode, this won't delete past the point where insert
              mode was last entered.

       backward-delete-word
              Delete the word behind the cursor.

       backward-kill-line
              Kill from the beginning of the line to the cursor position.

       backward-kill-word (^W ESC-^H ESC-^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the word behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-kill-word (unbound) (unbound) (^W)
              Kill the word behind the cursor, without going  past  the  point
              where insert mode was last entered.

       capitalize-word (ESC-C ESC-c) (unbound) (unbound)
              Capitalize the current word and move past it.

       vi-change (unbound) (c) (unbound)
              Read  a  movement  command  from the keyboard, and kill from the
              cursor position to the endpoint of  the  movement.   Then  enter
              insert  mode.   If  the command is vi-change, change the current
              line.

              For compatibility with vi, if the command is vi-forward-word  or
              vi-forward-blank-word,  the  whitespace  after  the  word is not
              included. If you prefer the more consistent behaviour  with  the
              whitespace included use the following key binding:

                     bindkey -a -s cw dwi

       vi-change-eol (unbound) (C) (unbound)
              Kill to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-change-whole-line (unbound) (S) (unbound)
              Kill the current line and enter insert mode.

       copy-region-as-kill (ESC-W ESC-w) (unbound) (unbound)
              Copy the area from the cursor to the mark to the kill buffer.

              If   called  from  a  ZLE  widget  function  in  the  form  `zle
              copy-region-as-kill string' then string will  be  taken  as  the
              text  to  copy to the kill buffer.  The cursor, the mark and the
              text on the command line are not used in this case.

       copy-prev-word (ESC-^_) (unbound) (unbound)
              Duplicate the word to the left of the cursor.

       copy-prev-shell-word
              Like copy-prev-word, but the word is found by using shell  pars-
              ing,  whereas copy-prev-word looks for blanks. This makes a dif-
              ference when the word is quoted and contains spaces.

       vi-delete (unbound) (d) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard,  and  kill  from  the
              cursor position to the endpoint of the movement.  If the command
              is vi-delete, kill the current line.

       delete-char
              Delete the character under the cursor.

       vi-delete-char (unbound) (x) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor, without  going  past  the
              end of the line.

       delete-word
              Delete the current word.

       down-case-word (ESC-L ESC-l) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all lowercase and move past it.

       vi-down-case (unbound) (gu) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and convert all char-
              acters from the cursor position to the endpoint of the  movement
              to lowercase.  If the movement command is vi-down-case, swap the
              case of all characters on the current line.

       kill-word (ESC-D ESC-d) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current word.

       gosmacs-transpose-chars
              Exchange the two characters behind the cursor.

       vi-indent (unbound) (>) (unbound)
              Indent a number of lines.

       vi-insert (unbound) (i) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode.

       vi-insert-bol (unbound) (I) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character  on  the  line  and  enter
              insert mode.

       vi-join (^X^J) (J) (unbound)
              Join the current line with the next one.

       kill-line (^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill  from the cursor to the end of the line.  If already on the
              end of the line, kill the newline character.

       vi-kill-line (unbound) (unbound) (^U)
              Kill from the cursor back  to  wherever  insert  mode  was  last
              entered.

       vi-kill-eol (unbound) (D) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.

       kill-region
              Kill from the cursor to the mark.

       kill-buffer (^X^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the entire buffer.

       kill-whole-line (^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current line.

       vi-match-bracket (^X^B) (%) (unbound)
              Move to the bracket character (one of {}, () or []) that matches
              the one under the cursor.  If the cursor is  not  on  a  bracket
              character,  move  forward without going past the end of the line
              to find one, and then go to the matching bracket.

       vi-open-line-above (unbound) (O) (unbound)
              Open a line above the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-open-line-below (unbound) (o) (unbound)
              Open a line below the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-oper-swap-case (unbound) (g~) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and swap the case  of
              all  characters  from the cursor position to the endpoint of the
              movement.  If the movement command  is  vi-oper-swap-case,  swap
              the case of all characters on the current line.

       overwrite-mode (^X^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Toggle between overwrite mode and insert mode.

