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zshzle(1)                                                            zshzle(1)




NAME

       zshzle - zsh command line editor


DESCRIPTION

       If the ZLE option is set (which it is by default in interactive shells)
       and the shell input is attached to the terminal, the user  is  able  to
       edit command lines.

       There  are  two  display  modes.   The  first,  multiline  mode, is the
       default.  It only works if the TERM parameter is set to a valid  termi-
       nal type that can move the cursor up.  The second, single line mode, is
       used if TERM is invalid or incapable of moving the cursor up, or if the
       SINGLE_LINE_ZLE  option  is set.  This mode is similar to ksh, and uses
       no termcap sequences.  If TERM is "emacs", the ZLE option will be unset
       by default.

       The  parameters BAUD, COLUMNS, and LINES are also used by the line edi-
       tor.  See Parameters Used By The Shell in zshparam(1).

       The parameter zle_highlight is also used by the line editor; see  Char-
       acter  Highlighting  below.  Highlighting of special characters and the
       region between the cursor and the mark (as set with set-mark-command in
       Emacs  mode)  is  enabled  by  default; consult this reference for more
       information.  Irascible conservatives will wish to know that all  high-
       lighting may be disabled by the following setting:

              zle_highlight=(none)




KEYMAPS

       A  keymap  in  ZLE contains a set of bindings between key sequences and
       ZLE commands.  The empty key sequence cannot be bound.

       There can be any number of keymaps at any time, and each keymap has one
       or  more names.  If all of a keymap's names are deleted, it disappears.
       bindkey can be used to manipulate keymap names.

       Initially, there are six keymaps:

       emacs  EMACS emulation
       viins  vi emulation - insert mode
       vicmd  vi emulation - command mode
       isearch
              incremental search mode
       command
              read a command name
       .safe  fallback keymap

       The `.safe' keymap is special.  It can never be altered, and  the  name
       can  never be removed.  However, it can be linked to other names, which
       can be removed.  In the future other  special  keymaps  may  be  added;
       users  should  avoid  using  names  beginning  with  `.'  for their own
       keymaps.

       In addition to these names, either `emacs' or `viins' is also linked to
       the  name `main'.  If one of the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables
       contain the string `vi' when the  shell  starts  up  then  it  will  be
       `viins',  otherwise  it  will  be `emacs'.  bindkey's -e and -v options
       provide a convenient way to override this default choice.

       When the editor starts up, it will select the `main' keymap.   If  that
       keymap doesn't exist, it will use `.safe' instead.

       In  the `.safe' keymap, each single key is bound to self-insert, except
       for ^J (line feed) and ^M (return)  which  are  bound  to  accept-line.
       This is deliberately not pleasant to use; if you are using it, it means
       you deleted the main keymap, and you should put it back.

   Reading Commands
       When ZLE is reading a command from the terminal, it may read a sequence
       that  is  bound  to some command and is also a prefix of a longer bound
       string.  In this case ZLE will wait a certain time to see if more char-
       acters are typed, and if not (or they don't match any longer string) it
       will execute the binding.  This timeout is defined  by  the  KEYTIMEOUT
       parameter;  its  default is 0.4 sec.  There is no timeout if the prefix
       string is not itself bound to a command.

       The key timeout is also applied when ZLE is reading the  bytes  from  a
       multibyte  character  string when it is in the appropriate mode.  (This
       requires that the shell was compiled with multibyte mode enabled; typi-
       cally  also the locale has characters with the UTF-8 encoding, although
       any multibyte encoding known to the operating system is supported.)  If
       the  second or a subsequent byte is not read within the timeout period,
       the shell acts as if ? were typed and resets the input state.

       As well as ZLE commands, key sequences can be bound to  other  strings,
       by  using  `bindkey -s'.  When such a sequence is read, the replacement
       string is pushed back as input, and the command reading process  starts
       again  using  these fake keystrokes.  This input can itself invoke fur-
       ther replacement strings, but in order to detect loops the process will
       be stopped if there are twenty such replacements without a real command
       being read.

       A key sequence typed by the user can be turned into a command name  for
       use  in  user-defined  widgets  with the read-command widget, described
       below.



ZLE BUILTINS

       The ZLE module contains three related  builtin  commands.  The  bindkey
       command manipulates keymaps and key bindings; the vared command invokes
       ZLE on the value of a shell parameter; and the zle command  manipulates
       editing  widgets  and  allows  command line access to ZLE commands from
       within shell functions.

       bindkey [ options ] -l [ -L ] [ keymap ... ]
       bindkey [ options ] -d
       bindkey [ options ] -D keymap ...
       bindkey [ options ] -A old-keymap new-keymap
       bindkey [ options ] -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
       bindkey [ options ] -m
       bindkey [ options ] -r in-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] -s in-string out-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] in-string command ...
       bindkey [ options ] [ in-string ]
              bindkey's options can be divided into three  categories:  keymap
              selection for the current command, operation selection, and oth-
              ers.  The keymap selection options are:

              -e     Selects keymap `emacs' for any operations by the  current
                     command,  and  also links `emacs' to `main' so that it is
                     selected by default the next time the editor starts.

              -v     Selects keymap `viins' for any operations by the  current
                     command,  and  also links `viins' to `main' so that it is
                     selected by default the next time the editor starts.

              -a     Selects keymap `vicmd' for any operations by the  current
                     command.

              -M keymap
                     The  keymap  specifies a keymap name that is selected for
                     any operations by the current command.

              If a keymap selection is required and none of the options  above
              are  used,  the  `main'  keymap is used.  Some operations do not
              permit a keymap to be selected, namely:

              -l     List all existing keymap  names;  if  any  arguments  are
                     given, list just those keymaps.

                     If  the -L option is also used, list in the form of bind-
                     key commands to create or link the keymaps.  `bindkey -lL
                     main' shows which keymap is linked to `main', if any, and
                     hence if the standard emacs or vi emulation is in effect.
                     This  option  does  not  show the .safe keymap because it
                     cannot be created in that fashion;  however,  neither  is
                     `bindkey  -lL .safe' reported as an error, it simply out-
                     puts nothing.

              -d     Delete all existing keymaps  and  reset  to  the  default
                     state.

              -D keymap ...
                     Delete the named keymaps.

              -A old-keymap new-keymap
                     Make the new-keymap name an alias for old-keymap, so that
                     both names refer to the  same  keymap.   The  names  have
                     equal  standing; if either is deleted, the other remains.
                     If there is already a keymap with the new-keymap name, it
                     is deleted.

              -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
                     Create  a  new  keymap,  named  new-keymap.   If a keymap
                     already has that name, it is deleted.  If  an  old-keymap
                     name  is  given,  the  new  keymap is initialized to be a
                     duplicate of it, otherwise the new keymap will be  empty.

              To  use  a  newly  created  keymap, it should be linked to main.
              Hence the sequence of commands to create and use  a  new  keymap
              `mymap'   initialized  from  the  emacs  keymap  (which  remains
              unchanged) is:

                     bindkey -N mymap emacs
                     bindkey -A mymap main

              Note that while `bindkey -A newmap main' will work  when  newmap
              is emacs or viins, it will not work for vicmd, as switching from
              vi insert to command mode becomes impossible.

              The following operations act on the `main' keymap if  no  keymap
              selection option was given:

              -m     Add the built-in set of meta-key bindings to the selected
                     keymap.   Only  keys  that  are  unbound  or   bound   to
                     self-insert are affected.

              -r in-string ...
                     Unbind  the  specified in-strings in the selected keymap.
                     This is exactly equivalent  to  binding  the  strings  to
                     undefined-key.

                     When -R is also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

                     When -p is also used, the  in-strings  specify  prefixes.
                     Any binding that has the given in-string as a prefix, not
                     including the binding for the in-string itself,  if  any,
                     will be removed.  For example,

                            bindkey -rpM viins '^['

                     will  remove  all bindings in the vi-insert keymap begin-
                     ning with an escape character (probably cursor keys), but
                     leave the binding for the escape character itself (proba-
                     bly vi-cmd-mode).  This is incompatible with  the  option
                     -R.

              -s in-string out-string ...
                     Bind  each  in-string to each out-string.  When in-string
                     is typed, out-string will be pushed back and  treated  as
                     input  to  the line editor.  When -R is also used, inter-
                     pret the in-strings as ranges.

              in-string command ...
                     Bind each in-string to each command.  When  -R  is  used,
                     interpret the in-strings as ranges.

              [ in-string ]
                     List  key  bindings.   If  an in-string is specified, the
                     binding of that string in the  selected  keymap  is  dis-
                     played.   Otherwise,  all  key  bindings  in the selected
                     keymap are displayed.  (As a special case, if the  -e  or
                     -v  option  is  used alone, the keymap is not displayed -
                     the implicit linking of keymaps is the  only  thing  that
                     happens.)

                     When  the  option  -p  is  used,  the  in-string  must be
                     present.  The listing shows all bindings which  have  the
                     given  key  sequence as a prefix, not including any bind-
                     ings for the key sequence itself.

                     When the -L option is used, the list is in  the  form  of
                     bindkey commands to create the key bindings.

