manpagez: man(ual) pages & more
man zshzle(1)
Home | html | info | man
zshzle(1)                                                            zshzle(1)




NAME

       zshzle - zsh command line editor


DESCRIPTION

       If the ZLE option is set (which it is by default in interactive shells)
       and the shell input is attached to the terminal, the user  is  able  to
       edit command lines.

       There  are  two  display  modes.   The  first,  multiline  mode, is the
       default.  It only works if the TERM parameter is set to a valid  termi-
       nal type that can move the cursor up.  The second, single line mode, is
       used if TERM is invalid or incapable of moving the cursor up, or if the
       SINGLE_LINE_ZLE  option  is set.  This mode is similar to ksh, and uses
       no termcap sequences.  If TERM is "emacs", the ZLE option will be unset
       by default.

       The  parameters BAUD, COLUMNS, and LINES are also used by the line edi-
       tor. See Parameters Used By The Shell in zshparam(1).

       The parameter zle_highlight is also used by the line editor; see  Char-
       acter  Highlighting  below.  Highlighting of special characters and the
       region between the cursor and the mark (as set with set-mark-command in
       Emacs  mode,  or by visual-mode in Vi mode) is enabled by default; con-
       sult this reference for more information.  Irascible conservatives will
       wish  to  know  that  all highlighting may be disabled by the following
       setting:

              zle_highlight=(none)

       In many places, references are made to the numeric argument.  This  can
       by default be entered in emacs mode by holding the alt key and typing a
       number, or pressing escape before each digit, and in vi command mode by
       typing  the  number  before  entering a command.  Generally the numeric
       argument causes the next command entered to be repeated  the  specified
       number  of  times, unless otherwise noted below. See also the Arguments
       subsection of the Widgets section for some other ways the numeric argu-
       ment  can  be  modified.  The  default  bindings mentioned here use the
       digit-argument widget.




KEYMAPS

       A keymap in ZLE contains a set of bindings between  key  sequences  and
       ZLE commands.  The empty key sequence cannot be bound.

       There can be any number of keymaps at any time, and each keymap has one
       or more names.  If all of a keymap's names are deleted, it  disappears.
       bindkey can be used to manipulate keymap names.

       Initially, there are eight keymaps:

       emacs  EMACS emulation
       viins  vi emulation - insert mode
       vicmd  vi emulation - command mode
       viopp  vi emulation - operator pending
       visual vi emulation - selection active
       isearch
              incremental search mode
       command
              read a command name
       .safe  fallback keymap

       The  `.safe'  keymap is special.  It can never be altered, and the name
       can never be removed.  However, it can be linked to other names,  which
       can  be  removed.   In  the  future other special keymaps may be added;
       users should avoid  using  names  beginning  with  `.'  for  their  own
       keymaps.

       In addition to these names, either `emacs' or `viins' is also linked to
       the name `main'.  If one of the VISUAL or EDITOR environment  variables
       contain  the  string  `vi'  when  the  shell  starts up then it will be
       `viins', otherwise it will be `emacs'.  bindkey's  -e  and  -v  options
       provide a convenient way to override this default choice.

       When  the  editor starts up, it will select the `main' keymap.  If that
       keymap doesn't exist, it will use `.safe' instead.

       In the `.safe' keymap, each single key is bound to self-insert,  except
       for  ^J  (line  feed)  and  ^M (return) which are bound to accept-line.
       This is deliberately not pleasant to use; if you are using it, it means
       you deleted the main keymap, and you should put it back.

   Reading Commands
       When ZLE is reading a command from the terminal, it may read a sequence
       that is bound to some command and is also a prefix of  a  longer  bound
       string.  In this case ZLE will wait a certain time to see if more char-
       acters are typed, and if not (or they don't match any longer string) it
       will  execute  the  binding.  This timeout is defined by the KEYTIMEOUT
       parameter; its default is 0.4 sec.  There is no timeout if  the  prefix
       string is not itself bound to a command.

       The  key  timeout  is also applied when ZLE is reading the bytes from a
       multibyte character string when it is in the appropriate  mode.   (This
       requires that the shell was compiled with multibyte mode enabled; typi-
       cally also the locale has characters with the UTF-8 encoding,  although
       any multibyte encoding known to the operating system is supported.)  If
       the second or a subsequent byte is not read within the timeout  period,
       the shell acts as if ? were typed and resets the input state.

       As  well  as ZLE commands, key sequences can be bound to other strings,
       by using `bindkey -s'.  When such a sequence is read,  the  replacement
       string  is pushed back as input, and the command reading process starts
       again using these fake keystrokes.  This input can itself  invoke  fur-
       ther replacement strings, but in order to detect loops the process will
       be stopped if there are twenty such replacements without a real command
       being read.

       A  key sequence typed by the user can be turned into a command name for
       use in user-defined widgets with the read-command widget, described  in
       the subsection `Miscellaneous' of the section `Standard Widgets' below.

   Local Keymaps
       While for normal editing a single keymap is used exclusively,  in  many
       modes  a  local keymap allows for some keys to be customised. For exam-
       ple, in an incremental search mode, a binding  in  the  isearch  keymap
       will  override  a  binding in the main keymap but all keys that are not
       overridden can still be used.

       If a key sequence is defined in a local keymap,  it  will  hide  a  key
       sequence  in  the  global  keymap that is a prefix of that sequence. An
       example of this occurs with the binding of iw in viopp  as  this  hides
       the  binding  of  i  in vicmd. However, a longer sequence in the global
       keymap that shares the same prefix can still apply so for  example  the
       binding  of  ^Xa in the global keymap will be unaffected by the binding
       of ^Xb in the local keymap.



ZLE BUILTINS

       The ZLE module contains three related  builtin  commands.  The  bindkey
       command manipulates keymaps and key bindings; the vared command invokes
       ZLE on the value of a shell parameter; and the zle command  manipulates
       editing  widgets  and  allows  command line access to ZLE commands from
       within shell functions.

       bindkey [ options ] -l [ -L ] [ keymap ... ]
       bindkey [ options ] -d
       bindkey [ options ] -D keymap ...
       bindkey [ options ] -A old-keymap new-keymap
       bindkey [ options ] -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
       bindkey [ options ] -m
       bindkey [ options ] -r in-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] -s in-string out-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] in-string command ...
       bindkey [ options ] [ in-string ]
              bindkey's options can be divided into three  categories:  keymap
              selection for the current command, operation selection, and oth-
              ers.  The keymap selection options are:

              -e     Selects keymap `emacs' for any operations by the  current
                     command,  and  also links `emacs' to `main' so that it is
                     selected by default the next time the editor starts.

              -v     Selects keymap `viins' for any operations by the  current
                     command,  and  also links `viins' to `main' so that it is
                     selected by default the next time the editor starts.

              -a     Selects keymap `vicmd' for any operations by the  current
                     command.

              -M keymap
                     The  keymap  specifies a keymap name that is selected for
                     any operations by the current command.

              If a keymap selection is required and none of the options  above
              are  used,  the  `main'  keymap is used.  Some operations do not
              permit a keymap to be selected, namely:

              -l     List all existing keymap  names;  if  any  arguments  are
                     given, list just those keymaps.

                     If  the -L option is also used, list in the form of bind-
                     key commands to create or link the keymaps.  `bindkey -lL
                     main' shows which keymap is linked to `main', if any, and
                     hence if the standard emacs or vi emulation is in effect.
                     This  option  does  not  show the .safe keymap because it
                     cannot be created in that fashion;  however,  neither  is
                     `bindkey  -lL .safe' reported as an error, it simply out-
                     puts nothing.

              -d     Delete all existing keymaps  and  reset  to  the  default
                     state.

              -D keymap ...
                     Delete the named keymaps.

              -A old-keymap new-keymap
                     Make the new-keymap name an alias for old-keymap, so that
                     both names refer to the  same  keymap.   The  names  have
                     equal  standing; if either is deleted, the other remains.
                     If there is already a keymap with the new-keymap name, it
                     is deleted.

              -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
                     Create  a  new  keymap,  named  new-keymap.   If a keymap
                     already has that name, it is deleted.  If  an  old-keymap
                     name  is  given,  the  new  keymap is initialized to be a
                     duplicate of it, otherwise the new keymap will be  empty.

              To  use  a  newly  created  keymap, it should be linked to main.
              Hence the sequence of commands to create and use  a  new  keymap
              `mymap'   initialized  from  the  emacs  keymap  (which  remains
              unchanged) is:

                     bindkey -N mymap emacs
                     bindkey -A mymap main

              Note that while `bindkey -A newmap main' will work  when  newmap
              is emacs or viins, it will not work for vicmd, as switching from
              vi insert to command mode becomes impossible.

              The following operations act on the `main' keymap if  no  keymap
              selection option was given:

              -m     Add the built-in set of meta-key bindings to the selected
                     keymap.   Only  keys  that  are  unbound  or   bound   to
                     self-insert are affected.

              -r in-string ...
                     Unbind  the  specified in-strings in the selected keymap.
                     This is exactly equivalent  to  binding  the  strings  to
                     undefined-key.

                     When -R is also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

                     When -p is also used, the  in-strings  specify  prefixes.
                     Any binding that has the given in-string as a prefix, not
                     including the binding for the in-string itself,  if  any,
                     will be removed.  For example,

                            bindkey -rpM viins '^['

                     will  remove  all bindings in the vi-insert keymap begin-
                     ning with an escape character (probably cursor keys), but
                     leave the binding for the escape character itself (proba-
                     bly vi-cmd-mode).  This is incompatible with  the  option
                     -R.

              -s in-string out-string ...
                     Bind  each  in-string to each out-string.  When in-string
                     is typed, out-string will be pushed back and  treated  as
                     input  to  the line editor.  When -R is also used, inter-
                     pret the in-strings as ranges.

                     Note that both in-string and out-string  are  subject  to
                     the same form of interpretation, as described below.

              in-string command ...
                     Bind  each  in-string  to each command.  When -R is used,
                     interpret the in-strings as ranges.

              [ in-string ]
                     List key bindings.  If an  in-string  is  specified,  the
                     binding  of  that  string  in the selected keymap is dis-
                     played.  Otherwise, all  key  bindings  in  the  selected
                     keymap  are  displayed.  (As a special case, if the -e or
                     -v option is used alone, the keymap is  not  displayed  -
                     the  implicit  linking  of keymaps is the only thing that
                     happens.)

