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OPENSSL-CMS(1ossl)                  OpenSSL                 OPENSSL-CMS(1ossl)



NAME

       openssl-cms - CMS command


SYNOPSIS

       openssl cms [-help]

       General options:

       [-in filename] [-out filename] [-config configfile]

       Operation options:

       [-encrypt] [-decrypt] [-sign] [-verify] [-resign] [-sign_receipt]
       [-verify_receipt receipt] [-digest digest] [-digest_create]
       [-digest_verify] [-compress] [-uncompress] [-EncryptedData_encrypt]
       [-EncryptedData_decrypt] [-data_create] [-data_out] [-cmsout]

       File format options:

       [-inform DER|PEM|SMIME] [-outform DER|PEM|SMIME] [-rctform
       DER|PEM|SMIME] [-stream] [-indef] [-noindef] [-binary] [-crlfeol]
       [-asciicrlf]

       Keys and password options:

       [-pwri_password password] [-secretkey key] [-secretkeyid id] [-inkey
       filename|uri] [-passin arg] [-keyopt name:parameter] [-keyform
       DER|PEM|P12|ENGINE] [-engine id] [-provider name] [-provider-path path]
       [-propquery propq] [-rand files] [-writerand file]

       Encryption options:

       [-originator file] [-recip file] [recipient-cert ...] [-cipher] [-wrap
       cipher] [-aes128-wrap] [-aes192-wrap] [-aes256-wrap] [-des3-wrap]
       [-debug_decrypt]

       Signing options:

       [-md digest] [-signer file] [-certfile file] [-cades] [-nodetach]
       [-nocerts] [-noattr] [-nosmimecap] [-receipt_request_all]
       [-receipt_request_first] [-receipt_request_from emailaddress]
       [-receipt_request_to emailaddress]

       Verification options:

       [-signer file] [-content filename] [-no_content_verify]
       [-no_attr_verify] [-nosigs] [-noverify] [-nointern] [-cades]
       [-verify_retcode] [-CAfile file] [-no-CAfile] [-CApath dir]
       [-no-CApath] [-CAstore uri] [-no-CAstore]

       Output options:

       [-keyid] [-econtent_type type] [-text] [-certsout file] [-to addr]
       [-from addr] [-subject subj]

       Printing options:

       [-noout] [-print] [-nameopt option] [-receipt_request_print]

       Validation options:

       [-allow_proxy_certs] [-attime timestamp] [-no_check_time]
       [-check_ss_sig] [-crl_check] [-crl_check_all] [-explicit_policy]
       [-extended_crl] [-ignore_critical] [-inhibit_any] [-inhibit_map]
       [-partial_chain] [-policy arg] [-policy_check] [-policy_print]
       [-purpose purpose] [-suiteB_128] [-suiteB_128_only] [-suiteB_192]
       [-trusted_first] [-no_alt_chains] [-use_deltas] [-auth_level num]
       [-verify_depth num] [-verify_email email] [-verify_hostname hostname]
       [-verify_ip ip] [-verify_name name] [-x509_strict] [-issuer_checks]


DESCRIPTION

       This command handles data in CMS format such as S/MIME v3.1 email
       messages.  It can encrypt, decrypt, sign, verify, compress, uncompress,
       and print messages.


OPTIONS

       There are a number of operation options that set the type of operation
       to be performed: encrypt, decrypt, sign, verify, resign, sign_receipt,
       verify_receipt, digest_create, digest_verify, compress, uncompress,
       EncryptedData_encrypt, EncryptedData_decrypt, data_create, data_out, or
       cmsout.  The relevance of the other options depends on the operation
       type and their meaning may vary according to it.

       -help
           Print out a usage message.

   General options
       -in filename
           The input message to be encrypted or signed or the message to be
           decrypted or verified.

       -out filename
           The message text that has been decrypted or verified or the output
           MIME format message that has been signed or verified.

       -config configfile
           See "Configuration Option" in openssl(1).

   Operation options
       -encrypt
           Encrypt data for the given recipient certificates. Input file is
           the message to be encrypted. The output file is the encrypted data
           in MIME format. The actual CMS type is EnvelopedData.

           Note that no revocation check is done for the recipient cert, so if
           that key has been compromised, others may be able to decrypt the
           text.