       When  the  -R  option is used as noted above, a valid range consists of
       two characters, with an optional  `-'  between  them.   All  characters
       between the two specified, inclusive, are bound as specified.

       For  either in-string or out-string, the following escape sequences are
       recognised:

       \a     bell character
       \b     backspace
       \e, \E escape
       \f     form feed
       \n     linefeed (newline)
       \r     carriage return
       \t     horizontal tab
       \v     vertical tab
       \NNN   character code in octal
       \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
       \M[-]X character with meta bit set
       \C[-]X control character
       ^X     control character

       In all other cases, `\' escapes the  following  character.   Delete  is
       written  as  `^?'.   Note  that `\M^?' and `^\M?' are not the same, and
       that (unlike emacs), the bindings `\M-X' and `\eX'  are  entirely  dis-
       tinct,  although  they are initialized to the same bindings by `bindkey
       -m'.

       vared [ -Aache ] [ -p prompt ] [ -r rprompt ]
         [ -M main-keymap ] [ -m vicmd-keymap ]
         [ -t tty ] name
              The value of the parameter name is loaded into the edit  buffer,
              and  the line editor is invoked.  When the editor exits, name is
              set to the string value returned by the  editor.   When  the  -c
              flag  is  given,  the parameter is created if it doesn't already
              exist.  The -a flag may be given with  -c  to  create  an  array
              parameter,  or  the  -A flag to create an associative array.  If
              the type of an existing parameter does not match the type to  be
              created, the parameter is unset and recreated.

              If an array or array slice is being edited, separator characters
              as defined in $IFS will be shown quoted  with  a  backslash,  as
              will  backslashes  themselves.  Conversely, when the edited text
              is split into an array, a backslash quotes an  immediately  fol-
              lowing  separator  character or backslash; no other special han-
              dling of backslashes, or any handling of quotes, is performed.

              Individual elements  of  existing  array  or  associative  array
              parameters may be edited by using subscript syntax on name.  New
              elements are created automatically, even without -c.

              If the -p flag is given, the following string will be  taken  as
              the prompt to display at the left.  If the -r flag is given, the
              following string gives the prompt to display at the  right.   If
              the  -h flag is specified, the history can be accessed from ZLE.
              If the -e flag is given, typing ^D (Control-D) on an empty  line
              causes vared to exit immediately with a non-zero return value.

              The  -M  option gives a keymap to link to the main keymap during
              editing, and the -m option gives a keymap to link to  the  vicmd
              keymap during editing.  For vi-style editing, this allows a pair
              of keymaps to override viins and vicmd.  For  emacs-style  edit-
              ing,  only  -M is normally needed but the -m option may still be
              used.  On exit, the previous keymaps will be restored.

              If `-t tty' is given, tty is the name of a terminal device to be
              used  instead of the default /dev/tty.  If tty does not refer to
              a terminal an error is reported.

       zle
       zle -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ... ]
       zle -D widget ...
       zle -A old-widget new-widget
       zle -N widget [ function ]
       zle -C widget completion-widget function
       zle -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
       zle -M string
       zle -U string
       zle -K keymap
       zle -F [ -L ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
       zle -I
       zle -T [ tc function | -r tc | -L ]
       zle widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
              The zle builtin performs a number of different actions  concern-
              ing ZLE.

              With no options and no arguments, only the return status will be
              set.  It is zero if ZLE is currently active and widgets could be
              invoked using this builtin command and non-zero otherwise.  Note
              that even if non-zero status  is  returned,  zle  may  still  be
              active  as  part  of  the completion system; this does not allow
              direct calls to ZLE widgets.

              Otherwise, which operation it performs depends on its options:

              -l [ -L | -a ]
                     List all existing user-defined widgets.  If the -L option
                     is  used,  list in the form of zle commands to create the
                     widgets.

                     When combined with the -a option, all  widget  names  are
                     listed,  including  the builtin ones. In this case the -L
                     option is ignored.

                     If at least one string is given, and -a is present or  -L
                     is  not used, nothing will be printed.  The return status
                     will be zero if all strings are names of existing widgets
                     and  non-zero  if  at least one string is not a name of a
                     defined widget.  If -a is also present, all widget  names
                     are  used  for  the comparison including builtin widgets,
                     else only user-defined widgets are used.

                     If at least one string is present and the  -L  option  is
                     used, user-defined widgets matching any string are listed
                     in the form of zle commands to create the widgets.

              -D widget ...
                     Delete the named widgets.

              -A old-widget new-widget
                     Make the new-widget name an alias for old-widget, so that
                     both  names  refer  to  the  same widget.  The names have
                     equal standing; if either is deleted, the other  remains.
                     If there is already a widget with the new-widget name, it
                     is deleted.

              -N widget [ function ]
                     Create a user-defined widget.  If there is already a wid-
                     get with the specified name, it is overwritten.  When the
                     new widget is invoked from within the editor, the  speci-
                     fied  shell  function  is called.  If no function name is
                     specified, it defaults to the same name  as  the  widget.
                     For  further information, see the section Widgets in zsh-
       zle(1).

              -C widget completion-widget function
                     Create a user-defined completion widget named widget. The
                     completion  widget  will behave like the built-in comple-
                     tion-widget whose name is given as completion-widget.  To
                     generate  the  completions,  the  shell function function
                     will be called.  For further  information,  see  zshcomp-
       wid(1).

              -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
                     Redisplay  the  command  line;  this is to be called from
                     within a user-defined widget to allow changes  to  become
                     visible.   If  a  display-string  is given and not empty,
                     this is shown in the status line (immediately  below  the
                     line being edited).

                     If  the  optional strings are given they are listed below
                     the prompt in  the  same  way  as  completion  lists  are
                     printed.  If  no  strings  are given but the -c option is
                     used such a list is cleared.

                     Note that this option is only useful for widgets that  do
                     not  exit  immediately after using it because the strings
                     displayed will be erased immediately  after  return  from
                     the widget.

                     This  command  can  safely be called outside user defined
                     widgets; if zle is active, the display will be refreshed,
                     while  if  zle  is not active, the command has no effect.
                     In this case there will usually be no other arguments.

                     The status is zero if zle was active, else one.

              -M string
                     As with the -R option, the string will be displayed below
                     the  command  line; unlike the -R option, the string will
                     not be put into the  status  line  but  will  instead  be
                     printed  normally  below the prompt.  This means that the
                     string will still be displayed after the  widget  returns
                     (until it is overwritten by subsequent commands).

              -U string
                     This  pushes  the characters in the string onto the input
                     stack of ZLE.  After the widget currently  executed  fin-
                     ishes  ZLE will behave as if the characters in the string
                     were typed by the user.

                     As ZLE uses a stack, if this option  is  used  repeatedly
                     the  last  string pushed onto the stack will be processed
                     first.  However, the characters in each  string  will  be
                     processed  in  the  order  in  which  they  appear in the
                     string.

              -K keymap
                     Selects the keymap named keymap.  An error  message  will
                     be displayed if there is no such keymap.

                     This  keymap selection affects the interpretation of fol-
                     lowing keystrokes within this  invocation  of  ZLE.   Any
                     following  invocation  (e.g., the next command line) will
                     start as usual with the `main' keymap selected.

              -F [ -L ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
                     Only available if your system supports one of the  `poll'
                     or `select' system calls; most modern systems do.

                     Installs handler (the name of a shell function) to handle
                     input from file descriptor fd.  When zle is attempting to
                     read data, it will examine both the terminal and the list
                     of handled fd's.  If data becomes available on a  handled
                     fd,  zle will call handler with the fd which is ready for
                     reading as the only argument.  If  the  handler  produces
                     output  to  the  terminal, it should call `zle -I' before
                     doing so (see below).  The handler should not attempt  to
                     read  from  the terminal.  Note that zle makes no attempt
                     to check  whether  this  fd  is  actually  readable  when
                     installing  the  handler.   The  user must make their own
                     arrangements for handling the file descriptor when zle is
                     not active.

                     Any  number  of  handlers for any number of readable file
                     descriptors may be installed.  Installing a  handler  for
                     an  fd  which is already handled causes the existing han-
                     dler to be replaced.

                     If no handler is given, but an fd is present, any handler
                     for  that fd is removed.  If there is none, an error mes-
                     sage is printed and status 1 is returned.

                     If no arguments are given, or the -L option is  supplied,
                     a  list  of  handlers  is  printed in a form which can be
                     stored for later execution.

                     An fd (but not a handler) may optionally  be  given  with
                     the  -L  option; in this case, the function will list the
                     handler if any, else silently return status 1.

                     Note that this feature should be used with care.   Activ-
                     ity  on one of the fd's which is not properly handled can
                     cause the terminal to become unusable.