       vi-put-before (unbound) (P) (unbound)
              Insert  the  contents  of the kill buffer before the cursor.  If
              the kill buffer contains a sequence  of  lines  (as  opposed  to
              characters), paste it above the current line.

       vi-put-after (unbound) (p) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer after the cursor.  If the
              kill buffer contains a sequence of lines (as opposed to  charac-
              ters), paste it below the current line.

       put-replace-selection (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Replace the contents of the current region or selection with the
              contents of the kill buffer.  If  the  kill  buffer  contains  a
              sequence  of  lines (as opposed to characters), the current line
              will be split by the pasted lines.

       quoted-insert (^V) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the next character typed into the buffer  literally.   An
              interrupt character will not be inserted.

       vi-quoted-insert (unbound) (unbound) (^Q ^V)
              Display  a `^' at the cursor position, and insert the next char-
              acter typed into the buffer literally.  An  interrupt  character
              will not be inserted.

       quote-line (ESC-') (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote  the  current  line;  that  is, put a `'' character at the
              beginning and the end, and convert all `'' characters to `'\'''.

       quote-region (ESC-") (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote the region from the cursor to the mark.

       vi-replace (unbound) (R) (unbound)
              Enter overwrite mode.

       vi-repeat-change (unbound) (.) (unbound)
              Repeat  the last vi mode text modification.  If a count was used
              with the modification, it is remembered.  If a count is given to
              this  command,  it overrides the remembered count, and is remem-
              bered for future uses of this command.  The cut buffer  specifi-
              cation is similarly remembered.

       vi-replace-chars (unbound) (r) (unbound)
              Replace  the  character  under  the cursor with a character read
              from the keyboard.

       self-insert (printable characters) (unbound) (printable characters  and
       some control characters)
              Insert a character into the buffer at the cursor position.

       self-insert-unmeta (ESC-^I ESC-^J ESC-^M) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert a character into the buffer after stripping the meta  bit
              and converting ^M to ^J.

       vi-substitute (unbound) (s) (unbound)
              Substitute the next character(s).

       vi-swap-case (unbound) (~) (unbound)
              Swap  the  case  of the character under the cursor and move past
              it.

       transpose-chars (^T) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the two characters to the left of the cursor if at  end
              of  line,  else exchange the character under the cursor with the
              character to the left.

       transpose-words (ESC-T ESC-t) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the current word with the one before it.

              With a positive numeric argument N, the word around the  cursor,
              or  following  it  if the cursor is between words, is transposed
              with the preceding N words.  The cursor is put at the end of the
              resulting group of words.

              With  a  negative numeric argument -N, the effect is the same as
              using a positive argument N  except  that  the  original  cursor
              position  is  retained,  regardless  of  how the words are rear-
              ranged.

       vi-unindent (unbound) (<) (unbound)
              Unindent a number of lines.

       vi-up-case (unbound) (gU) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and convert all char-
              acters  from the cursor position to the endpoint of the movement
              to lowercase.  If the movement command is vi-up-case,  swap  the
              case of all characters on the current line.

       up-case-word (ESC-U ESC-u) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all caps and move past it.

       yank (^Y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer at the cursor position.

       yank-pop (ESC-y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Remove  the  text just yanked, rotate the kill-ring (the history
              of previously killed text) and yank the  new  top.   Only  works
              following yank, vi-put-before, vi-put-after or yank-pop.

       vi-yank (unbound) (y) (unbound)
              Read  a  movement command from the keyboard, and copy the region
              from the cursor position to the endpoint of  the  movement  into
              the  kill  buffer.   If the command is vi-yank, copy the current
              line.

       vi-yank-whole-line (unbound) (Y) (unbound)
              Copy the current line into the kill buffer.

       vi-yank-eol
              Copy the region from the cursor position to the end of the  line
              into the kill buffer.  Arguably, this is what Y should do in vi,
              but it isn't what it actually does.

   Arguments
       digit-argument (ESC-0..ESC-9) (1-9) (unbound)
              Start a new numeric argument, or add to the  current  one.   See
              also vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line.  This only works if bound to
              a key sequence ending in a decimal digit.

