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bash(1)                                                                bash(1)




NAME

       bash - GNU Bourne-Again SHell


SYNOPSIS

       bash [options] [command_string | file]


COPYRIGHT

       Bash is Copyright (C) 1989-2020 by the Free Software Foundation, Inc.


DESCRIPTION

       Bash  is  an  sh-compatible  command language interpreter that executes
       commands read from the standard input or from a file.  Bash also incor-
       porates useful features from the Korn and C shells (ksh and csh).

       Bash  is  intended  to  be a conformant implementation of the Shell and
       Utilities portion  of  the  IEEE  POSIX  specification  (IEEE  Standard
       1003.1).  Bash can be configured to be POSIX-conformant by default.


OPTIONS

       All of the single-character shell options documented in the description
       of the set builtin command, including -o, can be used as  options  when
       the  shell  is  invoked.   In  addition,  bash interprets the following
       options when it is invoked:

       -c        If the -c option is present, then commands are read from  the
                 first non-option argument command_string.  If there are argu-
                 ments  after  the  command_string,  the  first  argument   is
                 assigned  to  $0  and any remaining arguments are assigned to
                 the positional parameters.  The assignment  to  $0  sets  the
                 name  of  the  shell, which is used in warning and error mes-
                 sages.
       -i        If the -i option is present, the shell is interactive.
       -l        Make bash act as if it had been invoked as a login shell (see
                 INVOCATION below).
       -r        If  the  -r  option  is present, the shell becomes restricted
                 (see RESTRICTED SHELL below).
       -s        If the -s option is present, or if no arguments remain  after
                 option  processing,  then commands are read from the standard
                 input.  This option allows the positional  parameters  to  be
                 set  when invoking an interactive shell or when reading input
                 through a pipe.
       -D        A list of all double-quoted strings preceded by $ is  printed
                 on  the standard output.  These are the strings that are sub-
                 ject to language translation when the current locale is not C
                 or  POSIX.   This  implies the -n option; no commands will be
                 executed.
       [-+]O [shopt_option]
                 shopt_option is one of the  shell  options  accepted  by  the
                 shopt   builtin  (see  SHELL  BUILTIN  COMMANDS  below).   If
                 shopt_option is present, -O sets the value of that option; +O
                 unsets  it.   If  shopt_option is not supplied, the names and
                 values of the shell options accepted by shopt are printed  on
                 the  standard  output.   If  the invocation option is +O, the
                 output is displayed in a format that may be reused as  input.
       --        A  --  signals the end of options and disables further option
                 processing.  Any arguments after the -- are treated as  file-
                 names and arguments.  An argument of - is equivalent to --.

       Bash  also  interprets  a  number  of  multi-character  options.  These
       options must appear on the command  line  before  the  single-character
       options to be recognized.

       --debugger
              Arrange for the debugger profile to be executed before the shell
              starts.  Turns on extended debugging mode (see  the  description
              of the extdebug option to the shopt builtin below).
       --dump-po-strings
              Equivalent  to -D, but the output is in the GNU gettext po (por-
              table object) file format.
       --dump-strings
              Equivalent to -D.
       --help Display a usage message on standard  output  and  exit  success-
              fully.
       --init-file file
       --rcfile file
              Execute commands from file instead of the standard personal ini-
              tialization file ~/.bashrc if  the  shell  is  interactive  (see
              INVOCATION below).

       --login
              Equivalent to -l.

       --noediting
              Do  not  use the GNU readline library to read command lines when
              the shell is interactive.

       --noprofile
              Do not read either the system-wide startup file /etc/profile  or
              any   of  the  personal  initialization  files  ~/.bash_profile,
              ~/.bash_login, or ~/.profile.   By  default,  bash  reads  these
              files  when  it  is  invoked  as  a  login shell (see INVOCATION
              below).

       --norc Do  not  read  and  execute  the  personal  initialization  file
              ~/.bashrc  if  the  shell  is interactive.  This option is on by
              default if the shell is invoked as sh.

       --posix
              Change the behavior of bash where the default operation  differs
              from the POSIX standard to match the standard (posix mode).  See
              SEE ALSO below for a reference to a document  that  details  how
              posix mode affects bash's behavior.

       --restricted
              The shell becomes restricted (see RESTRICTED SHELL below).

       --verbose
              Equivalent to -v.

       --version
              Show  version information for this instance of bash on the stan-
              dard output and exit successfully.


ARGUMENTS

       If arguments remain after option processing, and neither the -c nor the
       -s  option  has  been supplied, the first argument is assumed to be the
       name of a file containing shell commands.  If bash is invoked  in  this
       fashion,  $0 is set to the name of the file, and the positional parame-
       ters are set to the remaining arguments.  Bash reads and executes  com-
       mands  from this file, then exits.  Bash's exit status is the exit sta-
       tus of the last command executed in the script.   If  no  commands  are
       executed,  the  exit status is 0.  An attempt is first made to open the
       file in the current directory, and, if no file is found, then the shell
       searches the directories in PATH for the script.


INVOCATION

       A  login shell is one whose first character of argument zero is a -, or
       one started with the --login option.

       An interactive  shell  is  one  started  without  non-option  arguments
       (unless -s is specified) and without the -c option whose standard input
       and error are both connected to terminals (as determined by isatty(3)),
       or  one  started  with  the -i option.  PS1 is set and $- includes i if
       bash is interactive, allowing a shell script or a startup file to  test
       this state.

       The  following paragraphs describe how bash executes its startup files.
       If any of the files exist but cannot be read, bash  reports  an  error.
       Tildes  are expanded in filenames as described below under Tilde Expan-
       sion in the EXPANSION section.

       When bash is invoked as an interactive login shell, or as a  non-inter-
       active  shell with the --login option, it first reads and executes com-
       mands from the file /etc/profile, if that file exists.   After  reading
       that file, it looks for ~/.bash_profile, ~/.bash_login, and ~/.profile,
       in that order, and reads and executes commands from the first one  that
       exists  and  is  readable.  The --noprofile option may be used when the
       shell is started to inhibit this behavior.

       When an interactive login shell exits, or a non-interactive login shell
       executes  the  exit  builtin  command, bash reads and executes commands
       from the file ~/.bash_logout, if it exists.

       When an interactive shell that is not a login shell  is  started,  bash
       reads  and executes commands from ~/.bashrc, if that file exists.  This
       may be inhibited by using the --norc option.  The --rcfile file  option
       will  force  bash  to  read  and  execute commands from file instead of
       ~/.bashrc.

       When bash is started non-interactively, to  run  a  shell  script,  for
       example, it looks for the variable BASH_ENV in the environment, expands
       its value if it appears there, and uses the expanded value as the  name
       of  a  file to read and execute.  Bash behaves as if the following com-
       mand were executed:
              if [ -n "$BASH_ENV" ]; then . "$BASH_ENV"; fi
       but the value of the PATH variable is not used to search for the  file-
       name.

       If  bash  is  invoked  with  the name sh, it tries to mimic the startup
       behavior of historical versions of sh as  closely  as  possible,  while
       conforming  to the POSIX standard as well.  When invoked as an interac-
       tive login shell, or a non-interactive shell with the  --login  option,
       it  first  attempts  to read and execute commands from /etc/profile and
       ~/.profile, in that order.  The  --noprofile  option  may  be  used  to
       inhibit  this  behavior.  When invoked as an interactive shell with the
       name sh, bash looks for the variable ENV, expands its value  if  it  is
       defined,  and uses the expanded value as the name of a file to read and
       execute.  Since a shell invoked as sh does not attempt to read and exe-
       cute  commands from any other startup files, the --rcfile option has no
       effect.  A non-interactive shell invoked with  the  name  sh  does  not
       attempt  to  read  any  other  startup files.  When invoked as sh, bash
       enters posix mode after the startup files are read.

       When bash is started in posix mode, as with the  --posix  command  line
       option, it follows the POSIX standard for startup files.  In this mode,
       interactive shells expand the ENV variable and commands  are  read  and
       executed  from  the  file  whose  name is the expanded value.  No other
       startup files are read.

       Bash attempts to determine when it is being run with its standard input
       connected to a network connection, as when executed by the remote shell
       daemon, usually rshd, or the secure shell daemon sshd.  If bash  deter-
       mines  it  is being run in this fashion, it reads and executes commands
       from ~/.bashrc, if that file exists and is readable.  It  will  not  do
       this  if  invoked as sh.  The --norc option may be used to inhibit this
       behavior, and the --rcfile option may be used to force another file  to
       be  read,  but  neither  rshd  nor sshd generally invoke the shell with
       those options or allow them to be specified.

       If the shell is started with the effective user (group) id not equal to
       the real user (group) id, and the -p option is not supplied, no startup
       files are read, shell functions are not inherited from the environment,
       the  SHELLOPTS,  BASHOPTS,  CDPATH,  and  GLOBIGNORE variables, if they
       appear in the environment, are ignored, and the effective  user  id  is
       set  to  the real user id.  If the -p option is supplied at invocation,
       the startup behavior is the same, but the  effective  user  id  is  not
       reset.


DEFINITIONS

       The  following  definitions  are used throughout the rest of this docu-
       ment.
       blank  A space or tab.
       word   A sequence of characters considered as  a  single  unit  by  the
              shell.  Also known as a token.
       name   A  word  consisting  only  of alphanumeric characters and under-
              scores, and beginning with an alphabetic character or an  under-
              score.  Also referred to as an identifier.
       metacharacter
              A  character  that,  when unquoted, separates words.  One of the
              following:
              |  & ; ( ) < > space tab newline
       control operator
              A token that performs a control function.  It is one of the fol-
              lowing symbols:
              || & && ; ;; ;& ;;& ( ) | |& <newline>


RESERVED WORDS

       Reserved words are words that have a special meaning to the shell.  The
       following words are recognized as reserved when unquoted and either the
       first  word of a command (see SHELL GRAMMAR below), the third word of a
       case or select command (only in is valid), or the third word of  a  for
       command (only in and do are valid):

       !  case   coproc   do  done elif else esac fi for function if in select
       then until while { } time [[ ]]


SHELL GRAMMAR

   Simple Commands
       A simple command is a sequence of optional  variable  assignments  fol-
       lowed  by  blank-separated  words and redirections, and terminated by a
       control operator.  The first word specifies the command to be executed,
       and  is  passed  as  argument  zero.  The remaining words are passed as
       arguments to the invoked command.

       The return value of a simple command is its exit status,  or  128+n  if
       the command is terminated by signal n.

   Pipelines
       A  pipeline  is  a sequence of one or more commands separated by one of
       the control operators | or |&.  The format for a pipeline is:

              [time [-p]] [ ! ] command [ [|||&] command2 ... ]

       The standard output of command is connected via a pipe to the  standard
       input  of  command2.   This connection is performed before any redirec-
       tions specified by the command (see REDIRECTION below).  If |& is used,
       command's  standard  error, in addition to its standard output, is con-
       nected to command2's standard input through the pipe; it  is  shorthand
       for  2>&1  |.   This  implicit redirection of the standard error to the
       standard output is performed after any redirections  specified  by  the
       command.

       The return status of a pipeline is the exit status of the last command,
       unless the pipefail option is enabled.  If  pipefail  is  enabled,  the
       pipeline's  return  status is the value of the last (rightmost) command
       to exit with a non-zero status, or zero if all commands  exit  success-
       fully.  If the reserved word !  precedes a pipeline, the exit status of
       that pipeline is the logical negation of the exit status  as  described
       above.   The  shell waits for all commands in the pipeline to terminate
       before returning a value.

       If the time reserved word precedes a pipeline, the elapsed as  well  as
       user  and  system  time consumed by its execution are reported when the
       pipeline terminates.  The -p option changes the output format  to  that
       specified  by POSIX.  When the shell is in posix mode, it does not rec-
       ognize time as a reserved word if the next token  begins  with  a  `-'.
       The  TIMEFORMAT  variable  may be set to a format string that specifies
       how the timing information should be displayed; see the description  of
       TIMEFORMAT under Shell Variables below.

       When the shell is in posix mode, time may be followed by a newline.  In
       this case, the shell displays the total user and system  time  consumed
       by  the shell and its children.  The TIMEFORMAT variable may be used to
       specify the format of the time information.

       Each command in a pipeline is executed as a separate process (i.e.,  in
       a  subshell).  See COMMAND EXECUTION ENVIRONMENT for a description of a
       subshell environment.  If the lastpipe  option  is  enabled  using  the
       shopt builtin (see the description of shopt below), the last element of
       a pipeline may be run by the shell process.

   Lists
       A list is a sequence of one or more pipelines separated by one  of  the
       operators ;, &, &&, or ||, and optionally terminated by one of ;, &, or
       <newline>.

       Of these list operators, && and || have equal precedence, followed by ;
       and &, which have equal precedence.

       A  sequence  of  one or more newlines may appear in a list instead of a
       semicolon to delimit commands.

       If a command is terminated by the control operator &,  the  shell  exe-
       cutes  the command in the background in a subshell.  The shell does not
       wait for the command to finish, and the return status is 0.  These  are
       referred  to  as  asynchronous commands.  Commands separated by a ; are
       executed sequentially; the shell waits for each command to terminate in
       turn.   The  return  status is the exit status of the last command exe-
       cuted.

       AND and OR lists are sequences of one or more  pipelines  separated  by
       the  &&  and  || control operators, respectively.  AND and OR lists are
       executed with left associativity.  An AND list has the form

              command1 && command2

       command2 is executed if, and only if, command1 returns an  exit  status
       of zero (success).

       An OR list has the form

              command1 || command2

       command2  is executed if, and only if, command1 returns a non-zero exit
       status.  The return status of AND and OR lists is the  exit  status  of
       the last command executed in the list.

   Compound Commands
       A  compound command is one of the following.  In most cases a list in a
       command's description may be separated from the rest of the command  by
       one  or  more  newlines, and may be followed by a newline in place of a
       semicolon.

       (list) list is executed in a subshell environment (see  COMMAND  EXECU-
              TION  ENVIRONMENT below).  Variable assignments and builtin com-
              mands that affect the  shell's  environment  do  not  remain  in
              effect  after  the  command completes.  The return status is the
              exit status of list.

       { list; }
              list is simply executed in the current shell environment.   list
              must  be  terminated with a newline or semicolon.  This is known
              as a group command.  The return status is  the  exit  status  of
              list.   Note that unlike the metacharacters ( and ), { and } are
              reserved words and must occur where a reserved word is permitted
              to  be  recognized.   Since they do not cause a word break, they
              must be separated from  list  by  whitespace  or  another  shell
              metacharacter.

       ((expression))
              The  expression  is  evaluated  according to the rules described
              below under ARITHMETIC EVALUATION.  If the value of the  expres-
              sion  is  non-zero, the return status is 0; otherwise the return
              status is 1.  This is exactly equivalent to let "expression".

       [[ expression ]]
              Return a status of 0 or 1 depending on  the  evaluation  of  the
              conditional  expression expression.  Expressions are composed of
              the primaries described  below  under  CONDITIONAL  EXPRESSIONS.
              Word  splitting  and pathname expansion are not performed on the
              words between the [[ and  ]];  tilde  expansion,  parameter  and
              variable  expansion, arithmetic expansion, command substitution,
              process substitution, and quote removal are  performed.   Condi-
              tional operators such as -f must be unquoted to be recognized as
              primaries.

              When used with [[, the < and > operators sort  lexicographically
              using the current locale.

              When  the  == and != operators are used, the string to the right
              of the operator is considered a pattern and matched according to
              the rules described below under Pattern Matching, as if the ext-
              glob shell option were enabled.  The = operator is equivalent to
              ==.   If  the  nocasematch shell option is enabled, the match is
              performed without regard to the case of  alphabetic  characters.
              The  return  value  is  0 if the string matches (==) or does not
              match (!=) the pattern, and 1 otherwise.  Any part of  the  pat-
              tern  may be quoted to force the quoted portion to be matched as
              a string.

              An additional binary operator, =~, is available, with  the  same
              precedence  as  ==  and  !=.  When it is used, the string to the
              right of the operator is considered  a  POSIX  extended  regular
              expression  and matched accordingly (using the POSIX regcomp and
              regexec interfaces usually described in regex(3)).   The  return
              value  is  0 if the string matches the pattern, and 1 otherwise.
              If the regular expression is syntactically incorrect, the condi-
              tional expression's return value is 2.  If the nocasematch shell
              option is enabled, the match is performed without regard to  the
              case  of  alphabetic characters.  Any part of the pattern may be
              quoted to force the quoted portion to be matched  as  a  string.
              Bracket expressions in regular expressions must be treated care-
              fully, since  normal  quoting  characters  lose  their  meanings
              between brackets.  If the pattern is stored in a shell variable,
              quoting the variable expansion forces the entire pattern  to  be
              matched as a string.

              The  pattern  will  match  if it matches any part of the string.
              Anchor the pattern using the ^ and $ regular  expression  opera-
              tors to force it to match the entire string.  The array variable
              BASH_REMATCH records which parts of the string matched the  pat-
              tern.   The  element  of  BASH_REMATCH with index 0 contains the
              portion of the string matching the  entire  regular  expression.
              Substrings  matched  by  parenthesized subexpressions within the
              regular expression  are  saved  in  the  remaining  BASH_REMATCH
              indices. The element of BASH_REMATCH with index n is the portion
              of the string matching the nth parenthesized subexpression.

              Expressions may  be  combined  using  the  following  operators,
              listed in decreasing order of precedence:

              ( expression )
                     Returns  the  value  of  expression.  This may be used to
                     override the normal precedence of operators.
              ! expression
                     True if expression is false.
              expression1 && expression2
                     True if both expression1 and expression2 are true.
              expression1 || expression2
                     True if either expression1 or expression2 is true.

              The && and || operators do not evaluate expression2 if the value
              of  expression1  is  sufficient to determine the return value of
              the entire conditional expression.

       for name [ [ in [ word ... ] ] ; ] do list ; done
              The list of words following in is expanded, generating a list of
              items.  The variable name is set to each element of this list in
              turn, and list is executed each time.  If the in word  is  omit-
              ted,  the  for  command  executes  list once for each positional
              parameter that is set (see PARAMETERS below).  The return status
              is  the  exit  status of the last command that executes.  If the
              expansion of the items following in results in an empty list, no
              commands are executed, and the return status is 0.

       for (( expr1 ; expr2 ; expr3 )) ; do list ; done
              First, the arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated according to
              the rules described  below  under  ARITHMETIC  EVALUATION.   The
              arithmetic  expression  expr2 is then evaluated repeatedly until
              it evaluates to zero.  Each time expr2 evaluates to  a  non-zero
              value,  list  is executed and the arithmetic expression expr3 is
              evaluated.  If any expression is omitted, it behaves  as  if  it
              evaluates to 1.  The return value is the exit status of the last
              command in list that is executed, or false if any of the expres-
              sions is invalid.

       select name [ in word ] ; do list ; done
              The list of words following in is expanded, generating a list of
              items.  The set of expanded words is  printed  on  the  standard
              error,  each  preceded  by a number.  If the in word is omitted,
              the positional parameters are printed  (see  PARAMETERS  below).
              The  PS3 prompt is then displayed and a line read from the stan-
              dard input.  If the line consists of a number  corresponding  to
              one  of  the  displayed  words, then the value of name is set to
              that word.  If the line is empty, the words and prompt are  dis-
              played again.  If EOF is read, the command completes.  Any other
              value read causes name to be set to  null.   The  line  read  is
              saved  in  the  variable REPLY.  The list is executed after each
              selection until a break command is executed.  The exit status of
              select  is the exit status of the last command executed in list,
              or zero if no commands were executed.

       case word in [ [(] pattern [ | pattern ] ... ) list ;; ] ... esac
              A case command first expands word, and tries to match it against
              each  pattern  in turn, using the matching rules described under
              Pattern Matching below.  The word is expanded using tilde expan-
              sion,  parameter  and  variable expansion, arithmetic expansion,
              command substitution, process substitution  and  quote  removal.
              Each pattern examined is expanded using tilde expansion, parame-
              ter and variable expansion, arithmetic expansion,  command  sub-
              stitution,  and  process substitution.  If the nocasematch shell
              option is enabled, the match is performed without regard to  the
              case  of alphabetic characters.  When a match is found, the cor-
              responding list is executed.  If the ;;  operator  is  used,  no
              subsequent  matches are attempted after the first pattern match.
              Using ;& in place of ;; causes execution to  continue  with  the
              list  associated  with  the  next set of patterns.  Using ;;& in
              place of ;; causes the shell to test the next  pattern  list  in
              the statement, if any, and execute any associated list on a suc-
              cessful match, continuing the case statement execution as if the
              pattern  list  had  not  matched.  The exit status is zero if no
              pattern matches.  Otherwise, it is the exit status of  the  last
              command executed in list.

       if list; then list; [ elif list; then list; ] ... [ else list; ] fi
              The  if  list is executed.  If its exit status is zero, the then
              list is executed.  Otherwise, each  elif  list  is  executed  in
              turn,  and  if  its  exit status is zero, the corresponding then
              list is executed and the command completes.  Otherwise, the else
              list  is executed, if present.  The exit status is the exit sta-
              tus of the last command executed, or zero if no condition tested
              true.

       while list-1; do list-2; done
       until list-1; do list-2; done
              The  while command continuously executes the list list-2 as long
              as the last command in the list list-1 returns an exit status of
              zero.   The  until  command  is  identical to the while command,
              except that the test is negated: list-2 is executed as  long  as
              the  last command in list-1 returns a non-zero exit status.  The
              exit status of the while and until commands is the  exit  status
              of the last command executed in list-2, or zero if none was exe-
              cuted.

   Coprocesses
       A coprocess is a shell command preceded by the coproc reserved word.  A
       coprocess  is  executed asynchronously in a subshell, as if the command
       had been terminated with the & control operator, with  a  two-way  pipe
       established between the executing shell and the coprocess.

       The format for a coprocess is:

              coproc [NAME] command [redirections]

       This  creates  a  coprocess  named  NAME.  If NAME is not supplied, the
       default name is COPROC.  NAME must not be supplied if command is a sim-
       ple command (see above); otherwise, it is interpreted as the first word
       of the simple command.  When the coprocess is executed, the shell  cre-
       ates  an array variable (see Arrays below) named NAME in the context of
       the executing shell.  The standard output of command is connected via a
       pipe  to  a  file  descriptor  in  the  executing  shell, and that file
       descriptor is assigned to NAME[0].  The standard input  of  command  is
       connected  via  a pipe to a file descriptor in the executing shell, and
       that file descriptor is assigned to NAME[1].  This pipe is  established
       before  any  redirections  specified  by  the  command (see REDIRECTION
       below).  The file descriptors can be utilized  as  arguments  to  shell
       commands  and  redirections using standard word expansions.  Other than
       those created to execute command and process  substitutions,  the  file
       descriptors  are  not  available  in  subshells.  The process ID of the
       shell spawned to execute the coprocess is available as the value of the
       variable  NAME_PID.   The  wait builtin command may be used to wait for
       the coprocess to terminate.

       Since the coprocess is created as an asynchronous command,  the  coproc
       command  always  returns  success.  The return status of a coprocess is
       the exit status of command.

   Shell Function Definitions
       A shell function is an object that is called like a simple command  and
       executes  a  compound  command with a new set of positional parameters.
       Shell functions are declared as follows:

       fname () compound-command [redirection]
       function fname [()] compound-command [redirection]
              This defines a function named fname.  The reserved word function
              is  optional.   If  the  function reserved word is supplied, the
              parentheses are optional.  The body of the function is the  com-
              pound  command  compound-command  (see Compound Commands above).
              That command is usually a list of commands between { and },  but
              may  be  any  command listed under Compound Commands above, with
              one exception: If the function reserved word is  used,  but  the
              parentheses  are  not  supplied,  the braces are required.  com-
              pound-command is executed whenever fname  is  specified  as  the
              name  of  a simple command.  When in posix mode, fname must be a
              valid shell name and may not be the name of  one  of  the  POSIX
              special  builtins.   In default mode, a function name can be any
              unquoted shell word that does not contain $.   Any  redirections
              (see REDIRECTION below) specified when a function is defined are
              performed when the function is executed.  The exit status  of  a
              function  definition  is  zero unless a syntax error occurs or a
              readonly function with the same name already exists.  When  exe-
              cuted,  the  exit status of a function is the exit status of the
              last command executed in the body.  (See FUNCTIONS below.)


COMMENTS

       In a non-interactive shell, or an interactive shell in which the inter-
       active_comments  option  to  the  shopt  builtin  is enabled (see SHELL
       BUILTIN COMMANDS below), a word beginning with # causes that  word  and
       all  remaining  characters  on that line to be ignored.  An interactive
       shell without the interactive_comments option enabled  does  not  allow
       comments.  The interactive_comments option is on by default in interac-
       tive shells.


QUOTING

       Quoting is used to remove the special meaning of certain characters  or
       words  to  the shell.  Quoting can be used to disable special treatment
       for special characters, to prevent reserved words from being recognized
       as such, and to prevent parameter expansion.

       Each  of  the metacharacters listed above under DEFINITIONS has special
       meaning to the shell and must be quoted if it is to represent itself.

       When the command history expansion facilities are being used (see  HIS-
       TORY EXPANSION below), the history expansion character, usually !, must
       be quoted to prevent history expansion.

       There are  three  quoting  mechanisms:  the  escape  character,  single
       quotes, and double quotes.

       A  non-quoted  backslash (\) is the escape character.  It preserves the
       literal value of the next character that follows, with the exception of
       <newline>.   If  a  \<newline>  pair  appears, and the backslash is not
       itself quoted, the \<newline> is treated as a line  continuation  (that
       is, it is removed from the input stream and effectively ignored).

       Enclosing  characters  in  single quotes preserves the literal value of
       each character within the quotes.  A single quote may not occur between
       single quotes, even when preceded by a backslash.

       Enclosing  characters  in  double quotes preserves the literal value of
       all characters within the quotes, with the exception of $, `,  \,  and,
       when history expansion is enabled, !.  When the shell is in posix mode,
       the ! has no special meaning within double quotes,  even  when  history
       expansion  is  enabled.   The  characters  $ and ` retain their special
       meaning within double quotes.  The backslash retains its special  mean-
       ing  only when followed by one of the following characters: $, `, ", \,
       or <newline>.  A double quote may be quoted  within  double  quotes  by
       preceding  it  with a backslash.  If enabled, history expansion will be
       performed unless an !  appearing in double quotes is  escaped  using  a
       backslash.  The backslash preceding the !  is not removed.

       The  special  parameters  *  and  @ have special meaning when in double
       quotes (see PARAMETERS below).

       Words of the form $'string' are treated specially.  The word expands to
       string,  with backslash-escaped characters replaced as specified by the
       ANSI C standard.  Backslash escape sequences, if present,  are  decoded
       as follows:
              \a     alert (bell)
              \b     backspace
              \e
              \E     an escape character
              \f     form feed
              \n     new line
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \'     single quote
              \"     double quote
              \?     question mark
              \nnn   the  eight-bit  character  whose value is the octal value
                     nnn (one to three octal digits)
              \xHH   the eight-bit character whose value  is  the  hexadecimal
                     value HH (one or two hex digits)
              \uHHHH the  Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) character whose value is the
                     hexadecimal value HHHH (one to four hex digits)
              \UHHHHHHHH
                     the Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) character whose value is  the
                     hexadecimal value HHHHHHHH (one to eight hex digits)
              \cx    a control-x character

       The  expanded  result  is  single-quoted, as if the dollar sign had not
       been present.

       A double-quoted string preceded by a dollar sign ($"string") will cause
       the  string to be translated according to the current locale.  The get-
       text infrastructure performs the message catalog  lookup  and  transla-
       tion,  using  the  LC_MESSAGES  and TEXTDOMAIN shell variables.  If the
       current locale is C or POSIX, or if there are  no  translations  avail-
       able,  the  dollar  sign  is  ignored.  If the string is translated and
       replaced, the replacement is double-quoted.


PARAMETERS

       A parameter is an entity that stores values.  It can be a name, a  num-
       ber, or one of the special characters listed below under Special Param-
       eters.  A variable is a parameter denoted by a name.  A variable has  a
       value  and  zero or more attributes.  Attributes are assigned using the
       declare builtin command (see declare below in SHELL BUILTIN  COMMANDS).

       A parameter is set if it has been assigned a value.  The null string is
       a valid value.  Once a variable is set, it may be unset only  by  using
       the unset builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).

       A variable may be assigned to by a statement of the form

              name=[value]

       If  value  is not given, the variable is assigned the null string.  All
       values undergo tilde expansion, parameter and variable expansion,  com-
       mand  substitution, arithmetic expansion, and quote removal (see EXPAN-
       SION below).  If the variable has its integer attribute set, then value
       is evaluated as an arithmetic expression even if the $((...)) expansion
       is not used (see Arithmetic Expansion below).  Word  splitting  is  not
       performed,  with the exception of "$@" as explained below under Special
       Parameters.  Pathname expansion is not  performed.   Assignment  state-
       ments  may  also  appear  as  arguments to the alias, declare, typeset,
       export, readonly, and local builtin  commands  (declaration  commands).
       When in posix mode, these builtins may appear in a command after one or
       more instances of the  command  builtin  and  retain  these  assignment
       statement properties.

       In  the context where an assignment statement is assigning a value to a
       shell variable or array index, the += operator can be used to append to
       or  add  to  the variable's previous value.  This includes arguments to
       builtin commands such as  declare  that  accept  assignment  statements
       (declaration commands).  When += is applied to a variable for which the
       integer attribute has been set, value is  evaluated  as  an  arithmetic
       expression  and  added  to  the variable's current value, which is also
       evaluated.  When += is applied to  an  array  variable  using  compound
       assignment (see Arrays below), the variable's value is not unset (as it
       is when using =), and new values are appended to the array beginning at
       one  greater  than  the  array's  maximum index (for indexed arrays) or
       added as additional key-value pairs  in  an  associative  array.   When
       applied  to a string-valued variable, value is expanded and appended to
       the variable's value.

       A variable can be assigned the nameref attribute using the -n option to
       the  declare or local builtin commands (see the descriptions of declare
       and local below) to create a nameref, or a reference to  another  vari-
       able.   This  allows  variables to be manipulated indirectly.  Whenever
       the nameref variable is referenced, assigned  to,  unset,  or  has  its
       attributes modified (other than using or changing the nameref attribute
       itself), the operation is actually performed on the variable  specified
       by  the  nameref  variable's  value.  A nameref is commonly used within
       shell functions to refer to a variable whose name is passed as an argu-
       ment  to the function.  For instance, if a variable name is passed to a
       shell function as its first argument, running
              declare -n ref=$1
       inside the function creates a nameref variable ref whose value  is  the
       variable name passed as the first argument.  References and assignments
       to ref, and changes to  its  attributes,  are  treated  as  references,
       assignments, and attribute modifications to the variable whose name was
       passed as $1.  If the control variable in a for loop  has  the  nameref
       attribute,  the  list  of words can be a list of shell variables, and a
       name reference will be established for each word in the list, in  turn,
       when the loop is executed.  Array variables cannot be given the nameref
       attribute.  However, nameref variables can  reference  array  variables
       and  subscripted  array  variables.  Namerefs can be unset using the -n
       option to the unset builtin.  Otherwise, if unset is executed with  the
       name  of  a nameref variable as an argument, the variable referenced by
       the nameref variable will be unset.

   Positional Parameters
       A positional parameter is a parameter denoted by one  or  more  digits,
       other than the single digit 0.  Positional parameters are assigned from
       the shell's arguments when it is invoked, and may be  reassigned  using
       the  set builtin command.  Positional parameters may not be assigned to
       with assignment statements.  The positional parameters are  temporarily
       replaced when a shell function is executed (see FUNCTIONS below).

       When  a  positional parameter consisting of more than a single digit is
       expanded, it must be enclosed in braces (see EXPANSION below).

   Special Parameters
       The shell treats several parameters specially.   These  parameters  may
       only be referenced; assignment to them is not allowed.
       *      Expands  to  the positional parameters, starting from one.  When
              the expansion is  not  within  double  quotes,  each  positional
              parameter  expands  to a separate word.  In contexts where it is
              performed, those words are subject to further word splitting and
              pathname  expansion.   When  the  expansion occurs within double
              quotes, it expands to a single  word  with  the  value  of  each
              parameter  separated  by  the first character of the IFS special
              variable.  That is, "$*" is equivalent to "$1c$2c...",  where  c
              is the first character of the value of the IFS variable.  If IFS
              is unset, the parameters are separated by  spaces.   If  IFS  is
              null,  the parameters are joined without intervening separators.
       @      Expands to the positional parameters,  starting  from  one.   In
              contexts  where  word  splitting is performed, this expands each
              positional parameter to a separate word; if  not  within  double
              quotes,  these words are subject to word splitting.  In contexts
              where word splitting is not performed, this expands to a  single
              word  with each positional parameter separated by a space.  When
              the  expansion  occurs  within  double  quotes,  each  parameter
              expands to a separate word.  That is, "$@" is equivalent to "$1"
              "$2" ...  If the double-quoted expansion occurs within  a  word,
              the  expansion  of the first parameter is joined with the begin-
              ning part of the original word, and the expansion  of  the  last
              parameter  is  joined  with  the last part of the original word.
              When there are no positional parameters, "$@" and $@  expand  to
              nothing (i.e., they are removed).
       #      Expands to the number of positional parameters in decimal.
       ?      Expands  to  the exit status of the most recently executed fore-
              ground pipeline.
       -      Expands to the current option flags as  specified  upon  invoca-
              tion,  by  the  set  builtin  command, or those set by the shell
              itself (such as the -i option).
       $      Expands to the process ID of the shell.  In a  ()  subshell,  it
              expands  to  the  process  ID of the current shell, not the sub-
              shell.
       !      Expands to the process ID of the job most recently  placed  into
              the  background,  whether executed as an asynchronous command or
              using the bg builtin (see JOB CONTROL below).
       0      Expands to the name of the shell or shell script.  This  is  set
              at shell initialization.  If bash is invoked with a file of com-
              mands, $0 is set to the name of that file.  If bash  is  started
              with  the  -c option, then $0 is set to the first argument after
              the string to be executed, if one is present.  Otherwise, it  is
              set  to  the  filename used to invoke bash, as given by argument
              zero.