                     Here is a simple example of using this feature.   A  con-
                     nection  to  a  remote TCP port is created using the ztcp
                     command; see the description of the zsh/net/tcp module in
                     zshmodules(1).   Then a handler is installed which simply
                     prints out any data which  arrives  on  this  connection.
                     Note that `select' will indicate that the file descriptor
                     needs handling if the remote side has closed the  connec-
                     tion; we handle that by testing for a failed read.
                            if ztcp pwspc 2811; then
                              tcpfd=$REPLY
                              handler() {
                                zle -I
                                local line
                                if ! read -r line <&$1; then
                                  # select marks this fd if we reach EOF,
                                  # so handle this specially.
                                  print "[Read on fd $1 failed, removing.]" >&2
                                  zle -F $1
                                  return 1
                                fi
                                print -r - $line
                              }
                              zle -F $tcpfd handler
                            fi

              -I     Unusually,  this  option  is most useful outside ordinary
                     widget functions, though it may be used within if  normal
                     output  to  the terminal is required.  It invalidates the
                     current zle display in preparation for output;  typically
                     this  will  be from a trap function.  It has no effect if
                     zle is not active.  When a trap exits, the  shell  checks
                     to  see if the display needs restoring, hence the follow-
                     ing will print output in such a way as not to disturb the
                     line being edited:

                            TRAPUSR1() {
                                # Invalidate zle display
                              [[ -o zle ]] && zle -I
                                # Show output
                              print Hello
                            }

                     In  general,  the  trap function may need to test whether
                     zle is active before using this method (as shown  in  the
                     example),  since  the  zsh/zle  module  may  not  even be
                     loaded; if it is not, the command can be skipped.

                     It is possible to call `zle -I' several times before con-
                     trol  is returned to the editor; the display will only be
                     invalidated the first time to minimise disruption.

                     Note that there are normally better ways of  manipulating
                     the  display  from  within zle widgets; see, for example,
                     `zle -R' above.

                     The returned status is zero if zle was invalidated,  even
                     though  this may have been by a previous call to `zle -I'
                     or by a system notification.  To test if a zle widget may
                     be  called  at  this point, execute zle with no arguments
                     and examine the return status.

              -T     This is used to add, list or remove internal  transforma-
                     tions on the processing performed by the line editor.  It
                     is typically used only for debugging or  testing  and  is
                     therefore of little interest to the general user.

                     `zle  -T  transformation  func'  specifies that the given
                     transformation (see below) is effected by shell  function
                     func.

                     `zle -Tr transformation' removes the given transformation
                     if it was present (it is not an error if none was).

                     `zle -TL' can be used to list  all  transformations  cur-
                     rently in operation.

                     Currently  the  only  transformation is tc.  This is used
                     instead of outputting  termcap  codes  to  the  terminal.
                     When  the  transformation is in operation the shell func-
                     tion is passed the termcap code that would be  output  as
                     its  first  argument; if the operation required a numeric
                     argument, that is passed as a second argument.  The func-
                     tion  should  set  the shell variable REPLY to the trans-
                     formed termcap code.  Typically this is used  to  produce
                     some  simply  formatted  version of the code and optional
                     argument for debugging or testing.  Note that this trans-
                     formation is not applied to other non-printing characters
                     such as carriage returns and newlines.

              widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
                     Invoke the specified widget.  This can only be done  when
                     ZLE   is   active;   normally   this  will  be  within  a
                     user-defined widget.

                     With the options -n and -N, the current  numerical  argu-
                     ment  will  be  saved and then restored after the call to
                     widget; `-n num' sets the numerical argument  temporarily
                     to  num,  while  `-N'  sets it to the default, i.e. as if
                     there were none.

                     With the option -K, keymap will be used  as  the  current
                     keymap  during the execution of the widget.  The previous
                     keymap will be restored when the widget exits.

                     Normally, calling a widget in this way does not  set  the
                     special  parameter WIDGET and related parameters, so that
                     the environment appears as if the top-level widget called
                     by  the user were still active.  With the option -w, WID-
                     GET and related parameters are set to reflect the  widget
                     being executed by the zle call.

                     Any  further arguments will be passed to the widget; note
                     that as standard argument handling is performed, any gen-
                     eral  argument list should be preceded by --.  If it is a
                     shell function,  these  are  passed  down  as  positional
                     parameters; for builtin widgets it is up to the widget in
                     question what it does with them.  Currently arguments are
                     only handled by the incremental-search commands, the his-
                     tory-search-forward and -backward and  the  corresponding
                     functions prefixed by vi-, and by universal-argument.  No
                     error is flagged if the command does not  use  the  argu-
                     ments, or only uses some of them.

                     The  return status reflects the success or failure of the
                     operation carried out by  the  widget,  or  if  it  is  a
                     user-defined  widget the return status of the shell func-
                     tion.

                     A non-zero return status causes the shell  to  beep  when
                     the  widget  exits,  unless the BEEP options was unset or
                     the widget was called via the zle  command.   Thus  if  a
                     user defined widget requires an immediate beep, it should
                     call the beep widget directly.



WIDGETS

       All actions in the editor are performed by `widgets'.  A  widget's  job
       is  simply  to  perform  some  small action.  The ZLE commands that key
       sequences in keymaps are bound to are in fact widgets.  Widgets can  be
       user-defined or built in.

       The  standard  widgets  built  into  ZLE are listed in Standard Widgets
       below.  Other built-in widgets can be defined  by  other  modules  (see
       zshmodules(1)).  Each built-in widget has two names: its normal canoni-
       cal name, and the same name preceded by a `.'.  The `.'  name  is  spe-
       cial: it can't be rebound to a different widget.  This makes the widget
       available even when its usual name has been redefined.

       User-defined widgets are defined using `zle  -N',  and  implemented  as
       shell  functions.  When the widget is executed, the corresponding shell
       function is executed, and can perform editing (or other)  actions.   It
       is recommended that user-defined widgets should not have names starting
       with `.'.


USER-DEFINED WIDGETS

       User-defined widgets, being implemented as shell functions, can execute
       any  normal  shell  command.   They can also run other widgets (whether
       built-in or user-defined) using the zle builtin command.  The  standard
       input of the function is closed to prevent external commands from unin-
       tentionally blocking ZLE by reading from the terminal, but read  -k  or
       read  -q can be used to read characters.  Finally, they can examine and
       edit the ZLE buffer being edited by reading  and  setting  the  special
       parameters described below.

       These  special parameters are always available in widget functions, but
       are not in any way special outside ZLE.  If they have some normal value
       outside  ZLE,  that  value is temporarily inaccessible, but will return
       when the widget function exits.  These special parameters in fact  have
       local scope, like parameters created in a function using local.

       Inside  completion  widgets and traps called while ZLE is active, these
       parameters are available read-only.

       BUFFER (scalar)
              The entire contents of the edit buffer.  If it  is  written  to,
              the  cursor remains at the same offset, unless that would put it
              outside the buffer.

       BUFFERLINES (integer)
              The number of screen lines needed for the edit buffer  currently
              displayed  on  screen (i.e. without any changes to the preceding
              parameters done after the last redisplay); read-only.

       CONTEXT (scalar)
              The context in which zle was called to read a  line;  read-only.
              One of the values:
       start  The start of a command line (at prompt PS1).

       cont   A continuation to a command line (at prompt PS2).

       select In a select loop.

       vared  Editing a variable in vared.

       CURSOR (integer)
              The  offset  of  the cursor, within the edit buffer.  This is in
              the  range  0  to  $#BUFFER,  and  is  by  definition  equal  to
              $#LBUFFER.   Attempts to move the cursor outside the buffer will
              result in the cursor being moved to the appropriate end  of  the
              buffer.

       CUTBUFFER (scalar)
              The  last item cut using one of the `kill-' commands; the string
              which the next yank would insert in the line.  Later entries  in
              the  kill ring are in the array killring.  Note that the command
              `zle copy-region-as-kill string' can be used to set the text  of
              the  cut buffer from a shell function and cycle the kill ring in
              the same way as interactively killing text.

       HISTNO (integer)
              The current history number.  Setting this has the same effect as
              moving  up  or  down in the history to the corresponding history
              line.  An attempt to set it is ignored if the line is not stored
              in  the  history.   Note  this  is not the same as the parameter
              HISTCMD, which always gives the number of the history line being
              added  to  the  main shell's history.  HISTNO refers to the line
              being retrieved within zle.

       KEYMAP (scalar)
              The name of the currently selected keymap; read-only.

       KEYS (scalar)
              The keys typed to invoke  this  widget,  as  a  literal  string;
              read-only.

       killring (array)
              The  array  of  previously  killed items, with the most recently
              killed first.  This gives the items that would be retrieved by a
              yank-pop  in  the  same  order.   Note,  however,  that the most
              recently killed item is in $CUTBUFFER; $killring shows the array
              of previous entries.

              The  default size for the kill ring is eight, however the length
              may be changed by normal array operations.  Any empty string  in
              the kill ring is ignored by the yank-pop command, hence the size
              of the array effectively sets the maximum  length  of  the  kill
              ring,  while  the  number  of non-zero strings gives the current
              length, both as seen by the user at the command line.

       LASTABORTEDSEARCH (scalar)
              The last search string used by an interactive  search  that  was
              aborted by the user (status 3 returned by the search widget).

       LASTSEARCH (scalar)
              The last search string used by an interactive search; read-only.
              This is set even if the search failed (status 0, 1 or 2 returned
              by the search widget), but not if it was aborted by the user.

       LASTWIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the last widget that was executed; read-only.

       LBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to the left of the cursor posi-
              tion.  If it is assigned to, only that part  of  the  buffer  is
              replaced,  and  the  cursor remains between the new $LBUFFER and
              the old $RBUFFER.

