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CIPHERS(1)                          OpenSSL                         CIPHERS(1)




NAME

       ciphers - SSL cipher display and cipher list tool.


SYNOPSIS

       openssl ciphers [-v] [-V] [-ssl2] [-ssl3] [-tls1] [cipherlist]


DESCRIPTION

       The ciphers command converts textual OpenSSL cipher lists into ordered
       SSL cipher preference lists. It can be used as a test tool to determine
       the appropriate cipherlist.


COMMAND OPTIONS

       -v  Verbose option. List ciphers with a complete description of
           protocol version (SSLv2 or SSLv3; the latter includes TLS), key
           exchange, authentication, encryption and mac algorithms used along
           with any key size restrictions and whether the algorithm is classed
           as an "export" cipher.  Note that without the -v option, ciphers
           may seem to appear twice in a cipher list; this is when similar
           ciphers are available for SSL v2 and for SSL v3/TLS v1.

       -V  Like -V, but include cipher suite codes in output (hex format).

       -ssl3
           only include SSL v3 ciphers.

       -ssl2
           only include SSL v2 ciphers.

       -tls1
           only include TLS v1 ciphers.

       -h, -?
           print a brief usage message.

       cipherlist
           a cipher list to convert to a cipher preference list. If it is not
           included then the default cipher list will be used. The format is
           described below.


CIPHER LIST FORMAT

       The cipher list consists of one or more cipher strings separated by
       colons.  Commas or spaces are also acceptable separators but colons are
       normally used.

       The actual cipher string can take several different forms.

       It can consist of a single cipher suite such as RC4-SHA.

       It can represent a list of cipher suites containing a certain
       algorithm, or cipher suites of a certain type. For example SHA1
       represents all ciphers suites using the digest algorithm SHA1 and SSLv3
       represents all SSL v3 algorithms.

       Lists of cipher suites can be combined in a single cipher string using
       the + character. This is used as a logical and operation. For example
       SHA1+DES represents all cipher suites containing the SHA1 and the DES
       algorithms.

       Each cipher string can be optionally preceded by the characters !, - or
       +.

       If ! is used then the ciphers are permanently deleted from the list.
       The ciphers deleted can never reappear in the list even if they are
       explicitly stated.

       If - is used then the ciphers are deleted from the list, but some or
       all of the ciphers can be added again by later options.

       If + is used then the ciphers are moved to the end of the list. This
       option doesn't add any new ciphers it just moves matching existing
       ones.

       If none of these characters is present then the string is just
       interpreted as a list of ciphers to be appended to the current
       preference list. If the list includes any ciphers already present they
       will be ignored: that is they will not moved to the end of the list.

       Additionally the cipher string @STRENGTH can be used at any point to
       sort the current cipher list in order of encryption algorithm key
       length.


CIPHER STRINGS

       The following is a list of all permitted cipher strings and their
       meanings.

       DEFAULT
           the default cipher list. This is determined at compile time and, as
           of OpenSSL 1.0.0, is normally ALL:!aNULL:!eNULL. This must be the
           first cipher string specified.

       COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT
           the ciphers included in ALL, but not enabled by default. Currently
           this is ADH. Note that this rule does not cover eNULL, which is not
           included by ALL (use COMPLEMENTOFALL if necessary).

       ALL all cipher suites except the eNULL ciphers which must be explicitly
           enabled; as of OpenSSL, the ALL cipher suites are reasonably
           ordered by default

       COMPLEMENTOFALL
           the cipher suites not enabled by ALL, currently being eNULL.

       HIGH
           "high" encryption cipher suites. This currently means those with
           key lengths larger than 128 bits, and some cipher suites with
           128-bit keys.

       MEDIUM
           "medium" encryption cipher suites, currently some of those using
           128 bit encryption.

       LOW "low" encryption cipher suites, currently those using 64 or 56 bit
           encryption algorithms but excluding export cipher suites.

       EXP, EXPORT
           export encryption algorithms. Including 40 and 56 bits algorithms.

       EXPORT40
           40 bit export encryption algorithms

       EXPORT56
           56 bit export encryption algorithms. In OpenSSL 0.9.8c and later
           the set of 56 bit export ciphers is empty unless OpenSSL has been
           explicitly configured with support for experimental ciphers.

       eNULL, NULL
           the "NULL" ciphers that is those offering no encryption. Because
           these offer no encryption at all and are a security risk they are
           disabled unless explicitly included.

       aNULL
           the cipher suites offering no authentication. This is currently the
           anonymous DH algorithms. These cipher suites are vulnerable to a
           "man in the middle" attack and so their use is normally
           discouraged.

       kRSA, RSA
           cipher suites using RSA key exchange.

       kEDH
           cipher suites using ephemeral DH key agreement.

       kDHr, kDHd
           cipher suites using DH key agreement and DH certificates signed by
           CAs with RSA and DSS keys respectively. Not implemented.

       aRSA
           cipher suites using RSA authentication, i.e. the certificates carry
           RSA keys.

       aDSS, DSS
           cipher suites using DSS authentication, i.e. the certificates carry
           DSS keys.

       aDH cipher suites effectively using DH authentication, i.e. the
           certificates carry DH keys.  Not implemented.

       kFZA, aFZA, eFZA, FZA
           ciphers suites using FORTEZZA key exchange, authentication,
           encryption or all FORTEZZA algorithms. Not implemented.