                     When the  option  -p  is  used,  the  in-string  must  be
                     present.   The  listing shows all bindings which have the
                     given key sequence as a prefix, not including  any  bind-
                     ings for the key sequence itself.

                     When  the  -L  option is used, the list is in the form of
                     bindkey commands to create the key bindings.

              When the -R option is used as noted above, a  valid  range  con-
              sists of two characters, with an optional `-' between them.  All
              characters between the two specified, inclusive,  are  bound  as
              specified.

              For   either  in-string  or  out-string,  the  following  escape
              sequences are recognised:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \e, \E escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \NNN   character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \M[-]X character with meta bit set
              \C[-]X control character
              ^X     control character

              In all other cases, `\' escapes the following character.  Delete
              is  written  as  `^?'.   Note that `\M^?' and `^\M?' are not the
              same, and that (unlike emacs), the bindings `\M-X' and `\eX' are
              entirely  distinct,  although  they  are initialized to the same
              bindings by `bindkey -m'.


       vared [ -Aache ] [ -p prompt ] [ -r rprompt ]
             [ -M main-keymap ] [ -m vicmd-keymap ]
             [ -i init-widget ] [ -f finish-widget ]
             [ -t tty ] name
              The value of the parameter name is loaded into the edit  buffer,
              and  the line editor is invoked.  When the editor exits, name is
              set to the string value returned by the  editor.   When  the  -c
              flag  is  given,  the parameter is created if it doesn't already
              exist.  The -a flag may be given with  -c  to  create  an  array
              parameter,  or  the  -A flag to create an associative array.  If
              the type of an existing parameter does not match the type to  be
              created, the parameter is unset and recreated.

              If an array or array slice is being edited, separator characters
              as defined in $IFS will be shown quoted  with  a  backslash,  as
              will  backslashes  themselves.  Conversely, when the edited text
              is split into an array, a backslash quotes an  immediately  fol-
              lowing  separator  character or backslash; no other special han-
              dling of backslashes, or any handling of quotes, is performed.

              Individual elements  of  existing  array  or  associative  array
              parameters may be edited by using subscript syntax on name.  New
              elements are created automatically, even without -c.

              If the -p flag is given, the following string will be  taken  as
              the prompt to display at the left.  If the -r flag is given, the
              following string gives the prompt to display at the  right.   If
              the  -h flag is specified, the history can be accessed from ZLE.
              If the -e flag is given, typing ^D (Control-D) on an empty  line
              causes vared to exit immediately with a non-zero return value.

              The  -M  option gives a keymap to link to the main keymap during
              editing, and the -m option gives a keymap to link to  the  vicmd
              keymap during editing.  For vi-style editing, this allows a pair
              of keymaps to override viins and vicmd.  For  emacs-style  edit-
              ing,  only  -M is normally needed but the -m option may still be
              used.  On exit, the previous keymaps will be restored.

              Vared calls  the  usual  `zle-line-init'  and  `zle-line-finish'
              hooks  before  and  after  it takes control. Using the -i and -f
              options, it is possible to replace these with other custom  wid-
              gets.

              If `-t tty' is given, tty is the name of a terminal device to be
              used instead of the default /dev/tty.  If tty does not refer  to
              a terminal an error is reported.

       zle
       zle -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ... ]
       zle -D widget ...
       zle -A old-widget new-widget
       zle -N widget [ function ]
       zle -f flag [ flag... ]
       zle -C widget completion-widget function
       zle -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
       zle -M string
       zle -U string
       zle -K keymap
       zle -F [ -L | -w ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
       zle -I
       zle -T [ tc function | -r tc | -L ]
       zle widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
              The  zle builtin performs a number of different actions concern-
              ing ZLE.

              With no options and no arguments, only the return status will be
              set.  It is zero if ZLE is currently active and widgets could be
              invoked using this builtin command and non-zero otherwise.  Note
              that  even  if  non-zero  status  is  returned, zle may still be
              active as part of the completion system;  this  does  not  allow
              direct calls to ZLE widgets.

              Otherwise, which operation it performs depends on its options:

              -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ]
                     List all existing user-defined widgets.  If the -L option
                     is used, list in the form of zle commands to  create  the
                     widgets.

                     When  combined  with  the -a option, all widget names are
                     listed, including the builtin ones. In this case  the  -L
                     option is ignored.

                     If  at least one string is given, and -a is present or -L
                     is not used, nothing will be printed.  The return  status
                     will be zero if all strings are names of existing widgets
                     and non-zero if at least one string is not a  name  of  a
                     defined  widget.  If -a is also present, all widget names
                     are used for the comparison  including  builtin  widgets,
                     else only user-defined widgets are used.

                     If  at  least  one string is present and the -L option is
                     used, user-defined widgets matching any string are listed
                     in the form of zle commands to create the widgets.

              -D widget ...
                     Delete the named widgets.

              -A old-widget new-widget
                     Make the new-widget name an alias for old-widget, so that
                     both names refer to the  same  widget.   The  names  have
                     equal  standing; if either is deleted, the other remains.
                     If there is already a widget with the new-widget name, it
                     is deleted.

              -N widget [ function ]
                     Create a user-defined widget.  If there is already a wid-
                     get with the specified name, it is overwritten.  When the
                     new  widget is invoked from within the editor, the speci-
                     fied shell function is called.  If no  function  name  is
                     specified,  it  defaults  to the same name as the widget.
                     For further information, see the section `Widgets' below.

              -f flag [ flag... ]
                     Set various flags on the running widget.  Possible values
                     for flag are:

                     yank for indicating that the widget has yanked text  into
                     the buffer.  If the widget is wrapping an existing inter-
                     nal widget, no further action is necessary, but if it has
                     inserted the text manually, then it should also take care
                     to set YANK_START  and  YANK_END  correctly.   yankbefore
                     does  the  same  but is used when the yanked text appears
                     after the cursor.

                     kill for indicating that text has been  killed  into  the
                     cutbuffer.   When repeatedly invoking a kill widget, text
                     is appended to the cutbuffer instead of replacing it, but
                     when  wrapping such widgets, it is necessary to call `zle
                     -f kill' to retain this effect.

              -C widget completion-widget function
                     Create a user-defined completion widget named widget. The
                     completion  widget  will behave like the built-in comple-
                     tion-widget whose name is given as completion-widget.  To
                     generate  the  completions,  the  shell function function
                     will be called.  For further  information,  see  zshcomp-
                     wid(1).

              -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
                     Redisplay  the  command  line;  this is to be called from
                     within a user-defined widget to allow changes  to  become
                     visible.   If  a  display-string  is given and not empty,
                     this is shown in the status line (immediately  below  the
                     line being edited).

                     If  the  optional strings are given they are listed below
                     the prompt in  the  same  way  as  completion  lists  are
                     printed.  If  no  strings  are given but the -c option is
                     used such a list is cleared.

                     Note that this option is only useful for widgets that  do
                     not  exit  immediately after using it because the strings
                     displayed will be erased immediately  after  return  from
                     the widget.

                     This  command  can  safely be called outside user defined
                     widgets; if zle is active, the display will be refreshed,
                     while  if  zle  is not active, the command has no effect.
                     In this case there will usually be no other arguments.

                     The status is zero if zle was active, else one.

              -M string
                     As with the -R option, the string will be displayed below
                     the  command  line; unlike the -R option, the string will
                     not be put into the  status  line  but  will  instead  be
                     printed  normally  below the prompt.  This means that the
                     string will still be displayed after the  widget  returns
                     (until it is overwritten by subsequent commands).

              -U string
                     This  pushes  the characters in the string onto the input
                     stack of ZLE.  After the widget currently  executed  fin-
                     ishes  ZLE will behave as if the characters in the string
                     were typed by the user.

                     As ZLE uses a stack, if this option  is  used  repeatedly
                     the  last  string pushed onto the stack will be processed
                     first.  However, the characters in each  string  will  be
                     processed  in  the  order  in  which  they  appear in the
                     string.

              -K keymap
                     Selects the keymap named keymap.  An error  message  will
                     be displayed if there is no such keymap.

                     This  keymap selection affects the interpretation of fol-
                     lowing keystrokes within this  invocation  of  ZLE.   Any
                     following  invocation  (e.g., the next command line) will
                     start as usual with the `main' keymap selected.

              -F [ -L | -w ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
                     Only available if your system supports one of the  `poll'
                     or `select' system calls; most modern systems do.

                     Installs handler (the name of a shell function) to handle
                     input from file descriptor fd.  Installing a handler  for
                     an  fd  which is already handled causes the existing han-
                     dler to be replaced.  Any number of handlers for any num-
                     ber  of readable file descriptors may be installed.  Note
                     that zle makes no attempt to check  whether  this  fd  is
                     actually  readable when installing the handler.  The user
                     must make their own arrangements for  handling  the  file
                     descriptor when zle is not active.

                     When zle is attempting to read data, it will examine both
                     the terminal and the  list  of  handled  fd's.   If  data
                     becomes available on a handled fd, zle calls handler with
                     the fd which is ready for reading as the first  argument.
                     Under normal circumstances this is the only argument, but
                     if an error was  detected,  a  second  argument  provides
                     details:  `hup'  for a disconnect, `nval' for a closed or
                     otherwise invalid descriptor, or `err' for any other con-
                     dition.   Systems  that  support only the `select' system
                     call always use `err'.

                     If the option -w is also given, the handler is instead  a
                     line  editor widget, typically a shell function made into
                     a widget using `zle -N'.  In that case  handler  can  use
                     all  the  facilities of zle to update the current editing
                     line.  Note, however, that as handling fd takes place  at
                     a low level changes to the display will not automatically
                     appear; the widget should call `zle -R' to  force  redis-
                     play.  As of this writing, widget handlers only support a
                     single argument and thus are never passed  a  string  for
                     error  state,  so  widgets  must  be prepared to test the
                     descriptor themselves.

                     If either type of handler produces output to  the  termi-
                     nal, it should call `zle -I' before doing so (see below).
                     Handlers should not attempt to read from the terminal.

                     If no handler is given, but an fd is present, any handler
                     for  that fd is removed.  If there is none, an error mes-
                     sage is printed and status 1 is returned.

                     If no arguments are given, or the -L option is  supplied,
                     a  list  of  handlers  is  printed in a form which can be
                     stored for later execution.

                     An fd (but not a handler) may optionally  be  given  with
                     the  -L  option; in this case, the function will list the
                     handler if any, else silently return status 1.