       MARK (integer)
              Like CURSOR, but for the mark.

       NUMERIC (integer)
              The numeric argument. If no numeric  argument  was  given,  this
              parameter  is  unset. When this is set inside a widget function,
              builtin widgets called with the zle builtin command will use the
              value assigned. If it is unset inside a widget function, builtin
              widgets called behave as if no numeric argument was given.

       PENDING (integer)
              The number of bytes pending for input, i.e. the number of  bytes
              which  have  already  been typed and can immediately be read. On
              systems where the shell is not able  to  get  this  information,
              this parameter will always have a value of zero.  Read-only.

       PREBUFFER (scalar)
              In  a  multi-line  input at the secondary prompt, this read-only
              parameter contains the contents of the lines before the one  the
              cursor is currently in.

       PREDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text  to  be  displayed  before  the  start of the editable text
              buffer.  This does not have to be a complete line; to display  a
              complete  line, a newline must be appended explicitly.  The text
              is reset on each new invocation (but not  recursive  invocation)
              of zle.

       POSTDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text  to be displayed after the end of the editable text buffer.
              This does not have to be a complete line; to display a  complete
              line, a newline must be prepended explicitly.  The text is reset
              on each new invocation (but not recursive invocation) of zle.

       RBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to  the  right  of  the  cursor
              position.  If it is assigned to, only that part of the buffer is
              replaced, and the cursor remains between the  old  $LBUFFER  and
              the new $RBUFFER.

       REGION_ACTIVE (integer)
              Indicates if the region is currently active.  It can be assigned
              0 or 1 to deactivate and activate the region  respectively;  see
              Character Highlighting below.

       region_highlight (array)
              Each element of this array may be set to a string that describes
              highlighting for an arbitrary region of the  command  line  that
              will  take effect the next time the command line is redisplayed.
              Highlighting of the non-editable parts of the  command  line  in
              PREDISPLAY  and  POSTDISPLAY  are  possible, but note that the P
              flag is needed for character indexing to include PREDISPLAY.

              Each string consists of the following parts:

              Optionally, a `P' to signify that the start and end offset that
                     follow include any string set by the  PREDISPLAY  special
                     parameter; this is needed if the predisplay string itself
                     is to be highlighted.  Whitespace may follow the `P'.
              A start offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.
              An end offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.
              A highlight specification in the same format as
                     used for contexts in  the  parameter  zle_highlight,  see
                     Character  Highlighting  below;  for example, standout or
                     fg=red,bold.

              For example,

                     region_highlight=("P0 20 bold")

              specifies that the first twenty characters of the text including
              any predisplay string should be highlighted in bold.

              Note that the effect of region_highlight is not saved and disap-
              pears as soon as the line is accepted.

       UNDO_CHANGE_NO (integer)
              A number representing the state of the undo history.   The  only
              use  of  this  is  passing  as an argument to the undo widget in
              order to undo back to the recorded point.  Read-only.

       WIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the widget currently being executed; read-only.

       WIDGETFUNC (scalar)
              The name of the shell function that implements a widget  defined
              with  either  zle -N or zle -C.  In the former case, this is the
              second argument to the zle -N command that defined  the  widget,
              or  the  first argument if there was no second argument.  In the
              latter case this is the third argument to  the  zle  -C  command
              that defined the widget.  Read-only.

       WIDGETSTYLE (scalar)
              Describes  the  implementation behind the completion widget cur-
              rently being executed; the second argument that followed zle  -C
              when the widget was defined.  This is the name of a builtin com-
              pletion widget.  For widgets defined with zle -N this is set  to
              the empty string.  Read-only.

       ZLE_STATE (scalar)
              Contains  a  set of space-separated words that describe the cur-
              rent zle state.

              Currently, the states shown are the insert mode as  set  by  the
              overwrite-mode  or  vi-replace  widgets and whether history com-
              mands  will  visit  imported  entries  as  controlled   by   the
              set-local-history widget.  The string contains `insert' if char-
              acters to be inserted on the command line move existing  charac-
              ters  to  the  right or `overwrite' if characters to be inserted
              overwrite existing characters.  It  contains  `localhistory'  if
              only  local  history commands will be visited or `globalhistory'
              if imported history commands will also be visited.

              The substrings are sorted in alphabetical order so that  if  you
              want  to test for two specific substrings in a future-proof way,
              you can do match by doing:

                     if [[ $ZLE_STATE == *insert*globalhistory* ]]; then ...; fi


   Special Widgets
       There are a few user-defined widgets which are special  to  the  shell.
       If they do not exist, no special action is taken.  The environment pro-
       vided is identical to that for any other editing widget.

       zle-isearch-exit
              Executed at the end of incremental search at the point where the
              isearch    prompt    is   removed   from   the   display.    See
              zle-isearch-update for an example.

       zle-isearch-update
              Executed within incremental search when the display is about  to
              be  redrawn.   Additional  output  below  the incremental search
              prompt can be generated by using `zle  -M'  within  the  widget.
              For example,

                     zle-isearch-update() { zle -M "Line $HISTNO"; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-update

              Note  the  line  output  by `zle -M' is not deleted on exit from
              incremental search.  This can be done  from  a  zle-isearch-exit
              widget:

                     zle-isearch-exit() { zle -M ""; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-exit

       zle-line-init
              Executed  every  time  the  line editor is started to read a new
              line of input.  The following example puts the line editor  into
              vi command mode when it starts up.

                     zle-line-init() { zle -K vicmd; }
                     zle -N zle-line-init

              (The command inside the function sets the keymap directly; it is
              equivalent to zle vi-cmd-mode.)

       zle-line-finish
              This is similar to zle-line-init but is executed every time  the
              line editor has finished reading a line of input.

       zle-history-line-set
              Executed when the history line changes.

       zle-keymap-select
              Executed every time the keymap changes, i.e. the special parame-
              ter KEYMAP is set to a different value, while the line editor is
              active.   Initialising  the  keymap  when the line editor starts
              does not cause the widget to be called.

              The value $KEYMAP within the function reflects the  new  keymap.
              The old keymap is passed as the sole argument.

              This  can  be used for detecting switches between the vi command
              (vicmd) and insert (usually main) keymaps.



STANDARD WIDGETS

       The following is a list of all the standard widgets, and their  default
       bindings  in  emacs  mode,  vi  command  mode  and  vi insert mode (the
       `emacs', `vicmd' and `viins' keymaps, respectively).

       Note that cursor keys are bound to movement keys in all three  keymaps;
       the  shell assumes that the cursor keys send the key sequences reported
       by the  terminal-handling  library  (termcap  or  terminfo).   The  key
       sequences  shown  in  the  list are those based on the VT100, common on
       many modern terminals, but in fact these are not necessarily bound.  In
       the  case  of  the  viins  keymap,  the initial escape character of the
       sequences serves also to return to the vicmd keymap: whether this  hap-
       pens is determined by the KEYTIMEOUT parameter, see zshparam(1).

   Movement
       vi-backward-blank-word (unbound) (B) (unbound)
              Move  backward  one word, where a word is defined as a series of
              non-blank characters.

       backward-char (^B ESC-[D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move backward one character.

       vi-backward-char (unbound) (^H h ^?) (ESC-[D)
              Move backward one character, without changing lines.

       backward-word (ESC-B ESC-b) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       emacs-backward-word
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       vi-backward-word (unbound) (b) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word, vi-style.

       beginning-of-line (^A) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the  beginning
              of the line, move to the beginning of the previous line, if any.

       vi-beginning-of-line
              Move to the beginning of the line, without changing lines.

       end-of-line (^E) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the line,
              move to the end of the next line, if any.

       vi-end-of-line (unbound) ($) (unbound)
              Move  to  the  end of the line.  If an argument is given to this
              command, the cursor will be moved to the end of the line  (argu-
              ment - 1) lines down.

       vi-forward-blank-word (unbound) (W) (unbound)
              Move  forward  one  word, where a word is defined as a series of
              non-blank characters.

       vi-forward-blank-word-end (unbound) (E) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the current word, or, if at the  end  of  the
              current  word,  to  the  end  of  the next word, where a word is
              defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       forward-char (^F ESC-[C) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-forward-char (unbound) (space l) (ESC-[C)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-find-next-char (^X^F) (f) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the next  occur-
              rence of it in the line.

       vi-find-next-char-skip (unbound) (t) (unbound)
              Read  a  character  from  the keyboard, and move to the position
              just before the next occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char (unbound) (F) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and  move  to  the  previous
              occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char-skip (unbound) (T) (unbound)
              Read  a  character  from  the keyboard, and move to the position
              just after the previous occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-first-non-blank (unbound) (^) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character in the line.

       vi-forward-word (unbound) (w) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, vi-style.

       forward-word (ESC-F ESC-f) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the next word.  The editor's idea of  a
              word is specified with the WORDCHARS parameter.

       emacs-forward-word
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-forward-word-end (unbound) (e) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-goto-column (ESC-|) (|) (unbound)
              Move to the column specified by the numeric argument.

       vi-goto-mark (unbound) (`) (unbound)
              Move to the specified mark.

       vi-goto-mark-line (unbound) (') (unbound)
              Move to beginning of the line containing the specified mark.

       vi-repeat-find (unbound) (;) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command.

       vi-rev-repeat-find (unbound) (,) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command in the opposite direction.