   Shell Variables
       The following variables are set by the shell:

       _      At shell startup, set to the pathname used to invoke  the  shell
              or  shell  script being executed as passed in the environment or
              argument list.  Subsequently, expands to the  last  argument  to
              the  previous  simple  command executed in the foreground, after
              expansion.  Also set to the full pathname used  to  invoke  each
              command  executed and placed in the environment exported to that
              command.  When checking mail, this parameter holds the  name  of
              the mail file currently being checked.
       BASH   Expands  to  the  full  filename used to invoke this instance of
              bash.
       BASHOPTS
              A colon-separated list of enabled shell options.  Each  word  in
              the  list  is  a  valid  argument for the -s option to the shopt
              builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).  The options
              appearing  in  BASHOPTS  are  those reported as on by shopt.  If
              this variable is in the environment when bash  starts  up,  each
              shell  option  in  the  list  will be enabled before reading any
              startup files.  This variable is read-only.
       BASHPID
              Expands to the process ID of the  current  bash  process.   This
              differs  from  $$ under certain circumstances, such as subshells
              that do not require bash to be re-initialized.   Assignments  to
              BASHPID  have no effect.  If BASHPID is unset, it loses its spe-
              cial properties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       BASH_ALIASES
              An associative array variable whose members  correspond  to  the
              internal  list  of  aliases  as maintained by the alias builtin.
              Elements added to this array appear in the alias list;  however,
              unsetting  array elements currently does not cause aliases to be
              removed from the alias list.  If BASH_ALIASES is unset, it loses
              its special properties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       BASH_ARGC
              An  array  variable whose values are the number of parameters in
              each frame of the current bash execution call stack.  The number
              of  parameters  to  the  current  subroutine  (shell function or
              script executed with . or source) is at the top  of  the  stack.
              When  a  subroutine is executed, the number of parameters passed
              is pushed onto BASH_ARGC.  The shell sets BASH_ARGC only when in
              extended  debugging  mode  (see  the description of the extdebug
              option to the shopt builtin below).  Setting extdebug after  the
              shell has started to execute a script, or referencing this vari-
              able when extdebug is not set, may result in  inconsistent  val-
              ues.
       BASH_ARGV
              An  array  variable containing all of the parameters in the cur-
              rent bash execution call stack.  The final parameter of the last
              subroutine  call is at the top of the stack; the first parameter
              of the initial call is at the bottom.  When a subroutine is exe-
              cuted,  the  parameters supplied are pushed onto BASH_ARGV.  The
              shell sets BASH_ARGV only when in extended debugging  mode  (see
              the  description  of  the  extdebug  option to the shopt builtin
              below).  Setting extdebug after the shell has started to execute
              a script, or referencing this variable when extdebug is not set,
              may result in inconsistent values.
       BASH_ARGV0
              When referenced, this variable expands to the name of the  shell
              or shell script (identical to $0; see the description of special
              parameter 0 above).  Assignment to BASH_ARGV0 causes  the  value
              assigned  to also be assigned to $0.  If BASH_ARGV0 is unset, it
              loses its special properties, even if it is subsequently  reset.
       BASH_CMDS
              An  associative  array  variable whose members correspond to the
              internal hash table  of  commands  as  maintained  by  the  hash
              builtin.  Elements added to this array appear in the hash table;
              however, unsetting array elements currently does not cause  com-
              mand  names  to be removed from the hash table.  If BASH_CMDS is
              unset, it loses its special properties, even  if  it  is  subse-
              quently reset.
       BASH_COMMAND
              The  command  currently  being executed or about to be executed,
              unless the shell is executing a command as the result of a trap,
              in  which  case  it  is the command executing at the time of the
              trap.  If BASH_COMMAND is unset, it loses  its  special  proper-
              ties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       BASH_EXECUTION_STRING
              The command argument to the -c invocation option.
       BASH_LINENO
              An  array  variable whose members are the line numbers in source
              files where each corresponding member of FUNCNAME  was  invoked.
              ${BASH_LINENO[$i]}  is  the  line  number  in  the  source  file
              (${BASH_SOURCE[$i+1]})  where  ${FUNCNAME[$i]}  was  called  (or
              ${BASH_LINENO[$i-1]}  if  referenced  within another shell func-
              tion).  Use LINENO to obtain the current line number.
       BASH_LOADABLES_PATH
              A colon-separated list of directories in which the  shell  looks
              for  dynamically  loadable builtins specified by the enable com-
              mand.
       BASH_REMATCH
              An array variable whose members are assigned by  the  =~  binary
              operator  to the [[ conditional command.  The element with index
              0 is the portion of  the  string  matching  the  entire  regular
              expression.   The  element  with  index  n is the portion of the
              string matching the nth parenthesized subexpression.
       BASH_SOURCE
              An array variable whose members are the source  filenames  where
              the  corresponding  shell  function  names in the FUNCNAME array
              variable are defined.  The  shell  function  ${FUNCNAME[$i]}  is
              defined   in   the   file  ${BASH_SOURCE[$i]}  and  called  from
              ${BASH_SOURCE[$i+1]}.
       BASH_SUBSHELL
              Incremented by one within each subshell or subshell  environment
              when  the  shell begins executing in that environment.  The ini-
              tial value is 0.  If BASH_SUBSHELL is unset, it loses  its  spe-
              cial properties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       BASH_VERSINFO
              A readonly array variable whose members hold version information
              for this instance of bash.  The values  assigned  to  the  array
              members are as follows:
              BASH_VERSINFO[0]        The  major version number (the release).
              BASH_VERSINFO[1]        The minor version number (the  version).
              BASH_VERSINFO[2]        The patch level.
              BASH_VERSINFO[3]        The build version.
              BASH_VERSINFO[4]        The release status (e.g., beta1).
              BASH_VERSINFO[5]        The value of MACHTYPE.
       BASH_VERSION
              Expands  to  a string describing the version of this instance of
              bash.
       COMP_CWORD
              An index into ${COMP_WORDS} of the word containing  the  current
              cursor position.  This variable is available only in shell func-
              tions invoked by the  programmable  completion  facilities  (see
              Programmable Completion below).
       COMP_KEY
              The key (or final key of a key sequence) used to invoke the cur-
              rent completion function.
       COMP_LINE
              The current command line.  This variable is  available  only  in
              shell  functions  and  external  commands  invoked  by  the pro-
              grammable completion  facilities  (see  Programmable  Completion
              below).
       COMP_POINT
              The  index of the current cursor position relative to the begin-
              ning of the current command.  If the current cursor position  is
              at the end of the current command, the value of this variable is
              equal to ${#COMP_LINE}.  This  variable  is  available  only  in
              shell  functions  and  external  commands  invoked  by  the pro-
              grammable completion  facilities  (see  Programmable  Completion
              below).
       COMP_TYPE
              Set  to an integer value corresponding to the type of completion
              attempted that caused a completion function to be  called:  TAB,
              for  normal completion, ?, for listing completions after succes-
              sive tabs, !, for listing alternatives on partial  word  comple-
              tion,  @,  to list completions if the word is not unmodified, or
              %, for menu completion.  This  variable  is  available  only  in
              shell  functions  and  external  commands  invoked  by  the pro-
              grammable completion  facilities  (see  Programmable  Completion
              below).
       COMP_WORDBREAKS
              The  set  of characters that the readline library treats as word
              separators when performing word completion.  If  COMP_WORDBREAKS
              is  unset, it loses its special properties, even if it is subse-
              quently reset.
       COMP_WORDS
              An array variable (see Arrays below) consisting of the  individ-
              ual  words  in the current command line.  The line is split into
              words as readline  would  split  it,  using  COMP_WORDBREAKS  as
              described above.  This variable is available only in shell func-
              tions invoked by the  programmable  completion  facilities  (see
              Programmable Completion below).
       COPROC An  array  variable  (see Arrays below) created to hold the file
              descriptors for output from and input to  an  unnamed  coprocess
              (see Coprocesses above).
       DIRSTACK
              An array variable (see Arrays below) containing the current con-
              tents of the directory stack.  Directories appear in  the  stack
              in  the order they are displayed by the dirs builtin.  Assigning
              to members of this array variable may be used to modify directo-
              ries  already in the stack, but the pushd and popd builtins must
              be used to add and remove directories.  Assignment to this vari-
              able  will  not  change  the  current directory.  If DIRSTACK is
              unset, it loses its special properties, even  if  it  is  subse-
              quently reset.
       EPOCHREALTIME
              Each time this parameter is referenced, it expands to the number
              of seconds since the Unix Epoch  (see  time(3))  as  a  floating
              point  value  with  micro-second  granularity.   Assignments  to
              EPOCHREALTIME are ignored.  If EPOCHREALTIME is unset, it  loses
              its special properties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       EPOCHSECONDS
              Each time this parameter is referenced, it expands to the number
              of seconds since the Unix Epoch (see time(3)).   Assignments  to
              EPOCHSECONDS  are  ignored.   If EPOCHSECONDS is unset, it loses
              its special properties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       EUID   Expands to the effective user ID of the current  user,  initial-
              ized at shell startup.  This variable is readonly.
       FUNCNAME
              An  array  variable  containing the names of all shell functions
              currently in the execution call stack.  The element with index 0
              is the name of any currently-executing shell function.  The bot-
              tom-most element (the one with the  highest  index)  is  "main".
              This  variable  exists  only when a shell function is executing.
              Assignments to FUNCNAME have no effect.  If FUNCNAME  is  unset,
              it  loses  its  special  properties,  even if it is subsequently
              reset.

              This variable can be  used  with  BASH_LINENO  and  BASH_SOURCE.
              Each   element   of   FUNCNAME  has  corresponding  elements  in
              BASH_LINENO and BASH_SOURCE to describe  the  call  stack.   For
              instance,    ${FUNCNAME[$i]}    was   called   from   the   file
              ${BASH_SOURCE[$i+1]} at  line  number  ${BASH_LINENO[$i]}.   The
              caller builtin displays the current call stack using this infor-
              mation.
       GROUPS An array variable containing the list of  groups  of  which  the
              current user is a member.  Assignments to GROUPS have no effect.
              If GROUPS is unset, it loses its special properties, even if  it
              is subsequently reset.
       HISTCMD
              The history number, or index in the history list, of the current
              command.  Assignments to HISTCMD are  ignored.   If  HISTCMD  is
              unset,  it  loses  its  special properties, even if it is subse-
              quently reset.
       HOSTNAME
              Automatically set to the name of the current host.
       HOSTTYPE
              Automatically set to a string that uniquely describes  the  type
              of  machine  on which bash is executing.  The default is system-
              dependent.
       LINENO Each time this parameter is referenced, the shell substitutes  a
              decimal  number  representing the current sequential line number
              (starting with 1) within a script or function.  When  not  in  a
              script  or  function, the value substituted is not guaranteed to
              be meaningful.  If LINENO is unset, it loses its special proper-
              ties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       MACHTYPE
              Automatically  set  to  a string that fully describes the system
              type on which bash is executing, in the  standard  GNU  cpu-com-
              pany-system format.  The default is system-dependent.
       MAPFILE
              An  array  variable  (see Arrays below) created to hold the text
              read by the mapfile builtin when no variable name is supplied.
       OLDPWD The previous working directory as set by the cd command.
       OPTARG The value of the last option argument processed by  the  getopts
              builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).
       OPTIND The  index  of  the next argument to be processed by the getopts
              builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).
       OSTYPE Automatically set to a string that describes the operating  sys-
              tem  on  which  bash is executing.  The default is system-depen-
              dent.
       PIPESTATUS
              An array variable (see Arrays below) containing a list  of  exit
              status  values  from the processes in the most-recently-executed
              foreground pipeline (which may contain only a single command).
       PPID   The process ID of the shell's parent.  This  variable  is  read-
              only.
       PWD    The current working directory as set by the cd command.
       RANDOM Each  time  this parameter is referenced, it expands to a random
              integer between 0 and 32767.  Assigning a value to  RANDOM  ini-
              tializes  (seeds)  the sequence of random numbers.  If RANDOM is
              unset, it loses its special properties, even  if  it  is  subse-
              quently reset.
       READLINE_LINE
              The contents of the readline line buffer, for use with "bind -x"
              (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).
       READLINE_MARK
              The position of the mark (saved insertion point) in the readline
              line  buffer, for use with "bind -x" (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS
              below).  The characters between the insertion point and the mark
              are often called the region.
       READLINE_POINT
              The position of the insertion point in the readline line buffer,
              for use with "bind -x" (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).
       REPLY  Set to the line of input read by the read builtin  command  when
              no arguments are supplied.
       SECONDS
              Each  time  this  parameter is referenced, the number of seconds
              since shell invocation is returned.  If a value is  assigned  to
              SECONDS,  the  value  returned upon subsequent references is the
              number of seconds since the assignment plus the value  assigned.
              The  number  of seconds at shell invocation and the current time
              is always determined by querying the system clock.   If  SECONDS
              is  unset, it loses its special properties, even if it is subse-
              quently reset.
       SHELLOPTS
              A colon-separated list of enabled shell options.  Each  word  in
              the  list  is  a  valid  argument  for  the -o option to the set
              builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).  The options
              appearing  in  SHELLOPTS are those reported as on by set -o.  If
              this variable is in the environment when bash  starts  up,  each
              shell  option  in  the  list  will be enabled before reading any
              startup files.  This variable is read-only.
       SHLVL  Incremented by one each time an instance of bash is started.
       SRANDOM
              This variable expands to a 32-bit pseudo-random number each time
              it  is  referenced. The random number generator is not linear on
              systems  that  support  /dev/urandom  or  arc4random,  so   each
              returned number has no relationship to the numbers preceding it.
              The random number generator cannot be seeded, so assignments  to
              this variable have no effect.  If SRANDOM is unset, it loses its
              special properties, even if it is subsequently reset.
       UID    Expands to the user ID of the current user, initialized at shell
              startup.  This variable is readonly.

       The  following  variables  are  used by the shell.  In some cases, bash
       assigns a default value to a variable; these cases are noted below.

       BASH_COMPAT
              The value is used to set the shell's compatibility  level.   See
              SHELL  COMPATIBILITY MODE below for a description of the various
              compatibility levels and their effects.  The value may be a dec-
              imal  number  (e.g., 4.2) or an integer (e.g., 42) corresponding
              to the desired compatibility level.  If BASH_COMPAT is unset  or
              set  to  the empty string, the compatibility level is set to the
              default for the current version.  If BASH_COMPAT  is  set  to  a
              value  that  is  not  one of the valid compatibility levels, the
              shell prints an error message and sets the  compatibility  level
              to the default for the current version.  The valid values corre-
              spond to the compatibility levels described below under  BSHELL-
              COMPATIBILITYMODE.   For  example,  4.2  and 42 are valid values
              that correspond to the compat42 shopt option and set the compat-
              ibility level to 42.  The current version is also a valid value.
       BASH_ENV
              If this parameter is set when bash is executing a shell  script,
              its  value  is  interpreted as a filename containing commands to
              initialize the shell, as in ~/.bashrc.  The value of BASH_ENV is
              subjected  to  parameter  expansion,  command  substitution, and
              arithmetic expansion before being  interpreted  as  a  filename.
              PATH is not used to search for the resultant filename.
       BASH_XTRACEFD
              If  set  to an integer corresponding to a valid file descriptor,
              bash will write the  trace  output  generated  when  set  -x  is
              enabled  to that file descriptor.  The file descriptor is closed
              when BASH_XTRACEFD is unset or assigned a new value.   Unsetting
              BASH_XTRACEFD  or assigning it the empty string causes the trace
              output to be sent to the  standard  error.   Note  that  setting
              BASH_XTRACEFD to 2 (the standard error file descriptor) and then
              unsetting it will result in the standard error being closed.
       CDPATH The search path for the cd command.  This is  a  colon-separated
              list  of  directories  in  which the shell looks for destination
              directories specified by the cd  command.   A  sample  value  is
              ".:~:/usr".
       CHILD_MAX
              Set  the  number  of exited child status values for the shell to
              remember.  Bash will not allow this value to be decreased  below
              a  POSIX-mandated  minimum,  and  there is a maximum value (cur-
              rently 8192) that this may not exceed.   The  minimum  value  is
              system-dependent.
       COLUMNS
              Used  by  the  select compound command to determine the terminal
              width when printing selection lists.  Automatically set  if  the
              checkwinsize  option  is enabled or in an interactive shell upon
              receipt of a SIGWINCH.
       COMPREPLY
              An array variable from which bash reads the possible completions
              generated  by  a shell function invoked by the programmable com-
              pletion facility  (see  Programmable  Completion  below).   Each
              array element contains one possible completion.
       EMACS  If  bash  finds  this variable in the environment when the shell
              starts with value "t", it assumes that the shell is  running  in
              an Emacs shell buffer and disables line editing.
       ENV    Expanded  and  executed  similarly  to  BASH_ENV (see INVOCATION
              above) when an interactive shell is invoked in posix mode.
       EXECIGNORE
              A colon-separated list of shell patterns (see Pattern  Matching)
              defining  the  list of filenames to be ignored by command search
              using PATH.  Files whose full pathnames match one of these  pat-
              terns  are  not  considered executable files for the purposes of
              completion and command execution via PATH lookup.  This does not
              affect the behavior of the [, test, and [[ commands.  Full path-
              names in the command hash table are not subject  to  EXECIGNORE.
              Use  this  variable to ignore shared library files that have the
              executable bit set, but are not executable files.   The  pattern
              matching honors the setting of the extglob shell option.
       FCEDIT The default editor for the fc builtin command.
       FIGNORE
              A  colon-separated  list  of  suffixes to ignore when performing
              filename completion (see READLINE below).  A filename whose suf-
              fix  matches  one of the entries in FIGNORE is excluded from the
              list of matched filenames.  A sample value is ".o:~".
       FUNCNEST
              If set to a numeric value greater  than  0,  defines  a  maximum
              function  nesting  level.  Function invocations that exceed this
              nesting level will cause the current command to abort.
       GLOBIGNORE
              A colon-separated list of patterns  defining  the  set  of  file
              names  to  be  ignored  by  pathname  expansion.  If a file name
              matched by a pathname expansion pattern also matches one of  the
              patterns  in GLOBIGNORE, it is removed from the list of matches.
       HISTCONTROL
              A colon-separated list of values controlling  how  commands  are
              saved  on  the  history  list.   If  the list of values includes
              ignorespace, lines which begin with a space  character  are  not
              saved  in  the history list.  A value of ignoredups causes lines
              matching the previous history entry to not be saved.  A value of
              ignoreboth is shorthand for ignorespace and ignoredups.  A value
              of erasedups causes all previous lines matching the current line
              to  be  removed from the history list before that line is saved.
              Any value not in the above list is ignored.  If  HISTCONTROL  is
              unset,  or does not include a valid value, all lines read by the
              shell parser are saved on the history list, subject to the value
              of  HISTIGNORE.  The second and subsequent lines of a multi-line
              compound command are not tested, and are added  to  the  history
              regardless of the value of HISTCONTROL.
       HISTFILE
              The name of the file in which command history is saved (see HIS-
              TORY below).  The default value is ~/.bash_history.   If  unset,
              the command history is not saved when a shell exits.
       HISTFILESIZE
              The maximum number of lines contained in the history file.  When
              this variable is assigned a value, the  history  file  is  trun-
              cated,  if  necessary,  to  contain  no more than that number of
              lines by removing the oldest entries.  The history file is  also
              truncated  to this size after writing it when a shell exits.  If
              the value is 0, the history file  is  truncated  to  zero  size.
              Non-numeric  values  and  numeric  values less than zero inhibit
              truncation.  The shell sets the default value to  the  value  of
              HISTSIZE after reading any startup files.
       HISTIGNORE
              A  colon-separated list of patterns used to decide which command
              lines should be saved on the  history  list.   Each  pattern  is
              anchored  at  the  beginning of the line and must match the com-
              plete line (no implicit  `*'  is  appended).   Each  pattern  is
              tested  against  the line after the checks specified by HISTCON-
              TROL are applied.  In  addition  to  the  normal  shell  pattern
              matching characters, `&' matches the previous history line.  `&'
              may be escaped using  a  backslash;  the  backslash  is  removed
              before attempting a match.  The second and subsequent lines of a
              multi-line compound command are not tested, and are added to the
              history  regardless  of  the  value  of HISTIGNORE.  The pattern
              matching honors the setting of the extglob shell option.
       HISTSIZE
              The number of commands to remember in the command  history  (see
              HISTORY  below).   If  the value is 0, commands are not saved in
              the history list.  Numeric values less than zero result in every
              command  being  saved  on  the history list (there is no limit).
              The shell sets the  default  value  to  500  after  reading  any
              startup files.
       HISTTIMEFORMAT
              If  this  variable  is  set and not null, its value is used as a
              format string for strftime(3) to print the time stamp associated
              with  each  history  entry displayed by the history builtin.  If
              this variable is set, time stamps are  written  to  the  history
              file  so they may be preserved across shell sessions.  This uses
              the history comment character  to  distinguish  timestamps  from
              other history lines.
       HOME   The home directory of the current user; the default argument for
              the cd builtin command.  The value of this variable is also used
              when performing tilde expansion.
       HOSTFILE
              Contains  the  name  of  a file in the same format as /etc/hosts
              that should be read when the shell needs to complete a hostname.
              The  list  of possible hostname completions may be changed while
              the shell is running;  the  next  time  hostname  completion  is
              attempted  after the value is changed, bash adds the contents of
              the new file to the existing list.  If HOSTFILE is set, but  has
              no  value,  or  does  not name a readable file, bash attempts to
              read /etc/hosts to obtain the list of possible hostname  comple-
              tions.  When HOSTFILE is unset, the hostname list is cleared.
       IFS    The  Internal  Field  Separator  that is used for word splitting
              after expansion and to split lines  into  words  with  the  read
              builtin  command.   The  default  value  is  ``<space><tab><new-
              line>''.
       IGNOREEOF
              Controls the action of an interactive shell on receipt of an EOF
              character as the sole input.  If set, the value is the number of
              consecutive EOF characters which must  be  typed  as  the  first
              characters  on an input line before bash exits.  If the variable
              exists but does not have a numeric value, or has no  value,  the
              default  value  is  10.  If it does not exist, EOF signifies the
              end of input to the shell.
       INPUTRC
              The filename for  the  readline  startup  file,  overriding  the
              default of ~/.inputrc (see READLINE below).
       INSIDE_EMACS
              If  this  variable  appears  in  the  environment when the shell
              starts, bash assumes that it is running inside  an  Emacs  shell
              buffer  and  may disable line editing, depending on the value of
              TERM.
       LANG   Used to determine the  locale  category  for  any  category  not
              specifically selected with a variable starting with LC_.
       LC_ALL This  variable  overrides  the  value  of LANG and any other LC_
              variable specifying a locale category.
       LC_COLLATE
              This variable determines the collation order used  when  sorting
              the  results  of pathname expansion, and determines the behavior
              of  range  expressions,  equivalence  classes,   and   collating
              sequences within pathname expansion and pattern matching.
       LC_CTYPE
              This  variable  determines  the interpretation of characters and
              the behavior of character classes within pathname expansion  and
              pattern matching.
       LC_MESSAGES
              This  variable  determines  the locale used to translate double-
              quoted strings preceded by a $.
       LC_NUMERIC
              This variable determines the locale  category  used  for  number
              formatting.
       LC_TIME
              This  variable  determines the locale category used for data and
              time formatting.
       LINES  Used by the select compound  command  to  determine  the  column
              length  for  printing selection lists.  Automatically set if the
              checkwinsize option is enabled or in an interactive  shell  upon
              receipt of a SIGWINCH.
       MAIL   If  this  parameter  is  set to a file or directory name and the
              MAILPATH variable is not set,  bash  informs  the  user  of  the
              arrival  of  mail in the specified file or Maildir-format direc-
              tory.
       MAILCHECK
              Specifies how often (in seconds)  bash  checks  for  mail.   The
              default  is  60 seconds.  When it is time to check for mail, the
              shell does so before displaying the  primary  prompt.   If  this
              variable  is  unset,  or  set  to  a  value that is not a number
              greater than or equal to zero, the shell disables mail checking.
       MAILPATH
              A colon-separated list of filenames to be checked for mail.  The
              message to be printed when mail arrives in a particular file may
              be  specified by separating the filename from the message with a
              `?'.  When used in the text of the message, $_  expands  to  the
              name of the current mailfile.  Example:
              MAILPATH='/var/mail/bfox?"You  have  mail":~/shell-mail?"$_  has
              mail!"'
              Bash can be configured to supply a default value for this  vari-
              able  (there  is  no  value by default), but the location of the
              user  mail  files  that  it  uses  is  system  dependent  (e.g.,
              /var/mail/$USER).
       OPTERR If set to the value 1, bash displays error messages generated by
              the getopts builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS  below).
              OPTERR  is  initialized to 1 each time the shell is invoked or a
              shell script is executed.
       PATH   The search path for commands.  It is a colon-separated  list  of
              directories  in  which the shell looks for commands (see COMMAND
              EXECUTION below).  A zero-length (null) directory  name  in  the
              value of PATH indicates the current directory.  A null directory
              name may appear as two adjacent colons,  or  as  an  initial  or
              trailing  colon.   The  default path is system-dependent, and is
              set by the administrator who installs bash.  A common value is
              ``/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/sbin''.
       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              If this variable is in the environment  when  bash  starts,  the
              shell  enters posix mode before reading the startup files, as if
              the --posix invocation option had been supplied.  If it  is  set
              while  the  shell is running, bash enables posix mode, as if the
              command set -o posix had been executed.  When the  shell  enters
              posix mode, it sets this variable if it was not already set.
       PROMPT_COMMAND
              If  this variable is set, and is an array, the value of each set
              element is executed as a command prior to issuing  each  primary
              prompt.   If this is set but not an array variable, its value is
              used as a command to execute instead.
       PROMPT_DIRTRIM
              If set to a number greater than zero, the value is used  as  the
              number of trailing directory components to retain when expanding
              the \w and \W  prompt  string  escapes  (see  PROMPTING  below).
              Characters removed are replaced with an ellipsis.
       PS0    The  value  of  this parameter is expanded (see PROMPTING below)
              and displayed by interactive shells after reading a command  and
              before the command is executed.
       PS1    The  value  of  this parameter is expanded (see PROMPTING below)
              and used as the primary prompt string.   The  default  value  is
              ``\s-\v\$ ''.
       PS2    The  value of this parameter is expanded as with PS1 and used as
              the secondary prompt string.  The default is ``> ''.
       PS3    The value of this parameter is used as the prompt for the select
              command (see SHELL GRAMMAR above).
       PS4    The  value  of  this  parameter  is expanded as with PS1 and the
              value is printed before each command  bash  displays  during  an
              execution  trace.   The first character of the expanded value of
              PS4 is replicated multiple times, as necessary, to indicate mul-
              tiple levels of indirection.  The default is ``+ ''.
       SHELL  This  variable expands to the full pathname to the shell.  If it
              is not set when the shell starts, bash assigns to  it  the  full
              pathname of the current user's login shell.
       TIMEFORMAT
              The  value of this parameter is used as a format string specify-
              ing how the timing information for pipelines prefixed  with  the
              time  reserved word should be displayed.  The % character intro-
              duces an escape sequence that is expanded to  a  time  value  or
              other  information.  The escape sequences and their meanings are
              as follows; the braces denote optional portions.
              %%        A literal %.
              %[p][l]R  The elapsed time in seconds.
              %[p][l]U  The number of CPU seconds spent in user mode.
              %[p][l]S  The number of CPU seconds spent in system mode.
              %P        The CPU percentage, computed as (%U + %S) / %R.

              The optional p is a digit specifying the precision,  the  number
              of fractional digits after a decimal point.  A value of 0 causes
              no decimal point or fraction to be output.  At most three places
              after  the  decimal  point may be specified; values of p greater
              than 3 are changed to 3.  If p is not specified, the value 3  is
              used.

              The  optional l specifies a longer format, including minutes, of
              the form MMmSS.FFs.  The value of p determines  whether  or  not
              the fraction is included.

              If  this  variable  is not set, bash acts as if it had the value
              $'\nreal\t%3lR\nuser\t%3lU\nsys\t%3lS'.  If the value  is  null,
              no timing information is displayed.  A trailing newline is added
              when the format string is displayed.
       TMOUT  If set to a value greater than zero, TMOUT  is  treated  as  the
              default timeout for the read builtin.  The select command termi-
              nates if input does not arrive after TMOUT seconds when input is
              coming  from  a terminal.  In an interactive shell, the value is
              interpreted as the number of seconds to wait for a line of input
              after issuing the primary prompt.  Bash terminates after waiting
              for that number of seconds if a complete line of input does  not
              arrive.
       TMPDIR If  set, bash uses its value as the name of a directory in which
              bash creates temporary files for the shell's use.
       auto_resume
              This variable controls how the shell interacts with the user and
              job  control.   If this variable is set, single word simple com-
              mands without redirections are treated as candidates for resump-
              tion of an existing stopped job.  There is no ambiguity allowed;
              if there is more than one job beginning with the  string  typed,
              the  job  most  recently  accessed  is  selected.  The name of a
              stopped job, in this context, is the command line used to  start
              it.   If  set to the value exact, the string supplied must match
              the name of a stopped job exactly;  if  set  to  substring,  the
              string  supplied  needs  to  match  a substring of the name of a
              stopped job.  The substring value provides functionality  analo-
              gous  to the %?  job identifier (see JOB CONTROL below).  If set
              to any other value, the supplied string must be a  prefix  of  a
              stopped job's name; this provides functionality analogous to the
              %string job identifier.
       histchars
              The two or three characters which control history expansion  and
              tokenization (see HISTORY EXPANSION below).  The first character
              is the history expansion character, the character which  signals
              the  start  of  a  history  expansion, normally `!'.  The second
              character is the quick substitution character, which is used  as
              shorthand  for  re-running the previous command entered, substi-
              tuting one string for another in the command.   The  default  is
              `^'.   The optional third character is the character which indi-
              cates that the remainder of the line is a comment when found  as
              the  first  character of a word, normally `#'.  The history com-
              ment character causes history substitution to be skipped for the
              remaining  words on the line.  It does not necessarily cause the
              shell parser to treat the rest of the line as a comment.

   Arrays
       Bash provides one-dimensional indexed and associative array  variables.
       Any  variable may be used as an indexed array; the declare builtin will
       explicitly declare an array.  There is no maximum limit on the size  of
       an  array, nor any requirement that members be indexed or assigned con-
       tiguously.  Indexed arrays are  referenced  using  integers  (including
       arithmetic expressions) and are zero-based; associative arrays are ref-
       erenced using arbitrary strings.  Unless otherwise noted, indexed array
       indices must be non-negative integers.

       An  indexed  array is created automatically if any variable is assigned
       to using the syntax name[subscript]=value.  The subscript is treated as
       an arithmetic expression that must evaluate to a number.  To explicitly
       declare an indexed array, use declare -a name (see SHELL  BUILTIN  COM-
       MANDS  below).   declare  -a name[subscript] is also accepted; the sub-
       script is ignored.

       Associative arrays are created using declare -A name.

       Attributes may be specified for an array variable using the declare and
       readonly  builtins.  Each attribute applies to all members of an array.

       Arrays  are  assigned  to  using  compound  assignments  of  the   form
       name=(value1  ...  valuen),  where  each value may be of the form [sub-
       script]=string.  Indexed array assignments do not require anything  but
       string.   Each value in the list is expanded using all the shell expan-
       sions described below  under  EXPANSION.   When  assigning  to  indexed
       arrays, if the optional brackets and subscript are supplied, that index
       is assigned to; otherwise the index of the element assigned is the last
       index  assigned to by the statement plus one.  Indexing starts at zero.

       When assigning to an associative array, the words in a compound assign-
       ment  may  be  either assignment statements, for which the subscript is
       required, or a list of words that  is  interpreted  as  a  sequence  of
       alternating  keys  and  values:  name=(  key1  value1 key2 value2 ...).
       These are treated identically  to  name=(  [key1]=value1  [key2]=value2
       ...).   The  first  word in the list determines how the remaining words
       are interpreted; all assignments in a list must be of  the  same  type.
       When  using  key/value  pairs,  the keys may not be missing or empty; a
       final missing value is treated like the empty string.

       This syntax is also accepted by the declare builtin.  Individual  array
       elements  may  be  assigned  to  using the name[subscript]=value syntax
       introduced above.  When assigning to an indexed array, if name is  sub-
       scripted  by  a negative number, that number is interpreted as relative
       to one greater than the maximum index  of  name,  so  negative  indices
       count back from the end of the array, and an index of -1 references the
       last element.

       Any element of an array may  be  referenced  using  ${name[subscript]}.
       The braces are required to avoid conflicts with pathname expansion.  If
       subscript is @ or *, the word expands to all members  of  name.   These
       subscripts  differ only when the word appears within double quotes.  If
       the word is double-quoted, ${name[*]} expands to a single word with the
       value  of each array member separated by the first character of the IFS
       special variable, and ${name[@]} expands each element of name to a sep-
       arate  word.   When  there  are no array members, ${name[@]} expands to
       nothing.  If the double-quoted expansion  occurs  within  a  word,  the
       expansion  of  the first parameter is joined with the beginning part of
       the original word, and the expansion of the last  parameter  is  joined
       with  the  last  part  of  the original word.  This is analogous to the
       expansion of the special parameters * and  @  (see  Special  Parameters
       above).   ${#name[subscript]}  expands  to  the  length  of ${name[sub-
       script]}.  If subscript is * or @, the expansion is the number of  ele-
       ments  in  the array.  If the subscript used to reference an element of
       an indexed array evaluates to a number less than  zero,  it  is  inter-
       preted  as relative to one greater than the maximum index of the array,
       so negative indices count back from the end of the array, and an  index
       of -1 references the last element.

       Referencing an array variable without a subscript is equivalent to ref-
       erencing the array with a subscript of 0.  Any reference to a  variable
       using a valid subscript is legal, and bash will create an array if nec-
       essary.

       An array variable is considered set if a subscript has been assigned  a
       value.  The null string is a valid value.