       TLSv1, SSLv3, SSLv2
           TLS v1.0, SSL v3.0 or SSL v2.0 cipher suites respectively.

       DH  cipher suites using DH, including anonymous DH.

       ADH anonymous DH cipher suites.

       AES cipher suites using AES.

       CAMELLIA
           cipher suites using Camellia.

       3DES
           cipher suites using triple DES.

       DES cipher suites using DES (not triple DES).

       RC4 cipher suites using RC4.

       RC2 cipher suites using RC2.

       IDEA
           cipher suites using IDEA.

       SEED
           cipher suites using SEED.

       MD5 cipher suites using MD5.

       SHA1, SHA
           cipher suites using SHA1.

       aGOST
           cipher suites using GOST R 34.10 (either 2001 or 94) for
           authenticaction (needs an engine supporting GOST algorithms).

       aGOST01
           cipher suites using GOST R 34.10-2001 authentication.

       aGOST94
           cipher suites using GOST R 34.10-94 authentication (note that R
           34.10-94 standard has been expired so use GOST R 34.10-2001)

       kGOST
           cipher suites, using VKO 34.10 key exchange, specified in the RFC
           4357.

       GOST94
           cipher suites, using HMAC based on GOST R 34.11-94.

       GOST89MAC
           cipher suites using GOST 28147-89 MAC instead of HMAC.


CIPHER SUITE NAMES

       The following lists give the SSL or TLS cipher suites names from the
       relevant specification and their OpenSSL equivalents. It should be
       noted, that several cipher suite names do not include the
       authentication used, e.g. DES-CBC3-SHA. In these cases, RSA
       authentication is used.

   SSL v3.0 cipher suites.
        SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5                   NULL-MD5
        SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA                   NULL-SHA
        SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5          EXP-RC4-MD5
        SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5                RC4-MD5
        SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA                RC4-SHA
        SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC2_CBC_40_MD5      EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5
        SSL_RSA_WITH_IDEA_CBC_SHA               IDEA-CBC-SHA
        SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA       EXP-DES-CBC-SHA
        SSL_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA                DES-CBC-SHA
        SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA           DES-CBC3-SHA

        SSL_DH_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA    Not implemented.
        SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA             Not implemented.
        SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA        Not implemented.
        SSL_DH_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA    Not implemented.
        SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA             Not implemented.
        SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA        Not implemented.
        SSL_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   EXP-EDH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA
        SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            EDH-DSS-CBC-SHA
        SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA
        SSL_DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   EXP-EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA
        SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA
        SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA

        SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5      EXP-ADH-RC4-MD5
        SSL_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5            ADH-RC4-MD5
        SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   EXP-ADH-DES-CBC-SHA
        SSL_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            ADH-DES-CBC-SHA
        SSL_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       ADH-DES-CBC3-SHA

        SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_NULL_SHA          Not implemented.
        SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_FORTEZZA_CBC_SHA  Not implemented.
        SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA       Not implemented.

   TLS v1.0 cipher suites.
        TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5                   NULL-MD5
        TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA                   NULL-SHA
        TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5          EXP-RC4-MD5
        TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5                RC4-MD5
        TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA                RC4-SHA
        TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC2_CBC_40_MD5      EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5
        TLS_RSA_WITH_IDEA_CBC_SHA               IDEA-CBC-SHA
        TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA       EXP-DES-CBC-SHA
        TLS_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA                DES-CBC-SHA
        TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA           DES-CBC3-SHA

        TLS_DH_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA    Not implemented.
        TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA             Not implemented.
        TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA        Not implemented.
        TLS_DH_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA    Not implemented.
        TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA             Not implemented.
        TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA        Not implemented.
        TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   EXP-EDH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA
        TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            EDH-DSS-CBC-SHA
        TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA
        TLS_DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   EXP-EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA
        TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA
        TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA

        TLS_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5      EXP-ADH-RC4-MD5
        TLS_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5            ADH-RC4-MD5
        TLS_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA   EXP-ADH-DES-CBC-SHA
        TLS_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA            ADH-DES-CBC-SHA
        TLS_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA       ADH-DES-CBC3-SHA

   AES ciphersuites from RFC3268, extending TLS v1.0
        TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA            AES128-SHA
        TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA            AES256-SHA

        TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA         Not implemented.
        TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA         Not implemented.
        TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA         Not implemented.
        TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA         Not implemented.

        TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA        DHE-DSS-AES128-SHA
        TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA        DHE-DSS-AES256-SHA
        TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA        DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA
        TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA        DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA

        TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA        ADH-AES128-SHA
        TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA        ADH-AES256-SHA

   Camellia ciphersuites from RFC4132, extending TLS v1.0
        TLS_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA      CAMELLIA128-SHA
        TLS_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA      CAMELLIA256-SHA

        TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA   Not implemented.
        TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA   Not implemented.
        TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA   Not implemented.
        TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA   Not implemented.

        TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA  DHE-DSS-CAMELLIA128-SHA
        TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA  DHE-DSS-CAMELLIA256-SHA
        TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA  DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA128-SHA
        TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA  DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA256-SHA

        TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA  ADH-CAMELLIA128-SHA
        TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA  ADH-CAMELLIA256-SHA

   SEED ciphersuites from RFC4162, extending TLS v1.0
        TLS_RSA_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA              SEED-SHA

        TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA           Not implemented.
        TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA           Not implemented.

        TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA          DHE-DSS-SEED-SHA
        TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA          DHE-RSA-SEED-SHA

        TLS_DH_anon_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA          ADH-SEED-SHA

   GOST ciphersuites from draft-chudov-cryptopro-cptls, extending TLS v1.0
       Note: these ciphers require an engine which including GOST
       cryptographic algorithms, such as the ccgost engine, included in the
       OpenSSL distribution.

        TLS_GOSTR341094_WITH_28147_CNT_IMIT GOST94-GOST89-GOST89
        TLS_GOSTR341001_WITH_28147_CNT_IMIT GOST2001-GOST89-GOST89
        TLS_GOSTR341094_WITH_NULL_GOSTR3411 GOST94-NULL-GOST94
        TLS_GOSTR341001_WITH_NULL_GOSTR3411 GOST2001-NULL-GOST94

   Additional Export 1024 and other cipher suites
       Note: these ciphers can also be used in SSL v3.

        TLS_RSA_EXPORT1024_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA     EXP1024-DES-CBC-SHA
        TLS_RSA_EXPORT1024_WITH_RC4_56_SHA      EXP1024-RC4-SHA
        TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT1024_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EXP1024-DHE-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA
        TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT1024_WITH_RC4_56_SHA  EXP1024-DHE-DSS-RC4-SHA
        TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_RC4_128_SHA            DHE-DSS-RC4-SHA

   SSL v2.0 cipher suites.
        SSL_CK_RC4_128_WITH_MD5                 RC4-MD5
        SSL_CK_RC4_128_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5        EXP-RC4-MD5
        SSL_CK_RC2_128_CBC_WITH_MD5             RC2-MD5
        SSL_CK_RC2_128_CBC_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5    EXP-RC2-MD5
        SSL_CK_IDEA_128_CBC_WITH_MD5            IDEA-CBC-MD5
        SSL_CK_DES_64_CBC_WITH_MD5              DES-CBC-MD5
        SSL_CK_DES_192_EDE3_CBC_WITH_MD5        DES-CBC3-MD5


NOTES

       The non-ephemeral DH modes are currently unimplemented in OpenSSL
       because there is no support for DH certificates.

       Some compiled versions of OpenSSL may not include all the ciphers
       listed here because some ciphers were excluded at compile time.


EXAMPLES

       Verbose listing of all OpenSSL ciphers including NULL ciphers:

        openssl ciphers -v 'ALL:eNULL'

       Include all ciphers except NULL and anonymous DH then sort by strength:

        openssl ciphers -v 'ALL:!ADH:@STRENGTH'

       Include only 3DES ciphers and then place RSA ciphers last:

        openssl ciphers -v '3DES:+RSA'

       Include all RC4 ciphers but leave out those without authentication:

        openssl ciphers -v 'RC4:!COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT'

       Include all chiphers with RSA authentication but leave out ciphers
       without encryption.

        openssl ciphers -v 'RSA:!COMPLEMENTOFALL'


SEE ALSO

       s_client(1), s_server(1), ssl(3)


HISTORY

       The COMPLENTOFALL and COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT selection options for
       cipherlist strings were added in OpenSSL 0.9.7.  The -V option for the
       ciphers command was added in OpenSSL 1.0.0.



1.0.0                             2009-09-30                        CIPHERS(1)

openssl 1.0.0 - Generated Sun Apr 4 12:54:05 CDT 2010