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emacs(1)                                                              emacs(1)


       emacs - GNU project Emacs


       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ...  ]


       GNU  Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by the author of the original
       (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman.
       The primary documentation of GNU Emacs is  in  the  GNU  Emacs  Manual,
       which  you  can  read  using Info, either from Emacs or as a standalone
       program.  Please look there for complete and up-to-date  documentation.
       This  man  page  is  updated only when someone volunteers to do so; the
       Emacs maintainers' priority goal is to minimize the amount of time this
       man page takes away from other more useful projects.
       The  user functionality of GNU Emacs encompasses everything other Emacs
       editors do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands  are
       written in Lisp.

       Emacs  has  an  extensive  interactive  help facility, but the facility
       assumes that you know how to  manipulate  Emacs  windows  and  buffers.
       CTRL-h or F1 enters the Help facility.  Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t) starts
       an interactive tutorial which can teach beginners the  fundamentals  of
       Emacs  in a few minutes.  Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you find a com-
       mand given its functionality, Help Character  (CTRL-h  c)  describes  a
       given  character's  effect,  and  Help  Function (CTRL-h f) describes a
       given Lisp function specified by name.

       Emacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so
       it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.

       GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and send-
       ing (Mail), outline editing  (Outline),  compiling  (Compile),  running
       subshells  within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp read-eval-print
       loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode),  automated  psychotherapy  (Doctor),  and
       much more.

       There  is  an  extensive  reference  manual, but users of other Emacses
       should have little trouble adapting even without a copy.  Users new  to
       Emacs will be able to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the
       tutorial and using the self-documentation features.

       Emacs Options

       The following options are of general interest:

       file    Edit file.

       +number Go to the line specified by  number  (do  not  insert  a  space
               between the "+" sign and the number).  This applies only to the
               next file specified.

               Go to the specified line and column

       -q      Do not load an init file.

               Do not load the site-wide startup file.

               Enable Emacs Lisp debugger during the processing  of  the  user
               init  file  ~/.emacs.  This is useful for debugging problems in
               the init file.

       -u user Load user's init file.

       -t file Use specified file as the terminal instead of using  stdin/std-
               out.   This must be the first argument specified in the command

               Display Emacs version information and exit.

       The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in
       the order encountered):

       -f function
               Execute the lisp function function.

       -l file Load the lisp code in the file file.

       -eval expr
               Evaluate the Lisp expression expr.

       The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

       -batch  Edit  in  batch mode.  The editor will send messages to stderr.
               This option must be the first in the argument list.   You  must
               use -l and -f options to specify files to execute and functions
               to call.

       -kill   Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

       -L directory
               Add directory to the list of  directories  Emacs  searches  for
               Lisp files.

       Using Emacs with X

       Emacs  has been tailored to work well with the X window system.  If you
       run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X window to dis-
       play  in.   You  will probably want to start the editor as a background
       process so that you can continue using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

       -name name
               Specifies the name which should  be  assigned  to  the  initial
               Emacs  window.  This controls looking up X resources as well as
               the window title.

       -title name
               Specifies the title for the initial X window.

       -r      Display the Emacs window in reverse video.

       -font font, -fn font
               Set the Emacs window's font to that  specified  by  font.   You
               will  find the various X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts direc-
               tory.  Note that Emacs will  only  accept  fixed  width  fonts.
               Under  the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any font with
               the value "m" or "c" in the eleventh field of the font name  is
               a  fixed  width font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name are of the
               form widthxheight are generally fixed width,  as  is  the  font
               fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more information.

               When  you  specify  a  font, be sure to put a space between the
               switch and the font name.

       -bw pixels
               Set the Emacs window's border width to  the  number  of  pixels
               specified by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on each side of the

       -ib pixels
               Set the window's internal border width to the number of  pixels
               specified  by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel of padding on each
               side of the window.

       --geometry geometry
               Set the Emacs window's width, height, and  position  as  speci-
               fied.   The geometry specification is in the standard X format;
               see X(1) for more information.  The width and height are speci-
               fied  in  characters;  the  default is 80 by 24.  See the Emacs
               manual, section "Options for Window  Size  and  Position",  for
               information on how window sizes interact with selecting or des-
               electing the tool bar and menu bar.

       -fg color
               On color displays, sets the color of the text.

               Use the command M-x list-colors-display for  a  list  of  valid
               color names.

       -bg color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's background.

       -bd color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

       -cr color
               On  color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.

       -ms color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

       -d displayname, -display displayname
               Create  the  Emacs  window on the display specified by display-
               name.  Must be the first option specified in the command  line.

       -nw     Tells  Emacs not to use its special interface to X.  If you use
               this switch when invoking Emacs from an xterm(1)  window,  dis-
               play is done in that window.