       It  is possible to obtain the keys (indices) of an array as well as the
       values.  ${!name[@]} and ${!name[*]} expand to the indices assigned  in
       array variable name.  The treatment when in double quotes is similar to
       the expansion of the special parameters @ and * within double quotes.

       The unset builtin is used to  destroy  arrays.   unset  name[subscript]
       destroys  the  array  element  at index subscript, for both indexed and
       associative arrays.  Negative subscripts to indexed arrays  are  inter-
       preted  as  described  above.   Unsetting  the last element of an array
       variable does not unset the variable.  unset name,  where  name  is  an
       array, or unset name[subscript], where subscript is * or @, removes the
       entire array.

       When using a variable name with a subscript as an argument  to  a  com-
       mand,  such  as  with  unset,  without  using the word expansion syntax
       described above, the argument is subject  to  pathname  expansion.   If
       pathname expansion is not desired, the argument should be quoted.

       The  declare,  local,  and readonly builtins each accept a -a option to
       specify an indexed array and a -A  option  to  specify  an  associative
       array.   If  both  options are supplied, -A takes precedence.  The read
       builtin accepts a -a option to assign a list of  words  read  from  the
       standard input to an array.  The set and declare builtins display array
       values in a way that allows them to be reused as assignments.


EXPANSION

       Expansion is performed on the command line after it has been split into
       words.   There are seven kinds of expansion performed: brace expansion,
       tilde expansion, parameter and variable  expansion,  command  substitu-
       tion, arithmetic expansion, word splitting, and pathname expansion.

       The order of expansions is: brace expansion; tilde expansion, parameter
       and variable expansion, arithmetic expansion, and command  substitution
       (done  in a left-to-right fashion); word splitting; and pathname expan-
       sion.

       On systems that can support it, there is an additional expansion avail-
       able:  process  substitution.   This  is  performed at the same time as
       tilde, parameter, variable, and arithmetic expansion and  command  sub-
       stitution.

       After  these  expansions are performed, quote characters present in the
       original word are removed  unless  they  have  been  quoted  themselves
       (quote removal).

       Only  brace  expansion,  word  splitting,  and  pathname  expansion can
       increase the number of words of the expansion; other expansions  expand
       a  single  word  to a single word.  The only exceptions to this are the
       expansions of "$@"  and  "${name[@]}",  and,  in  most  cases,  $*  and
       ${name[*]} as explained above (see PARAMETERS).

   Brace Expansion
       Brace expansion is a mechanism by which arbitrary strings may be gener-
       ated.  This mechanism is similar to pathname expansion, but  the  file-
       names generated need not exist.  Patterns to be brace expanded take the
       form of an optional preamble, followed by either a series of comma-sep-
       arated  strings or a sequence expression between a pair of braces, fol-
       lowed by an optional postscript.  The  preamble  is  prefixed  to  each
       string contained within the braces, and the postscript is then appended
       to each resulting string, expanding left to right.

       Brace expansions may be nested.  The results of  each  expanded  string
       are  not  sorted;  left  to  right  order  is  preserved.  For example,
       a{d,c,b}e expands into `ade ace abe'.

       A sequence expression takes the form {x..y[..incr]}, where x and y  are
       either  integers or single characters, and incr, an optional increment,
       is an integer.  When integers are supplied, the expression  expands  to
       each  number between x and y, inclusive.  Supplied integers may be pre-
       fixed with 0 to force each term to have the same width.  When either  x
       or  y  begins  with  a  zero, the shell attempts to force all generated
       terms to contain the same number of digits, zero-padding  where  neces-
       sary.   When  characters  are  supplied, the expression expands to each
       character lexicographically between  x  and  y,  inclusive,  using  the
       default  C  locale.   Note  that both x and y must be of the same type.
       When the increment is supplied, it is used as  the  difference  between
       each term.  The default increment is 1 or -1 as appropriate.

       Brace expansion is performed before any other expansions, and any char-
       acters special to other expansions are preserved in the result.  It  is
       strictly  textual.  Bash does not apply any syntactic interpretation to
       the context of the expansion or the text between the braces.

       A correctly-formed brace expansion must contain  unquoted  opening  and
       closing  braces,  and  at  least one unquoted comma or a valid sequence
       expression.  Any incorrectly formed brace expansion is left  unchanged.
       A { or , may be quoted with a backslash to prevent its being considered
       part of a brace expression.  To avoid conflicts with  parameter  expan-
       sion, the string ${ is not considered eligible for brace expansion, and
       inhibits brace expansion until the closing }.

       This construct is typically used as shorthand when the common prefix of
       the strings to be generated is longer than in the above example:

              mkdir /usr/local/src/bash/{old,new,dist,bugs}
       or
              chown root /usr/{ucb/{ex,edit},lib/{ex?.?*,how_ex}}

       Brace  expansion  introduces  a  slight incompatibility with historical
       versions of sh.  sh does not treat opening or closing braces  specially
       when  they  appear as part of a word, and preserves them in the output.
       Bash removes braces from words as a  consequence  of  brace  expansion.
       For  example,  a word entered to sh as file{1,2} appears identically in
       the output.  The same word is output as file1 file2 after expansion  by
       bash.   If strict compatibility with sh is desired, start bash with the
       +B option or disable brace expansion with the +B option to the set com-
       mand (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).

   Tilde Expansion
       If  a  word  begins  with an unquoted tilde character (`~'), all of the
       characters preceding the first unquoted slash (or  all  characters,  if
       there  is no unquoted slash) are considered a tilde-prefix.  If none of
       the characters in the tilde-prefix are quoted, the  characters  in  the
       tilde-prefix  following the tilde are treated as a possible login name.
       If this login name is the null string, the tilde is replaced  with  the
       value  of  the shell parameter HOME.  If HOME is unset, the home direc-
       tory of the user executing the shell is  substituted  instead.   Other-
       wise,  the  tilde-prefix is replaced with the home directory associated
       with the specified login name.

       If the tilde-prefix is a `~+', the value  of  the  shell  variable  PWD
       replaces the tilde-prefix.  If the tilde-prefix is a `~-', the value of
       the shell variable OLDPWD, if it is set, is substituted.  If the  char-
       acters  following  the tilde in the tilde-prefix consist of a number N,
       optionally prefixed by a `+' or a `-',  the  tilde-prefix  is  replaced
       with the corresponding element from the directory stack, as it would be
       displayed by the dirs builtin invoked with the tilde-prefix as an argu-
       ment.   If  the characters following the tilde in the tilde-prefix con-
       sist of a number without a leading `+' or `-', `+' is assumed.

       If the login name is invalid, or the tilde expansion fails, the word is
       unchanged.

       Each variable assignment is checked for unquoted tilde-prefixes immedi-
       ately following a : or the first =.  In these cases, tilde expansion is
       also  performed.   Consequently,  one  may use filenames with tildes in
       assignments to PATH, MAILPATH, and CDPATH, and the  shell  assigns  the
       expanded value.

       Bash  also  performs tilde expansion on words satisfying the conditions
       of variable assignments (as described above under PARAMETERS) when they
       appear  as arguments to simple commands.  Bash does not do this, except
       for the declaration commands listed above, when in posix mode.

   Parameter Expansion
       The `$' character introduces parameter expansion, command substitution,
       or  arithmetic  expansion.  The parameter name or symbol to be expanded
       may be enclosed in braces, which are optional but serve to protect  the
       variable  to be expanded from characters immediately following it which
       could be interpreted as part of the name.

       When braces are used, the matching ending brace is the  first  `}'  not
       escaped  by  a  backslash  or within a quoted string, and not within an
       embedded  arithmetic  expansion,  command  substitution,  or  parameter
       expansion.

       ${parameter}
              The  value of parameter is substituted.  The braces are required
              when parameter is a positional  parameter  with  more  than  one
              digit, or when parameter is followed by a character which is not
              to be interpreted as part of its name.  The parameter is a shell
              parameter  as  described above PARAMETERS) or an array reference
              (Arrays).

       If the first character of parameter is an exclamation  point  (!),  and
       parameter is not a nameref, it introduces a level of indirection.  Bash
       uses the value formed by expanding the rest of  parameter  as  the  new
       parameter;  this is then expanded and that value is used in the rest of
       the expansion, rather than the expansion  of  the  original  parameter.
       This  is  known  as  indirect expansion.  The value is subject to tilde
       expansion, parameter expansion, command  substitution,  and  arithmetic
       expansion.   If parameter is a nameref, this expands to the name of the
       parameter referenced by parameter instead of  performing  the  complete
       indirect  expansion.   The  exceptions  to  this  are the expansions of
       ${!prefix*} and ${!name[@]} described  below.   The  exclamation  point
       must  immediately  follow the left brace in order to introduce indirec-
       tion.

       In each of the cases below, word is subject to tilde expansion, parame-
       ter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic expansion.

       When  not  performing  substring  expansion, using the forms documented
       below (e.g., :-), bash tests for a parameter that  is  unset  or  null.
       Omitting  the  colon  results  in  a  test only for a parameter that is
       unset.

       ${parameter:-word}
              Use Default Values.  If parameter is unset or null,  the  expan-
              sion  of word is substituted.  Otherwise, the value of parameter
              is substituted.
       ${parameter:=word}
              Assign Default Values.  If  parameter  is  unset  or  null,  the
              expansion of word is assigned to parameter.  The value of param-
              eter is then substituted.   Positional  parameters  and  special
              parameters may not be assigned to in this way.
       ${parameter:?word}
              Display  Error if Null or Unset.  If parameter is null or unset,
              the expansion of word (or a message to that effect  if  word  is
              not  present) is written to the standard error and the shell, if
              it is not interactive, exits.  Otherwise, the value of parameter
              is substituted.
       ${parameter:+word}
              Use  Alternate Value.  If parameter is null or unset, nothing is
              substituted, otherwise the expansion of word is substituted.
       ${parameter:offset}
       ${parameter:offset:length}
              Substring Expansion.  Expands to up to length characters of  the
              value  of  parameter starting at the character specified by off-
              set.  If parameter is @, an indexed array subscripted by @ or *,
              or  an  associative  array name, the results differ as described
              below.  If length is omitted, expands to the  substring  of  the
              value of parameter starting at the character specified by offset
              and extending to the end of the value.  length  and  offset  are
              arithmetic expressions (see ARITHMETIC EVALUATION below).

              If  offset  evaluates  to  a number less than zero, the value is
              used as an offset in characters from the end  of  the  value  of
              parameter.   If  length evaluates to a number less than zero, it
              is interpreted as an offset in characters from the  end  of  the
              value  of  parameter rather than a number of characters, and the
              expansion is the characters  between  offset  and  that  result.
              Note  that a negative offset must be separated from the colon by
              at least one space to avoid being confused with  the  :-  expan-
              sion.

              If  parameter  is  @, the result is length positional parameters
              beginning at offset.  A negative offset is taken relative to one
              greater  than the greatest positional parameter, so an offset of
              -1 evaluates to the last positional parameter.  It is an  expan-
              sion error if length evaluates to a number less than zero.

              If parameter is an indexed array name subscripted by @ or *, the
              result is  the  length  members  of  the  array  beginning  with
              ${parameter[offset]}.   A  negative  offset is taken relative to
              one greater than the maximum index of the specified  array.   It
              is  an expansion error if length evaluates to a number less than
              zero.

              Substring expansion applied to  an  associative  array  produces
              undefined results.

              Substring  indexing  is zero-based unless the positional parame-
              ters are used, in  which  case  the  indexing  starts  at  1  by
              default.   If  offset  is  0,  and the positional parameters are
              used, $0 is prefixed to the list.

       ${!prefix*}
       ${!prefix@}
              Names matching prefix.  Expands to the names of variables  whose
              names begin with prefix, separated by the first character of the
              IFS special variable.  When @ is used and the expansion  appears
              within  double  quotes, each variable name expands to a separate
              word.

       ${!name[@]}
       ${!name[*]}
              List of array keys.  If name is an array  variable,  expands  to
              the  list  of array indices (keys) assigned in name.  If name is
              not an array, expands to 0 if name is set  and  null  otherwise.
              When  @  is used and the expansion appears within double quotes,
              each key expands to a separate word.

       ${#parameter}
              Parameter length.  The length in  characters  of  the  value  of
              parameter  is  substituted.   If  parameter is * or @, the value
              substituted is the number of positional parameters.  If  parame-
              ter  is  an  array name subscripted by * or @, the value substi-
              tuted is the number of elements in the array.  If  parameter  is
              an  indexed  array  name  subscripted by a negative number, that
              number is interpreted as relative to one greater than the  maxi-
              mum  index of parameter, so negative indices count back from the
              end of the array, and an index of -1 references  the  last  ele-
              ment.

       ${parameter#word}
       ${parameter##word}
              Remove matching prefix pattern.  The word is expanded to produce
              a pattern just as in pathname expansion, and matched against the
              expanded value of parameter using the rules described under Pat-
              tern Matching below.  If the pattern matches  the  beginning  of
              the  value of parameter, then the result of the expansion is the
              expanded value of parameter with the shortest  matching  pattern
              (the  ``#''  case)  or  the longest matching pattern (the ``##''
              case) deleted.  If parameter is @  or  *,  the  pattern  removal
              operation  is  applied to each positional parameter in turn, and
              the expansion is the resultant list.  If parameter is  an  array
              variable  subscripted with @ or *, the pattern removal operation
              is applied to each member of the array in turn, and  the  expan-
              sion is the resultant list.

       ${parameter%word}
       ${parameter%%word}
              Remove matching suffix pattern.  The word is expanded to produce
              a pattern just as in pathname expansion, and matched against the
              expanded value of parameter using the rules described under Pat-
              tern Matching below.  If the pattern matches a trailing  portion
              of  the  expanded  value  of  parameter,  then the result of the
              expansion is the expanded value of parameter with  the  shortest
              matching  pattern  (the ``%'' case) or the longest matching pat-
              tern (the ``%%'' case) deleted.  If parameter is  @  or  *,  the
              pattern  removal operation is applied to each positional parame-
              ter in turn, and the expansion is the resultant list.  If param-
              eter  is  an array variable subscripted with @ or *, the pattern
              removal operation is applied to each  member  of  the  array  in
              turn, and the expansion is the resultant list.

       ${parameter/pattern/string}
              Pattern substitution.  The pattern is expanded to produce a pat-
              tern just as in pathname expansion, Parameter  is  expanded  and
              the  longest match of pattern against its value is replaced with
              string.  The match is performed using the rules described  under
              Pattern  Matching  below.  If pattern begins with /, all matches
              of pattern are replaced with string.  Normally  only  the  first
              match  is  replaced.  If pattern begins with #, it must match at
              the beginning of the expanded value of  parameter.   If  pattern
              begins with %, it must match at the end of the expanded value of
              parameter.  If string is null, matches of  pattern  are  deleted
              and  the / following pattern may be omitted.  If the nocasematch
              shell option is enabled, the match is performed  without  regard
              to  the  case of alphabetic characters.  If parameter is @ or *,
              the substitution operation is applied to each positional parame-
              ter in turn, and the expansion is the resultant list.  If param-
              eter is an array variable subscripted with @ or *, the substitu-
              tion  operation  is applied to each member of the array in turn,
              and the expansion is the resultant list.

       ${parameter^pattern}
       ${parameter^^pattern}
       ${parameter,pattern}
       ${parameter,,pattern}
              Case modification.  This expansion modifies the case  of  alpha-
              betic  characters in parameter.  The pattern is expanded to pro-
              duce a pattern just as in pathname expansion.  Each character in
              the  expanded value of parameter is tested against pattern, and,
              if it matches the pattern, its case is converted.   The  pattern
              should  not  attempt  to  match  more than one character.  The ^
              operator converts lowercase letters matching pattern  to  upper-
              case; the , operator converts matching uppercase letters to low-
              ercase.  The ^^ and ,, expansions convert each matched character
              in  the expanded value; the ^ and , expansions match and convert
              only the first character in the expanded value.  If  pattern  is
              omitted,  it is treated like a ?, which matches every character.
              If parameter is @ or  *,  the  case  modification  operation  is
              applied  to each positional parameter in turn, and the expansion
              is the resultant list.  If parameter is an array  variable  sub-
              scripted with @ or *, the case modification operation is applied
              to each member of the array in turn, and the  expansion  is  the
              resultant list.

       ${parameter@operator}
              Parameter transformation.  The expansion is either a transforma-
              tion of the value of parameter or  information  about  parameter
              itself,  depending on the value of operator.  Each operator is a
              single letter:

              U      The expansion is a string that is the value of  parameter
                     with  lowercase alphabetic characters converted to upper-
                     case.
              u      The expansion is a string that is the value of  parameter
                     with the first character converted to uppercase, if it is
                     alphabetic.
              L      The expansion is a string that is the value of  parameter
                     with  uppercase alphabetic characters converted to lower-
                     case.
              Q      The expansion is a string that is the value of  parameter
                     quoted in a format that can be reused as input.
              E      The  expansion is a string that is the value of parameter
                     with backslash escape  sequences  expanded  as  with  the
                     $'...' quoting mechanism.
              P      The expansion is a string that is the result of expanding
                     the value of parameter as if it were a prompt string (see
                     PROMPTING below).
              A      The  expansion  is  a string in the form of an assignment
                     statement or declare command  that,  if  evaluated,  will
                     recreate parameter with its attributes and value.
              K      Produces a possibly-quoted version of the value of param-
                     eter, except that it prints the  values  of  indexed  and
                     associative  arrays  as  a  sequence  of quoted key-value
                     pairs (see Arrays above).
              a      The expansion is a string consisting of flag values  rep-
                     resenting parameter's attributes.

              If  parameter  is @ or *, the operation is applied to each posi-
              tional parameter in turn, and the  expansion  is  the  resultant
              list.   If  parameter is an array variable subscripted with @ or
              *, the operation is applied to each member of the array in turn,
              and the expansion is the resultant list.

              The  result  of  the  expansion is subject to word splitting and
              pathname expansion as described below.

   Command Substitution
       Command substitution allows the output of a command to replace the com-
       mand name.  There are two forms:

              $(command)
       or
              `command`

       Bash performs the expansion by executing command in a subshell environ-
       ment and replacing the command substitution with the standard output of
       the command, with any trailing newlines deleted.  Embedded newlines are
       not deleted, but they may be removed during word splitting.   The  com-
       mand  substitution  $(cat  file)  can be replaced by the equivalent but
       faster $(< file).

       When the old-style backquote form of substitution  is  used,  backslash
       retains  its  literal  meaning except when followed by $, `, or \.  The
       first backquote not preceded by a backslash terminates the command sub-
       stitution.   When using the $(command) form, all characters between the
       parentheses make up the command; none are treated specially.

       Command substitutions may be nested.  To nest when using the backquoted
       form, escape the inner backquotes with backslashes.

       If  the  substitution  appears within double quotes, word splitting and
       pathname expansion are not performed on the results.

   Arithmetic Expansion
       Arithmetic expansion allows the evaluation of an arithmetic  expression
       and  the  substitution of the result.  The format for arithmetic expan-
       sion is:

              $((expression))

       The expression is treated as if it were within  double  quotes,  but  a
       double  quote  inside  the  parentheses  is not treated specially.  All
       tokens in the expression undergo parameter and variable expansion, com-
       mand  substitution,  and  quote  removal.  The result is treated as the
       arithmetic expression to be evaluated.  Arithmetic  expansions  may  be
       nested.

       The  evaluation  is performed according to the rules listed below under
       ARITHMETIC EVALUATION.  If expression is invalid, bash prints a message
       indicating failure and no substitution occurs.

   Process Substitution
       Process  substitution allows a process's input or output to be referred
       to using a filename.  It takes the form of  <(list)  or  >(list).   The
       process  list is run asynchronously, and its input or output appears as
       a filename.  This filename is passed as an argument to the current com-
       mand  as  the  result  of  the expansion.  If the >(list) form is used,
       writing to the file will provide input for list.  If the  <(list)  form
       is  used,  the  file passed as an argument should be read to obtain the
       output of list.  Process substitution is supported on systems that sup-
       port named pipes (FIFOs) or the /dev/fd method of naming open files.

       When  available,  process substitution is performed simultaneously with
       parameter and variable expansion, command substitution, and  arithmetic
       expansion.

   Word Splitting
       The  shell  scans the results of parameter expansion, command substitu-
       tion, and arithmetic expansion that did not occur within double  quotes
       for word splitting.

       The  shell  treats each character of IFS as a delimiter, and splits the
       results of the other expansions into words using  these  characters  as
       field   terminators.   If  IFS  is  unset,  or  its  value  is  exactly
       <space><tab><newline>, the default, then sequences of  <space>,  <tab>,
       and  <newline>  at the beginning and end of the results of the previous
       expansions are ignored, and any sequence of IFS characters not  at  the
       beginning  or  end  serves  to delimit words.  If IFS has a value other
       than the default, then sequences of the  whitespace  characters  space,
       tab,  and  newline are ignored at the beginning and end of the word, as
       long as the whitespace character is in the value of IFS (an IFS  white-
       space  character).   Any  character  in IFS that is not IFS whitespace,
       along with any adjacent IFS whitespace characters, delimits a field.  A
       sequence  of  IFS whitespace characters is also treated as a delimiter.
       If the value of IFS is null, no word splitting occurs.

       Explicit null arguments ("" or '') are retained and passed to  commands
       as empty strings.  Unquoted implicit null arguments, resulting from the
       expansion of parameters that have no values, are removed.  If a parame-
       ter  with  no  value  is expanded within double quotes, a null argument
       results and is retained and passed to a command  as  an  empty  string.
       When  a  quoted null argument appears as part of a word whose expansion
       is non-null, the null argument is removed.   That  is,  the  word  -d''
       becomes -d after word splitting and null argument removal.

       Note that if no expansion occurs, no splitting is performed.

   Pathname Expansion
       After  word  splitting,  unless  the -f option has been set, bash scans
       each word for the characters *, ?, and [.  If one of  these  characters
       appears, and is not quoted, then the word is regarded as a pattern, and
       replaced with an alphabetically sorted list of filenames  matching  the
       pattern  (see  Pattern  Matching  below).  If no matching filenames are
       found, and the shell option nullglob is not enabled, the word  is  left
       unchanged.   If  the  nullglob option is set, and no matches are found,
       the word is removed.  If the failglob  shell  option  is  set,  and  no
       matches  are  found, an error message is printed and the command is not
       executed.  If the shell option nocaseglob is enabled, the match is per-
       formed  without  regard  to  the case of alphabetic characters.  When a
       pattern is used for pathname expansion, the  character  ``.''   at  the
       start  of  a  name  or  immediately  following  a slash must be matched
       explicitly, unless the shell option  dotglob  is  set.   The  filenames
       ``.''   and  ``..''  must always be matched explicitly, even if dotglob
       is set.  In other cases, the ``.''  character is not treated specially.
       When  matching  a  pathname, the slash character must always be matched
       explicitly by a slash in the pattern, but in other matching contexts it
       can  be matched by a special pattern character as described below under
       Pattern Matching.  See the  description  of  shopt  below  under  SHELL
       BUILTIN  COMMANDS  for a description of the nocaseglob, nullglob, fail-
       glob, and dotglob shell options.

       The GLOBIGNORE shell variable may be used to restrict the set  of  file
       names  matching  a  pattern.   If GLOBIGNORE is set, each matching file
       name that also matches one of the patterns  in  GLOBIGNORE  is  removed
       from  the list of matches.  If the nocaseglob option is set, the match-
       ing against the patterns in GLOBIGNORE is performed without  regard  to
       case.  The filenames ``.''  and ``..''  are always ignored when GLOBIG-
       NORE is set and not null.  However, setting GLOBIGNORE  to  a  non-null
       value has the effect of enabling the dotglob shell option, so all other
       filenames beginning with a ``.''  will match.  To get the old  behavior
       of  ignoring  filenames beginning with a ``.'', make ``.*''  one of the
       patterns in GLOBIGNORE.  The dotglob option is disabled when GLOBIGNORE
       is unset.  The pattern matching honors the setting of the extglob shell
       option.

       Pattern Matching

       Any character that appears in a pattern, other than the special pattern
       characters  described below, matches itself.  The NUL character may not
       occur in a pattern.  A backslash escapes the following  character;  the
       escaping  backslash  is  discarded  when matching.  The special pattern
       characters must be quoted if they are to be matched literally.

       The special pattern characters have the following meanings:

              *      Matches any string, including the null string.  When  the
                     globstar  shell  option  is  enabled,  and * is used in a
                     pathname expansion context, two adjacent  *s  used  as  a
                     single  pattern  will  match  all  files and zero or more
                     directories and subdirectories.  If followed by a /,  two
                     adjacent  *s  will match only directories and subdirecto-
                     ries.
              ?      Matches any single character.
              [...]  Matches any one of the enclosed characters.   A  pair  of
                     characters  separated by a hyphen denotes a range expres-
                     sion; any character that falls between those two  charac-
                     ters,  inclusive,  using  the  current locale's collating
                     sequence and character set, is  matched.   If  the  first
                     character following the [ is a !  or a ^ then any charac-
                     ter not enclosed is matched.  The sorting order of  char-
                     acters  in range expressions is determined by the current
                     locale and the values of the LC_COLLATE or  LC_ALL  shell
                     variables, if set.  To obtain the traditional interpreta-
                     tion of range expressions, where [a-d] is  equivalent  to
                     [abcd],  set  value of the LC_ALL shell variable to C, or
                     enable the globasciiranges shell  option.   A  -  may  be
                     matched by including it as the first or last character in
                     the set.  A ] may be matched by including it as the first
                     character in the set.

                     Within  [ and ], character classes can be specified using
                     the syntax [:class:], where class is one of the following
                     classes defined in the POSIX standard:
                     alnum  alpha  ascii  blank  cntrl digit graph lower print
                     punct space upper word xdigit
                     A character class matches any character belonging to that
                     class.  The word character class matches letters, digits,
                     and the character _.

                     Within [ and ], an equivalence  class  can  be  specified
                     using the syntax [=c=], which matches all characters with
                     the same collation weight  (as  defined  by  the  current
                     locale) as the character c.

                     Within [ and ], the syntax [.symbol.] matches the collat-
                     ing symbol symbol.

       If the extglob shell option is enabled using the shopt builtin, several
       extended  pattern  matching operators are recognized.  In the following
       description, a pattern-list is a list of one or more patterns separated
       by a |.  Composite patterns may be formed using one or more of the fol-
       lowing sub-patterns:

              ?(pattern-list)
                     Matches zero or one occurrence of the given patterns
              *(pattern-list)
                     Matches zero or more occurrences of the given patterns
              +(pattern-list)
                     Matches one or more occurrences of the given patterns
              @(pattern-list)
                     Matches one of the given patterns
              !(pattern-list)
                     Matches anything except one of the given patterns

       Complicated extended pattern matching against  long  strings  is  slow,
       especially  when the patterns contain alternations and the strings con-
       tain multiple matches.  Using separate matches against shorter strings,
       or  using  arrays  of  strings  instead of a single long string, may be
       faster.

   Quote Removal
       After the preceding expansions, all unquoted occurrences of the charac-
       ters  \,  ', and " that did not result from one of the above expansions
       are removed.


REDIRECTION

       Before a command is executed, its input and output  may  be  redirected
       using  a special notation interpreted by the shell.  Redirection allows
       commands' file handles to be duplicated, opened, closed, made to  refer
       to different files, and can change the files the command reads from and
       writes to.  Redirection may also be used to modify file handles in  the
       current  shell execution environment.  The following redirection opera-
       tors may precede or appear anywhere within a simple command or may fol-
       low  a  command.   Redirections are processed in the order they appear,
       from left to right.

       Each redirection that may be preceded by a file descriptor  number  may
       instead be preceded by a word of the form {varname}.  In this case, for
       each redirection operator except >&- and <&-, the shell will allocate a
       file  descriptor  greater than or equal to 10 and assign it to varname.
       If >&- or <&- is preceded by {varname}, the value  of  varname  defines
       the  file descriptor to close.  If {varname} is supplied, the redirect-
       ion persists beyond the scope of the command, allowing the  shell  pro-
       grammer to manage the file descriptor himself.

       In  the  following descriptions, if the file descriptor number is omit-
       ted, and the first character of the redirection operator is <, the  re-
       direction  refers  to  the  standard input (file descriptor 0).  If the
       first character of the  redirection  operator  is  >,  the  redirection
       refers to the standard output (file descriptor 1).

       The  word  following the redirection operator in the following descrip-
       tions, unless otherwise noted, is subjected to brace  expansion,  tilde
       expansion,  parameter  and  variable  expansion,  command substitution,
       arithmetic expansion,  quote  removal,  pathname  expansion,  and  word
       splitting.  If it expands to more than one word, bash reports an error.

       Note that the order of redirections is significant.  For  example,  the
       command

              ls > dirlist 2>&1

       directs  both  standard  output and standard error to the file dirlist,
       while the command

              ls 2>&1 > dirlist

       directs only the standard output to file dirlist, because the  standard
       error  was duplicated from the standard output before the standard out-
       put was redirected to dirlist.

       Bash handles several filenames specially when they are used in redirec-
       tions, as described in the following table.  If the operating system on
       which bash is running provides these special files, bash will use them;
       otherwise  it  will emulate them internally with the behavior described
       below.

              /dev/fd/fd
                     If fd is a valid integer, file descriptor  fd  is  dupli-
                     cated.
              /dev/stdin
                     File descriptor 0 is duplicated.
              /dev/stdout
                     File descriptor 1 is duplicated.
              /dev/stderr
                     File descriptor 2 is duplicated.
              /dev/tcp/host/port
                     If host is a valid hostname or Internet address, and port
                     is an integer port number or service name, bash  attempts
                     to open the corresponding TCP socket.
              /dev/udp/host/port
                     If host is a valid hostname or Internet address, and port
                     is an integer port number or service name, bash  attempts
                     to open the corresponding UDP socket.

       A failure to open or create a file causes the redirection to fail.

       Redirections  using file descriptors greater than 9 should be used with
       care, as they may conflict with file descriptors the shell uses  inter-
       nally.

   Redirecting Input
       Redirection of input causes the file whose name results from the expan-
       sion of word to be opened for reading on  file  descriptor  n,  or  the
       standard input (file descriptor 0) if n is not specified.

       The general format for redirecting input is:

              [n]<word

   Redirecting Output
       Redirection  of  output  causes  the  file  whose name results from the
       expansion of word to be opened for writing on file descriptor n, or the
       standard output (file descriptor 1) if n is not specified.  If the file
       does not exist it is created; if it does exist it is truncated to  zero
       size.

       The general format for redirecting output is:

              [n]>word

       If  the  redirection operator is >, and the noclobber option to the set
       builtin has been enabled, the redirection will fail if the  file  whose
       name  results  from the expansion of word exists and is a regular file.
       If the redirection operator is >|, or the redirection operator is > and
       the noclobber option to the set builtin command is not enabled, the re-
       direction is attempted even if the file named by word exists.

   Appending Redirected Output
       Redirection of output in  this  fashion  causes  the  file  whose  name
       results  from  the expansion of word to be opened for appending on file
       descriptor n, or the standard output (file descriptor 1) if  n  is  not
       specified.  If the file does not exist it is created.

       The general format for appending output is:

              [n]>>word

   Redirecting Standard Output and Standard Error
       This  construct allows both the standard output (file descriptor 1) and
       the standard error output (file descriptor 2) to be redirected  to  the
       file whose name is the expansion of word.

       There  are  two  formats  for  redirecting standard output and standard
       error:

              &>word
       and
              >&word

       Of the two forms, the first is preferred.  This is semantically equiva-
       lent to

              >word 2>&1

       When  using  the second form, word may not expand to a number or -.  If
       it does,  other  redirection  operators  apply  (see  Duplicating  File
       Descriptors below) for compatibility reasons.

   Appending Standard Output and Standard Error
       This  construct allows both the standard output (file descriptor 1) and
       the standard error output (file descriptor 2) to  be  appended  to  the
       file whose name is the expansion of word.

       The format for appending standard output and standard error is:

              &>>word

       This is semantically equivalent to

              >>word 2>&1

       (see Duplicating File Descriptors below).

   Here Documents
       This  type  of  redirection  instructs the shell to read input from the
       current source until a line containing only delimiter (with no trailing
       blanks)  is seen.  All of the lines read up to that point are then used
       as the standard input (or file descriptor n if n is  specified)  for  a
       command.

       The format of here-documents is:

              [n]<<[-]word
                      here-document
              delimiter

       No  parameter  and variable expansion, command substitution, arithmetic
       expansion, or pathname expansion is performed on word.  If any part  of
       word  is  quoted, the delimiter is the result of quote removal on word,
       and the lines in the  here-document  are  not  expanded.   If  word  is
       unquoted,  all  lines  of  the here-document are subjected to parameter
       expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic expansion, the  charac-
       ter  sequence  \<newline>  is  ignored, and \ must be used to quote the
       characters \, $, and `.

       If the redirection operator is <<-, then all leading tab characters are
       stripped  from  input  lines  and  the line containing delimiter.  This
       allows here-documents within shell scripts to be indented in a  natural
       fashion.

   Here Strings
       A variant of here documents, the format is:

              [n]<<<word

       The  word  undergoes tilde expansion, parameter and variable expansion,
       command substitution, arithmetic expansion, and quote  removal.   Path-
       name  expansion  and  word  splitting are not performed.  The result is
       supplied as a single string, with a newline appended, to the command on
       its standard input (or file descriptor n if n is specified).

   Duplicating File Descriptors
       The redirection operator

              [n]<&word

       is used to duplicate input file descriptors.  If word expands to one or
       more digits, the file descriptor denoted by n is made to be a  copy  of
       that  file  descriptor.   If  the  digits in word do not specify a file
       descriptor open for input, a redirection error occurs.  If word  evalu-
       ates  to  -,  file  descriptor n is closed.  If n is not specified, the
       standard input (file descriptor 0) is used.

       The operator

              [n]>&word

       is used similarly to duplicate output file descriptors.  If  n  is  not
       specified,  the  standard  output  (file descriptor 1) is used.  If the
       digits in word do not specify a file descriptor open for output, a  re-
       direction  error  occurs.  If word evaluates to -, file descriptor n is
       closed.  As a special case, if n is omitted, and word does  not  expand
       to  one or more digits or -, the standard output and standard error are
       redirected as described previously.