                     Note that this feature should be used with care.   Activ-
                     ity  on one of the fd's which is not properly handled can
                     cause the terminal to become unusable.   Removing  an  fd
                     handler from within a signal trap may cause unpredictable
                     behavior.

                     Here is a simple example of using this feature.   A  con-
                     nection  to  a  remote TCP port is created using the ztcp
                     command; see the description of the zsh/net/tcp module in
                     zshmodules(1).   Then a handler is installed which simply
                     prints out any data which  arrives  on  this  connection.
                     Note that `select' will indicate that the file descriptor
                     needs handling if the remote side has closed the  connec-
                     tion; we handle that by testing for a failed read.

                            if ztcp pwspc 2811; then
                              tcpfd=$REPLY
                              handler() {
                                zle -I
                                local line
                                if ! read -r line <&$1; then
                                  # select marks this fd if we reach EOF,
                                  # so handle this specially.
                                  print "[Read on fd $1 failed, removing.]" >&2
                                  zle -F $1
                                  return 1
                                fi
                                print -r - $line
                              }
                              zle -F $tcpfd handler
                            fi

              -I     Unusually,  this  option  is most useful outside ordinary
                     widget functions, though it may be used within if  normal
                     output  to  the terminal is required.  It invalidates the
                     current zle display in preparation for output;  typically
                     this  will  be from a trap function.  It has no effect if
                     zle is not active.  When a trap exits, the  shell  checks
                     to  see if the display needs restoring, hence the follow-
                     ing will print output in such a way as not to disturb the
                     line being edited:

                            TRAPUSR1() {
                              # Invalidate zle display
                              [[ -o zle ]] && zle -I
                              # Show output
                              print Hello
                            }

                     In  general,  the  trap function may need to test whether
                     zle is active before using this method (as shown  in  the
                     example),  since  the  zsh/zle  module  may  not  even be
                     loaded; if it is not, the command can be skipped.

                     It is possible to call `zle -I' several times before con-
                     trol  is returned to the editor; the display will only be
                     invalidated the first time to minimise disruption.

                     Note that there are normally better ways of  manipulating
                     the  display  from  within zle widgets; see, for example,
                     `zle -R' above.

                     The returned status is zero if zle was invalidated,  even
                     though  this may have been by a previous call to `zle -I'
                     or by a system notification.  To test if a zle widget may
                     be  called  at  this point, execute zle with no arguments
                     and examine the return status.

              -T     This is used to add, list or remove internal  transforma-
                     tions on the processing performed by the line editor.  It
                     is typically used only for debugging or  testing  and  is
                     therefore of little interest to the general user.

                     `zle  -T  transformation  func'  specifies that the given
                     transformation (see below) is effected by shell  function
                     func.

                     `zle -Tr transformation' removes the given transformation
                     if it was present (it is not an error if none was).

                     `zle -TL' can be used to list  all  transformations  cur-
                     rently in operation.

                     Currently  the  only  transformation is tc.  This is used
                     instead of outputting  termcap  codes  to  the  terminal.
                     When  the  transformation is in operation the shell func-
                     tion is passed the termcap code that would be  output  as
                     its  first  argument; if the operation required a numeric
                     argument, that is passed as a second argument.  The func-
                     tion  should  set  the shell variable REPLY to the trans-
                     formed termcap code.  Typically this is used  to  produce
                     some  simply  formatted  version of the code and optional
                     argument for debugging or testing.  Note that this trans-
                     formation is not applied to other non-printing characters
                     such as carriage returns and newlines.

              widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
                     Invoke the specified widget.  This can only be done  when
                     ZLE   is   active;   normally   this  will  be  within  a
                     user-defined widget.

                     With the options -n and -N, the current numeric  argument
                     will be saved and then restored after the call to widget;
                     `-n num' sets the numeric argument  temporarily  to  num,
                     while  `-N' sets it to the default, i.e. as if there were
                     none.

                     With the option -K, keymap will be used  as  the  current
                     keymap  during the execution of the widget.  The previous
                     keymap will be restored when the widget exits.

                     Normally, calling a widget in this way does not  set  the
                     special  parameter WIDGET and related parameters, so that
                     the environment appears as if the top-level widget called
                     by  the user were still active.  With the option -w, WID-
                     GET and related parameters are set to reflect the  widget
                     being executed by the zle call.

                     Any  further arguments will be passed to the widget; note
                     that as standard argument handling is performed, any gen-
                     eral  argument list should be preceded by --.  If it is a
                     shell function,  these  are  passed  down  as  positional
                     parameters; for builtin widgets it is up to the widget in
                     question what it does with them.  Currently arguments are
                     only handled by the incremental-search commands, the his-
                     tory-search-forward and -backward and  the  corresponding
                     functions prefixed by vi-, and by universal-argument.  No
                     error is flagged if the command does not  use  the  argu-
                     ments, or only uses some of them.

                     The  return status reflects the success or failure of the
                     operation carried out by  the  widget,  or  if  it  is  a
                     user-defined  widget the return status of the shell func-
                     tion.

                     A non-zero return status causes the shell  to  beep  when
                     the  widget  exits,  unless the BEEP options was unset or
                     the widget was called via the zle  command.   Thus  if  a
                     user defined widget requires an immediate beep, it should
                     call the beep widget directly.



WIDGETS

       All actions in the editor are performed by `widgets'.  A  widget's  job
       is  simply  to  perform  some  small action.  The ZLE commands that key
       sequences in keymaps are bound to are in fact widgets.  Widgets can  be
       user-defined or built in.

       The  standard  widgets  built  into  ZLE are listed in Standard Widgets
       below.  Other built-in widgets can be defined  by  other  modules  (see
       zshmodules(1)).  Each built-in widget has two names: its normal canoni-
       cal name, and the same name preceded by a `.'.  The `.'  name  is  spe-
       cial: it can't be rebound to a different widget.  This makes the widget
       available even when its usual name has been redefined.

       User-defined widgets are defined using `zle  -N',  and  implemented  as
       shell  functions.  When the widget is executed, the corresponding shell
       function is executed, and can perform editing (or other)  actions.   It
       is recommended that user-defined widgets should not have names starting
       with `.'.


USER-DEFINED WIDGETS

       User-defined widgets, being implemented as shell functions, can execute
       any  normal  shell  command.   They can also run other widgets (whether
       built-in or user-defined) using the zle builtin command.  The  standard
       input of the function is closed to prevent external commands from unin-
       tentionally blocking ZLE by reading from the terminal, but read  -k  or
       read  -q can be used to read characters.  Finally, they can examine and
       edit the ZLE buffer being edited by reading  and  setting  the  special
       parameters described below.

       These  special parameters are always available in widget functions, but
       are not in any way special outside ZLE.  If they have some normal value
       outside  ZLE,  that  value is temporarily inaccessible, but will return
       when the widget function exits.  These special parameters in fact  have
       local scope, like parameters created in a function using local.

       Inside  completion  widgets and traps called while ZLE is active, these
       parameters are available read-only.

       Note that the parameters appear as local to any  ZLE  widget  in  which
       they  appear.  Hence if it is desired to override them this needs to be
       done within a nested function:

              widget-function() {
                # $WIDGET here refers to the special variable
                # that is local inside widget-function
                () {
                   # This anonymous nested function allows WIDGET
                   # to be used as a local variable.  The -h
                   # removes the special status of the variable.
                   local -h WIDGET
                }
              }

       BUFFER (scalar)
              The entire contents of the edit buffer.  If it  is  written  to,
              the  cursor remains at the same offset, unless that would put it
              outside the buffer.

       BUFFERLINES (integer)
              The number of screen lines needed for the edit buffer  currently
              displayed  on  screen (i.e. without any changes to the preceding
              parameters done after the last redisplay); read-only.

       CONTEXT (scalar)
              The context in which zle was called to read a  line;  read-only.
              One of the values:

              start  The start of a command line (at prompt PS1).

              cont   A continuation to a command line (at prompt PS2).

              select In a select loop.

              vared  Editing a variable in vared.

       CURSOR (integer)
              The  offset  of  the cursor, within the edit buffer.  This is in
              the  range  0  to  $#BUFFER,  and  is  by  definition  equal  to
              $#LBUFFER.   Attempts to move the cursor outside the buffer will
              result in the cursor being moved to the appropriate end  of  the
              buffer.

       CUTBUFFER (scalar)
              The  last item cut using one of the `kill-' commands; the string
              which the next yank would insert in the line.  Later entries  in
              the  kill ring are in the array killring.  Note that the command
              `zle copy-region-as-kill string' can be used to set the text  of
              the  cut buffer from a shell function and cycle the kill ring in
              the same way as interactively killing text.

       HISTNO (integer)
              The current history number.  Setting this has the same effect as
              moving  up  or  down in the history to the corresponding history
              line.  An attempt to set it is ignored if the line is not stored
              in  the  history.   Note  this  is not the same as the parameter
              HISTCMD, which always gives the number of the history line being
              added  to  the  main shell's history.  HISTNO refers to the line
              being retrieved within zle.

       KEYMAP (scalar)
              The name of the currently selected keymap; read-only.

       KEYS (scalar)
              The keys typed to invoke  this  widget,  as  a  literal  string;
              read-only.

       killring (array)
              The  array  of  previously  killed items, with the most recently
              killed first.  This gives the items that would be retrieved by a
              yank-pop  in  the  same  order.   Note,  however,  that the most
              recently killed item is in $CUTBUFFER; $killring shows the array
              of previous entries.

              The  default size for the kill ring is eight, however the length
              may be changed by normal array operations.  Any empty string  in
              the kill ring is ignored by the yank-pop command, hence the size
              of the array effectively sets the maximum  length  of  the  kill
              ring,  while  the  number  of non-zero strings gives the current
              length, both as seen by the user at the command line.

       LASTABORTEDSEARCH (scalar)
              The last search string used by an interactive  search  that  was
              aborted by the user (status 3 returned by the search widget).

       LASTSEARCH (scalar)
              The last search string used by an interactive search; read-only.
              This is set even if the search failed (status 0, 1 or 2 returned
              by the search widget), but not if it was aborted by the user.

       LASTWIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the last widget that was executed; read-only.

       LBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to the left of the cursor posi-
              tion.  If it is assigned to, only that part  of  the  buffer  is
              replaced,  and  the  cursor remains between the new $LBUFFER and
              the old $RBUFFER.

       MARK (integer)
              Like CURSOR, but for the mark. With vi-mode operators that  wait
              for  a movement command to select a region of text, setting MARK
              allows the selection to extend in both directions from  the  the
              initial cursor position.