              Inside a widget function, a call to  this  function  treats  the
              last  key  of  the  key  sequence which called the widget as the
              digit.

       neg-argument (ESC--) (unbound) (unbound)
              Changes the sign of the following argument.

       universal-argument
              Multiply the argument of the next command by 4.   Alternatively,
              if  this  command  is  followed by an integer (positive or nega-
              tive), use that as the argument for the next command.  Thus dig-
              its cannot be repeated using this command.  For example, if this
              command occurs twice, followed immediately by forward-char, move
              forward  sixteen  spaces;  if instead it is followed by -2, then
              forward-char, move backward two spaces.

              Inside a widget function, if passed an argument, i.e. `zle  uni-
              versal-argument  num',  the numeric argument will be set to num;
              this is equivalent to `NUMERIC=num'.

       argument-base
              Use the existing numeric argument as a numeric base, which  must
              be   in  the  range  2  to  36  inclusive.   Subsequent  use  of
              digit-argument and universal-argument will input a  new  numeric
              argument in the given base.  The usual hexadecimal convention is
              used: the letter a or A corresponds to 10, and so on.  Arguments
              in  bases requiring digits from 10 upwards are more conveniently
              input with universal-argument, since ESC-a etc. are not  usually
              bound to digit-argument.

              The  function  can  be  used  with  a  command argument inside a
              user-defined widget.  The following code sets the base to 16 and
              lets  the  user  input a hexadecimal argument until a key out of
              the digit range is typed:

                     zle argument-base 16
                     zle universal-argument

   Completion
       accept-and-menu-complete
              In a menu completion, insert the  current  completion  into  the
              buffer, and advance to the next possible completion.

       complete-word
              Attempt completion on the current word.

       delete-char-or-list (^D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete  the character under the cursor.  If the cursor is at the
              end of the line, list possible completions for the current word.

       expand-cmd-path
              Expand the current command to its full pathname.

       expand-or-complete (TAB) (unbound) (TAB)
              Attempt  shell  expansion  on  the current word.  If that fails,
              attempt completion.

       expand-or-complete-prefix
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word up to cursor.

       expand-history (ESC-space ESC-!) (unbound) (unbound)
              Perform history expansion on the edit buffer.

       expand-word (^X*) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.

       list-choices (ESC-^D) (^D =) (^D)
              List possible completions for the current word.

       list-expand (^Xg ^XG) (^G) (^G)
              List the expansion of the current word.

       magic-space
              Perform history expansion and insert a space  into  the  buffer.
              This is intended to be bound to space.

       menu-complete
              Like  complete-word,  except  that menu completion is used.  See
              the MENU_COMPLETE option.

       menu-expand-or-complete
              Like expand-or-complete, except that menu completion is used.

       reverse-menu-complete
              Perform menu completion, like menu-complete, except  that  if  a
              menu  completion  is  already  in progress, move to the previous
              completion rather than the next.

       end-of-list
              When a previous completion displayed a list  below  the  prompt,
              this widget can be used to move the prompt below the list.

   Miscellaneous
       accept-and-hold (ESC-A ESC-a) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push  the contents of the buffer on the buffer stack and execute
              it.

       accept-and-infer-next-history
              Execute the contents of the buffer.   Then  search  the  history
              list for a line matching the current one and push the event fol-
              lowing onto the buffer stack.

       accept-line (^J ^M) (^J ^M) (^J ^M)
              Finish editing the buffer.  Normally this causes the  buffer  to
              be executed as a shell command.

       accept-line-and-down-history (^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Execute the current line, and push the next history event on the
              buffer stack.

       auto-suffix-remove
              If the previous action added a suffix (space,  slash,  etc.)  to
              the  word on the command line, remove it.  Otherwise do nothing.
              Removing the suffix ends any  active  menu  completion  or  menu
              selection.

              This  widget  is intended to be called from user-defined widgets
              to enforce a desired suffix-removal behavior.

       auto-suffix-retain
              If the previous action added a suffix (space,  slash,  etc.)  to
              the  word on the command line, force it to be preserved.  Other-
              wise do nothing.  Retaining the suffix ends any active menu com-
              pletion or menu selection.