       -decrypt
           Decrypt data using the supplied certificate and private key.
           Expects encrypted datain MIME format for the input file. The
           decrypted data is written to the output file.

       -sign
           Sign data using the supplied certificate and private key. Input
           file is the message to be signed. The signed data in MIME format is
           written to the output file.

       -verify
           Verify signed data. Expects a signed data on input and outputs the
           signed data. Both clear text and opaque signing is supported.

       -resign
           Resign a message: take an existing message and one or more new
           signers.

       -sign_receipt
           Generate and output a signed receipt for the supplied message. The
           input message must contain a signed receipt request. Functionality
           is otherwise similar to the -sign operation.

       -verify_receipt receipt
           Verify a signed receipt in filename receipt. The input message must
           contain the original receipt request. Functionality is otherwise
           similar to the -verify operation.

       -digest digest
           When used with -sign, provides the digest in hexadecimal form
           instead of computing it from the original message content. Cannot
           be combined with -in or -nodetach.

           This operation is the CMS equivalent of openssl-pkeyutl(1) signing.
           When signing a pre-computed digest, the security relies on the
           digest and its computation from the original message being trusted.

       -digest_create
           Create a CMS DigestedData type.

       -digest_verify
           Verify a CMS DigestedData type and output the content.

       -compress
           Create a CMS CompressedData type. OpenSSL must be compiled with
           zlib support for this option to work, otherwise it will output an
           error.

       -uncompress
           Uncompress a CMS CompressedData type and output the content.
           OpenSSL must be compiled with zlib support for this option to work,
           otherwise it will output an error.

       -EncryptedData_encrypt
           Encrypt content using supplied symmetric key and algorithm using a
           CMS EncryptedData type and output the content.

       -EncryptedData_decrypt
           Decrypt content using supplied symmetric key and algorithm using a
           CMS EncryptedData type and output the content.

       -data_create
           Create a CMS Data type.

       -data_out
           Data type and output the content.

       -cmsout
           Takes an input message and writes out a PEM encoded CMS structure.

   File format options
       -inform DER|PEM|SMIME
           The input format of the CMS structure (if one is being read); the
           default is SMIME.  See openssl-format-options(1) for details.

       -outform DER|PEM|SMIME
           The output format of the CMS structure (if one is being written);
           the default is SMIME.  See openssl-format-options(1) for details.

       -rctform DER|PEM|SMIME
           The signed receipt format for use with the -receipt_verify; the
           default is SMIME.  See openssl-format-options(1) for details.

       -stream, -indef
           The -stream and -indef options are equivalent and enable streaming
           I/O for encoding operations. This permits single pass processing of
           data without the need to hold the entire contents in memory,
           potentially supporting very large files. Streaming is automatically
           set for S/MIME signing with detached data if the output format is
           SMIME it is currently off by default for all other operations.

       -noindef
           Disable streaming I/O where it would produce and indefinite length
           constructed encoding. This option currently has no effect. In
           future streaming will be enabled by default on all relevant
           operations and this option will disable it.

       -binary
           Normally the input message is converted to "canonical" format which
           is effectively using CR and LF as end of line: as required by the
           S/MIME specification. When this option is present no translation
           occurs. This is useful when handling binary data which may not be
           in MIME format.

       -crlfeol
           Normally the output file uses a single LF as end of line. When this
           option is present CRLF is used instead.

       -asciicrlf
           When signing use ASCII CRLF format canonicalisation. This strips
           trailing whitespace from all lines, deletes trailing blank lines at
           EOF and sets the encapsulated content type. This option is normally
           used with detached content and an output signature format of DER.
           This option is not normally needed when verifying as it is enabled
           automatically if the encapsulated content format is detected.

   Keys and password options
       -pwri_password password
           Specify password for recipient.

       -secretkey key
           Specify symmetric key to use. The key must be supplied in hex
           format and be consistent with the algorithm used. Supported by the
           -EncryptedData_encrypt -EncryptedData_decrypt, -encrypt and
           -decrypt options. When used with -encrypt or -decrypt the supplied
           key is used to wrap or unwrap the content encryption key using an
           AES key in the KEKRecipientInfo type.

       -secretkeyid id
           The key identifier for the supplied symmetric key for
           KEKRecipientInfo type.  This option must be present if the
           -secretkey option is used with -encrypt. With -decrypt operations
           the id is used to locate the relevant key if it is not supplied
           then an attempt is used to decrypt any KEKRecipientInfo structures.