       NUMERIC (integer)
              The  numeric  argument.  If  no numeric argument was given, this
              parameter is unset. When this is set inside a  widget  function,
              builtin widgets called with the zle builtin command will use the
              value assigned. If it is unset inside a widget function, builtin
              widgets called behave as if no numeric argument was given.

       PENDING (integer)
              The  number of bytes pending for input, i.e. the number of bytes
              which have already been typed and can immediately  be  read.  On
              systems  where  the  shell  is not able to get this information,
              this parameter will always have a value of zero.  Read-only.

       PREBUFFER (scalar)
              In a multi-line input at the secondary  prompt,  this  read-only
              parameter  contains the contents of the lines before the one the
              cursor is currently in.

       PREDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text to be displayed before  the  start  of  the  editable  text
              buffer.   This does not have to be a complete line; to display a
              complete line, a newline must be appended explicitly.  The  text
              is  reset  on each new invocation (but not recursive invocation)
              of zle.

       POSTDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text to be displayed after the end of the editable text  buffer.
              This  does not have to be a complete line; to display a complete
              line, a newline must be prepended explicitly.  The text is reset
              on each new invocation (but not recursive invocation) of zle.

       RBUFFER (scalar)
              The  part  of  the  buffer  that lies to the right of the cursor
              position.  If it is assigned to, only that part of the buffer is
              replaced,  and  the  cursor remains between the old $LBUFFER and
              the new $RBUFFER.

       REGION_ACTIVE (integer)
              Indicates if the region is currently active.  It can be assigned
              0  or  1  to  deactivate and activate the region respectively. A
              value of 2 activates the region in line-wise mode with the high-
              lighted text extending for whole lines only; see Character High-
              lighting below.

       region_highlight (array)
              Each element of this array may be set to a string that describes
              highlighting  for  an  arbitrary region of the command line that
              will take effect the next time the command line is  redisplayed.
              Highlighting  of  the  non-editable parts of the command line in
              PREDISPLAY and POSTDISPLAY are possible, but  note  that  the  P
              flag is needed for character indexing to include PREDISPLAY.

              Each string consists of the following parts:

              o      Optionally,  a `P' to signify that the start and end off-
                     set that follow include any string set by the  PREDISPLAY
                     special  parameter;  this  is  needed  if  the predisplay
                     string itself is to be highlighted.  Whitespace may  fol-
                     low the `P'.

              o      A start offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.

              o      An end offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated  by
                     whitespace.

              o      A  highlight specification in the same format as used for
                     contexts in the parameter zle_highlight, see the  section
                     `Character  Highlighting' below; for example, standout or
                     fg=red,bold

              For example,

                     region_highlight=("P0 20 bold")

              specifies that the first twenty characters of the text including
              any predisplay string should be highlighted in bold.

              Note that the effect of region_highlight is not saved and disap-
              pears as soon as the line is accepted.

              The final highlighting on  the  command  line  depends  on  both
              region_highlight  and  zle_highlight;  see the section CHARACTER
              HIGHLIGHTING below for details.

       UNDO_CHANGE_NO (integer)
              A number representing the state of the undo history.   The  only
              use  of  this  is  passing  as an argument to the undo widget in
              order to undo back to the recorded point.  Read-only.

       UNDO_LIMIT_NO (integer)
              A number corresponding to an existing change in  the  undo  his-
              tory; compare UNDO_CHANGE_NO.  If this is set to a value greater
              than zero, the undo command will not allow the line to be undone
              beyond  the  given  change  number.  It is still possible to use
              `zle undo change' in a widget to undo beyond that point; in that
              case, it will not be possible to undo at all until UNDO_LIMIT_NO
              is reduced.  Set to 0 to disable the limit.

              A typical use of this variable in a widget function is  as  fol-
              lows (note the additional function scope is required):

                     () {
                       local UNDO_LIMIT_NO=$UNDO_CHANGE_NO
                       # Perform some form of recursive edit.
                     }

       WIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the widget currently being executed; read-only.

       WIDGETFUNC (scalar)
              The  name of the shell function that implements a widget defined
              with either zle -N or zle -C.  In the former case, this  is  the
              second  argument  to the zle -N command that defined the widget,
              or the first argument if there was no second argument.   In  the
              latter  case  this  is  the third argument to the zle -C command
              that defined the widget.  Read-only.

       WIDGETSTYLE (scalar)
              Describes the implementation behind the completion  widget  cur-
              rently  being executed; the second argument that followed zle -C
              when the widget was defined.  This is the name of a builtin com-
              pletion  widget.  For widgets defined with zle -N this is set to
              the empty string.  Read-only.

       YANK_ACTIVE (integer)
       YANK_START (integer)
       YANK_END (integer)
              YANK_ACTIVE indicates whether text has just been yanked (pasted)
              into  the  buffer.  YANK_START and YANK_END give the location of
              the pasted text and are in the same units as CURSOR.   They  are
              only  valid  for reading when YANK_ACTIVE is non-zero.  They can
              also be assigned by widgets that  insert  text  in  a  yank-like
              fashion,  for example wrappers of bracketed-paste.  See also zle
              -f.

              YANK_ACTIVE is read-only.

       ZLE_STATE (scalar)
              Contains a set of space-separated words that describe  the  cur-
              rent zle state.

              Currently,  the  states  shown are the insert mode as set by the
              overwrite-mode or vi-replace widgets and  whether  history  com-
              mands   will   visit  imported  entries  as  controlled  by  the
              set-local-history widget.  The string contains `insert' if char-
              acters  to be inserted on the command line move existing charac-
              ters to the right or `overwrite' if characters  to  be  inserted
              overwrite  existing  characters.  It  contains `localhistory' if
              only local history commands will be visited  or  `globalhistory'
              if imported history commands will also be visited.

              The  substrings  are sorted in alphabetical order so that if you
              want to test for two specific substrings in a future-proof  way,
              you can do match by doing:

                     if [[ $ZLE_STATE == *globalhistory*insert* ]]; then ...; fi


   Special Widgets
       There  are  a  few user-defined widgets which are special to the shell.
       If they do not exist, no special action is taken.  The environment pro-
       vided is identical to that for any other editing widget.

       zle-isearch-exit
              Executed at the end of incremental search at the point where the
              isearch   prompt   is   removed   from   the    display.     See
              zle-isearch-update for an example.

       zle-isearch-update
              Executed  within incremental search when the display is about to
              be redrawn.  Additional  output  below  the  incremental  search
              prompt  can  be  generated  by using `zle -M' within the widget.
              For example,

                     zle-isearch-update() { zle -M "Line $HISTNO"; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-update

              Note the line output by `zle -M' is not  deleted  on  exit  from
              incremental  search.   This  can be done from a zle-isearch-exit
              widget:

                     zle-isearch-exit() { zle -M ""; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-exit

       zle-line-init
              Executed every time the line editor is started  to  read  a  new
              line  of input.  The following example puts the line editor into
              vi command mode when it starts up.

                     zle-line-init() { zle -K vicmd; }
                     zle -N zle-line-init

              (The command inside the function sets the keymap directly; it is
              equivalent to zle vi-cmd-mode.)

       zle-line-finish
              This  is similar to zle-line-init but is executed every time the
              line editor has finished reading a line of input.

       zle-history-line-set
              Executed when the history line changes.

       zle-keymap-select
              Executed every time the keymap changes, i.e. the special parame-
              ter KEYMAP is set to a different value, while the line editor is
              active.  Initialising the keymap when  the  line  editor  starts
              does not cause the widget to be called.

              The  value  $KEYMAP within the function reflects the new keymap.
              The old keymap is passed as the sole argument.

              This can be used for detecting switches between the  vi  command
              (vicmd) and insert (usually main) keymaps.



STANDARD WIDGETS

       The  following is a list of all the standard widgets, and their default
       bindings in emacs mode,  vi  command  mode  and  vi  insert  mode  (the
       `emacs', `vicmd' and `viins' keymaps, respectively).

       Note  that cursor keys are bound to movement keys in all three keymaps;
       the shell assumes that the cursor keys send the key sequences  reported
       by  the  terminal-handling  library  (termcap  or  terminfo).   The key
       sequences shown in the list are those based on  the  VT100,  common  on
       many modern terminals, but in fact these are not necessarily bound.  In
       the case of the viins keymap,  the  initial  escape  character  of  the
       sequences  serves also to return to the vicmd keymap: whether this hap-
       pens is determined by the KEYTIMEOUT parameter, see zshparam(1).

   Movement
       vi-backward-blank-word (unbound) (B) (unbound)
              Move backward one word, where a word is defined as a  series  of
              non-blank characters.

       vi-backward-blank-word-end (unbound) (gE) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the previous word, where a word is defined as
              a series of non-blank characters.

       backward-char (^B ESC-[D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move backward one character.

       vi-backward-char (unbound) (^H h ^?) (ESC-[D)
              Move backward one character, without changing lines.

       backward-word (ESC-B ESC-b) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       emacs-backward-word
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       vi-backward-word (unbound) (b) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word, vi-style.

       vi-backward-word-end (unbound) (ge) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the previous word, vi-style.

       beginning-of-line (^A) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the  beginning
              of the line, move to the beginning of the previous line, if any.

       vi-beginning-of-line
              Move to the beginning of the line, without changing lines.

       down-line (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move down a line in the buffer.

       end-of-line (^E) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the line,
              move to the end of the next line, if any.

       vi-end-of-line (unbound) ($) (unbound)
              Move  to  the  end of the line.  If an argument is given to this
              command, the cursor will be moved to the end of the line  (argu-
              ment - 1) lines down.

       vi-forward-blank-word (unbound) (W) (unbound)
              Move  forward  one  word, where a word is defined as a series of
              non-blank characters.

       vi-forward-blank-word-end (unbound) (E) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the current word, or, if at the  end  of  the
              current  word,  to  the  end  of  the next word, where a word is
              defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       forward-char (^F ESC-[C) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-forward-char (unbound) (space l) (ESC-[C)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-find-next-char (^X^F) (f) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the next  occur-
              rence of it in the line.

       vi-find-next-char-skip (unbound) (t) (unbound)
              Read  a  character  from  the keyboard, and move to the position
              just before the next occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char (unbound) (F) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and  move  to  the  previous
              occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char-skip (unbound) (T) (unbound)
              Read  a  character  from  the keyboard, and move to the position
              just after the previous occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-first-non-blank (unbound) (^) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character in the line.

       vi-forward-word (unbound) (w) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, vi-style.

       forward-word (ESC-F ESC-f) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the next word.  The editor's idea of  a
              word is specified with the WORDCHARS parameter.

       emacs-forward-word
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-forward-word-end (unbound) (e) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-goto-column (ESC-|) (|) (unbound)
              Move to the column specified by the numeric argument.

       vi-goto-mark (unbound) (`) (unbound)
              Move to the specified mark.

       vi-goto-mark-line (unbound) (') (unbound)
              Move to beginning of the line containing the specified mark.

       vi-repeat-find (unbound) (;) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command.

       vi-rev-repeat-find (unbound) (,) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command in the opposite direction.

       up-line (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move up a line in the buffer.