              This  widget  is intended to be called from user-defined widgets
              to enforce a desired suffix-preservation behavior.

       beep   Beep, unless the BEEP option is unset.

       bracketed-paste
              This widget is invoked when text is pasted to the terminal  emu-
              lator. It is not intended to be bound to actual keys but instead
              to the special sequence generated by the terminal emulator  when
              text is pasted.

              When  invoked  interactively, the pasted text is inserted to the
              buffer and placed in the cutbuffer.  If a  numeric  argument  is
              given,  shell  quoting will be applied to the pasted text before
              it is inserted.

              When a named buffer is specified with  vi-set-buffer  ("x),  the
              pasted text is stored in that named buffer but not inserted.

              When  called  from  a widget function as `bracketed-paste name`,
              the pasted text is assigned to the variable name  and  no  other
              processing is done.

              See also the zle_bracketed_paste parameter.

       vi-cmd-mode (^X^V) (unbound) (^[)
              Enter  command  mode;  that is, select the `vicmd' keymap.  Yes,
              this is bound by default in emacs mode.

       vi-caps-lock-panic
              Hang until any lowercase key is pressed.  This is for  vi  users
              without the mental capacity to keep track of their caps lock key
              (like the author).

       clear-screen (^L ESC-^L) (^L) (^L)
              Clear the screen and redraw the prompt.

       deactivate-region
              Make the current region inactive. This disables vim-style visual
              selection mode if it is active.

       describe-key-briefly
              Reads  a  key  sequence,  then prints the function bound to that
              sequence.

       exchange-point-and-mark (^X^X) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the cursor position (point) with the  position  of  the
              mark.   Unless  a negative numeric argument is given, the region
              between point and mark is activated so  that  it  can  be  high-
              lighted.   If  a  zero  numeric argument is given, the region is
              activated but point and mark are not swapped.

       execute-named-cmd (ESC-x) (:) (unbound)
              Read the name of an editor command  and  execute  it.   Aliasing
              this  widget  with `zle -A' or replacing it with `zle -N' has no
              effect  when  interpreting   key   bindings,   but   `zle   exe-
              cute-named-cmd' will invoke such an alias or replacement.

              A  restricted  set  of  editing  functions  is  available in the
              mini-buffer.  Keys are looked up in the special command  keymap,
              and if not found there in the main keymap.  An interrupt signal,
              as defined by the stty setting, will abort the  function.   Note
              that  the following always perform the same task within the exe-
              cuted-named-cmd environment  and  cannot  be  replaced  by  user
              defined  widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended.  The
              allowed   functions    are:    backward-delete-char,    vi-back-
              ward-delete-char,    clear-screen,   redisplay,   quoted-insert,
              vi-quoted-insert,   backward-kill-word,   vi-backward-kill-word,
              kill-whole-line, vi-kill-line, backward-kill-line, list-choices,
              delete-char-or-list, complete-word, accept-line,  expand-or-com-
              plete and expand-or-complete-prefix.

              kill-region  kills the last word, and vi-cmd-mode is treated the
              same as accept-line.  The space and tab characters, if not bound
              to  one of these functions, will complete the name and then list
              the possibilities if the AUTO_LIST option  is  set.   Any  other
              character that is not bound to self-insert or self-insert-unmeta
              will beep and be ignored.  The bindings of  the  current  insert
              mode will be used.

              Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       execute-last-named-cmd (ESC-z) (unbound) (unbound)
              Redo the last function executed with execute-named-cmd.