       -inkey filename|uri
           The private key to use when signing or decrypting. This must match
           the corresponding certificate. If this option is not specified then
           the private key must be included in the certificate file specified
           with the -recip or -signer file. When signing this option can be
           used multiple times to specify successive keys.

       -passin arg
           The private key password source. For more information about the
           format of arg see openssl-passphrase-options(1).

       -keyopt name:parameter
           For signing and encryption this option can be used multiple times
           to set customised parameters for the preceding key or certificate.
           It can currently be used to set RSA-PSS for signing, RSA-OAEP for
           encryption or to modify default parameters for ECDH.

       -keyform DER|PEM|P12|ENGINE
           The format of the private key file; unspecified by default.  See
           openssl-format-options(1) for details.

       -engine id
           See "Engine Options" in openssl(1).  This option is deprecated.

       -provider name
       -provider-path path
       -propquery propq
           See "Provider Options" in openssl(1), provider(7), and property(7).

       -rand files, -writerand file
           See "Random State Options" in openssl(1) for details.

   Encryption and decryption options
       -originator file
           A certificate of the originator of the encrypted message. Necessary
           for decryption when Key Agreement is in use for a shared key.

       -recip file
           When decrypting a message this specifies the certificate of the
           recipient.  The certificate must match one of the recipients of the
           message.

           When encrypting a message this option may be used multiple times to
           specify each recipient. This form must be used if customised
           parameters are required (for example to specify RSA-OAEP).

           Only certificates carrying RSA, Diffie-Hellman or EC keys are
           supported by this option.

       recipient-cert ...
           This is an alternative to using the -recip option when encrypting a
           message.  One or more certificate filenames may be given.

       -cipher
           The encryption algorithm to use. For example triple DES (168 bits)
           - -des3 or 256 bit AES - -aes256. Any standard algorithm name (as
           used by the EVP_get_cipherbyname() function) can also be used
           preceded by a dash, for example -aes-128-cbc. See openssl-enc(1)
           for a list of ciphers supported by your version of OpenSSL.

           Currently the AES variants with GCM mode are the only supported
           AEAD algorithms.

           If not specified triple DES is used. Only used with -encrypt and
           -EncryptedData_create commands.

       -wrap cipher
           Cipher algorithm to use for key wrap when encrypting the message
           using Key Agreement for key transport. The algorithm specified
           should be suitable for key wrap.

       -aes128-wrap, -aes192-wrap, -aes256-wrap, -des3-wrap
           Use AES128, AES192, AES256, or 3DES-EDE, respectively, to wrap key.
           Depending on the OpenSSL build options used, -des3-wrap may not be
           supported.

       -debug_decrypt
           This option sets the CMS_DEBUG_DECRYPT flag. This option should be
           used with caution: see the notes section below.

   Signing options
       -md digest
           Digest algorithm to use when signing or resigning. If not present
           then the default digest algorithm for the signing key will be used
           (usually SHA1).

       -signer file
           A signing certificate.  When signing or resigning a message, this
           option can be used multiple times if more than one signer is
           required.

       -certfile file
           Allows additional certificates to be specified. When signing these
           will be included with the message. When verifying these will be
           searched for the signers certificates.  The input can be in PEM,
           DER, or PKCS#12 format.

       -cades
           When used with -sign, add an ESS signingCertificate or ESS
           signingCertificateV2 signed-attribute to the SignerInfo, in order
           to make the signature comply with the requirements for a CAdES
           Basic Electronic Signature (CAdES-BES).

       -nodetach
           When signing a message use opaque signing: this form is more
           resistant to translation by mail relays but it cannot be read by
           mail agents that do not support S/MIME.  Without this option
           cleartext signing with the MIME type multipart/signed is used.

       -nocerts
           When signing a message the signer's certificate is normally
           included with this option it is excluded. This will reduce the size
           of the signed message but the verifier must have a copy of the
           signers certificate available locally (passed using the -certfile
           option for example).

       -noattr
           Normally when a message is signed a set of attributes are included
           which include the signing time and supported symmetric algorithms.
           With this option they are not included.

       -nosmimecap
           Exclude the list of supported algorithms from signed attributes,
           other options such as signing time and content type are still
           included.