   Moving File Descriptors
       The redirection operator

              [n]<&digit-

       moves the file descriptor digit to file descriptor n, or  the  standard
       input (file descriptor 0) if n is not specified.  digit is closed after
       being duplicated to n.

       Similarly, the redirection operator

              [n]>&digit-

       moves the file descriptor digit to file descriptor n, or  the  standard
       output (file descriptor 1) if n is not specified.

   Opening File Descriptors for Reading and Writing
       The redirection operator

              [n]<>word

       causes  the  file  whose name is the expansion of word to be opened for
       both reading and writing on file descriptor n, or on file descriptor  0
       if n is not specified.  If the file does not exist, it is created.


ALIASES

       Aliases  allow a string to be substituted for a word when it is used as
       the first word of a simple command.  The  shell  maintains  a  list  of
       aliases  that  may  be set and unset with the alias and unalias builtin
       commands (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).  The first  word  of  each
       simple  command, if unquoted, is checked to see if it has an alias.  If
       so, that word is replaced by the text of the alias.  The characters  /,
       $,  `,  and = and any of the shell metacharacters or quoting characters
       listed above may not appear in an alias name.  The replacement text may
       contain  any  valid  shell  input, including shell metacharacters.  The
       first word of the replacement text is tested for aliases,  but  a  word
       that  is  identical to an alias being expanded is not expanded a second
       time.  This means that one may alias ls to ls  -F,  for  instance,  and
       bash  does  not try to recursively expand the replacement text.  If the
       last character of the alias value is a blank,  then  the  next  command
       word following the alias is also checked for alias expansion.

       Aliases are created and listed with the alias command, and removed with
       the unalias command.

       There is no mechanism for using arguments in the replacement text.   If
       arguments  are  needed,  a shell function should be used (see FUNCTIONS
       below).

       Aliases are not expanded when the shell is not interactive, unless  the
       expand_aliases  shell option is set using shopt (see the description of
       shopt under SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).

       The rules concerning the definition and use  of  aliases  are  somewhat
       confusing.   Bash always reads at least one complete line of input, and
       all lines that make up a compound command, before executing any of  the
       commands  on  that  line or the compound command.  Aliases are expanded
       when a command is read, not when it is executed.  Therefore,  an  alias
       definition  appearing on the same line as another command does not take
       effect until the next line of input is read.   The  commands  following
       the  alias  definition  on that line are not affected by the new alias.
       This behavior is also an issue when functions  are  executed.   Aliases
       are  expanded when a function definition is read, not when the function
       is executed, because a function definition is itself a command.   As  a
       consequence,  aliases  defined  in  a  function are not available until
       after that function is executed.  To be safe, always put alias  defini-
       tions on a separate line, and do not use alias in compound commands.

       For almost every purpose, aliases are superseded by shell functions.


FUNCTIONS

       A  shell  function,  defined  as  described  above under SHELL GRAMMAR,
       stores a series of commands for later execution.  When the  name  of  a
       shell  function  is used as a simple command name, the list of commands
       associated with that function name is executed.  Functions are executed
       in  the  context  of  the  current  shell; no new process is created to
       interpret them (contrast this with the execution of  a  shell  script).
       When  a  function is executed, the arguments to the function become the
       positional parameters during its execution.  The special parameter # is
       updated  to reflect the change.  Special parameter 0 is unchanged.  The
       first element of the FUNCNAME variable is set to the name of the  func-
       tion while the function is executing.

       All  other  aspects  of  the  shell execution environment are identical
       between a function and its caller with these exceptions: the DEBUG  and
       RETURN  traps  (see  the  description  of  the trap builtin under SHELL
       BUILTIN COMMANDS below) are not inherited unless the function has  been
       given  the  trace attribute (see the description of the declare builtin
       below) or the -o functrace shell option has been enabled with  the  set
       builtin  (in  which  case  all  functions  inherit the DEBUG and RETURN
       traps), and the ERR trap is not inherited unless the -o errtrace  shell
       option has been enabled.

       Variables  local to the function may be declared with the local builtin
       command.  Ordinarily, variables and their values are shared between the
       function  and  its  caller.  If a variable is declared local, the vari-
       able's visible scope is restricted to that function  and  its  children
       (including the functions it calls).  Local variables "shadow" variables
       with the same name declared at previous scopes.  For instance, a  local
       variable  declared  in  a  function hides a global variable of the same
       name: references and assignments refer to the local  variable,  leaving
       the  global variable unmodified.  When the function returns, the global
       variable is once again visible.

       The shell uses dynamic  scoping  to  control  a  variable's  visibility
       within  functions.   With  dynamic scoping, visible variables and their
       values are a result of the sequence of function calls that caused  exe-
       cution  to  reach the current function.  The value of a variable that a
       function sees depends on its value within its caller, if  any,  whether
       that  caller  is the "global" scope or another shell function.  This is
       also the value that a local variable  declaration  "shadows",  and  the
       value that is restored when the function returns.

       For  example, if a variable var is declared as local in function func1,
       and func1 calls another function func2, references  to  var  made  from
       within func2 will resolve to the local variable var from func1, shadow-
       ing any global variable named var.

       The unset builtin also acts using the same dynamic scope: if a variable
       is local to the current scope, unset will unset it; otherwise the unset
       will refer to the variable found in  any  calling  scope  as  described
       above.   If  a  variable  at  the current local scope is unset, it will
       remain so until it is  reset  in  that  scope  or  until  the  function
       returns.   Once the function returns, any instance of the variable at a
       previous scope will become visible.  If the unset acts on a variable at
       a  previous  scope,  any instance of a variable with that name that had
       been shadowed will become visible.

       The FUNCNEST variable, if set  to  a  numeric  value  greater  than  0,
       defines  a  maximum  function nesting level.  Function invocations that
       exceed the limit cause the entire command to abort.

       If the builtin command return is executed in a function,  the  function
       completes  and  execution resumes with the next command after the func-
       tion call.  Any command associated with the  RETURN  trap  is  executed
       before execution resumes.  When a function completes, the values of the
       positional parameters and the special parameter # are restored  to  the
       values they had prior to the function's execution.

       Function  names and definitions may be listed with the -f option to the
       declare or typeset builtin commands.  The -F option to declare or type-
       set  will  list the function names only (and optionally the source file
       and line number, if the extdebug shell option is  enabled).   Functions
       may  be exported so that subshells automatically have them defined with
       the -f option to the export builtin.   A  function  definition  may  be
       deleted using the -f option to the unset builtin.

       Functions may be recursive.  The FUNCNEST variable may be used to limit
       the depth of the function call stack and restrict the number  of  func-
       tion  invocations.   By  default,  no limit is imposed on the number of
       recursive calls.


ARITHMETIC EVALUATION

       The shell allows arithmetic expressions to be evaluated, under  certain
       circumstances  (see  the  let and declare builtin commands, the (( com-
       pound command, and Arithmetic Expansion).  Evaluation is done in fixed-
       width  integers  with  no  check  for overflow, though division by 0 is
       trapped and flagged as an error.  The operators and  their  precedence,
       associativity,  and values are the same as in the C language.  The fol-
       lowing list of operators is grouped  into  levels  of  equal-precedence
       operators.  The levels are listed in order of decreasing precedence.

       id++ id--
              variable post-increment and post-decrement
       - +    unary minus and plus
       ++id --id
              variable pre-increment and pre-decrement
       ! ~    logical and bitwise negation
       **     exponentiation
       * / %  multiplication, division, remainder
       + -    addition, subtraction
       << >>  left and right bitwise shifts
       <= >= < >
              comparison
       == !=  equality and inequality
       &      bitwise AND
       ^      bitwise exclusive OR
       |      bitwise OR
       &&     logical AND
       ||     logical OR
       expr?expr:expr
              conditional operator
       = *= /= %= += -= <<= >>= &= ^= |=
              assignment
       expr1 , expr2
              comma

       Shell  variables  are  allowed as operands; parameter expansion is per-
       formed before the expression is evaluated.  Within an expression, shell
       variables  may  also  be referenced by name without using the parameter
       expansion syntax.  A shell variable that is null or unset evaluates  to
       0 when referenced by name without using the parameter expansion syntax.
       The value of a variable is evaluated as an arithmetic  expression  when
       it  is  referenced, or when a variable which has been given the integer
       attribute using declare -i is assigned a value.  A null value evaluates
       to  0.   A shell variable need not have its integer attribute turned on
       to be used in an expression.

       Integer constants follow the C language definition, without suffixes or
       character  constants.   Constants  with  a leading 0 are interpreted as
       octal numbers.  A leading 0x or  0X  denotes  hexadecimal.   Otherwise,
       numbers  take  the  form [base#]n, where the optional base is a decimal
       number between 2 and 64 representing the arithmetic base, and  n  is  a
       number  in that base.  If base# is omitted, then base 10 is used.  When
       specifying n, if a non-digit is required, the digits greater than 9 are
       represented  by the lowercase letters, the uppercase letters, @, and _,
       in that order.  If base is less than or  equal  to  36,  lowercase  and
       uppercase  letters  may  be  used  interchangeably to represent numbers
       between 10 and 35.

       Operators are evaluated in order  of  precedence.   Sub-expressions  in
       parentheses  are  evaluated first and may override the precedence rules
       above.


CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS

       Conditional expressions are used by the [[  compound  command  and  the
       test  and [ builtin commands to test file attributes and perform string
       and arithmetic comparisons.  The test and [  commands  determine  their
       behavior  based  on  the  number  of arguments; see the descriptions of
       those commands for any other command-specific actions.

       Expressions are formed from the following unary  or  binary  primaries.
       Bash  handles several filenames specially when they are used in expres-
       sions.  If the operating system on which bash is running provides these
       special  files,  bash  will  use  them;  otherwise it will emulate them
       internally with this behavior: If any file argument to one of the  pri-
       maries is of the form /dev/fd/n, then file descriptor n is checked.  If
       the file argument to  one  of  the  primaries  is  one  of  /dev/stdin,
       /dev/stdout,  or /dev/stderr, file descriptor 0, 1, or 2, respectively,
       is checked.

       Unless otherwise specified, primaries that operate on files follow sym-
       bolic links and operate on the target of the link, rather than the link
       itself.

       When used with [[, the < and > operators sort  lexicographically  using
       the current locale.  The test command sorts using ASCII ordering.

       -a file
              True if file exists.
       -b file
              True if file exists and is a block special file.
       -c file
              True if file exists and is a character special file.
       -d file
              True if file exists and is a directory.
       -e file
              True if file exists.
       -f file
              True if file exists and is a regular file.
       -g file
              True if file exists and is set-group-id.
       -h file
              True if file exists and is a symbolic link.
       -k file
              True if file exists and its ``sticky'' bit is set.
       -p file
              True if file exists and is a named pipe (FIFO).
       -r file
              True if file exists and is readable.
       -s file
              True if file exists and has a size greater than zero.
       -t fd  True if file descriptor fd is open and refers to a terminal.
       -u file
              True if file exists and its set-user-id bit is set.
       -w file
              True if file exists and is writable.
       -x file
              True if file exists and is executable.
       -G file
              True if file exists and is owned by the effective group id.
       -L file
              True if file exists and is a symbolic link.
       -N file
              True  if  file  exists  and  has been modified since it was last
              read.
       -O file
              True if file exists and is owned by the effective user id.
       -S file
              True if file exists and is a socket.
       file1 -ef file2
              True if file1 and file2 refer to the same device and inode  num-
              bers.
       file1 -nt file2
              True  if  file1  is  newer (according to modification date) than
              file2, or if file1 exists and file2 does not.
       file1 -ot file2
              True if file1 is older than file2, or if file2 exists and  file1
              does not.
       -o optname
              True  if  the  shell option optname is enabled.  See the list of
              options under the description  of  the  -o  option  to  the  set
              builtin below.
       -v varname
              True  if  the shell variable varname is set (has been assigned a
              value).
       -R varname
              True if the shell variable varname is set and is a  name  refer-
              ence.
       -z string
              True if the length of string is zero.
       string
       -n string
              True if the length of string is non-zero.

       string1 == string2
       string1 = string2
              True  if  the strings are equal.  = should be used with the test
              command for POSIX conformance.  When used with the  [[  command,
              this performs pattern matching as described above (Compound Com-
              mands).

       string1 != string2
              True if the strings are not equal.

       string1 < string2
              True if string1 sorts before string2 lexicographically.

       string1 > string2
              True if string1 sorts after string2 lexicographically.

       arg1 OP arg2
              OP is one of -eq, -ne, -lt, -le, -gt, or -ge.  These  arithmetic
              binary  operators return true if arg1 is equal to, not equal to,
              less than, less than or equal to, greater than, or greater  than
              or  equal  to arg2, respectively.  Arg1 and arg2 may be positive
              or negative integers.  When used with the [[ command,  Arg1  and
              Arg2  are  evaluated  as  arithmetic expressions (see ARITHMETIC
              EVALUATION above).


SIMPLE COMMAND EXPANSION

       When a simple command is executed, the  shell  performs  the  following
       expansions,  assignments,  and redirections, from left to right, in the
       following order.

       1.     The words that the parser has  marked  as  variable  assignments
              (those  preceding  the  command name) and redirections are saved
              for later processing.

       2.     The words that are not variable assignments or redirections  are
              expanded.   If  any words remain after expansion, the first word
              is taken to be the name of the command and the  remaining  words
              are the arguments.

       3.     Redirections are performed as described above under REDIRECTION.

       4.     The text after the = in each variable assignment undergoes tilde
              expansion, parameter expansion, command substitution, arithmetic
              expansion, and quote removal before being assigned to the  vari-
              able.

       If no command name results, the variable assignments affect the current
       shell environment.  Otherwise, the variables are added to the  environ-
       ment  of the executed command and do not affect the current shell envi-
       ronment.  If any of the assignments attempts to assign  a  value  to  a
       readonly  variable,  an error occurs, and the command exits with a non-
       zero status.

       If no command name results, redirections  are  performed,  but  do  not
       affect  the  current shell environment.  A redirection error causes the
       command to exit with a non-zero status.

       If there is a command name left after expansion, execution proceeds  as
       described  below.   Otherwise, the command exits.  If one of the expan-
       sions contained a command substitution, the exit status of the  command
       is  the  exit  status  of  the last command substitution performed.  If
       there were no command substitutions, the command exits with a status of
       zero.


COMMAND EXECUTION

       After  a  command  has been split into words, if it results in a simple
       command and an optional list of arguments, the  following  actions  are
       taken.

       If  the  command name contains no slashes, the shell attempts to locate
       it.  If there exists a shell function by that name,  that  function  is
       invoked  as described above in FUNCTIONS.  If the name does not match a
       function, the shell searches for it in the list of shell builtins.   If
       a match is found, that builtin is invoked.

       If  the name is neither a shell function nor a builtin, and contains no
       slashes, bash searches each element of the PATH for  a  directory  con-
       taining  an  executable  file  by that name.  Bash uses a hash table to
       remember the full pathnames of executable files (see hash  under  SHELL
       BUILTIN  COMMANDS  below).  A full search of the directories in PATH is
       performed only if the command is not found in the hash table.   If  the
       search is unsuccessful, the shell searches for a defined shell function
       named command_not_found_handle.  If that function exists, it is invoked
       in  a  separate execution environment with the original command and the
       original command's arguments as its arguments, and the function's  exit
       status  becomes  the exit status of that subshell.  If that function is
       not defined, the shell prints an error message and returns an exit sta-
       tus of 127.

       If  the  search  is  successful, or if the command name contains one or
       more slashes, the shell executes the named program in a separate execu-
       tion environment.  Argument 0 is set to the name given, and the remain-
       ing arguments to the command are set to the arguments given, if any.

       If this execution fails because the file is not in  executable  format,
       and  the file is not a directory, it is assumed to be a shell script, a
       file containing shell commands.  A subshell is spawned to  execute  it.
       This  subshell  reinitializes itself, so that the effect is as if a new
       shell had been invoked to handle the script, with  the  exception  that
       the  locations  of  commands  remembered  by the parent (see hash below
       under SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS) are retained by the child.

       If the program is a file beginning with #!, the remainder of the  first
       line  specifies an interpreter for the program.  The shell executes the
       specified interpreter on operating systems that do not handle this exe-
       cutable format themselves.  The arguments to the interpreter consist of
       a single optional argument following the interpreter name on the  first
       line  of  the program, followed by the name of the program, followed by
       the command arguments, if any.


COMMAND EXECUTION ENVIRONMENT

       The shell has an execution environment, which consists of  the  follow-
       ing:

       o      open  files inherited by the shell at invocation, as modified by
              redirections supplied to the exec builtin

       o      the current working directory as set by cd, pushd, or  popd,  or
              inherited by the shell at invocation

       o      the  file  creation  mode mask as set by umask or inherited from
              the shell's parent

       o      current traps set by trap

       o      shell parameters that are set by variable assignment or with set
              or inherited from the shell's parent in the environment

       o      shell  functions  defined during execution or inherited from the
              shell's parent in the environment

       o      options enabled at invocation (either by default  or  with  com-
              mand-line arguments) or by set

       o      options enabled by shopt

       o      shell aliases defined with alias

       o      various  process  IDs,  including  those of background jobs, the
              value of $$, and the value of PPID

       When a simple command other than a builtin or shell function is  to  be
       executed,  it  is invoked in a separate execution environment that con-
       sists of the following.  Unless otherwise noted, the values are  inher-
       ited from the shell.


       o      the  shell's  open  files,  plus any modifications and additions
              specified by redirections to the command

       o      the current working directory

       o      the file creation mode mask

       o      shell variables and functions  marked  for  export,  along  with
              variables exported for the command, passed in the environment

       o      traps caught by the shell are reset to the values inherited from
              the shell's parent, and traps ignored by the shell are ignored

       A command invoked  in  this  separate  environment  cannot  affect  the
       shell's execution environment.

       Command  substitution, commands grouped with parentheses, and asynchro-
       nous commands are invoked in a subshell environment that is a duplicate
       of  the  shell  environment,  except that traps caught by the shell are
       reset to the values that the shell inherited from its parent at invoca-
       tion.  Builtin commands that are invoked as part of a pipeline are also
       executed in a subshell environment.  Changes made to the subshell envi-
       ronment cannot affect the shell's execution environment.

       Subshells spawned to execute command substitutions inherit the value of
       the -e option from the parent shell.  When  not  in  posix  mode,  bash
       clears the -e option in such subshells.

       If  a  command  is  followed  by a & and job control is not active, the
       default standard input for the command is  the  empty  file  /dev/null.
       Otherwise,  the  invoked  command  inherits the file descriptors of the
       calling shell as modified by redirections.


ENVIRONMENT

       When a program is invoked it is given an array of  strings  called  the
       environment.   This  is  a  list  of  name-value  pairs,  of  the  form
       name=value.

       The shell provides several ways  to  manipulate  the  environment.   On
       invocation, the shell scans its own environment and creates a parameter
       for each name found, automatically marking it for export to child  pro-
       cesses.   Executed  commands  inherit  the environment.  The export and
       declare -x commands allow parameters and functions to be added  to  and
       deleted from the environment.  If the value of a parameter in the envi-
       ronment is modified, the new value becomes  part  of  the  environment,
       replacing  the  old.  The environment inherited by any executed command
       consists of the shell's initial environment, whose values may be  modi-
       fied  in  the  shell, less any pairs removed by the unset command, plus
       any additions via the export and declare -x commands.

       The environment for any simple command or  function  may  be  augmented
       temporarily  by  prefixing  it with parameter assignments, as described
       above in PARAMETERS.  These assignment statements affect only the envi-
       ronment seen by that command.

       If  the  -k option is set (see the set builtin command below), then all
       parameter assignments are placed in the environment for a command,  not
       just those that precede the command name.

       When  bash  invokes  an  external command, the variable _ is set to the
       full filename of the command and passed to that command in its environ-
       ment.


EXIT STATUS

       The  exit  status  of  an executed command is the value returned by the
       waitpid system call or equivalent function.  Exit statuses fall between
       0  and  255, though, as explained below, the shell may use values above
       125 specially.  Exit statuses from shell builtins and compound commands
       are also limited to this range.  Under certain circumstances, the shell
       will use special values to indicate specific failure modes.

       For the shell's purposes, a command which exits with a zero exit status
       has  succeeded.   An exit status of zero indicates success.  A non-zero
       exit status indicates failure.  When a command terminates  on  a  fatal
       signal N, bash uses the value of 128+N as the exit status.

       If  a  command  is  not  found, the child process created to execute it
       returns a status of 127.  If a command is found but is not  executable,
       the return status is 126.

       If a command fails because of an error during expansion or redirection,
       the exit status is greater than zero.

       Shell builtin commands return a status of 0 (true) if  successful,  and
       non-zero  (false)  if an error occurs while they execute.  All builtins
       return an exit status of  2  to  indicate  incorrect  usage,  generally
       invalid options or missing arguments.

       Bash  itself  returns  the  exit  status  of the last command executed,
       unless a syntax error occurs, in which case it exits  with  a  non-zero
       value.  See also the exit builtin command below.


SIGNALS

       When  bash  is  interactive,  in  the  absence of any traps, it ignores
       SIGTERM (so that kill 0 does not kill an interactive shell), and SIGINT
       is  caught and handled (so that the wait builtin is interruptible).  In
       all cases, bash ignores SIGQUIT.  If job control  is  in  effect,  bash
       ignores SIGTTIN, SIGTTOU, and SIGTSTP.

       Non-builtin commands run by bash have signal handlers set to the values
       inherited by the shell from its parent.  When job  control  is  not  in
       effect,  asynchronous commands ignore SIGINT and SIGQUIT in addition to
       these inherited handlers.  Commands run as a result of command  substi-
       tution ignore the keyboard-generated job control signals SIGTTIN, SIGT-
       TOU, and SIGTSTP.

       The shell exits by default upon receipt of a SIGHUP.   Before  exiting,
       an  interactive  shell  resends  the  SIGHUP  to  all  jobs, running or
       stopped.  Stopped jobs are sent SIGCONT to ensure that they receive the
       SIGHUP.   To  prevent the shell from sending the signal to a particular
       job, it should be removed from the jobs table with the  disown  builtin
       (see  SHELL  BUILTIN  COMMANDS  below)  or marked to not receive SIGHUP
       using disown -h.

       If the huponexit shell option has been set with  shopt,  bash  sends  a
       SIGHUP to all jobs when an interactive login shell exits.

       If  bash is waiting for a command to complete and receives a signal for
       which a trap has been set, the trap will not be executed until the com-
       mand  completes.   When bash is waiting for an asynchronous command via
       the wait builtin, the reception of a signal for which a trap  has  been
       set will cause the wait builtin to return immediately with an exit sta-
       tus greater than 128, immediately after which the trap is executed.


JOB CONTROL

       Job control refers to the ability to  selectively  stop  (suspend)  the
       execution of processes and continue (resume) their execution at a later
       point.  A user typically  employs  this  facility  via  an  interactive
       interface  supplied  jointly  by the operating system kernel's terminal
       driver and bash.

       The shell associates a job with each pipeline.  It  keeps  a  table  of
       currently  executing  jobs,  which may be listed with the jobs command.
       When bash starts a job asynchronously (in the background), it prints  a
       line that looks like:

              [1] 25647

       indicating that this job is job number 1 and that the process ID of the
       last process in the pipeline associated with this job is 25647.  All of
       the  processes  in a single pipeline are members of the same job.  Bash
       uses the job abstraction as the basis for job control.

       To facilitate the implementation of the user interface to job  control,
       the operating system maintains the notion of a current terminal process
       group ID.  Members of this process group (processes whose process group
       ID is equal to the current terminal process group ID) receive keyboard-
       generated signals such as SIGINT.  These processes are said  to  be  in
       the  foreground.  Background processes are those whose process group ID
       differs from the terminal's; such processes are immune to keyboard-gen-
       erated signals.  Only foreground processes are allowed to read from or,
       if the user so specifies with  stty  tostop,  write  to  the  terminal.
       Background  processes  which  attempt  to read from (write to when stty
       tostop is in effect) the terminal are sent a SIGTTIN  (SIGTTOU)  signal
       by  the  kernel's  terminal  driver, which, unless caught, suspends the
       process.

       If the operating system on which bash is running supports job  control,
       bash contains facilities to use it.  Typing the suspend character (typ-
       ically ^Z, Control-Z) while a process is running causes that process to
       be  stopped  and  returns  control to bash.  Typing the delayed suspend
       character (typically ^Y, Control-Y) causes the process  to  be  stopped
       when  it  attempts  to  read input from the terminal, and control to be
       returned to bash.  The user may then manipulate the state of this  job,
       using  the  bg command to continue it in the background, the fg command
       to continue it in the foreground, or the kill command to kill it.  A ^Z
       takes effect immediately, and has the additional side effect of causing
       pending output and typeahead to be discarded.

       There are a number of ways to refer to a job in the shell.  The charac-
       ter  %  introduces  a job specification (jobspec).  Job number n may be
       referred to as %n.  A job may also be referred to using a prefix of the
       name used to start it, or using a substring that appears in its command
       line.  For example, %ce refers to a  stopped  job  whose  command  name
       begins with ce.  If a prefix matches more than one job, bash reports an
       error.  Using %?ce, on the other hand, refers to any job containing the
       string  ce in its command line.  If the substring matches more than one
       job, bash reports an error.  The symbols %% and %+ refer to the shell's
       notion  of  the current job, which is the last job stopped while it was
       in the foreground or started in the background.  The previous  job  may
       be  referenced  using %-.  If there is only a single job, %+ and %- can
       both be used to refer to that job.  In output pertaining to jobs (e.g.,
       the output of the jobs command), the current job is always flagged with
       a +, and the previous job with a -.  A single % (with  no  accompanying
       job specification) also refers to the current job.

       Simply  naming a job can be used to bring it into the foreground: %1 is
       a synonym for ``fg %1'', bringing job 1 from the  background  into  the
       foreground.   Similarly,  ``%1  &''  resumes  job  1 in the background,
       equivalent to ``bg %1''.

       The shell learns immediately whenever a job changes  state.   Normally,
       bash waits until it is about to print a prompt before reporting changes
       in a job's status so as to not interrupt any other output.  If  the  -b
       option to the set builtin command is enabled, bash reports such changes
       immediately.  Any trap on SIGCHLD  is  executed  for  each  child  that
       exits.

       If  an  attempt to exit bash is made while jobs are stopped (or, if the
       checkjobs shell option has been enabled using the shopt  builtin,  run-
       ning), the shell prints a warning message, and, if the checkjobs option
       is enabled, lists the jobs and their statuses.  The  jobs  command  may
       then  be  used to inspect their status.  If a second attempt to exit is
       made without an intervening command, the shell does not  print  another
       warning, and any stopped jobs are terminated.

       When  the shell is waiting for a job or process using the wait builtin,
       and job control is enabled, wait  will  return  when  the  job  changes
       state.  The -f option causes wait to wait until the job or process ter-
       minates before returning.


PROMPTING

       When executing interactively, bash displays the primary prompt PS1 when
       it  is  ready  to  read a command, and the secondary prompt PS2 when it
       needs more input to complete a command.  Bash  displays  PS0  after  it
       reads  a  command  but  before  executing  it.   Bash  displays  PS4 as
       described above before tracing each  command  when  the  -x  option  is
       enabled.   Bash allows these prompt strings to be customized by insert-
       ing a number of backslash-escaped special characters that  are  decoded
       as follows:
              \a     an ASCII bell character (07)
              \d     the  date  in "Weekday Month Date" format (e.g., "Tue May
                     26")
              \D{format}
                     the format is passed to strftime(3)  and  the  result  is
                     inserted  into the prompt string; an empty format results
                     in a locale-specific time representation.  The braces are
                     required
              \e     an ASCII escape character (033)
              \h     the hostname up to the first `.'
              \H     the hostname
              \j     the number of jobs currently managed by the shell
              \l     the basename of the shell's terminal device name
              \n     newline
              \r     carriage return
              \s     the  name  of  the shell, the basename of $0 (the portion
                     following the final slash)
              \t     the current time in 24-hour HH:MM:SS format
              \T     the current time in 12-hour HH:MM:SS format
              \@     the current time in 12-hour am/pm format
              \A     the current time in 24-hour HH:MM format
              \u     the username of the current user
              \v     the version of bash (e.g., 2.00)
              \V     the release of bash, version + patch level (e.g., 2.00.0)
              \w     the  current  working  directory,  with $HOME abbreviated
                     with a tilde (uses the value of the PROMPT_DIRTRIM  vari-
                     able)
              \W     the basename of the current working directory, with $HOME
                     abbreviated with a tilde
              \!     the history number of this command
              \#     the command number of this command
              \$     if the effective UID is 0, a #, otherwise a $
              \nnn   the character corresponding to the octal number nnn
              \\     a backslash
              \[     begin a sequence of non-printing characters, which  could
                     be  used  to  embed  a terminal control sequence into the
                     prompt
              \]     end a sequence of non-printing characters

       The command number and the history number are  usually  different:  the
       history  number of a command is its position in the history list, which
       may include commands  restored  from  the  history  file  (see  HISTORY
       below),  while  the  command  number is the position in the sequence of
       commands executed during the current shell session.  After  the  string
       is  decoded,  it is expanded via parameter expansion, command substitu-
       tion, arithmetic expansion, and quote removal, subject to the value  of
       the  promptvars  shell option (see the description of the shopt command
       under SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS  below).   This  can  have  unwanted  side
       effects if escaped portions of the string appear within command substi-
       tution or contain characters special to word expansion.


READLINE

       This is the library that handles reading input when using  an  interac-
       tive shell, unless the --noediting option is given at shell invocation.
       Line editing is also used when using the -e option to the read builtin.
       By default, the line editing commands are similar to those of Emacs.  A
       vi-style line editing interface is also available.  Line editing can be
       enabled  at  any  time  using  the -o emacs or -o vi options to the set
       builtin (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).  To turn off  line  editing
       after  the  shell  is running, use the +o emacs or +o vi options to the
       set builtin.

   Readline Notation
       In this section, the Emacs-style notation is used to denote keystrokes.
       Control  keys  are  denoted by C-key, e.g., C-n means Control-N.  Simi-
       larly, meta keys are denoted by M-key, so M-x means Meta-X.   (On  key-
       boards  without a meta key, M-x means ESC x, i.e., press the Escape key
       then the x key.  This makes ESC the meta prefix.  The combination M-C-x
       means  ESC-Control-x, or press the Escape key then hold the Control key
       while pressing the x key.)

       Readline commands may be given numeric arguments, which normally act as
       a  repeat  count.   Sometimes,  however, it is the sign of the argument
       that is significant.  Passing a negative argument  to  a  command  that
       acts  in the forward direction (e.g., kill-line) causes that command to
       act in a backward direction.  Commands whose  behavior  with  arguments
       deviates from this are noted below.

       When  a command is described as killing text, the text deleted is saved
       for possible future retrieval (yanking).  The killed text is saved in a
       kill ring.  Consecutive kills cause the text to be accumulated into one
       unit, which can be yanked all at once.  Commands which do not kill text
       separate the chunks of text on the kill ring.

   Readline Initialization
       Readline  is  customized  by putting commands in an initialization file
       (the inputrc file).  The name of this file is taken from the  value  of
       the  INPUTRC  variable.   If  that  variable  is  unset, the default is
       ~/.inputrc.  If that file  does not exist or cannot be read, the  ulti-
       mate  default  is /etc/inputrc.  When a program which uses the readline
       library starts up, the initialization file is read, and the  key  bind-
       ings  and  variables  are  set.   There are only a few basic constructs
       allowed in the readline initialization file.  Blank lines are  ignored.
       Lines  beginning with a # are comments.  Lines beginning with a $ indi-
       cate conditional constructs.  Other lines denote key bindings and vari-
       able settings.

       The  default  key-bindings  may be changed with an inputrc file.  Other
       programs that use this library may add their own commands and bindings.

       For example, placing

              M-Control-u: universal-argument
       or
              C-Meta-u: universal-argument
       into  the inputrc would make M-C-u execute the readline command univer-
       sal-argument.

       The following symbolic character names  are  recognized:  RUBOUT,  DEL,
       ESC, LFD, NEWLINE, RET, RETURN, SPC, SPACE, and TAB.

       In  addition  to  command  names, readline allows keys to be bound to a
       string that is inserted when the key is pressed (a macro).

   Readline Key Bindings
       The syntax for controlling key bindings in the inputrc file is  simple.
       All  that is required is the name of the command or the text of a macro
       and a key sequence to which it should be bound.  The name may be speci-
       fied in one of two ways: as a symbolic key name, possibly with Meta- or
       Control- prefixes, or as a key sequence.

       When using the form keyname:function-name or macro, keyname is the name
       of a key spelled out in English.  For example:

              Control-u: universal-argument
              Meta-Rubout: backward-kill-word
              Control-o: "> output"

       In  the above example, C-u is bound to the function universal-argument,
       M-DEL is bound to the function backward-kill-word, and C-o is bound  to
       run  the macro expressed on the right hand side (that is, to insert the
       text ``> output'' into the line).

       In the second form, "keyseq":function-name  or  macro,  keyseq  differs
       from  keyname above in that strings denoting an entire key sequence may
       be specified by placing the sequence within double  quotes.   Some  GNU
       Emacs  style  key escapes can be used, as in the following example, but
       the symbolic character names are not recognized.

              "\C-u": universal-argument
              "\C-x\C-r": re-read-init-file
              "\e[11~": "Function Key 1"

       In this example, C-u is again bound to the function universal-argument.
       C-x  C-r is bound to the function re-read-init-file, and ESC [ 1 1 ~ is
       bound to insert the text ``Function Key 1''.

       The full set of GNU Emacs style escape sequences is
              \C-    control prefix
              \M-    meta prefix
              \e     an escape character
              \\     backslash
              \"     literal "
              \'     literal '

       In addition to the GNU Emacs style escape sequences, a  second  set  of
       backslash escapes is available:
              \a     alert (bell)
              \b     backspace
              \d     delete
              \f     form feed
              \n     newline
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \nnn   the  eight-bit  character  whose value is the octal value
                     nnn (one to three digits)
              \xHH   the eight-bit character whose value  is  the  hexadecimal
                     value HH (one or two hex digits)

       When entering the text of a macro, single or double quotes must be used
       to indicate a macro definition.  Unquoted text is assumed to be a func-
       tion  name.   In  the macro body, the backslash escapes described above
       are expanded.  Backslash will quote any other character  in  the  macro
       text, including " and '.