              Like  execute-named-cmd,  this command may not be redefined, but
              it may be called by name.

       get-line (ESC-G ESC-g) (unbound) (unbound)
              Pop the top line off the buffer stack and insert it at the  cur-
              sor position.

       pound-insert (unbound) (#) (unbound)
              If  there  is no # character at the beginning of the buffer, add
              one to the beginning of each line.  If there is one, remove a  #
              from each line that has one.  In either case, accept the current
              line.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for  this  to
              have any usefulness.

       vi-pound-insert
              If there is no # character at the beginning of the current line,
              add one.  If there is one, remove it.  The  INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS
              option must be set for this to have any usefulness.

       push-input
              Push  the  entire  current  multiline  construct onto the buffer
              stack and return to the top-level (PS1) prompt.  If the  current
              parser  construct  is  only  a single line, this is exactly like
              push-line.  Next time the editor starts up  or  is  popped  with
              get-line, the construct will be popped off the top of the buffer
              stack and loaded into the editing buffer.

       push-line (^Q ESC-Q ESC-q) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the current buffer onto the  buffer  stack  and  clear  the
              buffer.   Next  time  the  editor  starts up, the buffer will be
              popped off the top of the buffer stack and loaded into the edit-
              ing buffer.

       push-line-or-edit
              At  the  top-level  (PS1) prompt, equivalent to push-line.  At a
              secondary (PS2) prompt, move the entire current  multiline  con-
              struct  into  the  editor  buffer.   The latter is equivalent to
              push-input followed by get-line.

       read-command
              Only useful from a user-defined widget.   A  keystroke  is  read
              just  as  in  normal operation, but instead of the command being
              executed the name of the  command  that  would  be  executed  is
              stored  in  the  shell parameter REPLY.  This can be used as the
              argument of a future zle command.  If the key  sequence  is  not
              bound, status 1 is returned; typically, however, REPLY is set to
              undefined-key to indicate a useless key sequence.

       recursive-edit
              Only useful from a user-defined widget.  At this  point  in  the
              function,  the  editor regains control until one of the standard
              widgets which would normally cause zle  to  exit  (typically  an
              accept-line  caused  by  hitting  the  return  key) is executed.
              Instead, control returns to the user-defined widget.  The status
              returned  is  non-zero if the return was caused by an error, but
              the function still continues executing and hence  may  tidy  up.
              This makes it safe for the user-defined widget to alter the com-
              mand line or key bindings temporarily.

              The following widget, caps-lock, serves as an example.

                     self-insert-ucase() {
                       LBUFFER+=${(U)KEYS[-1]}
                     }

                     integer stat

                     zle -N self-insert self-insert-ucase
                     zle -A caps-lock save-caps-lock
                     zle -A accept-line caps-lock

                     zle recursive-edit
                     stat=$?

                     zle -A .self-insert self-insert
                     zle -A save-caps-lock caps-lock
                     zle -D save-caps-lock

                     (( stat )) && zle send-break

                     return $stat

              This causes typed  letters  to  be  inserted  capitalised  until
              either  accept-line  (i.e. typically the return key) is typed or
              the caps-lock widget is invoked again; the later is  handled  by
              saving  the  old  definition  of caps-lock as save-caps-lock and
              then rebinding it to invoke accept-line.   Note  that  an  error
              from  the recursive edit is detected as a non-zero return status
              and propagated by using the send-break widget.

       redisplay (unbound) (^R) (^R)
              Redisplays the edit buffer.

       reset-prompt (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Force the prompts on both the left and right of the screen to be
              re-expanded,  then  redisplay  the  edit  buffer.  This reflects
              changes both to the prompt variables themselves and  changes  in
              the  expansion  of  the  values (for example, changes in time or
              directory, or changes to the value of variables referred  to  by
              the prompt).

              Otherwise, the prompt is only expanded each time zle starts, and
              when the display as been interrupted by output from another part
              of  the shell (such as a job notification) which causes the com-
              mand line to be reprinted.

       send-break (^G ESC-^G) (unbound) (unbound)
              Abort the current editor function,  e.g.  execute-named-command,
              or  the editor itself, e.g. if you are in vared. Otherwise abort
              the parsing of the current line; in this case the  aborted  line
              is  available  in  the  shell variable ZLE_LINE_ABORTED.  If the
              editor   is   aborted   from   within   vared,   the    variable
              ZLE_VARED_ABORTED is set.

       run-help (ESC-H ESC-h) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push  the  buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command
              `run-help cmd', where cmd is the current command.   run-help  is
              normally aliased to man.

       vi-set-buffer (unbound) (") (unbound)
              Specify a buffer to be used in the following command.  There are
              37 buffers that can be specified: the 26 `named' buffers  "a  to
              "z, the `yank' buffer "0, the nine `queued' buffers "1 to "9 and
              the `black hole' buffer "_.  The named buffers can also be spec-
              ified as "A to "Z.