       -receipt_request_all, -receipt_request_first
           For -sign option include a signed receipt request. Indicate
           requests should be provided by all recipient or first tier
           recipients (those mailed directly and not from a mailing list).
           Ignored it -receipt_request_from is included.

       -receipt_request_from emailaddress
           For -sign option include a signed receipt request. Add an explicit
           email address where receipts should be supplied.

       -receipt_request_to emailaddress
           Add an explicit email address where signed receipts should be sent
           to. This option must but supplied if a signed receipt is requested.

   Verification options
       -signer file
           If a message has been verified successfully then the signers
           certificate(s) will be written to this file if the verification was
           successful.

       -content filename
           This specifies a file containing the detached content for
           operations taking S/MIME input, such as the -verify command. This
           is only usable if the CMS structure is using the detached signature
           form where the content is not included. This option will override
           any content if the input format is S/MIME and it uses the
           multipart/signed MIME content type.

       -no_content_verify
           Do not verify signed content signatures.

       -no_attr_verify
           Do not verify signed attribute signatures.

       -nosigs
           Don't verify message signature.

       -noverify
           Do not verify the signers certificate of a signed message.

       -nointern
           When verifying a message normally certificates (if any) included in
           the message are searched for the signing certificate. With this
           option only the certificates specified in the -certfile option are
           used.  The supplied certificates can still be used as untrusted CAs
           however.

       -cades
           When used with -verify, require and check signer certificate
           digest.  See the NOTES section for more details.

       -verify_retcode
           Exit nonzero on verification failure.

       -CAfile file, -no-CAfile, -CApath dir, -no-CApath, -CAstore uri,
       -no-CAstore
           See "Trusted Certificate Options" in
           openssl-verification-options(1) for details.

   Output options
       -keyid
           Use subject key identifier to identify certificates instead of
           issuer name and serial number. The supplied certificate must
           include a subject key identifier extension. Supported by -sign and
           -encrypt options.

       -econtent_type type
           Set the encapsulated content type to type if not supplied the Data
           type is used. The type argument can be any valid OID name in either
           text or numerical format.

       -text
           This option adds plain text (text/plain) MIME headers to the
           supplied message if encrypting or signing. If decrypting or
           verifying it strips off text headers: if the decrypted or verified
           message is not of MIME type text/plain then an error occurs.

       -certsout file
           Any certificates contained in the input message are written to
           file.

       -to, -from, -subject
           The relevant email headers. These are included outside the signed
           portion of a message so they may be included manually. If signing
           then many S/MIME mail clients check the signers certificate's email
           address matches that specified in the From: address.

   Printing options
       -noout
           For the -cmsout operation do not output the parsed CMS structure.
           This is useful if the syntax of the CMS structure is being checked.

       -print
           For the -cmsout operation print out all fields of the CMS
           structure.  This implies -noout.  This is mainly useful for testing
           purposes.

       -nameopt option
           For the -cmsout operation when -print option is in use, specifies
           printing options for string fields. For most cases utf8 is
           reasonable value.  See openssl-namedisplay-options(1) for details.

       -receipt_request_print
           For the -verify operation print out the contents of any signed
           receipt requests.

   Validation options
       -allow_proxy_certs, -attime, -no_check_time, -check_ss_sig, -crl_check,
       -crl_check_all, -explicit_policy, -extended_crl, -ignore_critical,
       -inhibit_any, -inhibit_map, -no_alt_chains, -partial_chain, -policy,
       -policy_check, -policy_print, -purpose, -suiteB_128, -suiteB_128_only,
       -suiteB_192, -trusted_first, -use_deltas, -auth_level, -verify_depth,
       -verify_email, -verify_hostname, -verify_ip, -verify_name, -x509_strict
       -issuer_checks
           Set various options of certificate chain verification.  See
           "Verification Options" in openssl-verification-options(1) for
           details.

           Any validation errors cause the command to exit.


NOTES

       The MIME message must be sent without any blank lines between the
       headers and the output. Some mail programs will automatically add a
       blank line. Piping the mail directly to sendmail is one way to achieve
       the correct format.

       The supplied message to be signed or encrypted must include the
       necessary MIME headers or many S/MIME clients won't display it properly
       (if at all). You can use the -text option to automatically add plain
       text headers.