       Bash  allows the current readline key bindings to be displayed or modi-
       fied with the bind builtin command.  The editing mode may  be  switched
       during  interactive  use by using the -o option to the set builtin com-
       mand (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).

   Readline Variables
       Readline has variables that can be used to further customize its behav-
       ior.  A variable may be set in the inputrc file with a statement of the
       form

              set variable-name value
       or using the bind builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).

       Except where noted, readline variables can take the values  On  or  Off
       (without  regard  to  case).   Unrecognized variable names are ignored.
       When a variable value is read, empty or null values, "on"  (case-insen-
       sitive), and "1" are equivalent to On.  All other values are equivalent
       to Off.  The variables and their default values are:

       bell-style (audible)
              Controls what happens when readline wants to ring  the  terminal
              bell.  If set to none, readline never rings the bell.  If set to
              visible, readline uses a visible bell if one is  available.   If
              set to audible, readline attempts to ring the terminal's bell.
       bind-tty-special-chars (On)
              If  set  to On, readline attempts to bind the control characters
              treated specially by the kernel's terminal driver to their read-
              line equivalents.
       blink-matching-paren (Off)
              If set to On, readline attempts to briefly move the cursor to an
              opening parenthesis when a closing parenthesis is inserted.
       colored-completion-prefix (Off)
              If set to On, when listing completions,  readline  displays  the
              common prefix of the set of possible completions using a differ-
              ent color.  The color definitions are taken from  the  value  of
              the LS_COLORS environment variable.
       colored-stats (Off)
              If  set to On, readline displays possible completions using dif-
              ferent colors to indicate their file type.   The  color  defini-
              tions  are  taken  from  the  value of the LS_COLORS environment
              variable.
       comment-begin (``#'')
              The string that is inserted  when  the  readline  insert-comment
              command is executed.  This command is bound to M-# in emacs mode
              and to # in vi command mode.
       completion-display-width (-1)
              The number of screen columns used to  display  possible  matches
              when  performing completion.  The value is ignored if it is less
              than 0 or greater than the terminal screen width.  A value of  0
              will  cause  matches  to be displayed one per line.  The default
              value is -1.
       completion-ignore-case (Off)
              If set to On, readline performs filename matching and completion
              in a case-insensitive fashion.
       completion-map-case (Off)
              If  set  to  On, and completion-ignore-case is enabled, readline
              treats hyphens (-) and underscores (_) as equivalent  when  per-
              forming case-insensitive filename matching and completion.
       completion-prefix-display-length (0)
              The  length in characters of the common prefix of a list of pos-
              sible completions that is displayed without modification.   When
              set  to  a  value greater than zero, common prefixes longer than
              this value are replaced with an ellipsis when displaying  possi-
              ble completions.
       completion-query-items (100)
              This  determines when the user is queried about viewing the num-
              ber of possible completions generated  by  the  possible-comple-
              tions  command.  It may be set to any integer value greater than
              or equal to zero.  If the  number  of  possible  completions  is
              greater  than  or  equal to the value of this variable, readline
              will ask whether or not the user wishes to view them;  otherwise
              they are simply listed on the terminal.
       convert-meta (On)
              If  set  to On, readline will convert characters with the eighth
              bit set to an ASCII key sequence by stripping the eighth bit and
              prefixing  an  escape  character (in effect, using escape as the
              meta prefix).  The default is On, but readline will  set  it  to
              Off if the locale contains eight-bit characters.
       disable-completion (Off)
              If set to On, readline will inhibit word completion.  Completion
              characters will be inserted into the line as if  they  had  been
              mapped to self-insert.
       echo-control-characters (On)
              When  set to On, on operating systems that indicate they support
              it, readline echoes a character corresponding to a signal gener-
              ated from the keyboard.
       editing-mode (emacs)
              Controls whether readline begins with a set of key bindings sim-
              ilar to Emacs or vi.  editing-mode can be set to either emacs or
              vi.
       emacs-mode-string (@)
              If  the  show-mode-in-prompt variable is enabled, this string is
              displayed immediately before the last line of the primary prompt
              when emacs editing mode is active.  The value is expanded like a
              key binding, so the standard set of meta- and  control  prefixes
              and  backslash escape sequences is available.  Use the \1 and \2
              escapes to begin and end sequences of  non-printing  characters,
              which  can be used to embed a terminal control sequence into the
              mode string.
       enable-bracketed-paste (On)
              When set to On, readline will configure the terminal  in  a  way
              that will enable it to insert each paste into the editing buffer
              as a single string of characters, instead of treating each char-
              acter  as  if it had been read from the keyboard.  This can pre-
              vent pasted characters from being interpreted  as  editing  com-
              mands.
       enable-keypad (Off)
              When set to On, readline will try to enable the application key-
              pad when it is called.  Some systems need  this  to  enable  the
              arrow keys.
       enable-meta-key (On)
              When  set  to  On, readline will try to enable any meta modifier
              key the terminal claims to support when it is called.   On  many
              terminals, the meta key is used to send eight-bit characters.
       expand-tilde (Off)
              If  set  to  On,  tilde  expansion  is  performed  when readline
              attempts word completion.
       history-preserve-point (Off)
              If set to On, the history code attempts to place  point  at  the
              same  location on each history line retrieved with previous-his-
              tory or next-history.
       history-size (unset)
              Set the maximum number of history entries saved in  the  history
              list.   If set to zero, any existing history entries are deleted
              and no new entries are saved.  If set to a value less than zero,
              the  number  of history entries is not limited.  By default, the
              number of history entries is set to the value  of  the  HISTSIZE
              shell  variable.  If an attempt is made to set history-size to a
              non-numeric value, the maximum number of history entries will be
              set to 500.
       horizontal-scroll-mode (Off)
              When  set  to  On, makes readline use a single line for display,
              scrolling the input horizontally on a single screen line when it
              becomes  longer  than the screen width rather than wrapping to a
              new line.  This setting is automatically enabled  for  terminals
              of height 1.
       input-meta (Off)
              If  set to On, readline will enable eight-bit input (that is, it
              will not strip the eighth bit from  the  characters  it  reads),
              regardless of what the terminal claims it can support.  The name
              meta-flag is a synonym for this variable.  The default  is  Off,
              but  readline will set it to On if the locale contains eight-bit
              characters.
       isearch-terminators (``C-[C-J'')
              The string of characters that should  terminate  an  incremental
              search  without  subsequently  executing the character as a com-
              mand.  If this variable has not been given a value, the  charac-
              ters ESC and C-J will terminate an incremental search.
       keymap (emacs)
              Set  the current readline keymap.  The set of valid keymap names
              is emacs, emacs-standard, emacs-meta,  emacs-ctlx,  vi,  vi-com-
              mand,  and  vi-insert.  vi is equivalent to vi-command; emacs is
              equivalent to emacs-standard.  The default value is  emacs;  the
              value of editing-mode also affects the default keymap.
       keyseq-timeout (500)
              Specifies  the  duration readline will wait for a character when
              reading an ambiguous key sequence (one that can form a  complete
              key sequence using the input read so far, or can take additional
              input to complete a  longer  key  sequence).   If  no  input  is
              received  within  the timeout, readline will use the shorter but
              complete key sequence.  The value is specified in  milliseconds,
              so  a value of 1000 means that readline will wait one second for
              additional input.  If this variable is set to a value less  than
              or  equal to zero, or to a non-numeric value, readline will wait
              until another key is pressed to decide  which  key  sequence  to
              complete.
       mark-directories (On)
              If set to On, completed directory names have a slash appended.
       mark-modified-lines (Off)
              If  set  to  On,  history lines that have been modified are dis-
              played with a preceding asterisk (*).
       mark-symlinked-directories (Off)
              If set to On, completed names which are symbolic links to direc-
              tories   have   a  slash  appended  (subject  to  the  value  of
              mark-directories).
       match-hidden-files (On)
              This variable, when set to On, causes readline  to  match  files
              whose  names  begin  with  a  `.' (hidden files) when performing
              filename completion.  If set to Off, the  leading  `.'  must  be
              supplied by the user in the filename to be completed.
       menu-complete-display-prefix (Off)
              If  set to On, menu completion displays the common prefix of the
              list of possible completions (which may be empty) before cycling
              through the list.
       output-meta (Off)
              If  set  to On, readline will display characters with the eighth
              bit set directly rather than as a meta-prefixed escape sequence.
              The default is Off, but readline will set it to On if the locale
              contains eight-bit characters.
       page-completions (On)
              If set to On, readline uses an internal more-like pager to  dis-
              play a screenful of possible completions at a time.
       print-completions-horizontally (Off)
              If  set  to  On,  readline will display completions with matches
              sorted horizontally in alphabetical order, rather than down  the
              screen.
       revert-all-at-newline (Off)
              If  set  to  On, readline will undo all changes to history lines
              before returning when accept-line is executed.  By default, his-
              tory  lines  may  be  modified  and retain individual undo lists
              across calls to readline.
       show-all-if-ambiguous (Off)
              This alters the default behavior of  the  completion  functions.
              If set to On, words which have more than one possible completion
              cause the matches to be listed immediately  instead  of  ringing
              the bell.
       show-all-if-unmodified (Off)
              This  alters the default behavior of the completion functions in
              a fashion similar to show-all-if-ambiguous.  If set to On, words
              which  have more than one possible completion without any possi-
              ble partial completion (the possible completions don't  share  a
              common  prefix)  cause  the  matches  to  be  listed immediately
              instead of ringing the bell.
       show-mode-in-prompt (Off)
              If set to On, add a string to the beginning of the prompt  indi-
              cating  the  editing  mode:  emacs, vi command, or vi insertion.
              The mode strings are user-settable (e.g., emacs-mode-string).
       skip-completed-text (Off)
              If set to On, this alters the default completion  behavior  when
              inserting  a  single match into the line.  It's only active when
              performing completion in the middle  of  a  word.   If  enabled,
              readline  does  not  insert  characters from the completion that
              match characters after point in the  word  being  completed,  so
              portions of the word following the cursor are not duplicated.
       vi-cmd-mode-string ((cmd))
              If  the  show-mode-in-prompt variable is enabled, this string is
              displayed immediately before the last line of the primary prompt
              when  vi  editing mode is active and in command mode.  The value
              is expanded like a key binding, so the standard set of meta- and
              control  prefixes  and  backslash escape sequences is available.
              Use the \1 and \2 escapes to begin and  end  sequences  of  non-
              printing  characters, which can be used to embed a terminal con-
              trol sequence into the mode string.
       vi-ins-mode-string ((ins))
              If the show-mode-in-prompt variable is enabled, this  string  is
              displayed immediately before the last line of the primary prompt
              when vi editing mode is active and in insertion mode.  The value
              is expanded like a key binding, so the standard set of meta- and
              control prefixes and backslash escape  sequences  is  available.
              Use  the  \1  and  \2 escapes to begin and end sequences of non-
              printing characters, which can be used to embed a terminal  con-
              trol sequence into the mode string.
       visible-stats (Off)
              If  set to On, a character denoting a file's type as reported by
              stat(2) is appended to the filename when listing  possible  com-
              pletions.

   Readline Conditional Constructs
       Readline  implements  a  facility  similar in spirit to the conditional
       compilation features of the C preprocessor which  allows  key  bindings
       and  variable  settings  to be performed as the result of tests.  There
       are four parser directives used.

       $if    The $if construct allows bindings to be made based on the  edit-
              ing  mode,  the  terminal  being  used, or the application using
              readline.  The text of the test, after any comparison operator,
               extends to the end of the  line;  unless  otherwise  noted,  no
              characters are required to isolate it.

              mode   The  mode=  form  of  the  $if  directive is used to test
                     whether readline is in emacs or vi  mode.   This  may  be
                     used  in  conjunction  with  the  set keymap command, for
                     instance, to  set  bindings  in  the  emacs-standard  and
                     emacs-ctlx  keymaps  only  if readline is starting out in
                     emacs mode.

              term   The term= form may be used to  include  terminal-specific
                     key bindings, perhaps to bind the key sequences output by
                     the terminal's function keys.  The word on the right side
                     of the = is tested against both the full name of the ter-
                     minal and the portion of the  terminal  name  before  the
                     first  -.  This allows sun to match both sun and sun-cmd,
                     for instance.

              version
                     The version test  may  be  used  to  perform  comparisons
                     against  specific readline versions.  The version expands
                     to the current readline version.  The set  of  comparison
                     operators  includes  =,  (and  ==), !=, <=, >=, <, and >.
                     The version number supplied on  the  right  side  of  the
                     operator  consists of a major version number, an optional
                     decimal point, and an optional minor version (e.g., 7.1).
                     If  the  minor version is omitted, it is assumed to be 0.
                     The operator may be separated from the string version and
                     from the version number argument by whitespace.

              application
                     The application construct is used to include application-
                     specific  settings.   Each  program  using  the  readline
                     library  sets the application name, and an initialization
                     file can test for a particular value.  This could be used
                     to  bind key sequences to functions useful for a specific
                     program.  For instance, the following command adds a  key
                     sequence  that  quotes  the  current  or previous word in
                     bash:

                     $if Bash
                     # Quote the current or previous word
                     "\C-xq": "\eb\"\ef\""
                     $endif

              variable
                     The variable construct provides simple equality tests for
                     readline  variables and values.  The permitted comparison
                     operators are =, ==, and !=.  The variable name  must  be
                     separated from the comparison operator by whitespace; the
                     operator may be separated from the  value  on  the  right
                     hand  side  by whitespace.  Both string and boolean vari-
                     ables may be tested. Boolean  variables  must  be  tested
                     against the values on and off.

       $endif This command, as seen in the previous example, terminates an $if
              command.

       $else  Commands in this branch of the $if directive are executed if the
              test fails.

       $include
              This  directive takes a single filename as an argument and reads
              commands and bindings from that file.  For example, the  follow-
              ing directive would read /etc/inputrc:

              $include  /etc/inputrc

   Searching
       Readline  provides  commands  for searching through the command history
       (see HISTORY below) for lines containing a specified string.  There are
       two search modes: incremental and non-incremental.

       Incremental  searches  begin  before  the  user has finished typing the
       search string.  As each character of the search string is typed,  read-
       line displays the next entry from the history matching the string typed
       so far.  An incremental search requires  only  as  many  characters  as
       needed  to  find  the desired history entry.  The characters present in
       the value of the isearch-terminators variable are used to terminate  an
       incremental search.  If that variable has not been assigned a value the
       Escape and Control-J characters will terminate an  incremental  search.
       Control-G  will  abort  an  incremental search and restore the original
       line.  When the search is terminated, the history entry containing  the
       search string becomes the current line.

       To  find  other matching entries in the history list, type Control-S or
       Control-R as appropriate.  This will search backward or forward in  the
       history  for  the  next  entry matching the search string typed so far.
       Any other key sequence bound to a readline command will  terminate  the
       search  and  execute that command.  For instance, a newline will termi-
       nate the search and accept the line, thereby executing the command from
       the history list.

       Readline remembers the last incremental search string.  If two Control-
       Rs are typed without any intervening characters defining a  new  search
       string, any remembered search string is used.

       Non-incremental  searches read the entire search string before starting
       to search for matching history lines.  The search string may  be  typed
       by the user or be part of the contents of the current line.

   Readline Command Names
       The  following  is  a list of the names of the commands and the default
       key sequences to which they are bound.  Command names without an accom-
       panying key sequence are unbound by default.  In the following descrip-
       tions, point refers to the current cursor position, and mark refers  to
       a  cursor position saved by the set-mark command.  The text between the
       point and mark is referred to as the region.

   Commands for Moving
       beginning-of-line (C-a)
              Move to the start of the current line.
       end-of-line (C-e)
              Move to the end of the line.
       forward-char (C-f)
              Move forward a character.
       backward-char (C-b)
              Move back a character.
       forward-word (M-f)
              Move forward to the end of the next word.  Words are composed of
              alphanumeric characters (letters and digits).
       backward-word (M-b)
              Move  back  to the start of the current or previous word.  Words
              are composed of alphanumeric characters (letters and digits).
       shell-forward-word
              Move forward to the end of the next word.  Words  are  delimited
              by non-quoted shell metacharacters.
       shell-backward-word
              Move  back  to the start of the current or previous word.  Words
              are delimited by non-quoted shell metacharacters.
       previous-screen-line
              Attempt to move point to the same physical screen column on  the
              previous  physical  screen  line. This will not have the desired
              effect if the current Readline line does not take up  more  than
              one  physical line or if point is not greater than the length of
              the prompt plus the screen width.
       next-screen-line
              Attempt to move point to the same physical screen column on  the
              next physical screen line. This will not have the desired effect
              if the current Readline line does not  take  up  more  than  one
              physical  line  or if the length of the current Readline line is
              not greater than the length of the prompt plus the screen width.
       clear-display (M-C-l)
              Clear  the  screen  and,  if possible, the terminal's scrollback
              buffer, then redraw the current line, leaving the  current  line
              at the top of the screen.
       clear-screen (C-l)
              Clear the screen, then redraw the current line, leaving the cur-
              rent line at the top of the screen.  With an  argument,  refresh
              the current line without clearing the screen.
       redraw-current-line
              Refresh the current line.

   Commands for Manipulating the History
       accept-line (Newline, Return)
              Accept the line regardless of where the cursor is.  If this line
              is non-empty, add it to the history list according to the  state
              of  the HISTCONTROL variable.  If the line is a modified history
              line, then restore the history line to its original state.
       previous-history (C-p)
              Fetch the previous command from the history list, moving back in
              the list.
       next-history (C-n)
              Fetch  the next command from the history list, moving forward in
              the list.
       beginning-of-history (M-<)
              Move to the first line in the history.
       end-of-history (M->)
              Move to the end of the input history, i.e., the  line  currently
              being entered.
       reverse-search-history (C-r)
              Search  backward  starting  at  the current line and moving `up'
              through the  history  as  necessary.   This  is  an  incremental
              search.
       forward-search-history (C-s)
              Search  forward  starting  at the current line and moving `down'
              through the  history  as  necessary.   This  is  an  incremental
              search.
       non-incremental-reverse-search-history (M-p)
              Search backward through the history starting at the current line
              using a non-incremental search for  a  string  supplied  by  the
              user.
       non-incremental-forward-search-history (M-n)
              Search  forward  through  the  history  using  a non-incremental
              search for a string supplied by the user.
       history-search-forward
              Search forward through the history for the string of  characters
              between  the start of the current line and the point.  This is a
              non-incremental search.
       history-search-backward
              Search backward through the history for the string of characters
              between  the start of the current line and the point.  This is a
              non-incremental search.
       history-substring-search-backward
              Search backward through the history for the string of characters
              between  the  start  of  the current line and the current cursor
              position (the point).  The search string may match anywhere in a
              history line.  This is a non-incremental search.
       history-substring-search-forward
              Search  forward through the history for the string of characters
              between the start of the current line and the point.  The search
              string  may  match  anywhere  in a history line.  This is a non-
              incremental search.
       yank-nth-arg (M-C-y)
              Insert the first argument to the previous command  (usually  the
              second word on the previous line) at point.  With an argument n,
              insert the nth word from the previous command (the words in  the
              previous  command  begin  with  word  0).   A  negative argument
              inserts the nth word from the end of the previous command.  Once
              the  argument n is computed, the argument is extracted as if the
              "!n" history expansion had been specified.
       yank-last-arg (M-., M-_)
              Insert the last argument to the previous command (the last  word
              of the previous history entry).  With a numeric argument, behave
              exactly like yank-nth-arg.  Successive  calls  to  yank-last-arg
              move  back through the history list, inserting the last word (or
              the word specified by the argument to the first  call)  of  each
              line in turn.  Any numeric argument supplied to these successive
              calls determines the direction to move through the  history.   A
              negative  argument  switches  the  direction through the history
              (back or forward).  The history expansion facilities are used to
              extract the last word, as if the "!$" history expansion had been
              specified.
       shell-expand-line (M-C-e)
              Expand the line as the shell does.  This performs alias and his-
              tory expansion as well as all of the shell word expansions.  See
              HISTORY EXPANSION below for a description of history  expansion.
       history-expand-line (M-^)
              Perform  history  expansion  on  the  current line.  See HISTORY
              EXPANSION below for a description of history expansion.
       magic-space
              Perform history expansion on  the  current  line  and  insert  a
              space.  See HISTORY EXPANSION below for a description of history
              expansion.
       alias-expand-line
              Perform alias expansion on the current line.  See ALIASES  above
              for a description of alias expansion.
       history-and-alias-expand-line
              Perform history and alias expansion on the current line.
       insert-last-argument (M-., M-_)
              A synonym for yank-last-arg.
       operate-and-get-next (C-o)
              Accept  the  current  line for execution and fetch the next line
              relative to the current line from the history  for  editing.   A
              numeric  argument,  if  supplied, specifies the history entry to
              use instead of the current line.
       edit-and-execute-command (C-x C-e)
              Invoke an editor on the current command line,  and  execute  the
              result  as  shell  commands.   Bash  attempts to invoke $VISUAL,
              $EDITOR, and emacs as the editor, in that order.

   Commands for Changing Text
       end-of-file (usually C-d)
              The character indicating end-of-file as  set,  for  example,  by
              ``stty''.   If  this character is read when there are no charac-
              ters on the line, and point is at the  beginning  of  the  line,
              Readline interprets it as the end of input and returns EOF.
       delete-char (C-d)
              Delete the character at point.  If this function is bound to the
              same character as the tty EOF character, as C-d commonly is, see
              above for the effects.
       backward-delete-char (Rubout)
              Delete  the  character  behind the cursor.  When given a numeric
              argument, save the deleted text on the kill ring.
       forward-backward-delete-char
              Delete the character under the cursor, unless the cursor  is  at
              the end of the line, in which case the character behind the cur-
              sor is deleted.
       quoted-insert (C-q, C-v)
              Add the next character typed to the line verbatim.  This is  how
              to insert characters like C-q, for example.
       tab-insert (C-v TAB)
              Insert a tab character.
       self-insert (a, b, A, 1, !, ...)
              Insert the character typed.
       transpose-chars (C-t)
              Drag  the  character  before point forward over the character at
              point, moving point forward as well.  If point is at the end  of
              the  line, then this transposes the two characters before point.
              Negative arguments have no effect.
       transpose-words (M-t)
              Drag the word before point past the  word  after  point,  moving
              point  over  that  word  as well.  If point is at the end of the
              line, this transposes the last two words on the line.
       upcase-word (M-u)
              Uppercase the current (or  following)  word.   With  a  negative
              argument, uppercase the previous word, but do not move point.
       downcase-word (M-l)
              Lowercase  the  current  (or  following)  word.  With a negative
              argument, lowercase the previous word, but do not move point.
       capitalize-word (M-c)
              Capitalize the current (or following)  word.   With  a  negative
              argument, capitalize the previous word, but do not move point.
       overwrite-mode
              Toggle  overwrite mode.  With an explicit positive numeric argu-
              ment, switches to overwrite mode.  With an explicit non-positive
              numeric argument, switches to insert mode.  This command affects
              only emacs mode; vi mode does overwrite differently.  Each  call
              to readline() starts in insert mode.  In overwrite mode, charac-
              ters bound to self-insert replace the text at point rather  than
              pushing  the  text  to  the  right.   Characters  bound to back-
              ward-delete-char replace  the  character  before  point  with  a
              space.  By default, this command is unbound.

   Killing and Yanking
       kill-line (C-k)
              Kill the text from point to the end of the line.
       backward-kill-line (C-x Rubout)
              Kill backward to the beginning of the line.
       unix-line-discard (C-u)
              Kill  backward  from  point  to  the beginning of the line.  The
              killed text is saved on the kill-ring.
       kill-whole-line
              Kill all characters on the current line, no matter  where  point
              is.
       kill-word (M-d)
              Kill  from  point  to the end of the current word, or if between
              words, to the end of the next word.   Word  boundaries  are  the
              same as those used by forward-word.
       backward-kill-word (M-Rubout)
              Kill  the  word  behind  point.  Word boundaries are the same as
              those used by backward-word.
       shell-kill-word
              Kill from point to the end of the current word,  or  if  between
              words,  to  the  end  of the next word.  Word boundaries are the
              same as those used by shell-forward-word.
       shell-backward-kill-word
              Kill the word behind point.  Word boundaries  are  the  same  as
              those used by shell-backward-word.
       unix-word-rubout (C-w)
              Kill  the  word behind point, using white space as a word bound-
              ary.  The killed text is saved on the kill-ring.
       unix-filename-rubout
              Kill the word behind point, using  white  space  and  the  slash
              character  as  the word boundaries.  The killed text is saved on
              the kill-ring.
       delete-horizontal-space (M-\)
              Delete all spaces and tabs around point.
       kill-region
              Kill the text in the current region.
       copy-region-as-kill
              Copy the text in the region to the kill buffer.
       copy-backward-word
              Copy the word before point to the kill buffer.  The word  bound-
              aries are the same as backward-word.
       copy-forward-word
              Copy  the  word  following  point  to the kill buffer.  The word
              boundaries are the same as forward-word.
       yank (C-y)
              Yank the top of the kill ring into the buffer at point.
       yank-pop (M-y)
              Rotate the kill ring, and yank the new top.  Only works  follow-
              ing yank or yank-pop.

   Numeric Arguments
       digit-argument (M-0, M-1, ..., M--)
              Add  this digit to the argument already accumulating, or start a
              new argument.  M-- starts a negative argument.
       universal-argument
              This is another way to specify an argument.  If this command  is
              followed  by one or more digits, optionally with a leading minus
              sign, those digits define the argument.  If the command is  fol-
              lowed  by  digits,  executing  universal-argument again ends the
              numeric argument, but is otherwise ignored.  As a special  case,
              if  this  command is immediately followed by a character that is
              neither a digit nor minus sign, the argument count for the  next
              command  is multiplied by four.  The argument count is initially
              one, so executing this function the first time makes  the  argu-
              ment count four, a second time makes the argument count sixteen,
              and so on.

   Completing
       complete (TAB)
              Attempt to perform completion on the text  before  point.   Bash
              attempts completion treating the text as a variable (if the text
              begins with $), username (if the text begins with  ~),  hostname
              (if  the  text begins with @), or command (including aliases and
              functions) in turn.  If none of these produces a match, filename
              completion is attempted.
       possible-completions (M-?)
              List the possible completions of the text before point.
       insert-completions (M-*)
              Insert  all completions of the text before point that would have
              been generated by possible-completions.
       menu-complete
              Similar to complete, but replaces the word to be completed  with
              a  single match from the list of possible completions.  Repeated
              execution of menu-complete steps through the  list  of  possible
              completions,  inserting  each  match in turn.  At the end of the
              list of completions, the bell is rung (subject to the setting of
              bell-style) and the original text is restored.  An argument of n
              moves n positions forward in the list  of  matches;  a  negative
              argument  may  be  used to move backward through the list.  This
              command is intended to be  bound  to  TAB,  but  is  unbound  by
              default.
       menu-complete-backward
              Identical  to menu-complete, but moves backward through the list
              of possible completions, as if menu-complete had  been  given  a
              negative argument.  This command is unbound by default.
       delete-char-or-list
              Deletes  the  character under the cursor if not at the beginning
              or end of the line (like delete-char).  If at  the  end  of  the
              line, behaves identically to possible-completions.  This command
              is unbound by default.
       complete-filename (M-/)
              Attempt filename completion on the text before point.
       possible-filename-completions (C-x /)
              List the possible completions of the text before point, treating
              it as a filename.
       complete-username (M-~)
              Attempt  completion  on  the text before point, treating it as a
              username.
       possible-username-completions (C-x ~)
              List the possible completions of the text before point, treating
              it as a username.
       complete-variable (M-$)
              Attempt  completion  on  the text before point, treating it as a
              shell variable.
       possible-variable-completions (C-x $)
              List the possible completions of the text before point, treating
              it as a shell variable.
       complete-hostname (M-@)
              Attempt  completion  on  the text before point, treating it as a
              hostname.
       possible-hostname-completions (C-x @)
              List the possible completions of the text before point, treating
              it as a hostname.
       complete-command (M-!)
              Attempt  completion  on  the text before point, treating it as a
              command name.  Command completion attempts  to  match  the  text
              against   aliases,   reserved   words,  shell  functions,  shell
              builtins, and finally executable filenames, in that order.
       possible-command-completions (C-x !)
              List the possible completions of the text before point, treating
              it as a command name.
       dynamic-complete-history (M-TAB)
              Attempt  completion on the text before point, comparing the text
              against lines from the  history  list  for  possible  completion
              matches.
       dabbrev-expand
              Attempt  menu completion on the text before point, comparing the
              text against lines from the history list for possible completion
              matches.
       complete-into-braces (M-{)
              Perform filename completion and insert the list of possible com-
              pletions enclosed within braces so the list is available to  the
              shell (see Brace Expansion above).

   Keyboard Macros
       start-kbd-macro (C-x ()
              Begin  saving  the  characters  typed  into the current keyboard
              macro.
       end-kbd-macro (C-x ))
              Stop saving the characters typed into the current keyboard macro
              and store the definition.
       call-last-kbd-macro (C-x e)
              Re-execute  the last keyboard macro defined, by making the char-
              acters in the macro appear as if typed at the keyboard.
       print-last-kbd-macro ()
              Print the last keyboard macro defined in a format  suitable  for
              the inputrc file.

   Miscellaneous
       re-read-init-file (C-x C-r)
              Read  in  the  contents of the inputrc file, and incorporate any
              bindings or variable assignments found there.
       abort (C-g)
              Abort the current editing command and ring the  terminal's  bell
              (subject to the setting of bell-style).
       do-lowercase-version (M-A, M-B, M-x, ...)
              If  the  metafied character x is uppercase, run the command that
              is bound to the corresponding metafied lowercase character.  The
              behavior is undefined if x is already lowercase.
       prefix-meta (ESC)
              Metafy the next character typed.  ESC f is equivalent to Meta-f.
       undo (C-_, C-x C-u)
              Incremental undo, separately remembered for each line.
       revert-line (M-r)
              Undo all changes made to this line.  This is like executing  the
              undo  command  enough  times  to  return the line to its initial
              state.
       tilde-expand (M-&)
              Perform tilde expansion on the current word.
       set-mark (C-@, M-<space>)
              Set the mark to the point.  If a numeric argument  is  supplied,
              the mark is set to that position.
       exchange-point-and-mark (C-x C-x)
              Swap  the  point  with the mark.  The current cursor position is
              set to the saved position, and the old cursor position is  saved
              as the mark.
       character-search (C-])
              A character is read and point is moved to the next occurrence of
              that character.  A negative count searches for  previous  occur-
              rences.
       character-search-backward (M-C-])
              A  character  is  read and point is moved to the previous occur-
              rence of that character.  A negative count searches  for  subse-
              quent occurrences.
       skip-csi-sequence
              Read  enough  characters to consume a multi-key sequence such as
              those defined for keys like Home and End.  Such sequences  begin
              with a Control Sequence Indicator (CSI), usually ESC-[.  If this
              sequence is bound to "\[", keys producing  such  sequences  will
              have  no  effect  unless explicitly bound to a readline command,
              instead of inserting stray characters into the  editing  buffer.
              This is unbound by default, but usually bound to ESC-[.
       insert-comment (M-#)
              Without  a  numeric  argument,  the  value  of the readline com-
              ment-begin variable is inserted at the beginning of the  current
              line.  If a numeric argument is supplied, this command acts as a
              toggle: if the characters at the beginning of the  line  do  not
              match  the value of comment-begin, the value is inserted, other-
              wise the characters in comment-begin are deleted from the begin-
              ning  of the line.  In either case, the line is accepted as if a
              newline had been typed.   The  default  value  of  comment-begin
              causes  this  command  to make the current line a shell comment.
              If a  numeric  argument  causes  the  comment  character  to  be
              removed, the line will be executed by the shell.
       glob-complete-word (M-g)
              The  word  before  point  is  treated  as a pattern for pathname
              expansion, with an asterisk implicitly appended.   This  pattern
              is  used  to  generate a list of matching filenames for possible
              completions.
       glob-expand-word (C-x *)
              The word before point is  treated  as  a  pattern  for  pathname
              expansion,  and  the  list  of  matching  filenames is inserted,
              replacing the word.  If  a  numeric  argument  is  supplied,  an
              asterisk is appended before pathname expansion.
       glob-list-expansions (C-x g)
              The  list  of  expansions  that  would  have  been  generated by
              glob-expand-word is displayed, and the line is  redrawn.   If  a
              numeric  argument  is  supplied,  an asterisk is appended before
              pathname expansion.
       dump-functions
              Print all of the functions and their key bindings to  the  read-
              line output stream.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the out-
              put is formatted in such a way that it can be made  part  of  an
              inputrc file.
       dump-variables
              Print all of the settable readline variables and their values to
              the readline output stream.  If a numeric argument is  supplied,
              the  output  is formatted in such a way that it can be made part
              of an inputrc file.
       dump-macros
              Print all of the readline key sequences bound to macros and  the
              strings  they  output.   If  a numeric argument is supplied, the
              output is formatted in such a way that it can be made part of an
              inputrc file.
       display-shell-version (C-x C-v)
              Display  version information about the current instance of bash.

   Programmable Completion
       When word completion is attempted for an  argument  to  a  command  for
       which  a  completion  specification (a compspec) has been defined using
       the complete builtin (see  SHELL  BUILTIN  COMMANDS  below),  the  pro-
       grammable completion facilities are invoked.

       First,  the  command  name  is  identified.  If the command word is the
       empty string (completion attempted at the beginning of an empty  line),
       any  compspec  defined  with  the  -E option to complete is used.  If a
       compspec has been defined for that command, the  compspec  is  used  to
       generate the list of possible completions for the word.  If the command
       word is a full pathname, a compspec for the full pathname  is  searched
       for  first.   If no compspec is found for the full pathname, an attempt
       is made to find a compspec for the portion following the  final  slash.
       If  those  searches  do  not result in a compspec, any compspec defined
       with the -D option to complete is used as the default.  If there is  no
       default  compspec, bash attempts alias expansion on the command word as
       a final resort, and attempts to find a compspec for  the  command  word
       from any successful expansion.