              When  a  buffer  is specified for a cut, change or yank command,
              the text concerned replaces the previous contents of the  speci-
              fied buffer. If a named buffer is specified using a capital, the
              newly cut text is appended to the buffer instead of  overwriting
              it.  When using the "_ buffer, nothing happens. This can be use-
              ful for deleting text without affecting any buffers.

              If no buffer is specified for a cut or  change  command,  "1  is
              used,  and  the  contents of "1 to "8 are each shifted along one
              buffer; the contents of "9 is lost. If no  buffer  is  specified
              for a yank command, "0 is used. Finally, a paste command without
              a specified buffer will paste the text from the most recent com-
              mand  regardless  of  any  buffer that might have been used with
              that command.

              When called from a widget  function  by  the  zle  command,  the
              buffer  can  optionally be specified with an argument. For exam-
              ple,

                     zle vi-set-buffer A

       vi-set-mark (unbound) (m) (unbound)
              Set the specified mark at the cursor position.

       set-mark-command (^@) (unbound) (unbound)
              Set the mark at the cursor position.  If called with a  negative
              numeric  argument, do not set the mark but deactivate the region
              so that it is no longer highlighted  (it  is  still  usable  for
              other purposes).  Otherwise the region is marked as active.

       spell-word (ESC-$ ESC-S ESC-s) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt spelling correction on the current word.

       split-undo
              Breaks  the undo sequence at the current change.  This is useful
              in vi mode as changes made  in  insert  mode  are  coalesced  on
              entering  command mode.  Similarly, undo will normally revert as
              one all the changes made by a user-defined widget.

       undefined-key
              This command is executed when a key sequence that is  not  bound
              to any command is typed.  By default it beeps.

       undo (^_ ^Xu ^X^U) (u) (unbound)
              Incrementally undo the last text modification.  When called from
              a user-defined widget, takes an optional argument  indicating  a
              previous   state   of  the  undo  history  as  returned  by  the
              UNDO_CHANGE_NO variable; modifications  are  undone  until  that
              state   is   reached,  subject  to  any  limit  imposed  by  the
              UNDO_LIMIT_NO variable.

              Note that when invoked from vi  command  mode,  the  full  prior
              change  made in insert mode is reverted, the changes having been
              merged when command mode was selected.

       redo (unbound) (^R) (unbound)
              Incrementally redo undone text modifications.

       vi-undo-change (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Undo the last text modification.  If repeated, redo the  modifi-
              cation.

       visual-mode (unbound) (v) (unbound)
              Toggle vim-style visual selection mode. If line-wise visual mode
              is currently enabled then it is changed to being character-wise.
              If used following an operator, it forces the subsequent movement
              command to be treated as a character-wise movement.

       visual-line-mode (unbound) (V) (unbound)
              Toggle vim-style line-wise visual  selection  mode.  If  charac-
              ter-wise  visual mode is currently enabled then it is changed to
              being line-wise. If used following an operator,  it  forces  the
              subsequent  movement  command to be treated as a line-wise move-
              ment.

       what-cursor-position (^X=) (ga) (unbound)
              Print the character under the cursor, its code as an octal, dec-
              imal  and hexadecimal number, the current cursor position within
              the buffer and the column of the cursor in the current line.

       where-is
              Read the name of an editor command and print the listing of  key
              sequences  that  invoke the specified command.  A restricted set
              of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.  Keys  are
              looked  up in the special command keymap, and if not found there
              in the main keymap.

       which-command (ESC-?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute  the  command
              `which-command   cmd'.   where   cmd  is  the  current  command.
              which-command is normally aliased to whence.

       vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line (unbound) (0) (unbound)
              If the last command executed was a digit as part of an argument,
              continue the argument.  Otherwise, execute vi-beginning-of-line.