   History Control
       beginning-of-buffer-or-history (ESC-<) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move  to  the beginning of the buffer, or if already there, move
              to the first event in the history list.

       beginning-of-line-hist
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the  beginning
              of the buffer, move to the previous history line.

       beginning-of-history
              Move to the first event in the history list.

       down-line-or-history (^N ESC-[B) (j) (ESC-[B)
              Move  down  a  line  in  the buffer, or if already at the bottom
              line, move to the next event in the history list.

       vi-down-line-or-history (unbound) (+) (unbound)
              Move down a line in the buffer, or  if  already  at  the  bottom
              line,  move to the next event in the history list.  Then move to
              the first non-blank character on the line.

       down-line-or-search
              Move down a line in the buffer, or  if  already  at  the  bottom
              line,  search  forward  in the history for a line beginning with
              the first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first  argument  is  taken  as  the  string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       down-history (unbound) (^N) (unbound)
              Move to the next event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-backward
              Search backward in the history for a  line  beginning  with  the
              current  line  up  to the cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its
              original position.

       end-of-buffer-or-history (ESC->) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the buffer, or if already there, move to  the
              last event in the history list.

       end-of-line-hist
              Move  to  the  end  of  the  line.  If already at the end of the
              buffer, move to the next history line.

       end-of-history
              Move to the last event in the history list.

       vi-fetch-history (unbound) (G) (unbound)
              Fetch the history line specified by the numeric argument.   This
              defaults  to  the  current history line (i.e. the one that isn't
              history yet).

       history-incremental-search-backward (^R ^Xr) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search backward  incrementally  for  a  specified  string.   The
              search  is  case-insensitive  if the search string does not have
              uppercase letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string
              may  begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the
              line.  When called from a user-defined function returns the fol-
              lowing  statuses:  0,  if the search succeeded; 1, if the search
              failed; 2, if the search term was  a  bad  pattern;  3,  if  the
              search was aborted by the send-break command.

              A  restricted  set  of  editing  functions  is  available in the
              mini-buffer.  Keys are looked up in the special isearch  keymap,
              and  if not found there in the main keymap (note that by default
              the isearch keymap is empty).  An interrupt signal,  as  defined
              by  the  stty  setting,  will stop the search and go back to the
              original line.  An undefined key  will  have  the  same  effect.
              Note  that  the  following  always  perform the same task within
              incremental searches and cannot be replaced by user defined wid-
              gets,  nor  can the set of functions be extended.  The supported
              functions are:

              accept-and-hold
              accept-and-infer-next-history
              accept-line
              accept-line-and-down-history
                     Perform the  usual  function  after  exiting  incremental
                     search.  The command line displayed is executed.

              backward-delete-char
              vi-backward-delete-char
                     Back  up  one place in the search history.  If the search
                     has been repeated this does not immediately erase a char-
                     acter in the minibuffer.

              accept-search
                     Exit  incremental  search, retaining the command line but
                     performing no further action.  Note that this function is
                     not  bound by default and has no effect outside incremen-
                     tal search.

              backward-delete-word
              backward-kill-word
              vi-backward-kill-word
                     Back up one character  in  the  minibuffer;  if  multiple
                     searches  have  been  performed  since  the character was
                     inserted the search history is rewound to the point  just
                     before  the  character  was  entered.  Hence this has the
                     effect of repeating backward-delete-char.

              clear-screen
                     Clear the screen, remaining in incremental search mode.

              history-incremental-search-backward
                     Find  the  next  occurrence  of  the  contents   of   the
                     mini-buffer.

              history-incremental-search-forward
                     Invert the sense of the search.

              magic-space
                     Inserts a non-magical space.

              quoted-insert
              vi-quoted-insert
                     Quote the character to insert into the minibuffer.

              redisplay
                     Redisplay  the  command  line,  remaining  in incremental
                     search mode.

              vi-cmd-mode
                     Toggle between the `main' and `vicmd' keymaps; the `main'
                     keymap (insert mode) will be selected initially.

              vi-repeat-search
              vi-rev-repeat-search
                     Repeat  the search.  The direction of the search is indi-
                     cated in the mini-buffer.

              Any character that is not bound to one of the  above  functions,
              or  self-insert or self-insert-unmeta, will cause the mode to be
              exited.  The character is then looked up  and  executed  in  the
              keymap in effect at that point.

              When  called  from  a  widget  function  by the zle command, the
              incremental search commands can take a  string  argument.   This
              will  be  treated  as  a string of keys, as for arguments to the
              bindkey command, and used as initial input for the command.  Any
              characters  in  the  string  which are unused by the incremental
              search will be silently ignored.  For example,

                     zle history-incremental-search-backward forceps

              will search backwards for forceps, leaving the  minibuffer  con-
              taining the string `forceps'.

       history-incremental-search-forward (^S ^Xs) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search forward incrementally for a specified string.  The search
              is case-insensitive if the search string does not have uppercase
              letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string may begin
              with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.  The
              functions  available in the mini-buffer are the same as for his-
              tory-incremental-search-backward.

       history-incremental-pattern-search-backward
       history-incremental-pattern-search-forward
              These widgets behave similarly to the corresponding widgets with
              no  -pattern, but the search string typed by the user is treated
              as a pattern, respecting the current  settings  of  the  various
              options  affecting pattern matching.  See FILENAME GENERATION in
              zshexpn(1) for a description of patterns.  If no  numeric  argu-
              ment  was given lowercase letters in the search string may match
              uppercase letters in the history.  The string may begin with `^'
              to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.

              The prompt changes to indicate an invalid pattern; this may sim-
              ply indicate the pattern is not yet complete.

              Note that only  non-overlapping  matches  are  reported,  so  an
              expression  with  wildcards  may  return fewer matches on a line
              than are visible by inspection.

       history-search-backward (ESC-P ESC-p) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search backward in the history for a  line  beginning  with  the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as  the  string  for  which  to  search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-backward (unbound) (/) (unbound)
              Search  backward  in  the  history  for a specified string.  The
              string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the  beginning
              of the line.

              A  restricted  set  of  editing  functions  is  available in the
              mini-buffer.  An interrupt signal, as defined by the  stty  set-
              ting,   will  stop  the  search.  The functions available in the
              mini-buffer  are:  accept-line,  backward-delete-char,  vi-back-
              ward-delete-char,   backward-kill-word,   vi-backward-kill-word,
              clear-screen, redisplay, quoted-insert and vi-quoted-insert.

              vi-cmd-mode is treated the same as accept-line, and  magic-space
              is treated as a space.  Any other character that is not bound to
              self-insert or self-insert-unmeta will beep and be  ignored.  If
              the function is called from vi command mode, the bindings of the
              current insert mode will be used.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first  argument  is  taken  as  the  string for which to search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       history-search-forward (ESC-N ESC-n) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search forward in the history for  a  line  beginning  with  the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as  the  string  for  which  to  search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-forward (unbound) (?) (unbound)
              Search  forward  in  the  history  for  a specified string.  The
              string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the  beginning
              of  the line. The functions available in the mini-buffer are the
              same as for vi-history-search-backward.   Argument  handling  is
              also the same as for that command.

       infer-next-history (^X^N) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  in  the history list for a line matching the current one
              and fetch the event following it.

       insert-last-word (ESC-_ ESC-.) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the last word from the previous history event at the cur-
              sor  position.   If a positive numeric argument is given, insert
              that word from the end of the previous history  event.   If  the
              argument  is  zero  or  negative  insert that word from the left
              (zero inserts the previous command word).  Repeating  this  com-
              mand replaces the word just inserted with the last word from the
              history event prior to the one just used; numeric arguments  can
              be used in the same way to pick a word from that event.

              When  called  from  a shell function invoked from a user-defined
              widget, the command can take one to three arguments.  The  first
              argument  specifies a history offset which applies to successive
              calls to this widget: if it is  -1,  the  default  behaviour  is
              used,  while  if  it  is  1, successive calls will move forwards
              through the history.  The value 0 can be used to  indicate  that
              the  history line examined by the previous execution of the com-
              mand will be reexamined.  Note that negative numbers  should  be
              preceded  by  a  `--'  argument  to  avoid  confusing  them with
              options.

              If two arguments are given, the second specifies the word on the
              command  line  in normal array index notation (as a more natural
              alternative to the prefix argument).  Hence 1 is the first word,
              and -1 (the default) is the last word.

              If  a  third  argument is given, its value is ignored, but it is
              used to signify that the history offset is relative to the  cur-
              rent history line, rather than the one remembered after the pre-
              vious invocations of insert-last-word.