   History Control
       beginning-of-buffer-or-history (ESC-<) (gg) (unbound)
              Move  to  the beginning of the buffer, or if already there, move
              to the first event in the history list.

       beginning-of-line-hist
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the  beginning
              of the buffer, move to the previous history line.

       beginning-of-history
              Move to the first event in the history list.

       down-line-or-history (^N ESC-[B) (j) (ESC-[B)
              Move  down  a  line  in  the buffer, or if already at the bottom
              line, move to the next event in the history list.

       vi-down-line-or-history (unbound) (+) (unbound)
              Move down a line in the buffer, or  if  already  at  the  bottom
              line,  move to the next event in the history list.  Then move to
              the first non-blank character on the line.

       down-line-or-search
              Move down a line in the buffer, or  if  already  at  the  bottom
              line,  search  forward  in the history for a line beginning with
              the first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first  argument  is  taken  as  the  string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       down-history (unbound) (^N) (unbound)
              Move to the next event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-backward
              Search backward in the history for a  line  beginning  with  the
              current  line  up  to the cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its
              original position.

       end-of-buffer-or-history (ESC->) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the buffer, or if already there, move to  the
              last event in the history list.

       end-of-line-hist
              Move  to  the  end  of  the  line.  If already at the end of the
              buffer, move to the next history line.

       end-of-history
              Move to the last event in the history list.

       vi-fetch-history (unbound) (G) (unbound)
              Fetch the history line specified by the numeric argument.   This
              defaults  to  the  current history line (i.e. the one that isn't
              history yet).

       history-incremental-search-backward (^R ^Xr) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search backward  incrementally  for  a  specified  string.   The
              search  is  case-insensitive  if the search string does not have
              uppercase letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string
              may  begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the
              line.  When called from a user-defined function returns the fol-
              lowing  statuses:  0,  if the search succeeded; 1, if the search
              failed; 2, if the search term was  a  bad  pattern;  3,  if  the
              search was aborted by the send-break command.

              A  restricted  set  of  editing  functions  is  available in the
              mini-buffer.  Keys are looked up in the special isearch  keymap,
              and  if not found there in the main keymap (note that by default
              the isearch keymap is empty).  An interrupt signal,  as  defined
              by  the  stty  setting,  will stop the search and go back to the
              original line.  An undefined key  will  have  the  same  effect.
              Note  that  the  following  always  perform the same task within
              incremental searches and cannot be replaced by user defined wid-
              gets,  nor  can the set of functions be extended.  The supported
              functions are:

              accept-and-hold
              accept-and-infer-next-history
              accept-line
              accept-line-and-down-history
                     Perform the  usual  function  after  exiting  incremental
                     search.  The command line displayed is executed.

              backward-delete-char
              vi-backward-delete-char
                     Back  up  one place in the search history.  If the search
                     has been repeated this does not immediately erase a char-
                     acter in the minibuffer.

              accept-search
                     Exit  incremental  search, retaining the command line but
                     performing no further action.  Note that this function is
                     not  bound by default and has no effect outside incremen-
                     tal search.

              backward-delete-word
              backward-kill-word
              vi-backward-kill-word
                     Back up one character  in  the  minibuffer;  if  multiple
                     searches  have  been  performed  since  the character was
                     inserted the search history is rewound to the point  just
                     before  the  character  was  entered.  Hence this has the
                     effect of repeating backward-delete-char.

              clear-screen
                     Clear the screen, remaining in incremental search mode.

              history-incremental-search-backward
                     Find  the  next  occurrence  of  the  contents   of   the
                     mini-buffer. If the mini-buffer is empty, the most recent
                     previously used search string is reinstated.

              history-incremental-search-forward
                     Invert the sense of the search.

              magic-space
                     Inserts a non-magical space.

              quoted-insert
              vi-quoted-insert
                     Quote the character to insert into the minibuffer.

              redisplay
                     Redisplay the  command  line,  remaining  in  incremental
                     search mode.

              vi-cmd-mode
                     Select  the  `vicmd'  keymap;  the  `main' keymap (insert
                     mode) will be selected initially.

                     In addition, the modifications that were made while in vi
                     insert mode are merged to form a single undo event.

              vi-repeat-search
              vi-rev-repeat-search
                     Repeat  the search.  The direction of the search is indi-
                     cated in the mini-buffer.

              Any character that is not bound to one of the  above  functions,
              or  self-insert or self-insert-unmeta, will cause the mode to be
              exited.  The character is then looked up  and  executed  in  the
              keymap in effect at that point.

              When  called  from  a  widget  function  by the zle command, the
              incremental search commands can take a  string  argument.   This
              will  be  treated  as  a string of keys, as for arguments to the
              bindkey command, and used as initial input for the command.  Any
              characters  in  the  string  which are unused by the incremental
              search will be silently ignored.  For example,

                     zle history-incremental-search-backward forceps

              will search backwards for forceps, leaving the  minibuffer  con-
              taining the string `forceps'.

       history-incremental-search-forward (^S ^Xs) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search forward incrementally for a specified string.  The search
              is case-insensitive if the search string does not have uppercase
              letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string may begin
              with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.  The
              functions  available in the mini-buffer are the same as for his-
              tory-incremental-search-backward.

       history-incremental-pattern-search-backward
       history-incremental-pattern-search-forward
              These widgets behave similarly to the corresponding widgets with
              no  -pattern, but the search string typed by the user is treated
              as a pattern, respecting the current  settings  of  the  various
              options  affecting pattern matching.  See FILENAME GENERATION in
              zshexpn(1) for a description of patterns.  If no  numeric  argu-
              ment  was given lowercase letters in the search string may match
              uppercase letters in the history.  The string may begin with `^'
              to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.

              The prompt changes to indicate an invalid pattern; this may sim-
              ply indicate the pattern is not yet complete.

              Note that only  non-overlapping  matches  are  reported,  so  an
              expression  with  wildcards  may  return fewer matches on a line
              than are visible by inspection.

       history-search-backward (ESC-P ESC-p) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search backward in the history for a  line  beginning  with  the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as  the  string  for  which  to  search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-backward (unbound) (/) (unbound)
              Search  backward  in  the  history  for a specified string.  The
              string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the  beginning
              of the line.

              A  restricted  set  of  editing  functions  is  available in the
              mini-buffer.  An interrupt signal, as defined by the  stty  set-
              ting,   will  stop  the  search.  The functions available in the
              mini-buffer  are:  accept-line,  backward-delete-char,  vi-back-
              ward-delete-char,   backward-kill-word,   vi-backward-kill-word,
              clear-screen, redisplay, quoted-insert and vi-quoted-insert.

              vi-cmd-mode is treated the same as accept-line, and  magic-space
              is treated as a space.  Any other character that is not bound to
              self-insert or self-insert-unmeta will beep and be  ignored.  If
              the function is called from vi command mode, the bindings of the
              current insert mode will be used.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first  argument  is  taken  as  the  string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       history-search-forward (ESC-N ESC-n) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search forward in the history for  a  line  beginning  with  the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as  the  string  for  which  to  search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-forward (unbound) (?) (unbound)
              Search  forward  in  the  history  for  a specified string.  The
              string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the  beginning
              of  the line. The functions available in the mini-buffer are the
              same as for vi-history-search-backward.   Argument  handling  is
              also the same as for that command.

       infer-next-history (^X^N) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  in  the history list for a line matching the current one
              and fetch the event following it.

       insert-last-word (ESC-_ ESC-.) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the last word from the previous history event at the cur-
              sor  position.   If a positive numeric argument is given, insert
              that word from the end of the previous history  event.   If  the
              argument  is  zero  or  negative  insert that word from the left
              (zero inserts the previous command word).  Repeating  this  com-
              mand replaces the word just inserted with the last word from the
              history event prior to the one just used; numeric arguments  can
              be used in the same way to pick a word from that event.

              When  called  from  a shell function invoked from a user-defined
              widget, the command can take one to three arguments.  The  first
              argument  specifies a history offset which applies to successive
              calls to this widget: if it is  -1,  the  default  behaviour  is
              used,  while  if  it  is  1, successive calls will move forwards
              through the history.  The value 0 can be used to  indicate  that
              the  history line examined by the previous execution of the com-
              mand will be reexamined.  Note that negative numbers  should  be
              preceded  by  a  `--'  argument  to  avoid  confusing  them with
              options.

              If two arguments are given, the second specifies the word on the
              command  line  in normal array index notation (as a more natural
              alternative to the numeric argument).   Hence  1  is  the  first
              word, and -1 (the default) is the last word.

              If  a  third  argument is given, its value is ignored, but it is
              used to signify that the history offset is relative to the  cur-
              rent history line, rather than the one remembered after the pre-
              vious invocations of insert-last-word.

              For example, the default behaviour of the command corresponds to

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 -1

              while the command

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 1 -

              always  copies the first word of the line in the history immedi-
              ately before the line being edited.  This has  the  side  effect
              that  later  invocations  of the widget will be relative to that
              line.

       vi-repeat-search (unbound) (n) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search.

       vi-rev-repeat-search (unbound) (N) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search, but in reverse.

       up-line-or-history (^P ESC-[A) (k) (ESC-[A)
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already  at  the  top  line,
              move to the previous event in the history list.

       vi-up-line-or-history (unbound) (-) (unbound)
              Move  up  a  line  in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              move to the previous event in the history list.   Then  move  to
              the first non-blank character on the line.

       up-line-or-search
              Move  up  a  line  in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              search backward in the history for a  line  beginning  with  the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as  the  string  for  which  to  search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       up-history (unbound) (^P) (unbound)
              Move to the previous event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-forward
              Search forward in the history for a line beginning with the cur-
              rent line up to the cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its orig-
              inal position.

       set-local-history
              By  default,  history movement commands visit the imported lines
              as well as the local lines. This widget lets you toggle this  on
              and  off,  or  set  it  with the numeric argument. Zero for both
              local and imported lines and nonzero for only local lines.

