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ls(1)                            User Commands                           ls(1)




NAME

       ls - list directory contents


SYNOPSIS

       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...


DESCRIPTION

       List  information  about  the FILEs (the current directory by default).
       Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort  is  speci-
       fied.

       Mandatory  arguments  to  long  options are mandatory for short options
       too.

       -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

       --author
              with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

       --block-size=SIZE
              scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g., '--block-size=M'
              prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
              file status information); with -l: show ctime and sort by  name;
              otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first

       -C     list entries by columns

       --color[=WHEN]
              colorize  the output; WHEN can be 'always' (default if omitted),
              'auto', or 'never'; more info below

       -d, --directory
              list directories themselves, not their contents

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

       --file-type
              likewise, except do not append '*'

       --format=WORD
              across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column  -1,
              verbose -l, vertical -C

       --full-time
              like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

       --group-directories-first
              group directories before files;

              can   be  augmented  with  a  --sort  option,  but  any  use  of
              --sort=none (-U) disables grouping

       -G, --no-group
              in a long listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
              with -l and/or -s, print human readable sizes (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

       --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
              follow each command line symbolic link

              that points to a directory

       --hide=PATTERN
              do  not  list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden
              by -a or -A)

       --indicator-style=WORD
              append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default),
              slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
              print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k, --kibibytes
              default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa-
              tion for the file the link references rather than for  the  link
              itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
              print  raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters spe-
              cially)

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
              append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of nongraphic characters

       --show-control-chars
              show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is
              'ls' and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in double quotes

       --quoting-style=WORD
              use  quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell,
              shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size, largest first

       --sort=WORD
              sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S),  time  (-t),
              version (-v), extension (-X)

       --time=WORD
              with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification time:
              atime or access or use (-u); ctime  or  status  (-c);  also  use
              specified time as sort key if --sort=time (newest first)

       --time-style=STYLE
              with  -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso,
              locale, or +FORMAT; FORMAT is interpreted  like  in  'date';  if
              FORMAT  is  FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2,  then  FORMAT1  applies  to
              non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE  is  pre-
              fixed  with  'posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX
              locale

       -t     sort by modification time, newest first

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time; with -l:  show  access
              time  and  sort  by name; otherwise: sort by access time, newest
              first

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
              assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -Z, --context
              print any security context of each file

       -1     list one file per line.  Avoid '\n' with -q or -b

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       The SIZE argument is an integer and  optional  unit  (example:  10K  is
       10*1024).   Units  are  K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y  (powers  of 1024) or KB,MB,...
       (powers of 1000).

       Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by  default  and
       with  --color=never.  With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
       standard output is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS  environment
       variable can change the settings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.

   Exit status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line  argument).


AUTHOR

       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.


REPORTING BUGS

       GNU coreutils online help: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       Report ls translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>


COPYRIGHT

       Copyright  (C) 2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This is free software: you are free  to  change  and  redistribute  it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


SEE ALSO

       Full documentation at: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/ls>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) ls invocation'



GNU coreutils 8.24                 July 2015                             ls(1)

coreutils 8.24 - Generated Sat Jul 11 14:49:11 CDT 2015
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