              For example, the default behaviour of the command corresponds to

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 -1

              while the command

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 1 -

              always  copies the first word of the line in the history immedi-
              ately before the line being edited.  This has  the  side  effect
              that  later  invocations  of the widget will be relative to that
              line.

       vi-repeat-search (unbound) (n) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search.

       vi-rev-repeat-search (unbound) (N) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search, but in reverse.

       up-line-or-history (^P ESC-[A) (k) (ESC-[A)
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already  at  the  top  line,
              move to the previous event in the history list.

       vi-up-line-or-history (unbound) (-) (unbound)
              Move  up  a  line  in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              move to the previous event in the history list.   Then  move  to
              the first non-blank character on the line.

       up-line-or-search
              Move  up  a  line  in the buffer, or if already at the top line,
              search backward in the history for a  line  beginning  with  the
              first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the
              first argument is taken as  the  string  for  which  to  search,
              rather than the first word in the buffer.

       up-history (unbound) (^P) (unbound)
              Move to the previous event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-forward
              Search forward in the history for a line beginning with the cur-
              rent line up to the cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its orig-
              inal position.

       set-local-history
              By  default,  history movement commands visit the imported lines
              as well as the local lines. This widget lets you toggle this  on
              and  off,  or  set  it  with the numeric argument. Zero for both
              local and imported lines and nonzero for only local lines.

   Modifying Text
       vi-add-eol (unbound) (A) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-add-next (unbound) (a) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode after the  current  cursor  position,  without
              changing lines.

       backward-delete-char (^H ^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-delete-char (unbound) (X) (^H)
              Delete  the character behind the cursor, without changing lines.
              If in insert mode, this won't delete past the point where insert
              mode was last entered.

       backward-delete-word
              Delete the word behind the cursor.

       backward-kill-line
              Kill from the beginning of the line to the cursor position.

       backward-kill-word (^W ESC-^H ESC-^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the word behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-kill-word (unbound) (unbound) (^W)
              Kill  the  word  behind the cursor, without going past the point
              where insert mode was last entered.

       capitalize-word (ESC-C ESC-c) (unbound) (unbound)
              Capitalize the current word and move past it.

       vi-change (unbound) (c) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard,  and  kill  from  the
              cursor  position  to  the  endpoint of the movement.  Then enter
              insert mode.  If the command is vi-change,  change  the  current
              line.

       vi-change-eol (unbound) (C) (unbound)
              Kill to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-change-whole-line (unbound) (S) (unbound)
              Kill the current line and enter insert mode.

       copy-region-as-kill (ESC-W ESC-w) (unbound) (unbound)
              Copy the area from the cursor to the mark to the kill buffer.

              If   called  from  a  ZLE  widget  function  in  the  form  `zle
              copy-region-as-kill string' then string will  be  taken  as  the
              text  to  copy to the kill buffer.  The cursor, the mark and the
              text on the command line are not used in this case.

       copy-prev-word (ESC-^_) (unbound) (unbound)
              Duplicate the word to the left of the cursor.

       copy-prev-shell-word
              Like copy-prev-word, but the word is found by using shell  pars-
              ing,  whereas copy-prev-word looks for blanks. This makes a dif-
              ference when the word is quoted and contains spaces.

       vi-delete (unbound) (d) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard,  and  kill  from  the
              cursor position to the endpoint of the movement.  If the command
              is vi-delete, kill the current line.

       delete-char
              Delete the character under the cursor.

       vi-delete-char (unbound) (x) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor, without  going  past  the
              end of the line.

       delete-word
              Delete the current word.

       down-case-word (ESC-L ESC-l) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all lowercase and move past it.

       kill-word (ESC-D ESC-d) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current word.

       gosmacs-transpose-chars
              Exchange the two characters behind the cursor.

       vi-indent (unbound) (>) (unbound)
              Indent a number of lines.

       vi-insert (unbound) (i) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode.

       vi-insert-bol (unbound) (I) (unbound)
              Move  to  the  first  non-blank  character on the line and enter
              insert mode.

       vi-join (^X^J) (J) (unbound)
              Join the current line with the next one.

       kill-line (^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.  If already on  the
              end of the line, kill the newline character.

       vi-kill-line (unbound) (unbound) (^U)
              Kill  from  the  cursor  back  to  wherever insert mode was last
              entered.

       vi-kill-eol (unbound) (D) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.

       kill-region
              Kill from the cursor to the mark.

       kill-buffer (^X^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the entire buffer.

       kill-whole-line (^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current line.

       vi-match-bracket (^X^B) (%) (unbound)
              Move to the bracket character (one of {}, () or []) that matches
              the  one  under  the  cursor.  If the cursor is not on a bracket
              character, move forward without going past the end of  the  line
              to find one, and then go to the matching bracket.

       vi-open-line-above (unbound) (O) (unbound)
              Open a line above the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-open-line-below (unbound) (o) (unbound)
              Open a line below the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-oper-swap-case
              Read  a movement command from the keyboard, and swap the case of
              all characters from the cursor position to the endpoint  of  the
              movement.   If  the  movement command is vi-oper-swap-case, swap
              the case of all characters on the current line.

       overwrite-mode (^X^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Toggle between overwrite mode and insert mode.

       vi-put-before (unbound) (P) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer before  the  cursor.   If
              the  kill  buffer  contains  a  sequence of lines (as opposed to
              characters), paste it above the current line.

       vi-put-after (unbound) (p) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer after the cursor.  If the
              kill  buffer contains a sequence of lines (as opposed to charac-
              ters), paste it below the current line.

       quoted-insert (^V) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the next character typed into the buffer  literally.   An
              interrupt character will not be inserted.

       vi-quoted-insert (unbound) (unbound) (^Q ^V)
              Display  a `^' at the cursor position, and insert the next char-
              acter typed into the buffer literally.  An  interrupt  character
              will not be inserted.

       quote-line (ESC-') (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote  the  current  line;  that  is, put a `'' character at the
              beginning and the end, and convert all `'' characters to `'\'''.

       quote-region (ESC-") (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote the region from the cursor to the mark.

       vi-replace (unbound) (R) (unbound)
              Enter overwrite mode.

       vi-repeat-change (unbound) (.) (unbound)
              Repeat  the last vi mode text modification.  If a count was used
              with the modification, it is remembered.  If a count is given to
              this  command,  it overrides the remembered count, and is remem-
              bered for future uses of this command.  The cut buffer  specifi-
              cation is similarly remembered.

       vi-replace-chars (unbound) (r) (unbound)
              Replace  the  character  under  the cursor with a character read
              from the keyboard.

       self-insert (printable characters) (unbound) (printable characters  and
       some control characters)
              Insert a character into the buffer at the cursor position.

       self-insert-unmeta (ESC-^I ESC-^J ESC-^M) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert a character into the buffer after stripping the meta  bit
              and converting ^M to ^J.

       vi-substitute (unbound) (s) (unbound)
              Substitute the next character(s).

       vi-swap-case (unbound) (~) (unbound)
              Swap  the  case  of the character under the cursor and move past
              it.

       transpose-chars (^T) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the two characters to the left of the cursor if at  end
              of  line,  else exchange the character under the cursor with the
              character to the left.

       transpose-words (ESC-T ESC-t) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the current word with the one before it.

       vi-unindent (unbound) (<) (unbound)
              Unindent a number of lines.

       up-case-word (ESC-U ESC-u) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all caps and move past it.

       yank (^Y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer at the cursor position.

       yank-pop (ESC-y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Remove the text just yanked, rotate the kill-ring  (the  history
              of  previously  killed  text)  and yank the new top.  Only works
              following yank or yank-pop.

       vi-yank (unbound) (y) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and copy  the  region
              from  the  cursor  position to the endpoint of the movement into
              the kill buffer.  If the command is vi-yank,  copy  the  current
              line.

       vi-yank-whole-line (unbound) (Y) (unbound)
              Copy the current line into the kill buffer.

       vi-yank-eol
              Copy  the region from the cursor position to the end of the line
              into the kill buffer.  Arguably, this is what Y should do in vi,
              but it isn't what it actually does.

   Arguments
       digit-argument (ESC-0..ESC-9) (1-9) (unbound)
              Start  a  new  numeric argument, or add to the current one.  See
              also vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line.  This only works if bound to
              a key sequence ending in a decimal digit.

              Inside  a  widget  function,  a call to this function treats the
              last key of the key sequence which  called  the  widget  as  the
              digit.

       neg-argument (ESC--) (unbound) (unbound)
              Changes the sign of the following argument.

       universal-argument
              Multiply  the argument of the next command by 4.  Alternatively,
              if this command is followed by an  integer  (positive  or  nega-
              tive), use that as the argument for the next command.  Thus dig-
              its cannot be repeated using this command.  For example, if this
              command occurs twice, followed immediately by forward-char, move
              forward sixteen spaces; if instead it is followed  by  -2,  then
              forward-char, move backward two spaces.

              Inside  a widget function, if passed an argument, i.e. `zle uni-
              versal-argument num', the numerical argument will be set to num;
              this is equivalent to `NUMERIC=num'.

       argument-base
              Use  the existing numeric argument as a numeric base, which must
              be  in  the  range  2  to  36  inclusive.   Subsequent  use   of
              digit-argument and universal-argument will input a new prefix in
              the given base.  The usual hexadecimal convention is  used:  the
              letter  a or A corresponds to 10, and so on.  Arguments in bases
              requiring digits from 10 upwards  are  more  conveniently  input
              with  universal-argument, since ESC-a etc. are not usually bound
              to digit-argument.