   Modifying Text
       vi-add-eol (unbound) (A) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-add-next (unbound) (a) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode after the  current  cursor  position,  without
              changing lines.

       backward-delete-char (^H ^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-delete-char (unbound) (X) (^H)
              Delete  the character behind the cursor, without changing lines.
              If in insert mode, this won't delete past the point where insert
              mode was last entered.

       backward-delete-word
              Delete the word behind the cursor.

       backward-kill-line
              Kill from the beginning of the line to the cursor position.

       backward-kill-word (^W ESC-^H ESC-^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the word behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-kill-word (unbound) (unbound) (^W)
              Kill  the  word  behind the cursor, without going past the point
              where insert mode was last entered.

       capitalize-word (ESC-C ESC-c) (unbound) (unbound)
              Capitalize the current word and move past it.

       vi-change (unbound) (c) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard,  and  kill  from  the
              cursor  position  to  the  endpoint of the movement.  Then enter
              insert mode.  If the command is vi-change,  change  the  current
              line.

              For  compatibility with vi, if the command is vi-forward-word or
              vi-forward-blank-word, the whitespace  after  the  word  is  not
              included.  If  you prefer the more consistent behaviour with the
              whitespace included use the following key binding:

                     bindkey -a -s cw dwi

       vi-change-eol (unbound) (C) (unbound)
              Kill to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-change-whole-line (unbound) (S) (unbound)
              Kill the current line and enter insert mode.

       copy-region-as-kill (ESC-W ESC-w) (unbound) (unbound)
              Copy the area from the cursor to the mark to the kill buffer.

              If  called  from  a  ZLE  widget  function  in  the  form   `zle
              copy-region-as-kill  string'  then  string  will be taken as the
              text to copy to the kill buffer.  The cursor, the mark  and  the
              text on the command line are not used in this case.

       copy-prev-word (ESC-^_) (unbound) (unbound)
              Duplicate the word to the left of the cursor.

       copy-prev-shell-word
              Like  copy-prev-word, but the word is found by using shell pars-
              ing, whereas copy-prev-word looks for blanks. This makes a  dif-
              ference when the word is quoted and contains spaces.

       vi-delete (unbound) (d) (unbound)
              Read  a  movement  command  from the keyboard, and kill from the
              cursor position to the endpoint of the movement.  If the command
              is vi-delete, kill the current line.

       delete-char
              Delete the character under the cursor.

       vi-delete-char (unbound) (x) (unbound)
              Delete  the  character  under the cursor, without going past the
              end of the line.

       delete-word
              Delete the current word.

       down-case-word (ESC-L ESC-l) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all lowercase and move past it.

       kill-word (ESC-D ESC-d) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current word.

       gosmacs-transpose-chars
              Exchange the two characters behind the cursor.

       vi-indent (unbound) (>) (unbound)
              Indent a number of lines.

       vi-insert (unbound) (i) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode.

       vi-insert-bol (unbound) (I) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character  on  the  line  and  enter
              insert mode.

       vi-join (^X^J) (J) (unbound)
              Join the current line with the next one.

       kill-line (^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill  from the cursor to the end of the line.  If already on the
              end of the line, kill the newline character.

       vi-kill-line (unbound) (unbound) (^U)
              Kill from the cursor back  to  wherever  insert  mode  was  last
              entered.

       vi-kill-eol (unbound) (D) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.

       kill-region
              Kill from the cursor to the mark.

       kill-buffer (^X^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the entire buffer.

       kill-whole-line (^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current line.

       vi-match-bracket (^X^B) (%) (unbound)
              Move to the bracket character (one of {}, () or []) that matches
              the one under the cursor.  If the cursor is  not  on  a  bracket
              character,  move  forward without going past the end of the line
              to find one, and then go to the matching bracket.

       vi-open-line-above (unbound) (O) (unbound)
              Open a line above the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-open-line-below (unbound) (o) (unbound)
              Open a line below the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-oper-swap-case (unbound) (g~) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and swap the case  of
              all  characters  from the cursor position to the endpoint of the
              movement.  If the movement command  is  vi-oper-swap-case,  swap
              the case of all characters on the current line.

       overwrite-mode (^X^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Toggle between overwrite mode and insert mode.

       vi-put-before (unbound) (P) (unbound)
              Insert  the  contents  of the kill buffer before the cursor.  If
              the kill buffer contains a sequence  of  lines  (as  opposed  to
              characters), paste it above the current line.

       vi-put-after (unbound) (p) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer after the cursor.  If the
              kill buffer contains a sequence of lines (as opposed to  charac-
              ters), paste it below the current line.

       put-replace-selection (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Replace the contents of the current region or selection with the
              contents of the kill buffer.  If  the  kill  buffer  contains  a
              sequence  of  lines (as opposed to characters), the current line
              will be split by the pasted lines.

       quoted-insert (^V) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the next character typed into the buffer  literally.   An
              interrupt character will not be inserted.

       vi-quoted-insert (unbound) (unbound) (^Q ^V)
              Display  a `^' at the cursor position, and insert the next char-
              acter typed into the buffer literally.  An  interrupt  character
              will not be inserted.

       quote-line (ESC-') (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote  the  current  line;  that  is, put a `'' character at the
              beginning and the end, and convert all `'' characters to `'\'''.

       quote-region (ESC-") (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote the region from the cursor to the mark.

       vi-replace (unbound) (R) (unbound)
              Enter overwrite mode.

       vi-repeat-change (unbound) (.) (unbound)
              Repeat  the last vi mode text modification.  If a count was used
              with the modification, it is remembered.  If a count is given to
              this  command,  it overrides the remembered count, and is remem-
              bered for future uses of this command.  The cut buffer  specifi-
              cation is similarly remembered.

       vi-replace-chars (unbound) (r) (unbound)
              Replace  the  character  under  the cursor with a character read
              from the keyboard.

       self-insert (printable characters) (unbound) (printable characters  and
       some control characters)
              Insert a character into the buffer at the cursor position.

       self-insert-unmeta (ESC-^I ESC-^J ESC-^M) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert a character into the buffer after stripping the meta  bit
              and converting ^M to ^J.

       vi-substitute (unbound) (s) (unbound)
              Substitute the next character(s).

       vi-swap-case (unbound) (~) (unbound)
              Swap  the  case  of the character under the cursor and move past
              it.

       transpose-chars (^T) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the two characters to the left of the cursor if at  end
              of  line,  else exchange the character under the cursor with the
              character to the left.

       transpose-words (ESC-T ESC-t) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the current word with the one before it.

       vi-unindent (unbound) (<) (unbound)
              Unindent a number of lines.

       up-case-word (ESC-U ESC-u) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all caps and move past it.

       yank (^Y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer at the cursor position.

       yank-pop (ESC-y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Remove the text just yanked, rotate the kill-ring  (the  history
              of  previously  killed  text)  and yank the new top.  Only works
              following yank, vi-put-before, vi-put-after or yank-pop.

       vi-yank (unbound) (y) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and copy  the  region
              from  the  cursor  position to the endpoint of the movement into
              the kill buffer.  If the command is vi-yank,  copy  the  current
              line.

       vi-yank-whole-line (unbound) (Y) (unbound)
              Copy the current line into the kill buffer.

       vi-yank-eol
              Copy  the region from the cursor position to the end of the line
              into the kill buffer.  Arguably, this is what Y should do in vi,
              but it isn't what it actually does.

   Arguments
       digit-argument (ESC-0..ESC-9) (1-9) (unbound)
              Start  a  new  numeric argument, or add to the current one.  See
              also vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line.  This only works if bound to
              a key sequence ending in a decimal digit.

              Inside  a  widget  function,  a call to this function treats the
              last key of the key sequence which  called  the  widget  as  the
              digit.

       neg-argument (ESC--) (unbound) (unbound)
              Changes the sign of the following argument.

       universal-argument
              Multiply  the argument of the next command by 4.  Alternatively,
              if this command is followed by an  integer  (positive  or  nega-
              tive), use that as the argument for the next command.  Thus dig-
              its cannot be repeated using this command.  For example, if this
              command occurs twice, followed immediately by forward-char, move
              forward sixteen spaces; if instead it is followed  by  -2,  then
              forward-char, move backward two spaces.

              Inside  a widget function, if passed an argument, i.e. `zle uni-
              versal-argument num', the numeric argument will be set  to  num;
              this is equivalent to `NUMERIC=num'.

       argument-base
              Use  the existing numeric argument as a numeric base, which must
              be  in  the  range  2  to  36  inclusive.   Subsequent  use   of
              digit-argument  and  universal-argument will input a new numeric
              argument in the given base.  The usual hexadecimal convention is
              used: the letter a or A corresponds to 10, and so on.  Arguments
              in bases requiring digits from 10 upwards are more  conveniently
              input  with universal-argument, since ESC-a etc. are not usually
              bound to digit-argument.

              The function can be  used  with  a  command  argument  inside  a
              user-defined widget.  The following code sets the base to 16 and
              lets the user input a hexadecimal argument until a  key  out  of
              the digit range is typed:

                     zle argument-base 16
                     zle universal-argument

   Completion
       accept-and-menu-complete
              In  a  menu  completion,  insert the current completion into the
              buffer, and advance to the next possible completion.

       complete-word
              Attempt completion on the current word.

       delete-char-or-list (^D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor.  If the cursor is at  the
              end of the line, list possible completions for the current word.

       expand-cmd-path
              Expand the current command to its full pathname.

       expand-or-complete (TAB) (unbound) (TAB)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current  word.   If  that  fails,
              attempt completion.

       expand-or-complete-prefix
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word up to cursor.

       expand-history (ESC-space ESC-!) (unbound) (unbound)
              Perform history expansion on the edit buffer.

       expand-word (^X*) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.

       list-choices (ESC-^D) (^D =) (^D)
              List possible completions for the current word.

       list-expand (^Xg ^XG) (^G) (^G)
              List the expansion of the current word.

       magic-space
              Perform  history  expansion  and insert a space into the buffer.
              This is intended to be bound to space.

       menu-complete
              Like complete-word, except that menu completion  is  used.   See
              the MENU_COMPLETE option.

       menu-expand-or-complete
              Like expand-or-complete, except that menu completion is used.

       reverse-menu-complete
              Perform  menu  completion,  like menu-complete, except that if a
              menu completion is already in progress,  move  to  the  previous
              completion rather than the next.

       end-of-list
              When  a  previous  completion displayed a list below the prompt,
              this widget can be used to move the prompt below the list.