       A "signed and encrypted" message is one where a signed message is then
       encrypted. This can be produced by encrypting an already signed
       message: see the examples section.

       This version of the program only allows one signer per message but it
       will verify multiple signers on received messages. Some S/MIME clients
       choke if a message contains multiple signers. It is possible to sign
       messages "in parallel" by signing an already signed message.

       The options -encrypt and -decrypt reflect common usage in S/MIME
       clients. Strictly speaking these process CMS enveloped data: CMS
       encrypted data is used for other purposes.

       The -resign option uses an existing message digest when adding a new
       signer. This means that attributes must be present in at least one
       existing signer using the same message digest or this operation will
       fail.

       The -stream and -indef options enable streaming I/O support.  As a
       result the encoding is BER using indefinite length constructed encoding
       and no longer DER. Streaming is supported for the -encrypt operation
       and the -sign operation if the content is not detached.

       Streaming is always used for the -sign operation with detached data but
       since the content is no longer part of the CMS structure the encoding
       remains DER.

       If the -decrypt option is used without a recipient certificate then an
       attempt is made to locate the recipient by trying each potential
       recipient in turn using the supplied private key. To thwart the MMA
       attack (Bleichenbacher's attack on PKCS #1 v1.5 RSA padding) all
       recipients are tried whether they succeed or not and if no recipients
       match the message is "decrypted" using a random key which will
       typically output garbage.  The -debug_decrypt option can be used to
       disable the MMA attack protection and return an error if no recipient
       can be found: this option should be used with caution. For a fuller
       description see CMS_decrypt(3)).


CADES BASIC ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE (CADES-BES)

       A CAdES Basic Electronic Signature (CAdES-BES), as defined in the
       European Standard ETSI EN 319 122-1 V1.1.1, contains:

       o   The signed user data as defined in CMS (RFC 3852);

       o   Content-type of the EncapsulatedContentInfo value being signed;

       o   Message-digest of the eContent OCTET STRING within encapContentInfo
           being signed;

       o   An ESS signingCertificate or ESS signingCertificateV2 attribute, as
           defined in Enhanced Security Services (ESS), RFC 2634 and RFC 5035.
           An ESS signingCertificate attribute only allows for SHA-1 as digest
           algorithm.  An ESS signingCertificateV2 attribute allows for any
           digest algorithm.

       o   The digital signature value computed on the user data and, when
           present, on the signed attributes.

           NOTE that the -cades option applies to the -sign or -verify
           operations.  With this option, the -verify operation also requires
           that the signingCertificate attribute is present and checks that
           the given identifiers match the verification trust chain built
           during the verification process.


EXIT CODES

       0   The operation was completely successfully.

       1   An error occurred parsing the command options.

       2   One of the input files could not be read.

       3   An error occurred creating the CMS file or when reading the MIME
           message.

       4   An error occurred decrypting or verifying the message.

       5   The message was verified correctly but an error occurred writing
           out the signers certificates.


COMPATIBILITY WITH PKCS#7 FORMAT

       openssl-smime(1) can only process the older PKCS#7 format.  openssl cms
       supports Cryptographic Message Syntax format.  Use of some features
       will result in messages which cannot be processed by applications which
       only support the older format. These are detailed below.

       The use of the -keyid option with -sign or -encrypt.

       The -outform PEM option uses different headers.

       The -compress option.

       The -secretkey option when used with -encrypt.

       The use of PSS with -sign.

       The use of OAEP or non-RSA keys with -encrypt.

       Additionally the -EncryptedData_create and -data_create type cannot be
       processed by the older openssl-smime(1) command.


EXAMPLES

       Create a cleartext signed message:

        openssl cms -sign -in message.txt -text -out mail.msg \
               -signer mycert.pem

       Create an opaque signed message

        openssl cms -sign -in message.txt -text -out mail.msg -nodetach \
               -signer mycert.pem

       Create a signed message, include some additional certificates and read
       the private key from another file:

        openssl cms -sign -in in.txt -text -out mail.msg \
               -signer mycert.pem -inkey mykey.pem -certfile mycerts.pem

       Create a signed message with two signers, use key identifier:

        openssl cms -sign -in message.txt -text -out mail.msg \
               -signer mycert.pem -signer othercert.pem -keyid