              The function can be  used  with  a  command  argument  inside  a
              user-defined widget.  The following code sets the base to 16 and
              lets the user input a hexadecimal argument until a  key  out  of
              the digit range is typed:

                     zle argument-base 16
                     zle universal-argument

   Completion
       accept-and-menu-complete
              In  a  menu  completion,  insert the current completion into the
              buffer, and advance to the next possible completion.

       complete-word
              Attempt completion on the current word.

       delete-char-or-list (^D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor.  If the cursor is at  the
              end of the line, list possible completions for the current word.

       expand-cmd-path
              Expand the current command to its full pathname.

       expand-or-complete (TAB) (unbound) (TAB)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current  word.   If  that  fails,
              attempt completion.

       expand-or-complete-prefix
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word up to cursor.

       expand-history (ESC-space ESC-!) (unbound) (unbound)
              Perform history expansion on the edit buffer.

       expand-word (^X*) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.

       list-choices (ESC-^D) (^D =) (^D)
              List possible completions for the current word.

       list-expand (^Xg ^XG) (^G) (^G)
              List the expansion of the current word.

       magic-space
              Perform  history  expansion  and insert a space into the buffer.
              This is intended to be bound to space.

       menu-complete
              Like complete-word, except that menu completion  is  used.   See
              the MENU_COMPLETE option.

       menu-expand-or-complete
              Like expand-or-complete, except that menu completion is used.

       reverse-menu-complete
              Perform  menu  completion,  like menu-complete, except that if a
              menu completion is already in progress,  move  to  the  previous
              completion rather than the next.

       end-of-list
              When  a  previous  completion displayed a list below the prompt,
              this widget can be used to move the prompt below the list.

   Miscellaneous
       accept-and-hold (ESC-A ESC-a) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the contents of the buffer on the buffer stack and  execute
              it.

       accept-and-infer-next-history
              Execute  the  contents  of  the buffer.  Then search the history
              list for a line matching the current one and push the event fol-
              lowing onto the buffer stack.

       accept-line (^J ^M) (^J ^M) (^J ^M)
              Finish  editing  the buffer.  Normally this causes the buffer to
              be executed as a shell command.

       accept-line-and-down-history (^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Execute the current line, and push the next history event on the
              buffer stack.

       auto-suffix-remove
              If  the  previous  action added a suffix (space, slash, etc.) to
              the word on the command line, remove it.  Otherwise do  nothing.
              Removing  the  suffix  ends  any  active menu completion or menu
              selection.

              This widget is intended to be called from  user-defined  widgets
              to enforce a desired suffix-removal behavior.

       auto-suffix-retain
              If  the  previous  action added a suffix (space, slash, etc.) to
              the word on the command line, force it to be preserved.   Other-
              wise do nothing.  Retaining the suffix ends any active menu com-
              pletion or menu selection.

              This widget is intended to be called from  user-defined  widgets
              to enforce a desired suffix-preservation behavior.

       beep   Beep, unless the BEEP option is unset.

       vi-cmd-mode (^X^V) (unbound) (^[)
              Enter  command  mode;  that is, select the `vicmd' keymap.  Yes,
              this is bound by default in emacs mode.

       vi-caps-lock-panic
              Hang until any lowercase key is pressed.  This is for  vi  users
              without the mental capacity to keep track of their caps lock key
              (like the author).

       clear-screen (^L ESC-^L) (^L) (^L)
              Clear the screen and redraw the prompt.

       describe-key-briefly
              Reads a key sequence, then prints the  function  bound  to  that
              sequence.

       exchange-point-and-mark (^X^X) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange  the  cursor  position (point) with the position of the
              mark.  Unless a negative prefix argument is  given,  the  region
              between  point  and  mark  is  activated so that it can be high-
              lighted.  If a zero prefix argument  is  given,  the  region  is
              activated but point and mark are not swapped.

       execute-named-cmd (ESC-x) (:) (unbound)
              Read the name of an editor command and execute it.  A restricted
              set of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.   Keys
              are  looked  up  in the special command keymap, and if not found
              there in the main keymap.  An interrupt signal,  as  defined  by
              the  stty  setting, will abort the function.  Note that the fol-
              lowing  always  perform  the   same   task   within   the   exe-
              cuted-named-cmd  environment  and  cannot  be  replaced  by user
              defined widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended.   The
              allowed    functions    are:    backward-delete-char,   vi-back-
              ward-delete-char,   clear-screen,   redisplay,    quoted-insert,
              vi-quoted-insert,   backward-kill-word,   vi-backward-kill-word,
              kill-whole-line, vi-kill-line, backward-kill-line, list-choices,
              delete-char-or-list,  complete-word, accept-line, expand-or-com-
              plete and expand-or-complete-prefix.

              kill-region kills the last word, and vi-cmd-mode is treated  the
              same as accept-line.  The space and tab characters, if not bound
              to one of these functions, will complete the name and then  list
              the  possibilities  if  the  AUTO_LIST option is set.  Any other
              character that is not bound to self-insert or self-insert-unmeta
              will  beep  and  be ignored.  The bindings of the current insert
              mode will be used.

              Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       execute-last-named-cmd (ESC-z) (unbound) (unbound)
              Redo the last function executed with execute-named-cmd.

              Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       get-line (ESC-G ESC-g) (unbound) (unbound)
              Pop the top line off the buffer stack and insert it at the  cur-
              sor position.

       pound-insert (unbound) (#) (unbound)
              If  there  is no # character at the beginning of the buffer, add
              one to the beginning of each line.  If there is one, remove a  #
              from each line that has one.  In either case, accept the current
              line.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for  this  to
              have any usefulness.

       vi-pound-insert
              If there is no # character at the beginning of the current line,
              add one.  If there is one, remove it.  The  INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS
              option must be set for this to have any usefulness.

       push-input
              Push  the  entire  current  multiline  construct onto the buffer
              stack and return to the top-level (PS1) prompt.  If the  current
              parser  construct  is  only  a single line, this is exactly like
              push-line.  Next time the editor starts up  or  is  popped  with
              get-line, the construct will be popped off the top of the buffer
              stack and loaded into the editing buffer.

       push-line (^Q ESC-Q ESC-q) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the current buffer onto the  buffer  stack  and  clear  the
              buffer.   Next  time  the  editor  starts up, the buffer will be
              popped off the top of the buffer stack and loaded into the edit-
              ing buffer.

       push-line-or-edit
              At  the  top-level  (PS1) prompt, equivalent to push-line.  At a
              secondary (PS2) prompt, move the entire current  multiline  con-
              struct  into  the  editor  buffer.   The latter is equivalent to
              push-input followed by get-line.

       read-command
              Only useful from a user-defined widget.   A  keystroke  is  read
              just  as  in  normal operation, but instead of the command being
              executed the name of the  command  that  would  be  executed  is
              stored  in  the  shell parameter REPLY.  This can be used as the
              argument of a future zle command.  If the key  sequence  is  not
              bound, status 1 is returned; typically, however, REPLY is set to
              undefined-key to indicate a useless key sequence.

       recursive-edit
              Only useful from a user-defined widget.  At this  point  in  the
              function,  the  editor regains control until one of the standard
              widgets which would normally cause zle  to  exit  (typically  an
              accept-line  caused  by  hitting  the  return  key) is executed.
              Instead, control returns to the user-defined widget.  The status
              returned  is  non-zero if the return was caused by an error, but
              the function still continues executing and hence  may  tidy  up.
              This makes it safe for the user-defined widget to alter the com-
              mand line or key bindings temporarily.

              The following widget, caps-lock, serves as an example.
                     self-insert-ucase() {
                       LBUFFER+=${(U)KEYS[-1]}
                     }

                     integer stat

                     zle -N self-insert self-insert-ucase
                     zle -A caps-lock save-caps-lock
                     zle -A accept-line caps-lock

                     zle recursive-edit
                     stat=$?

                     zle -A .self-insert self-insert
                     zle -A save-caps-lock caps-lock
                     zle -D save-caps-lock

                     (( stat )) && zle send-break

                     return $stat
              This causes typed  letters  to  be  inserted  capitalised  until
              either  accept-line  (i.e. typically the return key) is typed or
              the caps-lock widget is invoked again; the later is  handled  by
              saving  the  old  definition  of caps-lock as save-caps-lock and
              then rebinding it to invoke accept-line.   Note  that  an  error
              from  the recursive edit is detected as a non-zero return status
              and propagated by using the send-break widget.

       redisplay (unbound) (^R) (^R)
              Redisplays the edit buffer.

       reset-prompt (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Force the prompts on both the left and right of the screen to be
              re-expanded,  then  redisplay  the  edit  buffer.  This reflects
              changes both to the prompt variables themselves and  changes  in
              the  expansion  of  the  values (for example, changes in time or
              directory, or changes to the value of variables referred  to  by
              the prompt).