   Text Objects
       Text objects are commands that can be used to select a  block  of  text
       according  to  some criteria. They are a feature of the vim text editor
       and so are primarily intended for use with vi operators or from  visual
       selection  mode. However, they can also be used from vi-insert or emacs
       mode. Key bindings listed below apply to the viopp and visual  keymaps.

       select-a-blank-word (aW)
              Select a word including adjacent blanks, where a word is defined
              as a series of non-blank characters. With  a  numeric  argument,
              multiple words will be selected.

       select-a-shell-word (aa)
              Select  the  current  command argument applying the normal rules
              for quoting.

       select-a-word (aw)
              Select a  word  including  adjacent  blanks,  using  the  normal
              vi-style  word  definition.  With  a  numeric argument, multiple
              words will be selected.

       select-in-blank-word (iW)
              Select a word, where a word is defined as a series of  non-blank
              characters.  With  a  numeric  argument,  multiple words will be
              selected.

       select-in-shell-word (ia)
              Select the current command argument applying  the  normal  rules
              for quoting. If the argument begins and ends with matching quote
              characters, these are not included in the selection.

       select-in-word (iw)
              Select a word, using the normal vi-style word definition. With a
              numeric argument, multiple words will be selected.



CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING

       The  line  editor has the ability to highlight characters or regions of
       the line that have a particular significance.  This  is  controlled  by
       the array parameter zle_highlight, if it has been set by the user.

       If  the  parameter  contains  the single entry none all highlighting is
       turned off.  Note the parameter is still expected to be an array.

       Otherwise each entry of the array should consist of a word indicating a
       context  for highlighting, then a colon, then a comma-separated list of
       the types of highlighting to apply in that context.

       The contexts available for highlighting are the following:

       default
              Any text within the command line not affected by any other high-
              lighting.  Text outside the editable area of the command line is
              not affected.

       isearch
              When one of the incremental history search  widgets  is  active,
              the  area  of  the  command line matched by the search string or
              pattern.

       region The currently selected  text.  In  emacs  terminology,  this  is
              referred  to  as the region and is bounded by the cursor (point)
              and the mark. The region is only highlighted if  it  is  active,
              which  is the case after the mark is modified with set-mark-com-
              mand or exchange-point-and-mark.  Note that whether or  not  the
              region  is  active  has  no effect on its use within emacs style
              widgets, it simply determines whether it is highlighted.  In  vi
              mode, the region corresponds to selected text in visual mode.

       special
              Individual  characters that have no direct printable representa-
              tion but are shown in a  special  manner  by  the  line  editor.
              These characters are described below.

       suffix This  context  is  used  in  completion  for characters that are
              marked as suffixes that will be removed if the  completion  ends
              at  that point, the most obvious example being a slash (/) after
              a directory name.  Note that suffix removal is configurable; the
              circumstances  under which the suffix will be removed may differ
              for different completions.

       paste  Following a command to paste  text,  the  characters  that  were
              inserted.

       When  region_highlight  is  set, the contexts that describe a region --
       isearch,  region,  suffix,  and  paste  --  are  applied  first,   then
       region_highlight  is applied, then the remaining zle_highlight contexts
       are applied.  If a particular character is affected by multiple  speci-
       fications, the last specification wins.

       zle_highlight  may contain additional fields for controlling how termi-
       nal sequences to change colours are output.  Each of the  following  is
       followed  by a colon and a string in the same form as for key bindings.
       This will not be necessary for the vast majority of  terminals  as  the
       defaults shown in parentheses are widely used.

       fg_start_code (\e[3)
              The  start  of  the  escape  sequence for the foreground colour.
              This is followed by an ASCII digit representing the colour.

       fg_default_code (9)
              The number to use instead of the colour  to  reset  the  default
              foreground colour.

       fg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.

       bg_start_code (\e[4)
              The  start  of  the  escape  sequence for the background colour.
              This is followed by an ASCII digit representing the colour.

       bg_default_code (9)
              The number to use instead of the colour  to  reset  the  default
              background colour.

       bg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the background colour.