       Send a signed message under Unix directly to sendmail, including
       headers:

        openssl cms -sign -in in.txt -text -signer mycert.pem \
               -from steve@openssl.org -to someone@somewhere \
               -subject "Signed message" | sendmail someone@somewhere

       Verify a message and extract the signer's certificate if successful:

        openssl cms -verify -in mail.msg -signer user.pem -out signedtext.txt

       Send encrypted mail using triple DES:

        openssl cms -encrypt -in in.txt -from steve@openssl.org \
               -to someone@somewhere -subject "Encrypted message" \
               -des3 user.pem -out mail.msg

       Sign and encrypt mail:

        openssl cms -sign -in ml.txt -signer my.pem -text \
               | openssl cms -encrypt -out mail.msg \
               -from steve@openssl.org -to someone@somewhere \
               -subject "Signed and Encrypted message" -des3 user.pem

       Note: the encryption command does not include the -text option because
       the message being encrypted already has MIME headers.

       Decrypt a message:

        openssl cms -decrypt -in mail.msg -recip mycert.pem -inkey key.pem

       The output from Netscape form signing is a PKCS#7 structure with the
       detached signature format. You can use this program to verify the
       signature by line wrapping the base64 encoded structure and surrounding
       it with:

        -----BEGIN PKCS7-----
        -----END PKCS7-----

       and using the command,

        openssl cms -verify -inform PEM -in signature.pem -content content.txt

       alternatively you can base64 decode the signature and use

        openssl cms -verify -inform DER -in signature.der -content content.txt

       Create an encrypted message using 128 bit Camellia:

        openssl cms -encrypt -in plain.txt -camellia128 -out mail.msg cert.pem

       Add a signer to an existing message:

        openssl cms -resign -in mail.msg -signer newsign.pem -out mail2.msg

       Sign a message using RSA-PSS:

        openssl cms -sign -in message.txt -text -out mail.msg \
               -signer mycert.pem -keyopt rsa_padding_mode:pss

       Create an encrypted message using RSA-OAEP:

        openssl cms -encrypt -in plain.txt -out mail.msg \
               -recip cert.pem -keyopt rsa_padding_mode:oaep

       Use SHA256 KDF with an ECDH certificate:

        openssl cms -encrypt -in plain.txt -out mail.msg \
               -recip ecdhcert.pem -keyopt ecdh_kdf_md:sha256

       Print CMS signed binary data in human-readable form:

       openssl cms -in signed.cms -binary -inform DER -cmsout -print


BUGS

       The MIME parser isn't very clever: it seems to handle most messages
       that I've thrown at it but it may choke on others.

       The code currently will only write out the signer's certificate to a
       file: if the signer has a separate encryption certificate this must be
       manually extracted. There should be some heuristic that determines the
       correct encryption certificate.

       Ideally a database should be maintained of a certificates for each
       email address.

       The code doesn't currently take note of the permitted symmetric
       encryption algorithms as supplied in the SMIMECapabilities signed
       attribute. this means the user has to manually include the correct
       encryption algorithm. It should store the list of permitted ciphers in
       a database and only use those.

       No revocation checking is done on the signer's certificate.


SEE ALSO

       ossl_store-file(7)


HISTORY

       The use of multiple -signer options and the -resign command were first
       added in OpenSSL 1.0.0.

       The -keyopt option was added in OpenSSL 1.0.2.

       Support for RSA-OAEP and RSA-PSS was added in OpenSSL 1.0.2.

       The use of non-RSA keys with -encrypt and -decrypt was added in OpenSSL
       1.0.2.

       The -no_alt_chains option was added in OpenSSL 1.0.2b.

       The -nameopt option was added in OpenSSL 3.0.0.

       The -engine option was deprecated in OpenSSL 3.0.

       The -digest option was added in OpenSSL 3.2.


COPYRIGHT

       Copyright 2008-2023 The OpenSSL Project Authors. All Rights Reserved.

       Licensed under the Apache License 2.0 (the "License").  You may not use
       this file except in compliance with the License.  You can obtain a copy
       in the file LICENSE in the source distribution or at
       <https://www.openssl.org/source/license.html>.

3.2.0                             2023-11-23                OPENSSL-CMS(1ossl)

openssl 3.2.0 - Generated Wed Nov 29 12:54:22 CST 2023
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