       Once  a  compspec  has  been  found, it is used to generate the list of
       matching words.  If a compspec is not found, the default  bash  comple-
       tion as described above under Completing is performed.

       First,  the  actions  specified by the compspec are used.  Only matches
       which are prefixed by the word being completed are returned.  When  the
       -f  or -d option is used for filename or directory name completion, the
       shell variable FIGNORE is used to filter the matches.

       Any completions specified by a pathname expansion  pattern  to  the  -G
       option are generated next.  The words generated by the pattern need not
       match the word being completed.  The GLOBIGNORE shell variable  is  not
       used to filter the matches, but the FIGNORE variable is used.

       Next,  the string specified as the argument to the -W option is consid-
       ered.  The string is first split using the characters in the  IFS  spe-
       cial  variable  as delimiters.  Shell quoting is honored.  Each word is
       then expanded using brace expansion,  tilde  expansion,  parameter  and
       variable  expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic expansion, as
       described above under EXPANSION.  The results are split using the rules
       described above under Word Splitting.  The results of the expansion are
       prefix-matched against the word being completed, and the matching words
       become the possible completions.

       After  these matches have been generated, any shell function or command
       specified with the -F and -C options is invoked.  When the  command  or
       function is invoked, the COMP_LINE, COMP_POINT, COMP_KEY, and COMP_TYPE
       variables are assigned values as described above under Shell Variables.
       If  a  shell  function  is being invoked, the COMP_WORDS and COMP_CWORD
       variables are also set.  When the function or command is  invoked,  the
       first  argument  ($1)  is  the  name of the command whose arguments are
       being completed, the second argument ($2) is the word being  completed,
       and  the  third argument ($3) is the word preceding the word being com-
       pleted on the current command line.  No filtering of the generated com-
       pletions against the word being completed is performed; the function or
       command has complete freedom in generating the matches.

       Any function specified with -F is invoked first.  The function may  use
       any  of  the  shell facilities, including the compgen builtin described
       below, to generate the matches.  It must put the  possible  completions
       in the COMPREPLY array variable, one per array element.

       Next,  any  command specified with the -C option is invoked in an envi-
       ronment equivalent to command substitution.  It should print a list  of
       completions,  one  per  line, to the standard output.  Backslash may be
       used to escape a newline, if necessary.

       After all of the possible completions are generated, any filter  speci-
       fied  with  the -X option is applied to the list.  The filter is a pat-
       tern as used for pathname expansion; a & in  the  pattern  is  replaced
       with  the text of the word being completed.  A literal & may be escaped
       with a backslash; the backslash is removed before attempting  a  match.
       Any  completion that matches the pattern will be removed from the list.
       A leading ! negates the pattern; in this case any completion not match-
       ing  the  pattern  will be removed.  If the nocasematch shell option is
       enabled, the match is performed without regard to the  case  of  alpha-
       betic characters.

       Finally, any prefix and suffix specified with the -P and -S options are
       added to each member of the completion list, and the result is returned
       to the readline completion code as the list of possible completions.

       If  the previously-applied actions do not generate any matches, and the
       -o dirnames option was supplied  to  complete  when  the  compspec  was
       defined, directory name completion is attempted.

       If  the  -o  plusdirs option was supplied to complete when the compspec
       was defined, directory name completion is attempted and any matches are
       added to the results of the other actions.

       By  default,  if a compspec is found, whatever it generates is returned
       to the completion code as the full set of  possible  completions.   The
       default bash completions are not attempted, and the readline default of
       filename completion is disabled.  If the -o bashdefault option was sup-
       plied  to complete when the compspec was defined, the bash default com-
       pletions are attempted if the compspec generates no matches.  If the -o
       default  option was supplied to complete when the compspec was defined,
       readline's default completion will be performed if the  compspec  (and,
       if attempted, the default bash completions) generate no matches.

       When  a  compspec  indicates that directory name completion is desired,
       the programmable completion functions force readline to append a  slash
       to  completed names which are symbolic links to directories, subject to
       the value of the mark-directories readline variable, regardless of  the
       setting of the mark-symlinked-directories readline variable.

       There  is  some support for dynamically modifying completions.  This is
       most useful when used in combination with a default  completion  speci-
       fied  with  complete -D.  It's possible for shell functions executed as
       completion handlers to indicate that completion should  be  retried  by
       returning  an exit status of 124.  If a shell function returns 124, and
       changes the compspec associated with the command on which completion is
       being  attempted  (supplied  as the first argument when the function is
       executed), programmable completion restarts from the beginning, with an
       attempt  to find a new compspec for that command.  This allows a set of
       completions to be built dynamically as completion is attempted,  rather
       than being loaded all at once.

       For  instance, assuming that there is a library of compspecs, each kept
       in a file corresponding to the  name  of  the  command,  the  following
       default completion function would load completions dynamically:

       _completion_loader()
       {
            . "/etc/bash_completion.d/$1.sh" >/dev/null 2>&1 && return 124
       }
       complete -D -F _completion_loader -o bashdefault -o default



HISTORY

       When  the  -o  history  option to the set builtin is enabled, the shell
       provides access to the command history, the list of commands previously
       typed.   The  value  of  the HISTSIZE variable is used as the number of
       commands to save in a history list.  The text of the last HISTSIZE com-
       mands  (default  500)  is  saved.  The shell stores each command in the
       history list prior to parameter and variable expansion  (see  EXPANSION
       above)  but after history expansion is performed, subject to the values
       of the shell variables HISTIGNORE and HISTCONTROL.

       On startup, the history is initialized from the file named by the vari-
       able  HISTFILE  (default ~/.bash_history).  The file named by the value
       of HISTFILE is truncated, if necessary, to contain  no  more  than  the
       number  of  lines specified by the value of HISTFILESIZE.  If HISTFILE-
       SIZE is unset, or set to null, a non-numeric value, or a numeric  value
       less  than  zero,  the history file is not truncated.  When the history
       file is read, lines beginning with the history comment  character  fol-
       lowed immediately by a digit are interpreted as timestamps for the fol-
       lowing history line.  These timestamps are optionally displayed depend-
       ing  on  the  value  of the HISTTIMEFORMAT variable.  When a shell with
       history enabled exits, the last $HISTSIZE lines  are  copied  from  the
       history  list  to $HISTFILE.  If the histappend shell option is enabled
       (see the description of shopt under SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below),  the
       lines  are  appended to the history file, otherwise the history file is
       overwritten.   If  HISTFILE  is  unset,  or  if  the  history  file  is
       unwritable,  the  history is not saved.  If the HISTTIMEFORMAT variable
       is set, time stamps are written to the history file,  marked  with  the
       history  comment  character, so they may be preserved across shell ses-
       sions.  This uses the history comment character  to  distinguish  time-
       stamps from other history lines.  After saving the history, the history
       file is truncated to contain no more than HISTFILESIZE lines.  If HIST-
       FILESIZE  is  unset,  or set to null, a non-numeric value, or a numeric
       value less than zero, the history file is not truncated.

       The builtin command fc (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below) may  be  used
       to list or edit and re-execute a portion of the history list.  The his-
       tory builtin may be used to display or  modify  the  history  list  and
       manipulate  the  history file.  When using command-line editing, search
       commands are available in each editing mode that provide access to  the
       history list.

       The  shell  allows control over which commands are saved on the history
       list.  The HISTCONTROL and HISTIGNORE variables may be set to cause the
       shell to save only a subset of the commands entered.  The cmdhist shell
       option, if enabled, causes the shell to attempt to save each line of  a
       multi-line  command  in the same history entry, adding semicolons where
       necessary to preserve syntactic correctness.  The lithist shell  option
       causes  the shell to save the command with embedded newlines instead of
       semicolons.  See the description of the shopt builtin below under SHELL
       BUILTIN  COMMANDS  for  information  on  setting  and  unsetting  shell
       options.


HISTORY EXPANSION

       The shell supports a history expansion feature that is similar  to  the
       history  expansion in csh.  This section describes what syntax features
       are available.  This feature is  enabled  by  default  for  interactive
       shells, and can be disabled using the +H option to the set builtin com-
       mand (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below).  Non-interactive shells do not
       perform history expansion by default.

       History expansions introduce words from the history list into the input
       stream, making it easy to repeat commands, insert the  arguments  to  a
       previous command into the current input line, or fix errors in previous
       commands quickly.

       History expansion is performed immediately after  a  complete  line  is
       read,  before  the shell breaks it into words, and is performed on each
       line  individually  without  taking  quoting  on  previous  lines  into
       account.  It takes place in two parts.  The first is to determine which
       line from the history list to use during substitution.  The  second  is
       to  select  portions  of  that line for inclusion into the current one.
       The line selected from the history is the event, and  the  portions  of
       that  line that are acted upon are words.  Various modifiers are avail-
       able to manipulate the selected words.  The line is broken  into  words
       in  the same fashion as when reading input, so that several metacharac-
       ter-separated words surrounded by quotes are considered one word.  His-
       tory  expansions are introduced by the appearance of the history expan-
       sion character, which is ! by default.  Only backslash (\)  and  single
       quotes  can  quote  the  history  expansion  character, but the history
       expansion character is also treated as quoted if  it  immediately  pre-
       cedes the closing double quote in a double-quoted string.

       Several  characters inhibit history expansion if found immediately fol-
       lowing the history expansion character, even if it is unquoted:  space,
       tab,  newline,  carriage return, and =.  If the extglob shell option is
       enabled, ( will also inhibit expansion.

       Several shell options settable with the shopt builtin may  be  used  to
       tailor  the  behavior  of  history  expansion.  If the histverify shell
       option is enabled (see the description of the shopt builtin below), and
       readline  is  being  used,  history  substitutions  are not immediately
       passed to the shell parser.  Instead, the  expanded  line  is  reloaded
       into the readline editing buffer for further modification.  If readline
       is being used, and the histreedit shell option  is  enabled,  a  failed
       history  substitution will be reloaded into the readline editing buffer
       for correction.  The -p option to the history builtin  command  may  be
       used  to  see what a history expansion will do before using it.  The -s
       option to the history builtin may be used to add commands to the end of
       the  history  list  without  actually  executing them, so that they are
       available for subsequent recall.

       The shell allows control of the various characters used by the  history
       expansion mechanism (see the description of histchars above under Shell
       Variables).  The shell uses the history comment character to mark  his-
       tory timestamps when writing the history file.

   Event Designators
       An  event designator is a reference to a command line entry in the his-
       tory list.  Unless the reference is absolute, events  are  relative  to
       the current position in the history list.

       !      Start  a  history substitution, except when followed by a blank,
              newline, carriage return, = or ( (when the extglob shell  option
              is enabled using the shopt builtin).
       !n     Refer to command line n.
       !-n    Refer to the current command minus n.
       !!     Refer to the previous command.  This is a synonym for `!-1'.
       !string
              Refer  to the most recent command preceding the current position
              in the history list starting with string.
       !?string[?]
              Refer to the most recent command preceding the current  position
              in  the  history  list containing string.  The trailing ? may be
              omitted if string is followed  immediately  by  a  newline.   If
              string  is  missing,  the  string from the most recent search is
              used; it is an error if there is no previous search string.
       ^string1^string2^
              Quick substitution.   Repeat  the  previous  command,  replacing
              string1  with  string2.  Equivalent to ``!!:s^string1^string2^''
              (see Modifiers below).
       !#     The entire command line typed so far.

   Word Designators
       Word designators are used to select desired words from the event.  A  :
       separates  the event specification from the word designator.  It may be
       omitted if the word designator begins with a ^, $, *, -, or  %.   Words
       are  numbered from the beginning of the line, with the first word being
       denoted by 0 (zero).  Words are inserted into the  current  line  sepa-
       rated by single spaces.

       0 (zero)
              The zeroth word.  For the shell, this is the command word.
       n      The nth word.
       ^      The first argument.  That is, word 1.
       $      The  last  word.   This  is  usually the last argument, but will
              expand to the zeroth word if there is only one word in the line.
       %      The  first word matched by the most recent `?string?' search, if
              the search string begins with a character  that  is  part  of  a
              word.
       x-y    A range of words; `-y' abbreviates `0-y'.
       *      All  of  the words but the zeroth.  This is a synonym for `1-$'.
              It is not an error to use * if there is just  one  word  in  the
              event; the empty string is returned in that case.
       x*     Abbreviates x-$.
       x-     Abbreviates x-$ like x*, but omits the last word.  If x is miss-
              ing, it defaults to 0.

       If a word designator is supplied without an  event  specification,  the
       previous command is used as the event.

   Modifiers
       After  the optional word designator, there may appear a sequence of one
       or more of the following modifiers, each preceded by a `:'.  These mod-
       ify, or edit, the word or words selected from the history event.

       h      Remove a trailing filename component, leaving only the head.
       t      Remove all leading filename components, leaving the tail.
       r      Remove a trailing suffix of the form .xxx, leaving the basename.
       e      Remove all but the trailing suffix.
       p      Print the new command but do not execute it.
       q      Quote the substituted words, escaping further substitutions.
       x      Quote the substituted words as with q, but break into  words  at
              blanks  and newlines.  The q and x modifiers are mutually exclu-
              sive; the last one supplied is used.
       s/old/new/
              Substitute new for the first occurrence  of  old  in  the  event
              line.  Any character may be used as the delimiter in place of /.
              The final delimiter is optional if it is the last  character  of
              the event line.  The delimiter may be quoted in old and new with
              a single backslash.  If & appears in new, it is replaced by old.
              A  single backslash will quote the &.  If old is null, it is set
              to the last old substituted, or, if no previous history  substi-
              tutions  took  place,  the last string in a !?string[?]  search.
              If new is null, each matching old is deleted.
       &      Repeat the previous substitution.
       g      Cause changes to be applied over the entire event line.  This is
              used  in  conjunction  with `:s' (e.g., `:gs/old/new/') or `:&'.
              If used with `:s', any delimiter can be used in place of /,  and
              the  final  delimiter is optional if it is the last character of
              the event line.  An a may be used as a synonym for g.
       G      Apply the following `s' or `&' modifier once to each word in the
              event line.


SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

       Unless otherwise noted, each builtin command documented in this section
       as accepting options preceded by - accepts -- to signify the end of the
       options.  The :, true, false, and test/[ builtins do not accept options
       and do not treat -- specially.  The exit, logout, return,  break,  con-
       tinue,  let,  and shift builtins accept and process arguments beginning
       with - without requiring --.  Other builtins that accept arguments  but
       are  not  specified  as accepting options interpret arguments beginning
       with - as invalid options and require -- to  prevent  this  interpreta-
       tion.
       : [arguments]
              No  effect;  the command does nothing beyond expanding arguments
              and performing any specified redirections.  The return status is
              zero.

        .  filename [arguments]
       source filename [arguments]
              Read  and  execute  commands  from filename in the current shell
              environment and return the exit status of the last command  exe-
              cuted  from  filename.   If  filename  does not contain a slash,
              filenames in PATH are used  to  find  the  directory  containing
              filename.  The file searched for in PATH need not be executable.
              When bash is  not  in  posix  mode,  the  current  directory  is
              searched  if no file is found in PATH.  If the sourcepath option
              to the shopt builtin command is turned  off,  the  PATH  is  not
              searched.   If any arguments are supplied, they become the posi-
              tional parameters when  filename  is  executed.   Otherwise  the
              positional  parameters  are  unchanged.   If  the  -T  option is
              enabled, source inherits any trap on DEBUG; if it  is  not,  any
              DEBUG  trap  string  is  saved  and  restored around the call to
              source, and source unsets the DEBUG trap while it executes.   If
              -T  is not set, and the sourced file changes the DEBUG trap, the
              new value is retained when source completes.  The return  status
              is the status of the last command exited within the script (0 if
              no commands are executed), and false if filename is not found or
              cannot be read.

       alias [-p] [name[=value] ...]
              Alias with no arguments or with the -p option prints the list of
              aliases in the form alias name=value on standard  output.   When
              arguments  are supplied, an alias is defined for each name whose
              value is given.  A trailing space in value causes the next  word
              to be checked for alias substitution when the alias is expanded.
              For each name in the argument list for which no  value  is  sup-
              plied,  the  name  and  value  of  the  alias is printed.  Alias
              returns true unless a name is given for which no alias has  been
              defined.

       bg [jobspec ...]
              Resume  each  suspended  job jobspec in the background, as if it
              had been started with &.  If jobspec is not present, the shell's
              notion  of the current job is used.  bg jobspec returns 0 unless
              run when job control is disabled or, when run with  job  control
              enabled,  any  specified  jobspec  was  not found or was started
              without job control.

       bind [-m keymap] [-lpsvPSVX]
       bind [-m keymap] [-q function] [-u function] [-r keyseq]
       bind [-m keymap] -f filename
       bind [-m keymap] -x keyseq:shell-command
       bind [-m keymap] keyseq:function-name
       bind [-m keymap] keyseq:readline-command
              Display current readline key and function bindings, bind  a  key
              sequence  to  a  readline  function  or macro, or set a readline
              variable.  Each non-option argument is a  command  as  it  would
              appear  in  .inputrc, but each binding or command must be passed
              as a separate argument; e.g.,  '"\C-x\C-r":  re-read-init-file'.
              Options, if supplied, have the following meanings:
              -m keymap
                     Use keymap as the keymap to be affected by the subsequent
                     bindings.  Acceptable keymap names are emacs, emacs-stan-
                     dard,  emacs-meta,  emacs-ctlx,  vi, vi-move, vi-command,
                     and vi-insert.  vi is equivalent to  vi-command  (vi-move
                     is  also  a  synonym); emacs is equivalent to emacs-stan-
                     dard.
              -l     List the names of all readline functions.
              -p     Display readline function names and bindings  in  such  a
                     way that they can be re-read.
              -P     List current readline function names and bindings.
              -s     Display  readline  key  sequences bound to macros and the
                     strings they output in such a way that they  can  be  re-
                     read.
              -S     Display  readline  key  sequences bound to macros and the
                     strings they output.
              -v     Display readline variable names and values in such a  way
                     that they can be re-read.
              -V     List current readline variable names and values.
              -f filename
                     Read key bindings from filename.
              -q function
                     Query about which keys invoke the named function.
              -u function
                     Unbind all keys bound to the named function.
              -r keyseq
                     Remove any current binding for keyseq.
              -x keyseq:shell-command
                     Cause  shell-command  to  be  executed whenever keyseq is
                     entered.  When shell-command is executed, the shell  sets
                     the  READLINE_LINE  variable to the contents of the read-
                     line line buffer and the READLINE_POINT and READLINE_MARK
                     variables  to the current location of the insertion point
                     and the saved insertion point (the  mark),  respectively.
                     If the executed command changes the value of any of READ-
                     LINE_LINE, READLINE_POINT, or  READLINE_MARK,  those  new
                     values will be reflected in the editing state.
              -X     List  all  key  sequences bound to shell commands and the
                     associated commands in a format that  can  be  reused  as
                     input.

              The  return value is 0 unless an unrecognized option is given or
              an error occurred.

       break [n]
              Exit from within a for, while, until, or select loop.  If  n  is
              specified,  break  n  levels.   n must be >= 1.  If n is greater
              than the number of enclosing  loops,  all  enclosing  loops  are
              exited.   The  return value is 0 unless n is not greater than or
              equal to 1.

       builtin shell-builtin [arguments]
              Execute the specified shell builtin, passing it  arguments,  and
              return its exit status.  This is useful when defining a function
              whose name is the same as a shell builtin, retaining  the  func-
              tionality of the builtin within the function.  The cd builtin is
              commonly redefined this way.  The  return  status  is  false  if
              shell-builtin is not a shell builtin command.

       caller [expr]
              Returns the context of any active subroutine call (a shell func-
              tion or a script executed with the . or source builtins).  With-
              out expr, caller displays the line number and source filename of
              the current subroutine call.  If a non-negative integer is  sup-
              plied as expr, caller displays the line number, subroutine name,
              and source file corresponding to that position  in  the  current
              execution  call  stack.  This extra information may be used, for
              example, to print a stack trace.  The current frame is frame  0.
              The  return  value is 0 unless the shell is not executing a sub-
              routine call or expr does not correspond to a valid position  in
              the call stack.

       cd [-L|[-P [-e]] [-@]] [dir]
              Change  the  current  directory to dir.  if dir is not supplied,
              the value of the HOME shell variable is the default.  Any  addi-
              tional arguments following dir are ignored.  The variable CDPATH
              defines the search path for the directory containing  dir:  each
              directory  name  in  CDPATH  is  searched  for dir.  Alternative
              directory names in CDPATH are separated by a colon (:).  A  null
              directory  name  in CDPATH is the same as the current directory,
              i.e., ``.''.  If dir begins with a slash (/), then CDPATH is not
              used.   The  -P  option  causes cd to use the physical directory
              structure by resolving symbolic links while traversing  dir  and
              before processing instances of .. in dir (see also the -P option
              to the set builtin command); the -L option forces symbolic links
              to  be followed by resolving the link after processing instances
              of .. in dir.  If .. appears in dir, it is processed by removing
              the  immediately previous pathname component from dir, back to a
              slash or the beginning of dir.  If the  -e  option  is  supplied
              with  -P,  and  the current working directory cannot be success-
              fully determined after a successful directory  change,  cd  will
              return  an unsuccessful status.  On systems that support it, the
              -@ option presents the extended  attributes  associated  with  a
              file  as  a directory.  An argument of - is converted to $OLDPWD
              before the directory change is attempted.  If a non-empty direc-
              tory  name  from  CDPATH is used, or if - is the first argument,
              and the directory change is successful, the absolute pathname of
              the  new  working  directory  is written to the standard output.
              The return value is  true  if  the  directory  was  successfully
              changed; false otherwise.

       command [-pVv] command [arg ...]
              Run  command  with  args  suppressing  the normal shell function
              lookup.  Only builtin commands or commands found in the PATH are
              executed.   If the -p option is given, the search for command is
              performed using a default value for PATH that is  guaranteed  to
              find  all  of  the  standard  utilities.  If either the -V or -v
              option is supplied, a description of command is printed.  The -v
              option  causes  a single word indicating the command or filename
              used to invoke command to be displayed; the -V option produces a
              more  verbose  description.  If the -V or -v option is supplied,
              the exit status is 0 if command was found, and  1  if  not.   If
              neither option is supplied and an error occurred or command can-
              not be found, the exit status is 127.  Otherwise, the exit  sta-
              tus of the command builtin is the exit status of command.

       compgen [option] [word]
              Generate  possible  completion matches for word according to the
              options, which may  be  any  option  accepted  by  the  complete
              builtin  with  the exception of -p and -r, and write the matches
              to the standard output.  When using the -F or  -C  options,  the
              various  shell  variables  set  by  the  programmable completion
              facilities, while available, will not have useful values.

              The matches will be generated in the same way  as  if  the  pro-
              grammable  completion  code  had  generated them directly from a
              completion specification with the same flags.  If word is speci-
              fied, only those completions matching word will be displayed.

              The  return  value is true unless an invalid option is supplied,
              or no matches were generated.

       complete [-abcdefgjksuv] [-o comp-option] [-DEI] [-A action] [-G  glob-
       pat] [-W wordlist]
              [-F function] [-C command] [-X filterpat] [-P prefix]  [-S  suf-
              fix] name [name ...]
       complete -pr [-DEI] [name ...]
              Specify  how arguments to each name should be completed.  If the
              -p option is supplied, or if no options are  supplied,  existing
              completion  specifications are printed in a way that allows them
              to be reused as input.  The -r option removes a completion spec-
              ification  for each name, or, if no names are supplied, all com-
              pletion specifications.  The -D option indicates that other sup-
              plied  options  and actions should apply to the ``default'' com-
              mand completion; that is, completion attempted on a command  for
              which  no completion has previously been defined.  The -E option
              indicates that other supplied options and actions  should  apply
              to  ``empty''  command completion; that is, completion attempted
              on a blank line.  The -I option indicates  that  other  supplied
              options  and  actions  should apply to completion on the initial
              non-assignment word on the line, or after  a  command  delimiter
              such  as  ;  or |, which is usually command name completion.  If
              multiple options are supplied, the -D  option  takes  precedence
              over -E, and both take precedence over -I.  If any of -D, -E, or
              -I are supplied, any other name  arguments  are  ignored;  these
              completions only apply to the case specified by the option.

              The  process  of  applying  these completion specifications when
              word completion is  attempted  is  described  above  under  Pro-
              grammable Completion.

              Other  options,  if specified, have the following meanings.  The
              arguments to the -G, -W, and -X options (and, if necessary,  the
              -P  and -S options) should be quoted to protect them from expan-
              sion before the complete builtin is invoked.
              -o comp-option
                      The comp-option controls several aspects  of  the  comp-
                      spec's  behavior beyond the simple generation of comple-
                      tions.  comp-option may be one of:
                      bashdefault
                              Perform the rest of the default bash completions
                              if the compspec generates no matches.
                      default Use  readline's  default  filename completion if
                              the compspec generates no matches.
                      dirnames
                              Perform directory name completion if  the  comp-
                              spec generates no matches.
                      filenames
                              Tell  readline that the compspec generates file-
                              names, so it can perform  any  filename-specific
                              processing  (like  adding  a  slash to directory
                              names, quoting special characters, or  suppress-
                              ing  trailing spaces).  Intended to be used with
                              shell functions.
                      noquote Tell readline not to quote the  completed  words
                              if  they are filenames (quoting filenames is the
                              default).
                      nosort  Tell readline not to sort the list  of  possible
                              completions alphabetically.
                      nospace Tell   readline  not  to  append  a  space  (the
                              default) to words completed at the  end  of  the
                              line.
                      plusdirs
                              After  any  matches  defined by the compspec are
                              generated,   directory   name   completion    is
                              attempted  and  any  matches  are  added  to the
                              results of the other actions.
              -A action
                      The action may be one of the  following  to  generate  a
                      list of possible completions:
                      alias   Alias names.  May also be specified as -a.
                      arrayvar
                              Array variable names.
                      binding Readline key binding names.
                      builtin Names  of  shell  builtin commands.  May also be
                              specified as -b.
                      command Command names.  May also be specified as -c.
                      directory
                              Directory names.  May also be specified as -d.
                      disabled
                              Names of disabled shell builtins.
                      enabled Names of enabled shell builtins.
                      export  Names of exported shell variables.  May also  be
                              specified as -e.
                      file    File names.  May also be specified as -f.
                      function
                              Names of shell functions.
                      group   Group names.  May also be specified as -g.
                      helptopic
                              Help topics as accepted by the help builtin.
                      hostname
                              Hostnames,  as  taken from the file specified by
                              the HOSTFILE shell variable.
                      job     Job names, if job control is active.   May  also
                              be specified as -j.
                      keyword Shell  reserved words.  May also be specified as
                              -k.
                      running Names of running jobs, if job control is active.
                      service Service names.  May also be specified as -s.
                      setopt  Valid  arguments  for  the  -o option to the set
                              builtin.
                      shopt   Shell option names  as  accepted  by  the  shopt
                              builtin.
                      signal  Signal names.
                      stopped Names of stopped jobs, if job control is active.
                      user    User names.  May also be specified as -u.
                      variable
                              Names of all shell variables.  May also be spec-
                              ified as -v.
              -C command
                      command  is  executed in a subshell environment, and its
                      output is used as the possible completions.
              -F function
                      The shell function function is executed in  the  current
                      shell  environment.   When the function is executed, the
                      first argument ($1) is the name  of  the  command  whose
                      arguments  are being completed, the second argument ($2)
                      is the word being completed, and the third argument ($3)
                      is  the  word  preceding the word being completed on the
                      current command line.  When it  finishes,  the  possible
                      completions  are retrieved from the value of the COMPRE-
                      PLY array variable.
              -G globpat
                      The pathname expansion pattern globpat  is  expanded  to
                      generate the possible completions.
              -P prefix
                      prefix  is  added at the beginning of each possible com-
                      pletion after all other options have been applied.
              -S suffix
                      suffix is appended to each possible completion after all
                      other options have been applied.
              -W wordlist
                      The  wordlist  is  split using the characters in the IFS
                      special variable as delimiters, and each resultant  word
                      is  expanded.  Shell quoting is honored within wordlist,
                      in order to provide a mechanism for the words to contain
                      shell  metacharacters or characters in the value of IFS.
                      The possible completions are the members of  the  resul-
                      tant list which match the word being completed.
              -X filterpat
                      filterpat  is  a pattern as used for pathname expansion.
                      It is applied to the list of possible completions gener-
                      ated  by  the  preceding options and arguments, and each
                      completion matching filterpat is removed from the  list.
                      A  leading  !  in filterpat negates the pattern; in this
                      case, any completion not matching filterpat is  removed.

              The  return  value is true unless an invalid option is supplied,
              an option other than -p or -r is supplied without a  name  argu-
              ment,  an  attempt  is made to remove a completion specification
              for a name for which no specification exists, or an error occurs
              adding a completion specification.

       compopt [-o option] [-DEI] [+o option] [name]
              Modify  completion  options  for  each  name  according  to  the
              options, or for the currently-executing completion if  no  names
              are  supplied.   If no options are given, display the completion
              options for each name or the current completion.   The  possible
              values  of  option  are  those  valid  for  the complete builtin
              described above.  The -D option indicates  that  other  supplied
              options should apply to the ``default'' command completion; that
              is, completion attempted on a command for  which  no  completion
              has previously been defined.  The -E option indicates that other
              supplied options should apply to ``empty''  command  completion;
              that  is,  completion  attempted on a blank line.  The -I option
              indicates that other supplied options should apply to completion
              on  the initial non-assignment word on the line, or after a com-
              mand delimiter such as ; or |, which  is  usually  command  name
              completion.

              The  return  value is true unless an invalid option is supplied,
              an attempt is made to modify the options for a name for which no
              completion specification exists, or an output error occurs.

       continue [n]
              Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, or
              select loop.  If n is specified, resume  at  the  nth  enclosing
              loop.   n  must  be  >=  1.   If n is greater than the number of
              enclosing loops, the  last  enclosing  loop  (the  ``top-level''
              loop) is resumed.  The return value is 0 unless n is not greater
              than or equal to 1.

       declare [-aAfFgiIlnrtux] [-p] [name[=value] ...]
       typeset [-aAfFgiIlnrtux] [-p] [name[=value] ...]
              Declare variables and/or give them attributes.  If no names  are
              given  then display the values of variables.  The -p option will
              display the attributes and values of each name.  When -p is used
              with  name  arguments, additional options, other than -f and -F,
              are ignored.  When -p is supplied  without  name  arguments,  it
              will  display  the attributes and values of all variables having
              the attributes specified by the additional options.  If no other
              options   are   supplied  with  -p,  declare  will  display  the
              attributes and values of all shell  variables.   The  -f  option
              will  restrict  the  display  to shell functions.  The -F option
              inhibits the display of function definitions; only the  function
              name  and  attributes are printed.  If the extdebug shell option
              is enabled using shopt, the source file  name  and  line  number
              where each name is defined are displayed as well.  The -F option
              implies -f.  The -g option forces variables  to  be  created  or
              modified at the global scope, even when declare is executed in a
              shell function.  It is ignored  in  all  other  cases.   The  -I
              option  causes local variables to inherit the attributes (except
              the nameref attribute) and value of any existing  variable  with
              the  same  name at a surrounding scope.  If there is no existing
              variable, the local variable is initially unset.  The  following
              options  can  be  used  to restrict output to variables with the
              specified attribute or to give variables attributes:
              -a     Each name  is  an  indexed  array  variable  (see  Arrays
                     above).
              -A     Each  name  is  an associative array variable (see Arrays
                     above).
              -f     Use function names only.
              -i     The variable is treated as an integer; arithmetic evalua-
                     tion  (see ARITHMETIC EVALUATION above) is performed when
                     the variable is assigned a value.
              -l     When the variable is assigned  a  value,  all  upper-case
                     characters  are  converted to lower-case.  The upper-case
                     attribute is disabled.
              -n     Give each name the nameref attribute, making  it  a  name
                     reference  to  another  variable.  That other variable is
                     defined by the value of name.   All  references,  assign-
                     ments,  and attribute modifications to name, except those
                     using or changing the -n attribute itself, are  performed
                     on  the variable referenced by name's value.  The nameref
                     attribute cannot be applied to array variables.
              -r     Make names readonly.  These names cannot then be assigned
                     values by subsequent assignment statements or unset.
              -t     Give  each  name  the  trace attribute.  Traced functions
                     inherit the DEBUG  and  RETURN  traps  from  the  calling
                     shell.   The  trace  attribute has no special meaning for
                     variables.
              -u     When the variable is assigned  a  value,  all  lower-case
                     characters  are  converted to upper-case.  The lower-case
                     attribute is disabled.
              -x     Mark names for export  to  subsequent  commands  via  the
                     environment.

              Using  `+'  instead of `-' turns off the attribute instead, with
              the exceptions that +a and +A may not be used to  destroy  array
              variables  and  +r will not remove the readonly attribute.  When
              used in a function, declare and typeset make each name local, as
              with  the local command, unless the -g option is supplied.  If a
              variable name is followed by =value, the value of  the  variable
              is  set  to value.  When using -a or -A and the compound assign-
              ment syntax to create array variables, additional attributes  do
              not  take effect until subsequent assignments.  The return value
              is 0 unless an invalid option is encountered, an attempt is made
              to define a function using ``-f foo=bar'', an attempt is made to
              assign a value to a readonly variable, an  attempt  is  made  to
              assign  a  value to an array variable without using the compound
              assignment syntax (see Arrays above), one of the names is not  a
              valid  shell variable name, an attempt is made to turn off read-
              only status for a readonly variable, an attempt is made to  turn
              off array status for an array variable, or an attempt is made to
              display a non-existent function with -f.

       dirs [-clpv] [+n] [-n]
              Without options,  displays  the  list  of  currently  remembered
              directories.   The  default  display  is  on  a single line with
              directory names separated by spaces.  Directories are  added  to
              the  list  with  the  pushd  command;  the  popd command removes
              entries from the list.  The  current  directory  is  always  the
              first directory in the stack.
              -c     Clears  the  directory  stack  by  deleting  all  of  the
                     entries.
              -l     Produces a listing  using  full  pathnames;  the  default
                     listing format uses a tilde to denote the home directory.
              -p     Print the directory stack with one entry per line.
              -v     Print the directory stack with one entry per  line,  pre-
                     fixing each entry with its index in the stack.
              +n     Displays the nth entry counting from the left of the list
                     shown by dirs when invoked without options, starting with
                     zero.
              -n     Displays  the  nth  entry  counting from the right of the
                     list shown by dirs when invoked without options, starting
                     with zero.