   Miscellaneous
       accept-and-hold (ESC-A ESC-a) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the contents of the buffer on the buffer stack and  execute
              it.

       accept-and-infer-next-history
              Execute  the  contents  of  the buffer.  Then search the history
              list for a line matching the current one and push the event fol-
              lowing onto the buffer stack.

       accept-line (^J ^M) (^J ^M) (^J ^M)
              Finish  editing  the buffer.  Normally this causes the buffer to
              be executed as a shell command.

       accept-line-and-down-history (^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Execute the current line, and push the next history event on the
              buffer stack.

       auto-suffix-remove
              If  the  previous  action added a suffix (space, slash, etc.) to
              the word on the command line, remove it.  Otherwise do  nothing.
              Removing  the  suffix  ends  any  active menu completion or menu
              selection.

              This widget is intended to be called from  user-defined  widgets
              to enforce a desired suffix-removal behavior.

       auto-suffix-retain
              If  the  previous  action added a suffix (space, slash, etc.) to
              the word on the command line, force it to be preserved.   Other-
              wise do nothing.  Retaining the suffix ends any active menu com-
              pletion or menu selection.

              This widget is intended to be called from  user-defined  widgets
              to enforce a desired suffix-preservation behavior.

       beep   Beep, unless the BEEP option is unset.

       bracketed-paste
              This  widget is invoked when text is pasted to the terminal emu-
              lator. It is not intended to be bound to actual keys but instead
              to  the special sequence generated by the terminal emulator when
              text is pasted.  If a numeric argument is given,  shell  quoting
              will  be  applied to the pasted text before it is inserted. When
              called from a widget function, an argument can be given to spec-
              ify a variable to which pasted text is assigned.

              See also the zle_bracketed_paste parameter.

       vi-cmd-mode (^X^V) (unbound) (^[)
              Enter  command  mode;  that is, select the `vicmd' keymap.  Yes,
              this is bound by default in emacs mode.

       vi-caps-lock-panic
              Hang until any lowercase key is pressed.  This is for  vi  users
              without the mental capacity to keep track of their caps lock key
              (like the author).

       clear-screen (^L ESC-^L) (^L) (^L)
              Clear the screen and redraw the prompt.

       deactivate-region
              Make the current region inactive. This disables vim-style visual
              selection mode if it is active.

       describe-key-briefly
              Reads  a  key  sequence,  then prints the function bound to that
              sequence.

       exchange-point-and-mark (^X^X) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the cursor position (point) with the  position  of  the
              mark.   Unless  a negative numeric argument is given, the region
              between point and mark is activated so  that  it  can  be  high-
              lighted.   If  a  zero  numeric argument is given, the region is
              activated but point and mark are not swapped.

       execute-named-cmd (ESC-x) (:) (unbound)
              Read the name of an editor command and execute it.  A restricted
              set  of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.  Keys
              are looked up in the special command keymap, and  if  not  found
              there  in  the  main keymap.  An interrupt signal, as defined by
              the stty setting, will abort the function.  Note that  the  fol-
              lowing   always   perform   the   same   task  within  the  exe-
              cuted-named-cmd environment  and  cannot  be  replaced  by  user
              defined  widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended.  The
              allowed   functions    are:    backward-delete-char,    vi-back-
              ward-delete-char,    clear-screen,   redisplay,   quoted-insert,
              vi-quoted-insert,   backward-kill-word,   vi-backward-kill-word,
              kill-whole-line, vi-kill-line, backward-kill-line, list-choices,
              delete-char-or-list, complete-word, accept-line,  expand-or-com-
              plete and expand-or-complete-prefix.

              kill-region  kills the last word, and vi-cmd-mode is treated the
              same as accept-line.  The space and tab characters, if not bound
              to  one of these functions, will complete the name and then list
              the possibilities if the AUTO_LIST option  is  set.   Any  other
              character that is not bound to self-insert or self-insert-unmeta
              will beep and be ignored.  The bindings of  the  current  insert
              mode will be used.

              Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       execute-last-named-cmd (ESC-z) (unbound) (unbound)
              Redo the last function executed with execute-named-cmd.

              Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       get-line (ESC-G ESC-g) (unbound) (unbound)
              Pop  the top line off the buffer stack and insert it at the cur-
              sor position.

       pound-insert (unbound) (#) (unbound)
              If there is no # character at the beginning of the  buffer,  add
              one  to the beginning of each line.  If there is one, remove a #
              from each line that has one.  In either case, accept the current
              line.   The  INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for this to
              have any usefulness.

       vi-pound-insert
              If there is no # character at the beginning of the current line,
              add  one.  If there is one, remove it.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS
              option must be set for this to have any usefulness.

       push-input
              Push the entire current  multiline  construct  onto  the  buffer
              stack  and return to the top-level (PS1) prompt.  If the current
              parser construct is only a single line,  this  is  exactly  like
              push-line.   Next  time  the  editor starts up or is popped with
              get-line, the construct will be popped off the top of the buffer
              stack and loaded into the editing buffer.

       push-line (^Q ESC-Q ESC-q) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push  the  current  buffer  onto  the buffer stack and clear the
              buffer.  Next time the editor starts  up,  the  buffer  will  be
              popped off the top of the buffer stack and loaded into the edit-
              ing buffer.

       push-line-or-edit
              At the top-level (PS1) prompt, equivalent to  push-line.   At  a
              secondary  (PS2)  prompt, move the entire current multiline con-
              struct into the editor buffer.   The  latter  is  equivalent  to
              push-input followed by get-line.

       read-command
              Only  useful  from  a  user-defined widget.  A keystroke is read
              just as in normal operation, but instead of  the  command  being
              executed  the  name  of  the  command  that would be executed is
              stored in the shell parameter REPLY.  This can be  used  as  the
              argument  of  a  future zle command.  If the key sequence is not
              bound, status 1 is returned; typically, however, REPLY is set to
              undefined-key to indicate a useless key sequence.

       recursive-edit
              Only  useful  from  a user-defined widget.  At this point in the
              function, the editor regains control until one of  the  standard
              widgets  which  would  normally  cause zle to exit (typically an
              accept-line caused by  hitting  the  return  key)  is  executed.
              Instead, control returns to the user-defined widget.  The status
              returned is non-zero if the return was caused by an  error,  but
              the  function  still  continues executing and hence may tidy up.
              This makes it safe for the user-defined widget to alter the com-
              mand line or key bindings temporarily.

              The following widget, caps-lock, serves as an example.

                     self-insert-ucase() {
                       LBUFFER+=${(U)KEYS[-1]}
                     }

                     integer stat

                     zle -N self-insert self-insert-ucase
                     zle -A caps-lock save-caps-lock
                     zle -A accept-line caps-lock

                     zle recursive-edit
                     stat=$?

                     zle -A .self-insert self-insert
                     zle -A save-caps-lock caps-lock
                     zle -D save-caps-lock

                     (( stat )) && zle send-break

                     return $stat

              This  causes  typed  letters  to  be  inserted capitalised until
              either accept-line (i.e. typically the return key) is  typed  or
              the  caps-lock  widget is invoked again; the later is handled by
              saving the old definition of  caps-lock  as  save-caps-lock  and
              then  rebinding  it  to  invoke accept-line.  Note that an error
              from the recursive edit is detected as a non-zero return  status
              and propagated by using the send-break widget.

       redisplay (unbound) (^R) (^R)
              Redisplays the edit buffer.

       reset-prompt (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Force the prompts on both the left and right of the screen to be
              re-expanded, then redisplay  the  edit  buffer.   This  reflects
              changes  both  to the prompt variables themselves and changes in
              the expansion of the values (for example,  changes  in  time  or
              directory,  or  changes to the value of variables referred to by
              the prompt).

              Otherwise, the prompt is only expanded each time zle starts, and
              when the display as been interrupted by output from another part
              of the shell (such as a job notification) which causes the  com-
              mand line to be reprinted.

       send-break (^G ESC-^G) (unbound) (unbound)
              Abort  the  current editor function, e.g. execute-named-command,
              or the editor itself, e.g. if you are in vared. Otherwise  abort
              the  parsing  of the current line; in this case the aborted line
              is available in the shell  variable  ZLE_LINE_ABORTED.   If  the
              editor    is   aborted   from   within   vared,   the   variable
              ZLE_VARED_ABORTED is set.

       run-help (ESC-H ESC-h) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute  the  command
              `run-help  cmd',  where cmd is the current command.  run-help is
              normally aliased to man.

       vi-set-buffer (unbound) (") (unbound)
              Specify a buffer to be used in the following command.  There are
              37  buffers  that can be specified: the 26 `named' buffers "a to
              "z, the `yank' buffer "0, the nine `queued' buffers "1 to "9 and
              the `black hole' buffer "_.  The named buffers can also be spec-
              ified as "A to "Z.

              When a buffer is specified for a cut, change  or  yank  command,
              the  text concerned replaces the previous contents of the speci-
              fied buffer. If a named buffer is specified using a capital, the
              newly  cut text is appended to the buffer instead of overwriting
              it. When using the "_ buffer, nothing happens. This can be  use-
              ful for deleting text without affecting the normal registers.

              If  no  buffer  is  specified for a cut or change command, "1 is
              used, and the contents of "1 to "8 are each  shifted  along  one
              buffer;  the  contents  of "9 is lost. If no buffer is specified
              for a yank command, "0 is used. Finally, a paste command without
              a specified buffer will paste the text from the most recent com-
              mand regardless of any buffer that might  have  been  used  with
              that command.

              When  called  from  a  widget  function  by the zle command, the
              buffer can optionally be specified with an argument.  For  exam-
              ple,

                     zle vi-set-buffer A

       vi-set-mark (unbound) (m) (unbound)
              Set the specified mark at the cursor position.

       set-mark-command (^@) (unbound) (unbound)
              Set  the mark at the cursor position.  If called with a negative
              numeric argument, do not set the mark but deactivate the  region
              so  that  it  is  no  longer highlighted (it is still usable for
              other purposes).  Otherwise the region is marked as active.

       spell-word (ESC-$ ESC-S ESC-s) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt spelling correction on the current word.

       split-undo
              Breaks the undo sequence at the current change.  This is  useful
              in  vi  mode  as  changes  made  in insert mode are coalesced on
              entering command mode.  Similarly, undo will normally revert  as
              one all the changes made by a user-defined widget.

       undefined-key
              This  command  is executed when a key sequence that is not bound
              to any command is typed.  By default it beeps.

       undo (^_ ^Xu ^X^U) (u) (unbound)
              Incrementally undo the last text modification.  When called from
              a  user-defined  widget, takes an optional argument indicating a
              previous  state  of  the  undo  history  as  returned   by   the
              UNDO_CHANGE_NO  variable;  modifications  are  undone until that
              state  is  reached,  subject  to  any  limit  imposed   by   the
              UNDO_LIMIT_NO variable.