       The  available  types of highlighting are the following.  Note that not
       all types of highlighting are available on all terminals:

       none   No highlighting is applied to the given context.  It is not use-
              ful  for  this to appear with other types of highlighting; it is
              used to override a default.

       fg=colour
              The foreground colour should be set to colour, a decimal integer
              or the name of one of the eight most widely-supported colours.

              Not  all  terminals  support this and, of those that do, not all
              provide facilities to test the support, hence  the  user  should
              decide  based  on the terminal type.  Most terminals support the
              colours black, red,  green,  yellow,  blue,  magenta,  cyan  and
              white,  which  can  be set by name.  In addition. default may be
              used to set the terminal's default foreground colour.  Abbrevia-
              tions  are  allowed;  b or bl selects black.  Some terminals may
              generate additional  colours  if  the  bold  attribute  is  also
              present.

              On  recent  terminals and on systems with an up-to-date terminal
              database the number of colours supported may be  tested  by  the
              command  `echotc  Co'; if this succeeds, it indicates a limit on
              the number of colours which will be enforced by the line editor.
              The  number  of  colours is in any case limited to 256 (i.e. the
              range 0 to 255).

              Colour is also known as color.

       bg=colour
              The background colour should be set to colour.  This works simi-
              larly  to  the  foreground  colour, except the background is not
              usually affected by the bold attribute.

       bold   The characters in the given context are shown in  a  bold  font.
              Not all terminals distinguish bold fonts.

       standout
              The  characters in the given context are shown in the terminal's
              standout mode.  The actual effect is specific to  the  terminal;
              on  many terminals it is inverse video.  On some such terminals,
              where the cursor does not blink it appears  with  standout  mode
              negated, making it less than clear where the cursor actually is.
              On such terminals one of the other effects may be preferable for
              highlighting the region and matched search string.

       underline
              The  characters in the given context are shown underlined.  Some
              terminals show the foreground in a different colour instead;  in
              this case whitespace will not be highlighted.

       The  characters  described above as `special' are as follows.  The for-
       matting described here is used irrespective of whether  the  characters
       are highlighted:

       ASCII control characters
              Control  characters in the ASCII range are shown as `^' followed
              by the base character.

       Unprintable multibyte characters
              This item applies to control characters not in the ASCII  range,
              plus other characters as follows.  If the MULTIBYTE option is in
              effect, multibyte characters not in the ASCII character set that
              are reported as having zero width are treated as combining char-
              acters when the option COMBINING_CHARS is on.  If the option  is
              off,  or  if  a character appears where a combining character is
              not valid, the character is treated as unprintable.

              Unprintable multibyte characters are shown as a hexadecimal num-
              ber between angle brackets.  The number is the code point of the
              character in the wide character set; this may or may not be Uni-
              code, depending on the operating system.

       Invalid multibyte characters
              If  the  MULTIBYTE  option  is in effect, any sequence of one or
              more bytes that does not form a valid character in  the  current
              character  set  is  treated as a series of bytes each shown as a
              special character.  This case can be  distinguished  from  other
              unprintable characters as the bytes are represented as two hexa-
              decimal digits between angle brackets, as distinct from the four
              or  eight  digits  that are used for unprintable characters that
              are nonetheless valid in the current character set.

              Not all systems support this: for it to work, the system's  rep-
              resentation of wide characters must be code values from the Uni-
              versal Character Set, as defined by IS0  10646  (also  known  as
              Unicode).

       Wrapped double-width characters
              When  a  double-width character appears in the final column of a
              line, it is instead shown on the next line. The empty space left
              in  the original position is highlighted as a special character.

       If zle_highlight is not set or no value applies to  a  particular  con-
       text, the defaults applied are equivalent to

              zle_highlight=(region:standout special:standout
              suffix:bold isearch:underline paste:standout)

       i.e. both the region and special characters are shown in standout mode.

       Within widgets, arbitrary regions may be  highlighted  by  setting  the
       special array parameter region_highlight; see above.




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