              The  return value is 0 unless an invalid option is supplied or n
              indexes beyond the end of the directory stack.

       disown [-ar] [-h] [jobspec ... | pid ... ]
              Without options, remove each jobspec from the  table  of  active
              jobs.   If jobspec is not present, and neither the -a nor the -r
              option is supplied, the current job is used.  If the  -h  option
              is  given,  each  jobspec  is not removed from the table, but is
              marked so that SIGHUP is not  sent  to  the  job  if  the  shell
              receives  a  SIGHUP.   If  no jobspec is supplied, the -a option
              means to remove or mark all jobs; the -r option without  a  job-
              spec  argument  restricts operation to running jobs.  The return
              value is 0 unless a jobspec does not specify a valid job.

       echo [-neE] [arg ...]
              Output the args, separated by spaces,  followed  by  a  newline.
              The  return  status  is 0 unless a write error occurs.  If -n is
              specified, the trailing newline is suppressed.  If the -e option
              is  given,  interpretation  of  the  following backslash-escaped
              characters is enabled.  The -E option disables  the  interpreta-
              tion  of these escape characters, even on systems where they are
              interpreted by default.  The xpg_echo shell option may  be  used
              to  dynamically  determine  whether  or  not  echo expands these
              escape characters by default.  echo does  not  interpret  --  to
              mean  the  end of options.  echo interprets the following escape
              sequences:
              \a     alert (bell)
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress further output
              \e
              \E     an escape character
              \f     form feed
              \n     new line
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0nnn  the eight-bit character whose value is  the  octal  value
                     nnn (zero to three octal digits)
              \xHH   the  eight-bit  character  whose value is the hexadecimal
                     value HH (one or two hex digits)
              \uHHHH the Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) character whose value is  the
                     hexadecimal value HHHH (one to four hex digits)
              \UHHHHHHHH
                     the  Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) character whose value is the
                     hexadecimal value HHHHHHHH (one to eight hex digits)

       enable [-a] [-dnps] [-f filename] [name ...]
              Enable and disable builtin shell commands.  Disabling a  builtin
              allows a disk command which has the same name as a shell builtin
              to be executed without specifying a full pathname,  even  though
              the  shell  normally searches for builtins before disk commands.
              If -n is used, each  name  is  disabled;  otherwise,  names  are
              enabled.  For example, to use the test binary found via the PATH
              instead of the shell builtin version, run  ``enable  -n  test''.
              The  -f  option  means to load the new builtin command name from
              shared object filename, on systems that support dynamic loading.
              The  -d  option will delete a builtin previously loaded with -f.
              If no name arguments are given, or if the -p option is supplied,
              a list of shell builtins is printed.  With no other option argu-
              ments, the list consists of all enabled shell builtins.   If  -n
              is  supplied, only disabled builtins are printed.  If -a is sup-
              plied, the list printed includes all builtins, with  an  indica-
              tion  of whether or not each is enabled.  If -s is supplied, the
              output is restricted to the POSIX special builtins.  The  return
              value  is  0 unless a name is not a shell builtin or there is an
              error loading a new builtin from a shared object.

       eval [arg ...]
              The args are read and concatenated together into a  single  com-
              mand.   This command is then read and executed by the shell, and
              its exit status is returned as the value of eval.  If there  are
              no args, or only null arguments, eval returns 0.

       exec [-cl] [-a name] [command [arguments]]
              If  command is specified, it replaces the shell.  No new process
              is created.  The arguments become the arguments to command.   If
              the -l option is supplied, the shell places a dash at the begin-
              ning of the zeroth argument passed to  command.   This  is  what
              login(1) does.  The -c option causes command to be executed with
              an empty environment.  If -a is supplied, the shell passes  name
              as the zeroth argument to the executed command.  If command can-
              not be executed for some reason, a non-interactive shell  exits,
              unless  the  execfail shell option is enabled.  In that case, it
              returns failure.  An interactive shell returns  failure  if  the
              file  cannot  be  executed.  A subshell exits unconditionally if
              exec fails.  If command is not specified, any redirections  take
              effect  in  the  current  shell, and the return status is 0.  If
              there is a redirection error, the return status is 1.

       exit [n]
              Cause the shell to exit with a status of n.  If  n  is  omitted,
              the exit status is that of the last command executed.  A trap on
              EXIT is executed before the shell terminates.

       export [-fn] [name[=word]] ...
       export -p
              The supplied names are marked for automatic export to the  envi-
              ronment  of subsequently executed commands.  If the -f option is
              given, the names refer to functions.  If no names are given,  or
              if  the  -p  option is supplied, a list of names of all exported
              variables is printed.  The -n option causes the export  property
              to be removed from each name.  If a variable name is followed by
              =word, the value of the variable is set to word.  export returns
              an exit status of 0 unless an invalid option is encountered, one
              of the names is not a valid shell variable name, or -f  is  sup-
              plied with a name that is not a function.

       fc [-e ename] [-lnr] [first] [last]
       fc -s [pat=rep] [cmd]
              The  first  form  selects a range of commands from first to last
              from the history list and  displays  or  edits  and  re-executes
              them.   First  and  last may be specified as a string (to locate
              the last command beginning with that string) or as a number  (an
              index  into the history list, where a negative number is used as
              an offset from the current command  number).   When  listing,  a
              first  or  last of 0 is equivalent to -1 and -0 is equivalent to
              the current command (usually the fc  command);  otherwise  0  is
              equivalent  to  -1 and -0 is invalid.  If last is not specified,
              it is set to the current command for listing (so  that  ``fc  -l
              -10''  prints  the last 10 commands) and to first otherwise.  If
              first is not specified, it is set to the  previous  command  for
              editing and -16 for listing.

              The  -n option suppresses the command numbers when listing.  The
              -r option reverses the order of the commands.  If the -l  option
              is  given,  the  commands are listed on standard output.  Other-
              wise, the editor given by ename is invoked on a file  containing
              those  commands.  If ename is not given, the value of the FCEDIT
              variable is used, and the value of EDITOR if FCEDIT is not  set.
              If  neither  variable  is set, vi is used.  When editing is com-
              plete, the edited commands are echoed and executed.

              In the second form, command is re-executed after  each  instance
              of  pat  is replaced by rep.  Command is interpreted the same as
              first above.  A useful alias to use with this is ``r="fc  -s"'',
              so  that  typing  ``r  cc'' runs the last command beginning with
              ``cc'' and typing ``r'' re-executes the last command.

              If the first form is used, the  return  value  is  0  unless  an
              invalid  option  is encountered or first or last specify history
              lines out of range.  If the -e option is  supplied,  the  return
              value is the value of the last command executed or failure if an
              error occurs with the temporary file of commands.  If the second
              form  is  used, the return status is that of the command re-exe-
              cuted, unless cmd does not specify  a  valid  history  line,  in
              which case fc returns failure.

       fg [jobspec]
              Resume  jobspec  in the foreground, and make it the current job.
              If jobspec is not present, the shell's notion of the current job
              is  used.   The  return value is that of the command placed into
              the foreground, or failure if run when job control  is  disabled
              or, when run with job control enabled, if jobspec does not spec-
              ify a valid job or jobspec specifies  a  job  that  was  started
              without job control.

       getopts optstring name [arg ...]
              getopts  is used by shell procedures to parse positional parame-
              ters.  optstring contains the option  characters  to  be  recog-
              nized;  if  a  character  is  followed by a colon, the option is
              expected to have an argument, which should be separated from  it
              by  white space.  The colon and question mark characters may not
              be used as option characters.  Each time it is invoked,  getopts
              places  the next option in the shell variable name, initializing
              name if it does not exist, and the index of the next argument to
              be processed into the variable OPTIND.  OPTIND is initialized to
              1 each time the shell or a shell script  is  invoked.   When  an
              option  requires  an argument, getopts places that argument into
              the variable OPTARG.  The shell does not reset OPTIND  automati-
              cally;  it  must  be  manually  reset  between multiple calls to
              getopts within the same shell invocation if a new set of parame-
              ters is to be used.

              When  the  end  of  options is encountered, getopts exits with a
              return value greater than zero.  OPTIND is set to the  index  of
              the first non-option argument, and name is set to ?.

              getopts  normally  parses the positional parameters, but if more
              arguments are supplied  as  arg  values,  getopts  parses  those
              instead.

              getopts  can  report errors in two ways.  If the first character
              of optstring is a colon, silent error  reporting  is  used.   In
              normal  operation,  diagnostic messages are printed when invalid
              options or missing option arguments  are  encountered.   If  the
              variable  OPTERR  is  set  to  0, no error messages will be dis-
              played, even if the first character of optstring is not a colon.

              If an invalid option is seen, getopts places ? into name and, if
              not silent, prints an  error  message  and  unsets  OPTARG.   If
              getopts  is  silent,  the  option  character  found is placed in
              OPTARG and no diagnostic message is printed.

              If a required argument is not found, and getopts is not  silent,
              a  question  mark  (?) is placed in name, OPTARG is unset, and a
              diagnostic message is printed.  If getopts  is  silent,  then  a
              colon  (:)  is  placed  in  name and OPTARG is set to the option
              character found.

              getopts returns true if an option, specified or unspecified,  is
              found.  It returns false if the end of options is encountered or
              an error occurs.

       hash [-lr] [-p filename] [-dt] [name]
              Each time hash is invoked, the full pathname of the command name
              is  determined  by searching the directories in $PATH and remem-
              bered.  Any previously-remembered pathname is discarded.  If the
              -p option is supplied, no path search is performed, and filename
              is used as the full filename of  the  command.   The  -r  option
              causes  the  shell  to  forget all remembered locations.  The -d
              option causes the shell to forget  the  remembered  location  of
              each  name.   If the -t option is supplied, the full pathname to
              which each name corresponds is printed.  If multiple name  argu-
              ments  are  supplied  with  -t,  the  name is printed before the
              hashed full pathname.  The -l option causes output  to  be  dis-
              played in a format that may be reused as input.  If no arguments
              are given, or if only -l is supplied, information  about  remem-
              bered  commands  is printed.  The return status is true unless a
              name is not found or an invalid option is supplied.

       help [-dms] [pattern]
              Display helpful information about builtin commands.  If  pattern
              is  specified, help gives detailed help on all commands matching
              pattern; otherwise help for all the builtins and  shell  control
              structures is printed.
              -d     Display a short description of each pattern
              -m     Display the description of each pattern in a manpage-like
                     format
              -s     Display only a short usage synopsis for each pattern

              The return status is 0 unless no command matches pattern.

       history [n]
       history -c
       history -d offset
       history -d start-end
       history -anrw [filename]
       history -p arg [arg ...]
       history -s arg [arg ...]
              With no options, display the command history list with line num-
              bers.  Lines listed with a * have been modified.  An argument of
              n lists only the last n lines.  If the shell variable  HISTTIME-
              FORMAT  is  set  and not null, it is used as a format string for
              strftime(3) to display the time stamp associated with each  dis-
              played  history  entry.  No intervening blank is printed between
              the formatted time stamp and the history line.  If  filename  is
              supplied,  it  is  used as the name of the history file; if not,
              the value of HISTFILE is used.  Options, if supplied,  have  the
              following meanings:
              -c     Clear the history list by deleting all the entries.
              -d offset
                     Delete  the  history entry at position offset.  If offset
                     is negative, it is interpreted as relative to one greater
                     than the last history position, so negative indices count
                     back from the end of the history,  and  an  index  of  -1
                     refers to the current history -d command.
              -d start-end
                     Delete  the  history  entries between positions start and
                     end, inclusive.  Positive and negative values  for  start
                     and end are interpreted as described above.
              -a     Append  the  ``new''  history  lines to the history file.
                     These are history lines entered since  the  beginning  of
                     the current bash session, but not already appended to the
                     history file.
              -n     Read the history lines not already read from the  history
                     file  into  the  current  history  list.  These are lines
                     appended to the history file since the beginning  of  the
                     current bash session.
              -r     Read  the contents of the history file and append them to
                     the current history list.
              -w     Write the current history list to the history file, over-
                     writing the history file's contents.
              -p     Perform  history  substitution  on the following args and
                     display the result on  the  standard  output.   Does  not
                     store  the results in the history list.  Each arg must be
                     quoted to disable normal history expansion.
              -s     Store the args in the history list  as  a  single  entry.
                     The  last  command  in the history list is removed before
                     the args are added.

              If the HISTTIMEFORMAT variable is set, the time  stamp  informa-
              tion  associated  with each history entry is written to the his-
              tory file, marked with the history comment character.  When  the
              history  file  is read, lines beginning with the history comment
              character followed immediately by a  digit  are  interpreted  as
              timestamps for the following history entry.  The return value is
              0 unless an invalid option is encountered, an error occurs while
              reading  or  writing the history file, an invalid offset is sup-
              plied as an argument to -d, or the history expansion supplied as
              an argument to -p fails.

       jobs [-lnprs] [ jobspec ... ]
       jobs -x command [ args ... ]
              The first form lists the active jobs.  The options have the fol-
              lowing meanings:
              -l     List process IDs in addition to the normal information.
              -n     Display information only about  jobs  that  have  changed
                     status  since the user was last notified of their status.
              -p     List only the process  ID  of  the  job's  process  group
                     leader.
              -r     Display only running jobs.
              -s     Display only stopped jobs.

              If  jobspec  is given, output is restricted to information about
              that job.  The return status is 0 unless an  invalid  option  is
              encountered or an invalid jobspec is supplied.

              If the -x option is supplied, jobs replaces any jobspec found in
              command or args with the corresponding  process  group  ID,  and
              executes command passing it args, returning its exit status.

       kill [-s sigspec | -n signum | -sigspec] [pid | jobspec] ...
       kill -l|-L [sigspec | exit_status]
              Send  the  signal  named  by  sigspec or signum to the processes
              named by pid or jobspec.  sigspec is either  a  case-insensitive
              signal  name such as SIGKILL (with or without the SIG prefix) or
              a signal number; signum is a signal number.  If sigspec  is  not
              present,  then  SIGTERM is assumed.  An argument of -l lists the
              signal names.  If any arguments are supplied when -l  is  given,
              the  names  of  the  signals  corresponding to the arguments are
              listed, and the return status is 0.  The exit_status argument to
              -l  is  a  number  specifying either a signal number or the exit
              status of a process terminated by a signal.  The  -L  option  is
              equivalent  to -l.  kill returns true if at least one signal was
              successfully sent, or false if an error  occurs  or  an  invalid
              option is encountered.

       let arg [arg ...]
              Each arg is an arithmetic expression to be evaluated (see ARITH-
              METIC EVALUATION above).  If the last arg evaluates  to  0,  let
              returns 1; 0 is returned otherwise.

       local [option] [name[=value] ... | - ]
              For  each  argument, a local variable named name is created, and
              assigned value.  The option can be any of the  options  accepted
              by declare.  When local is used within a function, it causes the
              variable name to have a visible scope restricted to  that  func-
              tion  and  its children.  If name is -, the set of shell options
              is made local to the function in which local is  invoked:  shell
              options  changed  using  the set builtin inside the function are
              restored to their original values  when  the  function  returns.
              The restore is effected as if a series of set commands were exe-
              cuted to restore the values that were in place before the  func-
              tion.   With no operands, local writes a list of local variables
              to the standard output.  It is an error to use  local  when  not
              within  a function.  The return status is 0 unless local is used
              outside a function, an invalid name is supplied, or  name  is  a
              readonly variable.

       logout Exit a login shell.

       mapfile  [-d  delim] [-n count] [-O origin] [-s count] [-t] [-u fd] [-C
       callback] [-c quantum] [array]
       readarray [-d delim] [-n count] [-O origin] [-s count] [-t] [-u fd] [-C
       callback] [-c quantum] [array]
              Read  lines from the standard input into the indexed array vari-
              able array, or from file descriptor fd if the -u option is  sup-
              plied.   The variable MAPFILE is the default array.  Options, if
              supplied, have the following meanings:
              -d     The first character of delim is used  to  terminate  each
                     input  line,  rather than newline.  If delim is the empty
                     string, mapfile will terminate a line when it reads a NUL
                     character.
              -n     Copy  at  most count lines.  If count is 0, all lines are
                     copied.
              -O     Begin assigning to array at index  origin.   The  default
                     index is 0.
              -s     Discard the first count lines read.
              -t     Remove  a trailing delim (default newline) from each line
                     read.
              -u     Read lines from file descriptor fd instead of  the  stan-
                     dard input.
              -C     Evaluate  callback each time quantum lines are read.  The
                     -c option specifies quantum.
              -c     Specify the number of lines read  between  each  call  to
                     callback.

              If  -C  is  specified  without  -c, the default quantum is 5000.
              When callback is evaluated, it is supplied the index of the next
              array element to be assigned and the line to be assigned to that
              element as additional arguments.  callback  is  evaluated  after
              the line is read but before the array element is assigned.

              If  not  supplied  with  an  explicit origin, mapfile will clear
              array before assigning to it.

              mapfile returns successfully unless an invalid option or  option
              argument  is  supplied,  array is invalid or unassignable, or if
              array is not an indexed array.

       popd [-n] [+n] [-n]
              Removes entries from the directory stack.   With  no  arguments,
              removes  the  top directory from the stack, and performs a cd to
              the new top directory.  Arguments, if supplied, have the follow-
              ing meanings:
              -n     Suppresses  the  normal change of directory when removing
                     directories from the stack, so that  only  the  stack  is
                     manipulated.
              +n     Removes  the nth entry counting from the left of the list
                     shown by dirs, starting with zero.  For  example:  ``popd
                     +0'' removes the first directory, ``popd +1'' the second.
              -n     Removes the nth entry counting from the right of the list
                     shown  by  dirs, starting with zero.  For example: ``popd
                     -0'' removes the last directory, ``popd -1'' the next  to
                     last.

              If  the popd command is successful, a dirs is performed as well,
              and the return status is 0.  popd returns false  if  an  invalid
              option is encountered, the directory stack is empty, a non-exis-
              tent directory stack entry is specified, or the directory change
              fails.

       printf [-v var] format [arguments]
              Write  the  formatted arguments to the standard output under the
              control of the format.  The -v option causes the  output  to  be
              assigned  to  the  variable var rather than being printed to the
              standard output.

              The format is a character string which contains three  types  of
              objects:  plain  characters, which are simply copied to standard
              output, character escape  sequences,  which  are  converted  and
              copied  to  the standard output, and format specifications, each
              of which causes printing of the next  successive  argument.   In
              addition to the standard printf(1) format specifications, printf
              interprets the following extensions:
              %b     causes printf to expand backslash escape sequences in the
                     corresponding argument in the same way as echo -e.
              %q     causes  printf  to output the corresponding argument in a
                     format that can be reused as shell input.
              %(datefmt)T
                     causes printf to output the  date-time  string  resulting
                     from  using  datefmt  as a format string for strftime(3).
                     The corresponding argument is an integer representing the
                     number  of seconds since the epoch.  Two special argument
                     values may be used: -1 represents the current  time,  and
                     -2  represents  the  time  the  shell was invoked.  If no
                     argument is specified, conversion behaves as  if  -1  had
                     been  given.   This  is  an exception to the usual printf
                     behavior.

              The %b, %q, and %T directives all use the field width and preci-
              sion arguments from the format specification and write that many
              bytes from (or use that wide a field for) the expanded argument,
              which usually contains more characters than the original.

              Arguments  to non-string format specifiers are treated as C con-
              stants, except that a leading plus or minus sign is allowed, and
              if  the leading character is a single or double quote, the value
              is the ASCII value of the following character.

              The format is reused as necessary to consume all  of  the  argu-
              ments.  If the format requires more arguments than are supplied,
              the extra format specifications behave as if  a  zero  value  or
              null  string,  as  appropriate,  had  been supplied.  The return
              value is zero on success, non-zero on failure.

       pushd [-n] [+n] [-n]
       pushd [-n] [dir]
              Adds a directory to the top of the directory stack,  or  rotates
              the  stack,  making the new top of the stack the current working
              directory.  With no  arguments,  pushd  exchanges  the  top  two
              directories  and returns 0, unless the directory stack is empty.
              Arguments, if supplied, have the following meanings:
              -n     Suppresses the normal change of directory  when  rotating
                     or  adding  directories  to  the  stack, so that only the
                     stack is manipulated.
              +n     Rotates the stack so that  the  nth  directory  (counting
                     from  the  left  of the list shown by dirs, starting with
                     zero) is at the top.
              -n     Rotates the stack so that  the  nth  directory  (counting
                     from  the  right of the list shown by dirs, starting with
                     zero) is at the top.
              dir    Adds dir to the directory stack at the top, making it the
                     new  current working directory as if it had been supplied
                     as the argument to the cd builtin.

              If the pushd command is successful, a dirs is performed as well.
              If  the first form is used, pushd returns 0 unless the cd to dir
              fails.  With the second form, pushd returns 0 unless the  direc-
              tory  stack  is empty, a non-existent directory stack element is
              specified, or the directory change to the specified new  current
              directory fails.

       pwd [-LP]
              Print  the  absolute  pathname of the current working directory.
              The pathname printed contains no symbolic links if the -P option
              is supplied or the -o physical option to the set builtin command
              is enabled.  If the -L option is used, the pathname printed  may
              contain  symbolic links.  The return status is 0 unless an error
              occurs while reading the name of the  current  directory  or  an
              invalid option is supplied.

       read [-ers] [-a aname] [-d delim] [-i text] [-n nchars] [-N nchars] [-p
       prompt] [-t timeout] [-u fd] [name ...]
              One  line  is  read  from  the  standard input, or from the file
              descriptor fd supplied as an argument to the  -u  option,  split
              into  words  as  described  above  under Word Splitting, and the
              first word is assigned to the first name, the second word to the
              second name, and so on.  If there are more words than names, the
              remaining words and their intervening delimiters are assigned to
              the  last  name.   If  there are fewer words read from the input
              stream than names, the remaining names are assigned  empty  val-
              ues.   The  characters  in  IFS  are used to split the line into
              words  using  the  same  rules  the  shell  uses  for  expansion
              (described above under Word Splitting).  The backslash character
              (\) may be used to remove any special meaning for the next char-
              acter  read  and  for  line continuation.  Options, if supplied,
              have the following meanings:
              -a aname
                     The words are assigned to sequential indices of the array
                     variable aname, starting at 0.  aname is unset before any
                     new  values  are  assigned.   Other  name  arguments  are
                     ignored.
              -d delim
                     The  first  character  of  delim is used to terminate the
                     input line, rather than newline.  If delim is  the  empty
                     string,  read  will  terminate a line when it reads a NUL
                     character.
              -e     If the standard input is coming from a terminal, readline
                     (see  READLINE  above) is used to obtain the line.  Read-
                     line uses the current (or default, if  line  editing  was
                     not  previously  active) editing settings, but uses Read-
                     line's default filename completion.
              -i text
                     If readline is being used  to  read  the  line,  text  is
                     placed into the editing buffer before editing begins.
              -n nchars
                     read  returns after reading nchars characters rather than
                     waiting for a complete line of input, but honors a delim-
                     iter  if fewer than nchars characters are read before the
                     delimiter.
              -N nchars
                     read returns  after  reading  exactly  nchars  characters
                     rather  than waiting for a complete line of input, unless
                     EOF is encountered or read times out.  Delimiter  charac-
                     ters  encountered  in the input are not treated specially
                     and do not cause read to return until  nchars  characters
                     are  read.   The result is not split on the characters in
                     IFS; the intent is that the variable is assigned  exactly
                     the characters read (with the exception of backslash; see
                     the -r option below).
              -p prompt
                     Display prompt on standard error, without a trailing new-
                     line, before attempting to read any input.  The prompt is
                     displayed only if input is coming from a terminal.
              -r     Backslash does not act as an escape character.  The back-
                     slash  is considered to be part of the line.  In particu-
                     lar, a backslash-newline pair may not then be used  as  a
                     line continuation.
              -s     Silent mode.  If input is coming from a terminal, charac-
                     ters are not echoed.
              -t timeout
                     Cause read to time out and return failure if  a  complete
                     line  of  input  (or a specified number of characters) is
                     not read within timeout seconds.  timeout may be a  deci-
                     mal  number with a fractional portion following the deci-
                     mal point.  This option is  only  effective  if  read  is
                     reading  input  from  a  terminal, pipe, or other special
                     file; it has no effect when reading from  regular  files.
                     If read times out, read saves any partial input read into
                     the specified variable  name.   If  timeout  is  0,  read
                     returns  immediately,  without  trying  to read any data.
                     The exit status is 0 if input is available on the  speci-
                     fied  file descriptor, non-zero otherwise.  The exit sta-
                     tus is greater than 128 if the timeout is exceeded.
              -u fd  Read input from file descriptor fd.

              If no names are supplied, the  line  read,  without  the  ending
              delimiter  but otherwise unmodified, is assigned to the variable
              REPLY.  The exit status is zero, unless end-of-file  is  encoun-
              tered,  read times out (in which case the status is greater than
              128), a variable assignment error (such as assigning to a  read-
              only variable) occurs, or an invalid file descriptor is supplied
              as the argument to -u.

       readonly [-aAf] [-p] [name[=word] ...]
              The given names are marked readonly; the values of  these  names
              may  not  be changed by subsequent assignment.  If the -f option
              is supplied, the functions corresponding to  the  names  are  so
              marked.   The  -a  option  restricts  the  variables  to indexed
              arrays; the -A option restricts  the  variables  to  associative
              arrays.   If both options are supplied, -A takes precedence.  If
              no name arguments are given, or if the -p option is supplied,  a
              list of all readonly names is printed.  The other options may be
              used to restrict the output to a subset of the set  of  readonly
              names.   The -p option causes output to be displayed in a format
              that may be reused as input.  If a variable name is followed  by
              =word,  the  value  of  the variable is set to word.  The return
              status is 0 unless an invalid option is encountered, one of  the
              names is not a valid shell variable name, or -f is supplied with
              a name that is not a function.

       return [n]
              Causes a function to stop executing and return the value  speci-
              fied  by n to its caller.  If n is omitted, the return status is
              that of the last command executed  in  the  function  body.   If
              return  is  executed by a trap handler, the last command used to
              determine the status is the last  command  executed  before  the
              trap  handler.   If  return is executed during a DEBUG trap, the
              last command used to determine the status is  the  last  command
              executed  by  the  trap  handler  before return was invoked.  If
              return is used outside a function, but  during  execution  of  a
              script  by  the .  (source) command, it causes the shell to stop
              executing that script and return either n or the exit status  of
              the  last  command executed within the script as the exit status
              of the script.  If n is supplied, the return value is its  least
              significant  8 bits.  The return status is non-zero if return is
              supplied a non-numeric argument, or is used outside  a  function
              and  not  during execution of a script by . or source.  Any com-
              mand associated with the RETURN trap is executed  before  execu-
              tion resumes after the function or script.

       set [--abefhkmnptuvxBCEHPT] [-o option-name] [arg ...]
       set [+abefhkmnptuvxBCEHPT] [+o option-name] [arg ...]
              Without  options,  the name and value of each shell variable are
              displayed in a format that can be reused as input for setting or
              resetting the currently-set variables.  Read-only variables can-
              not be reset.  In posix mode, only shell variables  are  listed.
              The  output  is  sorted  according  to the current locale.  When
              options are specified, they set or unset shell attributes.   Any
              arguments  remaining after option processing are treated as val-
              ues for the positional parameters and are assigned, in order, to
              $1,  $2,  ...   $n.   Options,  if specified, have the following
              meanings:
              -a      Each variable or function that is created or modified is
                      given  the export attribute and marked for export to the
                      environment of subsequent commands.
              -b      Report the status of terminated background jobs  immedi-
                      ately, rather than before the next primary prompt.  This
                      is effective only when job control is enabled.
              -e      Exit immediately if a pipeline (which may consist  of  a
                      single  simple  command),  a list, or a compound command
                      (see SHELL GRAMMAR above), exits with a non-zero status.
                      The  shell  does  not  exit if the command that fails is
                      part of the command list immediately following  a  while
                      or  until  keyword, part of the test following the if or
                      elif reserved words, part of any command executed  in  a
                      &&  or || list except the command following the final &&
                      or ||, any command in a pipeline but the last, or if the
                      command's  return  value is being inverted with !.  If a
                      compound command other than a subshell  returns  a  non-
                      zero  status because a command failed while -e was being
                      ignored, the shell does not exit.  A  trap  on  ERR,  if
                      set,  is  executed  before the shell exits.  This option
                      applies to the shell environment and each subshell envi-
                      ronment  separately  (see  COMMAND EXECUTION ENVIRONMENT
                      above), and may cause subshells to exit before executing
                      all the commands in the subshell.

                      If  a  compound  command or shell function executes in a
                      context where -e is being ignored, none of the  commands
                      executed  within  the  compound command or function body
                      will be affected by the -e setting, even if  -e  is  set
                      and  a  command returns a failure status.  If a compound
                      command or shell function sets -e while executing  in  a
                      context  where -e is ignored, that setting will not have
                      any effect until the compound  command  or  the  command
                      containing the function call completes.
              -f      Disable pathname expansion.
              -h      Remember  the location of commands as they are looked up
                      for execution.  This is enabled by default.
              -k      All arguments in the form of assignment  statements  are
                      placed  in the environment for a command, not just those
                      that precede the command name.
              -m      Monitor mode.  Job control is enabled.  This  option  is
                      on  by  default  for  interactive shells on systems that
                      support it (see JOB CONTROL above).  All  processes  run
                      in a separate process group.  When a background job com-
                      pletes, the shell prints a line containing its exit sta-
                      tus.
              -n      Read commands but do not execute them.  This may be used
                      to check a shell script  for  syntax  errors.   This  is
                      ignored by interactive shells.
              -o option-name
                      The option-name can be one of the following:
                      allexport
                              Same as -a.
                      braceexpand
                              Same as -B.
                      emacs   Use  an  emacs-style command line editing inter-
                              face.  This is enabled by default when the shell
                              is interactive, unless the shell is started with
                              the --noediting option.  This also  affects  the
                              editing interface used for read -e.
                      errexit Same as -e.
                      errtrace
                              Same as -E.
                      functrace
                              Same as -T.
                      hashall Same as -h.
                      histexpand
                              Same as -H.
                      history Enable command history, as described above under
                              HISTORY.  This option is on by default in inter-
                              active shells.
                      ignoreeof
                              The   effect   is   as   if  the  shell  command
                              ``IGNOREEOF=10'' had been  executed  (see  Shell
                              Variables above).
                      keyword Same as -k.
                      monitor Same as -m.
                      noclobber
                              Same as -C.
                      noexec  Same as -n.
                      noglob  Same as -f.
                      nolog   Currently ignored.
                      notify  Same as -b.
                      nounset Same as -u.
                      onecmd  Same as -t.
                      physical
                              Same as -P.
                      pipefail
                              If  set,  the  return value of a pipeline is the
                              value of the last (rightmost)  command  to  exit
                              with  a non-zero status, or zero if all commands
                              in the pipeline exit successfully.  This  option
                              is disabled by default.
                      posix   Change  the  behavior  of bash where the default
                              operation differs from  the  POSIX  standard  to
                              match  the  standard (posix mode).  See SEE ALSO
                              below for a reference to a document that details
                              how posix mode affects bash's behavior.
                      privileged
                              Same as -p.
                      verbose Same as -v.
                      vi      Use  a  vi-style command line editing interface.
                              This also affects the editing interface used for
                              read -e.
                      xtrace  Same as -x.
                      If -o is supplied with no option-name, the values of the
                      current options are printed.  If +o is supplied with  no
                      option-name,  a  series  of set commands to recreate the
                      current option settings is  displayed  on  the  standard
                      output.
              -p      Turn  on  privileged  mode.   In this mode, the $ENV and
                      $BASH_ENV files are not processed, shell  functions  are
                      not  inherited  from the environment, and the SHELLOPTS,
                      BASHOPTS, CDPATH,  and  GLOBIGNORE  variables,  if  they
                      appear in the environment, are ignored.  If the shell is
                      started with the effective user (group) id not equal  to
                      the  real user (group) id, and the -p option is not sup-
                      plied, these actions are taken and the effective user id
                      is  set  to  the real user id.  If the -p option is sup-
                      plied at startup, the effective user id  is  not  reset.
                      Turning  this  option  off causes the effective user and
                      group ids to be set to the real user and group ids.
              -t      Exit after reading and executing one command.
              -u      Treat unset variables and parameters other than the spe-
                      cial  parameters "@" and "*" as an error when performing
                      parameter expansion.  If expansion is  attempted  on  an
                      unset  variable  or parameter, the shell prints an error
                      message, and, if not interactive, exits with a  non-zero
                      status.
              -v      Print shell input lines as they are read.
              -x      After  expanding  each simple command, for command, case
                      command, select command, or arithmetic for command, dis-
                      play  the expanded value of PS4, followed by the command
                      and its expanded arguments or associated word list.
              -B      The shell performs brace expansion (see Brace  Expansion
                      above).  This is on by default.
              -C      If  set,  bash  does not overwrite an existing file with
                      the >, >&, and <> redirection operators.   This  may  be
                      overridden when creating output files by using the redi-
                      rection operator >| instead of >.
              -E      If set, any trap on ERR is inherited by shell functions,
                      command  substitutions,  and commands executed in a sub-
                      shell environment.  The ERR trap is normally not  inher-
                      ited in such cases.
              -H      Enable !  style history substitution.  This option is on
                      by default when the shell is interactive.
              -P      If set, the shell does not resolve symbolic  links  when
                      executing  commands  such  as cd that change the current
                      working  directory.   It  uses  the  physical  directory
                      structure instead.  By default, bash follows the logical
                      chain of  directories  when  performing  commands  which
                      change the current directory.
              -T      If  set,  any traps on DEBUG and RETURN are inherited by
                      shell functions,  command  substitutions,  and  commands
                      executed  in  a  subshell  environment.   The  DEBUG and
                      RETURN traps are normally not inherited in such cases.
              --      If no arguments follow this option, then the  positional
                      parameters are unset.  Otherwise, the positional parame-
                      ters are set to the args, even if  some  of  them  begin
                      with a -.
              -       Signal  the  end of options, cause all remaining args to
                      be assigned to the positional parameters.  The -x and -v
                      options are turned off.  If there are no args, the posi-
                      tional parameters remain unchanged.