              Note  that  when  invoked  from  vi command mode, the full prior
              change made in insert mode is reverted, the changes having  been
              merged when command mode was selected.

       redo (unbound) (^R) (unbound)
              Incrementally redo undone text modifications.

       vi-undo-change (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Undo  the last text modification.  If repeated, redo the modifi-
              cation.

       visual-mode (unbound) (v) (unbound)
              Toggle vim-style visual selection mode. If line-wise visual mode
              is currently enabled then it is changed to being character-wise.
              If used following an operator, it forces the subsequent movement
              command to be treated as a character-wise movement.

       visual-line-mode (unbound) (V) (unbound)
              Toggle  vim-style  line-wise  visual  selection mode. If charac-
              ter-wise visual mode is currently enabled then it is changed  to
              being  line-wise.  If  used following an operator, it forces the
              subsequent movement command to be treated as a  line-wise  move-
              ment.

       what-cursor-position (^X=) (ga) (unbound)
              Print the character under the cursor, its code as an octal, dec-
              imal and hexadecimal number, the current cursor position  within
              the buffer and the column of the cursor in the current line.

       where-is
              Read  the name of an editor command and print the listing of key
              sequences that invoke the specified command.  A  restricted  set
              of  editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.  Keys are
              looked up in the special command keymap, and if not found  there
              in the main keymap.

       which-command (ESC-?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push  the  buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command
              `which-command  cmd'.  where  cmd  is   the   current   command.
              which-command is normally aliased to whence.

       vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line (unbound) (0) (unbound)
              If the last command executed was a digit as part of an argument,
              continue the argument.  Otherwise, execute vi-beginning-of-line.

   Text Objects
       Text  objects  are  commands that can be used to select a block of text
       according to some criteria. They are a feature of the vim  text  editor
       and  so are primarily intended for use with vi operators or from visual
       selection mode. However, they can also be used from vi-insert or  emacs
       mode.  Key bindings listed below apply to the viopp and visual keymaps.

       select-a-blank-word (aW)
              Select a word including adjacent blanks, where a word is defined
              as  a  series  of non-blank characters. With a numeric argument,
              multiple words will be selected.

       select-a-shell-word (aa)
              Select the current command argument applying  the  normal  rules
              for quoting.

       select-a-word (aw)
              Select  a  word  including  adjacent  blanks,  using  the normal
              vi-style word definition.  With  a  numeric  argument,  multiple
              words will be selected.

       select-in-blank-word (iW)
              Select  a word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank
              characters. With a numeric  argument,  multiple  words  will  be
              selected.

       select-in-shell-word (ia)
              Select  the  current  command argument applying the normal rules
              for quoting. If the argument begins and ends with matching quote
              characters, these are not included in the selection.

       select-in-word (iw)
              Select a word, using the normal vi-style word definition. With a
              numeric argument, multiple words will be selected.



CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING

       The line editor has the ability to highlight characters or  regions  of
       the  line  that  have a particular significance.  This is controlled by
       the array parameter zle_highlight, if it has been set by the user.

       If the parameter contains the single entry  none  all  highlighting  is
       turned off.  Note the parameter is still expected to be an array.

       Otherwise each entry of the array should consist of a word indicating a
       context for highlighting, then a colon, then a comma-separated list  of
       the types of highlighting to apply in that context.

       The contexts available for highlighting are the following:

       default
              Any text within the command line not affected by any other high-
              lighting.  Text outside the editable area of the command line is
              not affected.

       isearch
              When  one  of  the incremental history search widgets is active,
              the area of the command line matched by  the  search  string  or
              pattern.

       region The  region  between the cursor (point) and the mark as set with
              set-mark-command.  The region  is  only  highlighted  if  it  is
              active,    which    is   the   case   if   set-mark-command   or
              exchange-point-and-mark has been called and  the  line  has  not
              been  subsequently  modified.   The region can be deactivated by
              calling set-mark-command with a negative  numeric  argument,  or
              reactivated  by  calling  exchange-point-and-mark  with  a  zero
              numeric argument.  Note that whether or not the region is active
              has  no  effect  on its use within widgets, it simply determines
              whether it is highlighted.

       special
              Individual characters that have no direct printable  representa-
              tion  but  are  shown  in  a  special manner by the line editor.
              These characters are described below.

       suffix This context is used  in  completion  for  characters  that  are
              marked  as  suffixes that will be removed if the completion ends
              at that point, the most obvious example being a slash (/)  after
              a directory name.  Note that suffix removal is configurable; the
              circumstances under which the suffix will be removed may  differ
              for different completions.

       paste  Following  a  command  to  paste  text, the characters that were
              inserted.

       When region_highlight is set, the contexts that describe  a  region  --
       isearch,   region,  suffix,  and  paste  --  are  applied  first,  then
       region_highlight is applied, then the remaining zle_highlight  contexts
       are  applied.  If a particular character is affected by multiple speci-
       fications, the last specification wins.

       zle_highlight may contain additional fields for controlling how  termi-
       nal  sequences  to change colours are output.  Each of the following is
       followed by a colon and a string in the same form as for key  bindings.
       This  will  not  be necessary for the vast majority of terminals as the
       defaults shown in parentheses are widely used.

       fg_start_code (\e[3)
              The start of the escape  sequence  for  the  foreground  colour.
              This is followed by an ASCII digit representing the colour.

       fg_default_code (9)
              The  number  to  use  instead of the colour to reset the default
              foreground colour.

       fg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.

       bg_start_code (\e[4)
              The start of the escape  sequence  for  the  background  colour.
              This is followed by an ASCII digit representing the colour.

       bg_default_code (9)
              The  number  to  use  instead of the colour to reset the default
              background colour.

       bg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the background colour.

       The available types of highlighting are the following.  Note  that  not
       all types of highlighting are available on all terminals:

       none   No highlighting is applied to the given context.  It is not use-
              ful for this to appear with other types of highlighting;  it  is
              used to override a default.

       fg=colour
              The foreground colour should be set to colour, a decimal integer
              or the name of one of the eight most widely-supported colours.

              Not all terminals support this and, of those that  do,  not  all
              provide  facilities  to  test the support, hence the user should
              decide based on the terminal type.  Most terminals  support  the
              colours  black,  red,  green,  yellow,  blue,  magenta, cyan and
              white, which can be set by name.  In addition.  default  may  be
              used to set the terminal's default foreground colour.  Abbrevia-
              tions are allowed; b or bl selects black.   Some  terminals  may
              generate  additional  colours  if  the  bold  attribute  is also
              present.

              On recent terminals and on systems with an  up-to-date  terminal
              database  the  number  of colours supported may be tested by the
              command `echotc Co'; if this succeeds, it indicates a  limit  on
              the number of colours which will be enforced by the line editor.
              The number of colours is in any case limited to  256  (i.e.  the
              range 0 to 255).

              Colour is also known as color.

       bg=colour
              The background colour should be set to colour.  This works simi-
              larly to the foreground colour, except  the  background  is  not
              usually affected by the bold attribute.

       bold   The  characters  in  the given context are shown in a bold font.
              Not all terminals distinguish bold fonts.

       standout
              The characters in the given context are shown in the  terminal's
              standout  mode.   The actual effect is specific to the terminal;
              on many terminals it is inverse video.  On some such  terminals,
              where  the  cursor  does not blink it appears with standout mode
              negated, making it less than clear where the cursor actually is.
              On such terminals one of the other effects may be preferable for
              highlighting the region and matched search string.

       underline
              The characters in the given context are shown underlined.   Some
              terminals  show the foreground in a different colour instead; in
              this case whitespace will not be highlighted.

       The characters described above as `special' are as follows.   The  for-
       matting  described  here is used irrespective of whether the characters
       are highlighted:

       ASCII control characters
              Control characters in the ASCII range are shown as `^'  followed
              by the base character.

       Unprintable multibyte characters
              This  item applies to control characters not in the ASCII range,
              plus other characters as follows.  If the MULTIBYTE option is in
              effect, multibyte characters not in the ASCII character set that
              are reported as having zero width are treated as combining char-
              acters  when the option COMBINING_CHARS is on.  If the option is
              off, or if a character appears where a  combining  character  is
              not valid, the character is treated as unprintable.

              Unprintable multibyte characters are shown as a hexadecimal num-
              ber between angle brackets.  The number is the code point of the
              character in the wide character set; this may or may not be Uni-
              code, depending on the operating system.

       Invalid multibyte characters
              If the MULTIBYTE option is in effect, any  sequence  of  one  or
              more  bytes  that does not form a valid character in the current
              character set is treated as a series of bytes each  shown  as  a
              special  character.   This  case can be distinguished from other
              unprintable characters as the bytes are represented as two hexa-
              decimal digits between angle brackets, as distinct from the four
              or eight digits that are used for  unprintable  characters  that
              are nonetheless valid in the current character set.

              Not  all systems support this: for it to work, the system's rep-
              resentation of wide characters must be code values from the Uni-
              versal  Character  Set,  as  defined by IS0 10646 (also known as
              Unicode).

       Wrapped double-width characters
              When a double-width character appears in the final column  of  a
              line, it is instead shown on the next line. The empty space left
              in the original position is highlighted as a special  character.

       If  zle_highlight  is  not set or no value applies to a particular con-
       text, the defaults applied are equivalent to

              zle_highlight=(region:standout special:standout
              suffix:bold isearch:underline paste:standout)

       i.e. both the region and special characters are shown in standout mode.

       Within  widgets,  arbitrary  regions  may be highlighted by setting the
       special array parameter region_highlight; see above.




zsh 5.2                        December 2, 2015                      zshzle(1)

Mac OS X 10.12.3 - Generated Sat Feb 4 15:37:06 CST 2017
© manpagez.com 2000-2017
Individual documents may contain additional copyright information.