       You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your .Xresources
       file (see xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:


       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set
       default values for the following keywords:

       font (class Font)
               Sets the window's text font.

       reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
               If  reverseVideo's  value is set to on, the window will be dis-
               played in reverse video.

       bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
               If bitmapIcon's value is set to on,  the  window  will  iconify
               into the "kitchen sink."

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
               Sets the window's border width in pixels.

       internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
               Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

       foreground (class Foreground)
               For color displays, sets the window's text color.

       background (class Background)
               For color displays, sets the window's background color.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
               For color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

       cursorColor (class Foreground)
               For color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
               For color displays, sets the color of the window's  mouse  cur-

       geometry (class Geometry)
               Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).

       title (class Title)
               Sets the title of the Emacs window.

       iconName (class Title)
               Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

       If  you  try to set color values while using a black and white display,
       the window's characteristics will default as  follows:  the  foreground
       color  will be set to black, the background color will be set to white,
       the border color will be set to grey, and the text  and  mouse  cursors
       will be set to black.

       Using the Mouse

       The  following  lists  the  mouse  button bindings for the Emacs window
       under X11.

       left                Set point.
       middle              Paste text.
       right               Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-middle        Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-right         Paste text.
       CTRL-middle         Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.
       CTRL-right          Select this window, then split it into  two  windows.
                           Same as typing CTRL-x 2.
       CTRL-SHIFT-left     X buffer menu -- hold the buttons and keys down, wait
                           for menu to appear, select buffer, and release.  Move
                           mouse out of menu and release to cancel.
       CTRL-SHIFT-middle   X help menu -- pop up index card menu for Emacs help.
       CTRL-SHIFT-right    Select  window  with mouse, and delete all other win-
                           dows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 1.


       You can order printed copies of the GNU  Emacs  Manual  from  the  Free
       Software  Foundation, which develops GNU software.  See the file ORDERS
       for ordering information.
       Your local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available.  As  with
       all  software  and publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make
       and distribute copies of the Emacs manual.  The TeX source to the  man-
       ual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.


       /usr/local/share/info  - files for the Info documentation browser.  The
       complete text of the Emacs reference manual is included in a convenient
       tree  structured  form.  Also includes the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual,
       useful to anyone wishing to write programs in the Emacs Lisp  extension

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp  -  Lisp source files and compiled
       files that define most editing commands.  Some  are  preloaded;  others
       are autoloaded from this directory when used.

       /usr/local/libexec/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCH  -  various  programs  that are
       used with GNU Emacs.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc - various files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.* - contains the  documentation
       strings  for  the  Lisp  primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU
       Emacs.  They are stored here to reduce the size of Emacs proper.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE lists people offering vari-
       ous  services  to assist users of GNU Emacs, including education, trou-
       bleshooting, porting and customization.


       There is a mailing list,,  for  reporting  Emacs
       bugs and fixes.  But before reporting something as a bug, please try to
       be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.   We ask you to read the section ``Reporting Emacs Bugs'' near
       the end of the reference manual (or Info system) for hints on  how  and
       when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number of the Emacs you
       are running in every bug report that you send in.

       Do not expect a personal answer  to  a  bug  report.   The  purpose  of
       reporting  bugs  is to get them fixed for everyone in the next release,
       if possible.  For personal assistance, look in the  SERVICE  file  (see
       above) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please  do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  For
       more  information   about   Emacs   mailing   lists,   see   the   file
       /usr/local/emacs/etc/MAILINGLISTS.   Bugs  tend actually to be fixed if
       they can be isolated, so it is in your interest to report them in  such
       a way that they can be easily reproduced.


       Emacs  is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under
       the terms stated in the Emacs General Public License, a copy  of  which
       accompanies  each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged  with  distributions
       of  Unix  systems, but it is never included in the scope of any license
       covering those systems.  Such inclusion violates  the  terms  on  which
       distribution is permitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of the General
       Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other  restric-
       tions to redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard  Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges
       that you contribute your extensions to the GNU library.  Eventually GNU
       (Gnu's  Not  Unix)  will  be a complete replacement for Unix.  Everyone
       will be free to use, copy, study and change the GNU system.


       emacsclient(1), etags(1), X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)


       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
       Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added the X features.


       Copyright (C) 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
             2006, 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted  to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
       document provided the copyright notice and this permission  notice  are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
       document under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided  that  the
       entire  resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a per-
       mission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this docu-
       ment  into  another  language,  under the above conditions for modified
       versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a  trans-
       lation approved by the Free Software Foundation.

GNU Emacs 22.1                   2007 April 13                        emacs(1)

Mac OS X 10.6 - Generated Thu Sep 17 20:07:32 CDT 2009
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