              The options are off by default unless otherwise noted.  Using  +
              rather  than  -  causes  these  options  to  be turned off.  The
              options can also be specified as arguments to an  invocation  of
              the  shell.  The current set of options may be found in $-.  The
              return status is always true unless an invalid option is encoun-
              tered.

       shift [n]
              The  positional  parameters  from n+1 ... are renamed to $1 ....
              Parameters represented by the numbers  $#  down  to  $#-n+1  are
              unset.   n  must  be a non-negative number less than or equal to
              $#.  If n is 0, no parameters are changed.  If n is  not  given,
              it  is assumed to be 1.  If n is greater than $#, the positional
              parameters are not changed.  The return status is  greater  than
              zero if n is greater than $# or less than zero; otherwise 0.

       shopt [-pqsu] [-o] [optname ...]
              Toggle  the values of settings controlling optional shell behav-
              ior.  The settings can be either those listed below, or, if  the
              -o option is used, those available with the -o option to the set
              builtin command.  With no options, or with the -p option, a list
              of  all  settable  options  is  displayed, with an indication of
              whether or not each is set; if optnames are supplied, the output
              is  restricted to those options.  The -p option causes output to
              be displayed in a form that  may  be  reused  as  input.   Other
              options have the following meanings:
              -s     Enable (set) each optname.
              -u     Disable (unset) each optname.
              -q     Suppresses  normal output (quiet mode); the return status
                     indicates whether the optname is set or unset.  If multi-
                     ple  optname arguments are given with -q, the return sta-
                     tus is zero if all optnames are enabled; non-zero  other-
                     wise.
              -o     Restricts  the  values of optname to be those defined for
                     the -o option to the set builtin.

              If either -s or -u is used  with  no  optname  arguments,  shopt
              shows  only  those options which are set or unset, respectively.
              Unless otherwise noted, the shopt options are  disabled  (unset)
              by default.

              The  return  status when listing options is zero if all optnames
              are enabled, non-zero  otherwise.   When  setting  or  unsetting
              options,  the  return  status is zero unless an optname is not a
              valid shell option.

              The list of shopt options is:

              assoc_expand_once
                      If set, the  shell  suppresses  multiple  evaluation  of
                      associative  array  subscripts during arithmetic expres-
                      sion evaluation, while executing builtins that can  per-
                      form  variable assignments, and while executing builtins
                      that perform array dereferencing.
              autocd  If set, a command name that is the name of  a  directory
                      is  executed  as  if it were the argument to the cd com-
                      mand.  This option is only used by interactive shells.
              cdable_vars
                      If set, an argument to the cd builtin  command  that  is
                      not  a directory is assumed to be the name of a variable
                      whose value is the directory to change to.
              cdspell If set, minor errors in the spelling of a directory com-
                      ponent  in  a  cd command will be corrected.  The errors
                      checked for are transposed characters, a missing charac-
                      ter,  and  one  character  too many.  If a correction is
                      found, the corrected filename is printed, and  the  com-
                      mand  proceeds.  This option is only used by interactive
                      shells.
              checkhash
                      If set, bash checks that a command found in the hash ta-
                      ble  exists  before  trying  to execute it.  If a hashed
                      command no longer exists, a normal path search  is  per-
                      formed.
              checkjobs
                      If set, bash lists the status of any stopped and running
                      jobs before exiting an interactive shell.  If  any  jobs
                      are running, this causes the exit to be deferred until a
                      second exit is attempted without an intervening  command
                      (see  JOB  CONTROL  above).   The shell always postpones
                      exiting if any jobs are stopped.
              checkwinsize
                      If set, bash checks the window size after each  external
                      (non-builtin)  command  and,  if  necessary, updates the
                      values of LINES and COLUMNS.  This option is enabled  by
                      default.
              cmdhist If  set,  bash attempts to save all lines of a multiple-
                      line command in the same  history  entry.   This  allows
                      easy  re-editing of multi-line commands.  This option is
                      enabled by default, but only has an  effect  if  command
                      history is enabled, as described above under HISTORY.
              compat31
              compat32
              compat40
              compat41
              compat42
              compat43
              compat44
                      These  control aspects of the shell's compatibility mode
                      (see SHELL COMPATIBILITY MODE below).

              complete_fullquote
                      If set, bash quotes all shell  metacharacters  in  file-
                      names  and  directory  names when performing completion.
                      If not set, bash removes metacharacters such as the dol-
                      lar  sign from the set of characters that will be quoted
                      in completed filenames when these metacharacters  appear
                      in  shell  variable references in words to be completed.
                      This means that dollar  signs  in  variable  names  that
                      expand  to  directories will not be quoted; however, any
                      dollar signs appearing in filenames will not be  quoted,
                      either.   This  is  active only when bash is using back-
                      slashes to quote completed filenames.  This variable  is
                      set  by  default,  which is the default bash behavior in
                      versions through 4.2.

              direxpand
                      If set, bash replaces directory names with  the  results
                      of  word  expansion when performing filename completion.
                      This  changes  the  contents  of  the  readline  editing
                      buffer.   If not set, bash attempts to preserve what the
                      user typed.

              dirspell
                      If set, bash attempts spelling correction  on  directory
                      names  during word completion if the directory name ini-
                      tially supplied does not exist.

              dotglob If set, bash includes filenames beginning with a `.'  in
                      the  results of pathname expansion.  The filenames ``.''
                      and ``..''  must always be matched explicitly,  even  if
                      dotglob is set.

              execfail
                      If set, a non-interactive shell will not exit if it can-
                      not execute the file specified as  an  argument  to  the
                      exec  builtin  command.   An  interactive shell does not
                      exit if exec fails.

              expand_aliases
                      If set, aliases are expanded as  described  above  under
                      ALIASES.  This option is enabled by default for interac-
                      tive shells.

              extdebug
                      If set at shell invocation, or in a shell startup  file,
                      arrange to execute the debugger profile before the shell
                      starts, identical to  the  --debugger  option.   If  set
                      after invocation, behavior intended for use by debuggers
                      is enabled:

                      1.     The -F option to the declare builtin displays the
                             source file name and line number corresponding to
                             each function name supplied as an argument.

                      2.     If the command run by the DEBUG  trap  returns  a
                             non-zero  value,  the next command is skipped and
                             not executed.

                      3.     If the command run by the DEBUG  trap  returns  a
                             value  of 2, and the shell is executing in a sub-
                             routine (a shell function or a shell script  exe-
                             cuted  by  the  .  or source builtins), the shell
                             simulates a call to return.

                      4.     BASH_ARGC and BASH_ARGV are updated as  described
                             in their descriptions above.

                      5.     Function  tracing  is  enabled: command substitu-
                             tion, shell functions, and subshells invoked with
                             ( command ) inherit the DEBUG and RETURN traps.

                      6.     Error  tracing  is enabled: command substitution,
                             shell functions, and  subshells  invoked  with  (
                             command ) inherit the ERR trap.

              extglob If set, the extended pattern matching features described
                      above under Pathname Expansion are enabled.

              extquote
                      If set, $'string' and  $"string"  quoting  is  performed
                      within   ${parameter}   expansions  enclosed  in  double
                      quotes.  This option is enabled by default.

              failglob
                      If set, patterns which fail to  match  filenames  during
                      pathname expansion result in an expansion error.

              force_fignore
                      If  set,  the  suffixes  specified  by the FIGNORE shell
                      variable cause words to be ignored when performing  word
                      completion even if the ignored words are the only possi-
                      ble  completions.   See  SHELL  VARIABLES  above  for  a
                      description  of  FIGNORE.   This  option  is  enabled by
                      default.

              globasciiranges
                      If set,  range  expressions  used  in  pattern  matching
                      bracket  expressions (see Pattern Matching above) behave
                      as if in the traditional C locale when  performing  com-
                      parisons.   That  is,  the  current  locale's  collating
                      sequence is not taken into account, so b will  not  col-
                      late  between  A  and  B,  and upper-case and lower-case
                      ASCII characters will collate together.

              globstar
                      If set, the pattern ** used in a pathname expansion con-
                      text  will  match all files and zero or more directories
                      and subdirectories.  If the pattern is followed by a  /,
                      only directories and subdirectories match.

              gnu_errfmt
                      If set, shell error messages are written in the standard
                      GNU error message format.

              histappend
                      If set, the history list is appended to the  file  named
                      by  the  value  of  the HISTFILE variable when the shell
                      exits, rather than overwriting the file.

              histreedit
                      If set, and readline is being used, a user is given  the
                      opportunity to re-edit a failed history substitution.

              histverify
                      If  set, and readline is being used, the results of his-
                      tory substitution are  not  immediately  passed  to  the
                      shell  parser.   Instead,  the  resulting line is loaded
                      into the readline editing buffer, allowing further modi-
                      fication.

              hostcomplete
                      If set, and readline is being used, bash will attempt to
                      perform hostname completion when a word containing  a  @
                      is   being  completed  (see  Completing  under  READLINE
                      above).  This is enabled by default.

              huponexit
                      If set, bash will send SIGHUP to all jobs when an inter-
                      active login shell exits.

              inherit_errexit
                      If  set,  command substitution inherits the value of the
                      errexit option, instead of unsetting it in the  subshell
                      environment.   This option is enabled when posix mode is
                      enabled.

              interactive_comments
                      If set, allow a word beginning with # to cause that word
                      and  all remaining characters on that line to be ignored
                      in an interactive  shell  (see  COMMENTS  above).   This
                      option is enabled by default.

              lastpipe
                      If  set,  and  job control is not active, the shell runs
                      the last command of a pipeline not executed in the back-
                      ground in the current shell environment.

              lithist If  set,  and  the cmdhist option is enabled, multi-line
                      commands are saved to the history with embedded newlines
                      rather than using semicolon separators where possible.

              localvar_inherit
                      If set, local variables inherit the value and attributes
                      of a variable of the same name that exists at a previous
                      scope  before  any  new  value is assigned.  The nameref
                      attribute is not inherited.

              localvar_unset
                      If set, calling unset on  local  variables  in  previous
                      function  scopes  marks  them so subsequent lookups find
                      them unset until that function returns. This is  identi-
                      cal  to the behavior of unsetting local variables at the
                      current function scope.

              login_shell
                      The shell sets this option if it is started as  a  login
                      shell  (see  INVOCATION  above).   The  value may not be
                      changed.

              mailwarn
                      If set, and a file that bash is checking  for  mail  has
                      been  accessed  since  the last time it was checked, the
                      message ``The mail in mailfile has been read''  is  dis-
                      played.

              no_empty_cmd_completion
                      If  set,  and  readline  is  being  used,  bash will not
                      attempt to search the PATH for possible completions when
                      completion is attempted on an empty line.

              nocaseglob
                      If  set,  bash  matches  filenames in a case-insensitive
                      fashion when performing pathname expansion (see Pathname
                      Expansion above).

              nocasematch
                      If  set,  bash  matches  patterns  in a case-insensitive
                      fashion when performing matching while executing case or
                      [[ conditional commands, when performing pattern substi-
                      tution word expansions, or when filtering possible  com-
                      pletions as part of programmable completion.

              nullglob
                      If  set,  bash allows patterns which match no files (see
                      Pathname Expansion above) to expand to  a  null  string,
                      rather than themselves.

              progcomp
                      If set, the programmable completion facilities (see Pro-
                      grammable Completion above) are enabled.  This option is
                      enabled by default.

              progcomp_alias
                      If  set,  and  programmable  completion is enabled, bash
                      treats a command name that doesn't have any  completions
                      as  a possible alias and attempts alias expansion. If it
                      has an  alias,  bash  attempts  programmable  completion
                      using  the  command  word  resulting  from  the expanded
                      alias.

              promptvars
                      If set, prompt strings undergo parameter expansion, com-
                      mand   substitution,  arithmetic  expansion,  and  quote
                      removal after being expanded as described  in  PROMPTING
                      above.  This option is enabled by default.

              restricted_shell
                      The   shell  sets  this  option  if  it  is  started  in
                      restricted mode (see RESTRICTED SHELL below).  The value
                      may  not be changed.  This is not reset when the startup
                      files are executed, allowing the startup files  to  dis-
                      cover whether or not a shell is restricted.

              shift_verbose
                      If  set,  the shift builtin prints an error message when
                      the shift count exceeds the number of positional parame-
                      ters.

              sourcepath
                      If set, the source (.) builtin uses the value of PATH to
                      find the directory containing the file  supplied  as  an
                      argument.  This option is enabled by default.

              xpg_echo
                      If   set,  the  echo  builtin  expands  backslash-escape
                      sequences by default.

       suspend [-f]
              Suspend the execution of this shell until it receives a  SIGCONT
              signal.  A login shell cannot be suspended; the -f option can be
              used to override this and force the suspension.  The return sta-
              tus  is  0  unless the shell is a login shell and -f is not sup-
              plied, or if job control is not enabled.

       test expr
       [ expr ]
              Return a status of 0 (true) or 1 (false) depending on the evalu-
              ation of the conditional expression expr.  Each operator and op-
              erand must be a separate argument.  Expressions are composed  of
              the  primaries  described  above  under CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS.
              test does not accept any options, nor does it accept and  ignore
              an argument of -- as signifying the end of options.

              Expressions  may  be  combined  using  the  following operators,
              listed  in  decreasing  order  of  precedence.   The  evaluation
              depends  on the number of arguments; see below.  Operator prece-
              dence is used when there are five or more arguments.
              ! expr True if expr is false.
              ( expr )
                     Returns the value of expr.  This may be used to  override
                     the normal precedence of operators.
              expr1 -a expr2
                     True if both expr1 and expr2 are true.
              expr1 -o expr2
                     True if either expr1 or expr2 is true.

              test and [ evaluate conditional expressions using a set of rules
              based on the number of arguments.

              0 arguments
                     The expression is false.
              1 argument
                     The expression is true if and only if the argument is not
                     null.
              2 arguments
                     If the first argument is !, the expression is true if and
                     only if the second argument is null.  If the first  argu-
                     ment  is  one  of  the unary conditional operators listed
                     above under CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS,  the  expression  is
                     true if the unary test is true.  If the first argument is
                     not a valid unary conditional operator, the expression is
                     false.
              3 arguments
                     The following conditions are applied in the order listed.
                     If the second argument is one of the  binary  conditional
                     operators listed above under CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS, the
                     result of the expression is the result of the binary test
                     using  the first and third arguments as operands.  The -a
                     and -o operators are  considered  binary  operators  when
                     there  are  three arguments.  If the first argument is !,
                     the value is the negation of the two-argument test  using
                     the second and third arguments.  If the first argument is
                     exactly ( and the third argument is exactly ), the result
                     is  the one-argument test of the second argument.  Other-
                     wise, the expression is false.
              4 arguments
                     If the first argument is !, the result is the negation of
                     the  three-argument  expression composed of the remaining
                     arguments.  Otherwise, the expression is parsed and eval-
                     uated  according  to  precedence  using  the rules listed
                     above.
              5 or more arguments
                     The expression  is  parsed  and  evaluated  according  to
                     precedence using the rules listed above.

              When  used  with  test  or [, the < and > operators sort lexico-
              graphically using ASCII ordering.

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for  the  shell  and
              for processes run from the shell.  The return status is 0.

       trap [-lp] [[arg] sigspec ...]
              The  command  arg  is  to  be  read  and executed when the shell
              receives signal(s) sigspec.  If arg is absent (and  there  is  a
              single  sigspec)  or  -,  each  specified signal is reset to its
              original disposition (the value it  had  upon  entrance  to  the
              shell).   If arg is the null string the signal specified by each
              sigspec is ignored by the shell and by the commands it  invokes.
              If  arg  is  not present and -p has been supplied, then the trap
              commands associated with each  sigspec  are  displayed.   If  no
              arguments  are  supplied or if only -p is given, trap prints the
              list of commands associated with each  signal.   The  -l  option
              causes  the shell to print a list of signal names and their cor-
              responding numbers.   Each  sigspec  is  either  a  signal  name
              defined  in  <signal.h>,  or  a signal number.  Signal names are
              case insensitive and the SIG prefix is optional.

              If a sigspec is EXIT (0) the command arg  is  executed  on  exit
              from  the shell.  If a sigspec is DEBUG, the command arg is exe-
              cuted before every simple command, for  command,  case  command,
              select  command,  every  arithmetic  for command, and before the
              first command executes in a shell function  (see  SHELL  GRAMMAR
              above).   Refer to the description of the extdebug option to the
              shopt builtin for details of its effect on the DEBUG trap.  If a
              sigspec is RETURN, the command arg is executed each time a shell
              function or a script executed with the . or source builtins fin-
              ishes executing.

              If  a  sigspec  is  ERR,  the command arg is executed whenever a
              pipeline (which may consist of a single simple command), a list,
              or a compound command returns a non-zero exit status, subject to
              the following conditions.  The ERR trap is not executed  if  the
              failed command is part of the command list immediately following
              a while or until keyword, part of the test in an  if  statement,
              part of a command executed in a && or || list except the command
              following the final && or ||, any command in a pipeline but  the
              last,  or  if the command's return value is being inverted using
              !.  These are the same conditions obeyed  by  the  errexit  (-e)
              option.

              Signals  ignored  upon  entry  to the shell cannot be trapped or
              reset.  Trapped signals that are not being ignored are reset  to
              their original values in a subshell or subshell environment when
              one is created.  The return status is false if  any  sigspec  is
              invalid; otherwise trap returns true.

       type [-aftpP] name [name ...]
              With  no options, indicate how each name would be interpreted if
              used as a command name.  If the -t option is used, type prints a
              string  which  is  one  of alias, keyword, function, builtin, or
              file if  name  is  an  alias,  shell  reserved  word,  function,
              builtin,  or disk file, respectively.  If the name is not found,
              then nothing  is  printed,  and  an  exit  status  of  false  is
              returned.   If  the  -p  option is used, type either returns the
              name of the disk file that would be executed if name were speci-
              fied as a command name, or nothing if ``type -t name'' would not
              return file.  The -P option forces a PATH search for each  name,
              even if ``type -t name'' would not return file.  If a command is
              hashed, -p and -P print the hashed value, which is not necessar-
              ily  the  file  that appears first in PATH.  If the -a option is
              used, type prints all of the places that contain  an  executable
              named name.  This includes aliases and functions, if and only if
              the -p option is not also used.  The table of hashed commands is
              not  consulted  when  using  -a.  The -f option suppresses shell
              function lookup, as with the command builtin.  type returns true
              if all of the arguments are found, false if any are not found.

       ulimit [-HS] -a
       ulimit [-HS] [-bcdefiklmnpqrstuvxPRT [limit]]
              Provides  control  over the resources available to the shell and
              to processes started by it, on systems that allow such  control.
              The -H and -S options specify that the hard or soft limit is set
              for the given resource.  A hard limit cannot be increased  by  a
              non-root  user  once it is set; a soft limit may be increased up
              to the value of the hard limit.  If neither -H nor -S is  speci-
              fied, both the soft and hard limits are set.  The value of limit
              can be a number in the unit specified for the resource or one of
              the special values hard, soft, or unlimited, which stand for the
              current hard limit,  the  current  soft  limit,  and  no  limit,
              respectively.   If  limit  is  omitted, the current value of the
              soft limit of the resource is printed, unless the -H  option  is
              given.  When more than one resource is specified, the limit name
              and unit, if appropriate, are printed before the  value.   Other
              options are interpreted as follows:
              -a     All current limits are reported; no limits are set
              -b     The maximum socket buffer size
              -c     The maximum size of core files created
              -d     The maximum size of a process's data segment
              -e     The maximum scheduling priority ("nice")
              -f     The  maximum  size  of files written by the shell and its
                     children
              -i     The maximum number of pending signals
              -k     The maximum number of kqueues that may be allocated
              -l     The maximum size that may be locked into memory
              -m     The maximum resident set size (many systems do not  honor
                     this limit)
              -n     The maximum number of open file descriptors (most systems
                     do not allow this value to be set)
              -p     The pipe size in 512-byte blocks (this may not be set)
              -q     The maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues
              -r     The maximum real-time scheduling priority
              -s     The maximum stack size
              -t     The maximum amount of cpu time in seconds
              -u     The maximum number of processes  available  to  a  single
                     user
              -v     The  maximum  amount  of  virtual memory available to the
                     shell and, on some systems, to its children
              -x     The maximum number of file locks
              -P     The maximum number of pseudoterminals
              -R     The maximum time  a  real-time  process  can  run  before
                     blocking, in microseconds
              -T     The maximum number of threads

              If  limit  is given, and the -a option is not used, limit is the
              new value of the specified resource.  If  no  option  is  given,
              then  -f is assumed.  Values are in 1024-byte increments, except
              for -t, which is in seconds; -R, which is in  microseconds;  -p,
              which  is  in  units of 512-byte blocks; -P, -T, -b, -k, -n, and
              -u, which are unscaled values; and, when in posix mode,  -c  and
              -f,  which  are  in 512-byte increments.  The return status is 0
              unless an invalid option or argument is supplied,  or  an  error
              occurs while setting a new limit.

       umask [-p] [-S] [mode]
              The user file-creation mask is set to mode.  If mode begins with
              a digit, it is interpreted as an octal number; otherwise  it  is
              interpreted  as a symbolic mode mask similar to that accepted by
              chmod(1).  If mode is omitted, the current value of the mask  is
              printed.   The  -S  option causes the mask to be printed in sym-
              bolic form; the default output is an octal number.   If  the  -p
              option is supplied, and mode is omitted, the output is in a form
              that may be reused as input.  The return status is 0 if the mode
              was  successfully  changed  or if no mode argument was supplied,
              and false otherwise.

       unalias [-a] [name ...]
              Remove each name from the list of defined  aliases.   If  -a  is
              supplied,  all  alias definitions are removed.  The return value
              is true unless a supplied name is not a defined alias.

       unset [-fv] [-n] [name ...]
              For each name, remove the corresponding  variable  or  function.
              If the -v option is given, each name refers to a shell variable,
              and that variable is removed.  Read-only variables  may  not  be
              unset.   If  -f  is specified, each name refers to a shell func-
              tion, and the function definition is removed.  If the -n  option
              is  supplied, and name is a variable with the nameref attribute,
              name will be unset rather than the variable it  references.   -n
              has  no  effect if the -f option is supplied.  If no options are
              supplied, each name refers to a variable; if there is  no  vari-
              able  by that name, a function with that name, if any, is unset.
              Each unset variable or function is removed from the  environment
              passed   to   subsequent  commands.   If  any  of  BASH_ALIASES,
              BASH_ARGV0,  BASH_CMDS,  BASH_COMMAND,  BASH_SUBSHELL,  BASHPID,
              COMP_WORDBREAKS,  DIRSTACK,  EPOCHREALTIME,  EPOCHSECONDS, FUNC-
              NAME, GROUPS, HISTCMD, LINENO, RANDOM, SECONDS, or  SRANDOM  are
              unset, they lose their special properties, even if they are sub-
              sequently reset.  The exit status is true unless a name is read-
              only.

       wait [-fn] [-p varname] [id ...]
              Wait for each specified child process and return its termination
              status.  Each id may be a process ID or a job specification;  if
              a  job  spec  is given, all processes in that job's pipeline are
              waited for.  If id is not given,  wait  waits  for  all  running
              background  jobs  and the last-executed process substitution, if
              its process id is the same as $!, and the return status is zero.
              If  the  -n option is supplied, wait waits for a single job from
              the list of ids or, if no ids are supplied, any job, to complete
              and  returns its exit status.  If none of the supplied arguments
              is a child of the shell, or if no arguments are supplied and the
              shell  has no unwaited-for children, the exit status is 127.  If
              the -p option is supplied, the process or job identifier of  the
              job  for  which  the  exit status is returned is assigned to the
              variable varname named by the  option  argument.   The  variable
              will  be unset initially, before any assignment.  This is useful
              only when the -n option is supplied.  Supplying the  -f  option,
              when  job control is enabled, forces wait to wait for id to ter-
              minate before returning its status, instead of returning when it
              changes  status.  If id specifies a non-existent process or job,
              the return status is 127.  Otherwise, the return status  is  the
              exit status of the last process or job waited for.


SHELL COMPATIBILITY MODE

       Bash-4.0 introduced the concept of a `shell compatibility level', spec-
       ified as a set of options to the shopt builtin compat31, compat32, com-
       pat40,  compat41,  and so on).  There is only one current compatibility
       level -- each option is mutually exclusive.  The compatibility level is
       intended  to allow users to select behavior from previous versions that
       is incompatible with newer versions while they migrate scripts  to  use
       current  features  and  behavior. It's intended to be a temporary solu-
       tion.

       This section does not mention behavior that is standard for a  particu-
       lar  version  (e.g., setting compat32 means that quoting the rhs of the
       regexp matching operator quotes special regexp characters in the  word,
       which is default behavior in bash-3.2 and above).

       If  a  user enables, say, compat32, it may affect the behavior of other
       compatibility levels up to  and  including  the  current  compatibility
       level.   The  idea  is  that each compatibility level controls behavior
       that changed in that version of bash, but that behavior may  have  been
       present  in  earlier versions.  For instance, the change to use locale-
       based comparisons with the [[ command came  in  bash-4.1,  and  earlier
       versions used ASCII-based comparisons, so enabling compat32 will enable
       ASCII-based comparisons as well.  That granularity may  not  be  suffi-
       cient  for  all uses, and as a result users should employ compatibility
       levels carefully.  Read the documentation for a particular  feature  to
       find out the current behavior.

       Bash-4.3  introduced  a  new  shell  variable:  BASH_COMPAT.  The value
       assigned to this variable (a decimal version number  like  4.2,  or  an
       integer  corresponding  to the compatNN option, like 42) determines the
       compatibility level.

       Starting with bash-4.4, Bash has begun deprecating older  compatibility
       levels.   Eventually, the options will be removed in favor of BASH_COM-
       PAT.

       Bash-5.0 is the final version for which there  will  be  an  individual
       shopt  option for the previous version. Users should use BASH_COMPAT on
       bash-5.0 and later versions.

       The following table describes the behavior changes controlled  by  each
       compatibility level setting.  The compatNN tag is used as shorthand for
       setting the compatibility level to NN using one of the following mecha-
       nisms.   For versions prior to bash-5.0, the compatibility level may be
       set using the corresponding compatNN shopt option.   For  bash-4.3  and
       later  versions,  the  BASH_COMPAT  variable  is  preferred,  and it is
       required for bash-5.1 and later versions.

       compat31
              o      quoting the rhs of the [[ command's regexp matching oper-
                     ator (=~) has no special effect

       compat32
              o      interrupting  a  command  list such as "a ; b ; c" causes
                     the execution  of  the  next  command  in  the  list  (in
                     bash-4.0  and  later  versions,  the  shell acts as if it
                     received the interrupt, so interrupting one command in  a
                     list aborts the execution of the entire list)

       compat40
              o      the  <  and > operators to the [[ command do not consider
                     the current locale when comparing strings; they use ASCII
                     ordering.  Bash versions prior to bash-4.1 use ASCII col-
                     lation and strcmp(3); bash-4.1 and later use the  current
                     locale's collation sequence and strcoll(3).

       compat41
              o      in  posix mode, time may be followed by options and still
                     be recognized as a reserved word (this is POSIX interpre-
                     tation 267)
              o      in posix mode, the parser requires that an even number of
                     single quotes occur in the  word  portion  of  a  double-
                     quoted  parameter expansion and treats them specially, so
                     that characters within the single quotes  are  considered
                     quoted (this is POSIX interpretation 221)

       compat42
              o      the replacement string in double-quoted pattern substitu-
                     tion does not undergo quote removal, as it does  in  ver-
                     sions after bash-4.2
              o      in  posix mode, single quotes are considered special when
                     expanding the word portion of a  double-quoted  parameter
                     expansion  and  can  be  used to quote a closing brace or
                     other special character (this is part of POSIX  interpre-
                     tation  221);  in  later  versions, single quotes are not
                     special within double-quoted word expansions

       compat43
              o      the shell does not print a warning message if an  attempt
                     is  made  to use a quoted compound assignment as an argu-
                     ment to declare (declare -a foo='(1 2)'). Later  versions
                     warn that this usage is deprecated
              o      word  expansion  errors  are  considered non-fatal errors
                     that cause the current command to  fail,  even  in  posix
                     mode  (the  default behavior is to make them fatal errors
                     that cause the shell to exit)
              o      when  executing  a  shell  function,   the   loop   state
                     (while/until/etc.)  is not reset, so break or continue in
                     that function will break or continue loops in the calling
                     context.  Bash-4.4 and later reset the loop state to pre-
                     vent this

       compat44
              o      the shell sets  up  the  values  used  by  BASH_ARGV  and
                     BASH_ARGC  so  they  can expand to the shell's positional
                     parameters even if extended debugging mode is not enabled
              o      a  subshell  inherits  loops  from its parent context, so
                     break or  continue  will  cause  the  subshell  to  exit.
                     Bash-5.0  and  later  reset the loop state to prevent the
                     exit
              o      variable assignments preceding builtins like  export  and
                     readonly that set attributes continue to affect variables
                     with the same name in the calling environment even if the
                     shell is not in posix mode

       compat50
              o      Bash-5.1  changed  the way $RANDOM is generated to intro-
                     duce slightly more randomness. If the shell compatibility
                     level  is  set  to  50 or lower, it reverts to the method
                     from bash-5.0 and previous versions, so seeding the  ran-
                     dom  number generator by assigning a value to RANDOM will
                     produce the same sequence as in bash-5.0
              o      If the command hash table is empty, bash  versions  prior
                     to  bash-5.1  printed  an  informational  message to that
                     effect, even when producing output that can be reused  as
                     input.  Bash-5.1  suppresses  that  message  when  the -l
                     option is supplied.


RESTRICTED SHELL

       If bash is started with the name rbash, or the -r option is supplied at
       invocation,  the  shell becomes restricted.  A restricted shell is used
       to set up an environment more controlled than the standard  shell.   It
       behaves  identically  to bash with the exception that the following are
       disallowed or not performed:

       o      changing directories with cd

       o      setting or unsetting the values of SHELL, PATH,  HISTFILE,  ENV,
              or BASH_ENV

       o      specifying command names containing /

       o      specifying  a  filename  containing  a / as an argument to the .
              builtin command

       o      specifying a filename containing a slash as an argument  to  the
              history builtin command

       o      specifying  a  filename containing a slash as an argument to the
              -p option to the hash builtin command

       o      importing function definitions from  the  shell  environment  at
              startup

       o      parsing  the  value  of  SHELLOPTS from the shell environment at
              startup

       o      redirecting output using the >, >|, <>, >&, &>, and >> redirect-
              ion operators

       o      using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another
              command

       o      adding or deleting builtin commands with the -f and  -d  options
              to the enable builtin command

       o      using  the  enable  builtin  command  to  enable  disabled shell
              builtins

       o      specifying the -p option to the command builtin command

       o      turning off restricted mode with set +r or set +o restricted.

       These restrictions are enforced after any startup files are read.

       When a command that is found to be a shell script is executed (see COM-
       MAND  EXECUTION  above),  rbash turns off any restrictions in the shell
       spawned to execute the script.


SEE ALSO

       Bash Reference Manual, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       The Gnu Readline Library, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       The Gnu History Library, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) Part 2:  Shell  and  Utili-
       ties, IEEE --
              http://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/
       http://tiswww.case.edu/~chet/bash/POSIX -- a description of posix mode
       sh(1), ksh(1), csh(1)
       emacs(1), vi(1)
       readline(3)


FILES

       /bin/bash
              The bash executable
       /etc/profile
              The systemwide initialization file, executed for login shells
       ~/.bash_profile
              The personal initialization file, executed for login shells
       ~/.bashrc
              The individual per-interactive-shell startup file
       ~/.bash_logout
              The individual login shell cleanup file, executed when  a  login
              shell exits
       ~/.inputrc
              Individual readline initialization file


AUTHORS

       Brian Fox, Free Software Foundation
       bfox@gnu.org

       Chet Ramey, Case Western Reserve University
       chet.ramey@case.edu


BUG REPORTS

       If you find a bug in bash, you should report it.  But first, you should
       make sure that it really is a bug, and that it appears  in  the  latest
       version   of  bash.   The  latest  version  is  always  available  from
       ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/bash/.

       Once you have determined that a bug actually exists,  use  the  bashbug
       command  to submit a bug report.  If you have a fix, you are encouraged
       to mail that as well!  Suggestions and `philosophical' bug reports  may
       be  mailed  to  bug-bash@gnu.org  or  posted  to  the  Usenet newsgroup
       gnu.bash.bug.

       ALL bug reports should include:

       The version number of bash
       The hardware and operating system
       The compiler used to compile
       A description of the bug behaviour
       A short script or `recipe' which exercises the bug

       bashbug inserts the first three items automatically into  the  template
       it provides for filing a bug report.

       Comments and bug reports concerning this manual page should be directed
       to chet.ramey@case.edu.


BUGS

       It's too big and too slow.

       There are some subtle differences between bash and traditional versions
       of sh, mostly because of the POSIX specification.

       Aliases are confusing in some uses.

       Shell builtin commands and functions are not stoppable/restartable.

       Compound commands and command sequences of the form `a ; b ; c' are not
       handled gracefully  when  process  suspension  is  attempted.   When  a
       process  is stopped, the shell immediately executes the next command in
       the sequence.  It suffices to place the sequence  of  commands  between
       parentheses  to  force  it  into  a subshell, which may be stopped as a
       unit.

       Array variables may not (yet) be exported.

       There may be only one active coprocess at a time.



GNU Bash 5.1                    2020 October 29                        bash(1)

bash 5.1.4 - Generated Sat Apr 10 08:30:07 CDT 2021
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