              Otherwise, the prompt is only expanded each time zle starts, and
              when the display as been interrupted by output from another part
              of  the shell (such as a job notification) which causes the com-
              mand line to be reprinted.

       send-break (^G ESC-^G) (unbound) (unbound)
              Abort the current editor function,  e.g.  execute-named-command,
              or  the editor itself, e.g. if you are in vared. Otherwise abort
              the parsing of the current line; in this case the  aborted  line
              is available in the shell variable ZLE_LINE_ABORTED.

       run-help (ESC-H ESC-h) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push  the  buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command
              `run-help cmd', where cmd is the current command.   run-help  is
              normally aliased to man.

       vi-set-buffer (unbound) (") (unbound)
              Specify a buffer to be used in the following command.  There are
              35 buffers that can be specified: the 26 `named' buffers  "a  to
              "z  and  the  nine `queued' buffers "1 to "9.  The named buffers
              can also be specified as "A to "Z.

              When a buffer is specified for a cut command, the text being cut
              replaces  the  previous  contents of the specified buffer.  If a
              named buffer is specified using a capital, the newly cut text is
              appended to the buffer instead of overwriting it.

              If no buffer is specified for a cut command, "1 is used, and the
              contents of "1 to "8 are each shifted along one buffer; the con-
              tents of "9 is lost.

       vi-set-mark (unbound) (m) (unbound)
              Set the specified mark at the cursor position.

       set-mark-command (^@) (unbound) (unbound)
              Set  the mark at the cursor position.  If called with a negative
              prefix argument, do not set the mark but deactivate  the  region
              so  that  it  is  no  longer highlighted (it is still usable for
              other purposes).  Otherwise the region is marked as active.

       spell-word (ESC-$ ESC-S ESC-s) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt spelling correction on the current word.

       undefined-key
              This command is executed when a key sequence that is  not  bound
              to any command is typed.  By default it beeps.

       undo (^_ ^Xu ^X^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Incrementally undo the last text modification.  When called from
              a user-defined widget, takes an optional argument  indicating  a
              previous   state   of  the  undo  history  as  returned  by  the
              UNDO_CHANGE_NO variable; modifications  are  undone  until  that
              state is reached.

       redo   Incrementally redo undone text modifications.

       vi-undo-change (unbound) (u) (unbound)
              Undo  the last text modification.  If repeated, redo the modifi-
              cation.

       what-cursor-position (^X=) (unbound) (unbound)
              Print the character under the cursor, its code as an octal, dec-
              imal  and hexadecimal number, the current cursor position within
              the buffer and the column of the cursor in the current line.

       where-is
              Read the name of an editor command and print the listing of  key
              sequences  that  invoke the specified command.  A restricted set
              of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.  Keys  are
              looked  up in the special command keymap, and if not found there
              in the main keymap.

       which-command (ESC-?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute  the  command
              `which-command   cmd'.   where   cmd  is  the  current  command.
              which-command is normally aliased to whence.

       vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line (unbound) (0) (unbound)
              If the last command executed was a digit as part of an argument,
              continue the argument.  Otherwise, execute vi-beginning-of-line.



CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING

       The line editor has the ability to highlight characters or  regions  of
       the  line  that  have a particular significance.  This is controlled by
       the array parameter zle_highlight, if it has been set by the user.

       If the parameter contains the single entry  none  all  highlighting  is
       turned off.  Note the parameter is still expected to be an array.

       Otherwise each entry of the array should consist of a word indicating a
       context for highlighting, then a colon, then a comma-separated list  of
       the types of highlighting to apply in that context.

       The contexts available for highlighting are the following:

       default
              Any text within the command line not affected by any other high-
              lighting.  Text outside the editable area of the command line is
              not affected.

       isearch
              When  one  of  the incremental history search widgets is active,
              the area of the command line matched by  the  search  string  or
              pattern.

       region The  region  between the cursor (point) and the mark as set with
              set-mark-command.  The region  is  only  highlighted  if  it  is
              active,    which    is   the   case   if   set-mark-command   or
              exchange-point-and-mark has been called and  the  line  has  not
              been  subsequently  modified.   The region can be deactivated by
              calling set-mark-command with a  negative  prefix  argument,  or
              reactivated  by calling exchange-point-and-mark with a zero pre-
              fix argument.  Note that whether or not the region is active has
              no  effect  on  its  use  within  widgets,  it simply determines
              whether it is highlighted.

       special
              Individual characters that have no direct printable  representa-
              tion  but  are  shown  in  a  special manner by the line editor.
              These characters are described below.

       suffix This context is used  in  completion  for  characters  that  are
              marked  as  suffixes that will be removed if the completion ends
              at that point, the most obvious example being a slash (/)  after
              a directory name.  Note that suffix removal is configurable; the
              circumstances under which the suffix will be removed may  differ
              for different completions.

       zle_highlight  may contain additional fields for controlling how termi-
       nal sequences to change colours are output.  Each of the  following  is
       followed  by a colon and a string in the same form as for key bindings.
       This will not be necessary for the vast majority of  terminals  as  the
       defaults shown in parentheses are widely used.

       fg_start_code (\e[3)
              The  start  of  the  escape  sequence for the foreground colour.
              This is followed by an ASCII digit representing the colour.

       fg_default_code (9)
              The number to use instead of the colour  to  reset  the  default
              foreground colour.

       fg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.

       bg_start_code (\e[4)
              The  start  of  the  escape  sequence for the background colour.
              This is followed by an ASCII digit representing the colour.

       bg_default_code (9)
              The number to use instead of the colour  to  reset  the  default
              background colour.

       bg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the background colour.

       The  available  types of highlighting are the following.  Note that not
       all types of highlighting are available on all terminals:

       none   No highlighting is applied to the given context.  It is not use-
              ful  for  this to appear with other types of highlighting; it is
              used to override a default.

       fg=colour
              The foreground colour should be set to colour, a decimal integer
              or the name of one of the eight most widely-supported colours.

              Not  all  terminals  support this and, of those that do, not all
              provide facilities to test the support, hence  the  user  should
              decide  based  on the terminal type.  Most terminals support the
              colours black, red,  green,  yellow,  blue,  magenta,  cyan  and
              white,  which  can  be set by name.  In addition. default may be
              used to set the terminal's default foreground colour.  Abbrevia-
              tions  are  allowed;  b or bl selects black.  Some terminals may
              generate additional  colours  if  the  bold  attribute  is  also
              present.

              On  recent  terminals and on systems with an up-to-date terminal
              database the number of colours supported may be  tested  by  the
              command  `echotc  Co'; if this succeeds, it indicates a limit on
              the number of colours which will be enforced by the line editor.
              The  number  of  colours is in any case limited to 256 (i.e. the
              range 0 to 255).

              Colour is also known as color.

       bg=colour
              The background colour should be set to colour.  This works simi-
              larly  to  the  foreground  colour, except the background is not
              usually affected by the bold attribute.

       bold   The characters in the given context are shown in  a  bold  font.
              Not all terminals distinguish bold fonts.

       standout
              The  characters in the given context are shown in the terminal's
              standout mode.  The actual effect is specific to  the  terminal;
              on  many terminals it is inverse video.  On some such terminals,
              where the cursor does not blink it appears  with  standout  mode
              negated, making it less than clear where the cursor actually is.
              On such terminals one of the other effects may be preferable for
              highlighting the region and matched search string.

       underline
              The  characters in the given context are shown underlined.  Some
              terminals show the foreground in a different colour instead;  in
              this case whitespace will not be highlighted.

       The  characters  described above as `special' are as follows.  The for-
       matting described here is used irrespective of whether  the  characters
       are highlighted:

       ASCII control characters
              Control  characters in the ASCII range are shown as `^' followed
              by the base character.

       Unprintable multibyte characters
              This item applies to control characters not in the ASCII  range,
              plus other characters as follows.  If the MULTIBYTE option is in
              effect, multibyte characters not in the ASCII character set that
              are reported as having zero width are treated as combining char-
              acters when the option COMBINING_CHARS is on.  If the option  is
              off,  or  if  a character appears where a combining character is
              not valid, the character is treated as unprintable.

              Unprintable multibyte characters are shown as a hexadecimal num-
              ber between angle brackets.  The number is the code point of the
              character in the wide character set; this may or may not be Uni-
              code, depending on the operating system.

       Invalid multibyte characters
              If  the  MULTIBYTE  option  is in effect, any sequence of one or
              more bytes that does not form a valid character in  the  current
              character  set  is  treated as a series of bytes each shown as a
              special character.  This case can be  distinguished  from  other
              unprintable characters as the bytes are represented as two hexa-
              decimal digits between angle brackets, as distinct from the four
              or  eight  digits  that are used for unprintable characters that
              are nonetheless valid in the current character set.

              Not all systems support this: for it to work, the system's  rep-
              resentation of wide characters must be code values from the Uni-
              versal Character Set, as defined by IS0  10646  (also  known  as
              Unicode).

       Wrapped double-width characters
              When  a  double-width character appears in the final column of a
              line, it is instead shown on the next line. The empty space left
              in  the original position is highlighted as a special character.

       If zle_highlight is not set or no value applies to  a  particular  con-
       text, the defaults applied are equivalent to

              zle_highlight=(region:standout special:standout
              suffix:bold isearch:underline)

       i.e. both the region and special characters are shown in standout mode.

       Within widgets, arbitrary regions may be  highlighted  by  setting  the
       special array parameter region_highlight; see above.




zsh 5.0.2                      December 21, 2012                     zshzle(1)

Mac OS X 10.9 - Generated Mon Oct 14 07:33:55 CDT 2013