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ncurses(3)                                                        ncurses(3)


       ncurses - CRT screen handling and optimization package


       #include <curses.h>


       The  ncurses  library  routines  give  the  user a terminal-independent
       method of updating  character  screens  with  reasonable  optimization.
       This  implementation  is  "new  curses"  (ncurses)  and is the approved
       replacement for 4.4BSD classic curses,  which  has  been  discontinued.
       This describes ncurses version 6.0 (patch 20150808).

       The  ncurses  library emulates the curses library of System V Release 4
       UNIX, and XPG4 (X/Open Portability Guide) curses  (also  known  as  XSI
       curses).   XSI  stands  for  X/Open  System  Interfaces Extension.  The
       ncurses library is freely redistributable in source form.   Differences
       from  the SVr4 curses are summarized under the EXTENSIONS and PORTABIL-
       ITY sections below and described in detail  in  the  respective  EXTEN-
       SIONS, PORTABILITY and BUGS sections of individual man pages.

       The  ncurses  library  also provides many useful extensions, i.e., fea-
       tures which cannot be implemented by a simple add-on library but  which
       require access to the internals of the library.

       A  program  using  these  routines  must  be  linked with the -lncurses
       option, or (if it  has  been  generated)  with  the  debugging  library
       -lncurses_g.   (Your  system  integrator  may also have installed these
       libraries under the names  -lcurses  and  -lcurses_g.)   The  ncurses_g
       library  generates  trace logs (in a file called 'trace' in the current
       directory) that describe curses  actions.   See  also  the  section  on

       The  ncurses package supports: overall screen, window and pad manipula-
       tion; output to windows and pads; reading terminal input; control  over
       terminal  and  curses  input and output options; environment query rou-
       tines; color manipulation; use of soft label keys;  terminfo  capabili-
       ties; and access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.

       The  library uses the locale which the calling program has initialized.
       That is normally done with setlocale:

             setlocale(LC_ALL, "");

       If the locale is not initialized, the library assumes  that  characters
       are  printable  as in ISO-8859-1, to work with certain legacy programs.
       You should initialize the locale and not rely on  specific  details  of
       the library when the locale has not been setup.

       The  function  initscr  or  newterm  must  be  called to initialize the
       library before any of the other routines that  deal  with  windows  and
       screens are used.  The routine endwin must be called before exiting.

       To  get  character-at-a-time  input  without echoing (most interactive,
       screen oriented programs want this), the following sequence  should  be

             initscr(); cbreak(); noecho();

       Most programs would additionally use the sequence:

             intrflush(stdscr, FALSE);
             keypad(stdscr, TRUE);

       Before a curses program is run, the tab stops of the terminal should be
       set and its initialization strings, if defined, must be  output.   This
       can be done by executing the tput init command after the shell environ-
       ment variable TERM has been exported.  tset(1) is  usually  responsible
       for doing this.  [See terminfo(5) for further details.]

       The  ncurses  library  permits  manipulation of data structures, called
       windows, which can be thought of as two-dimensional arrays  of  charac-
       ters representing all or part of a CRT screen.  A default window called
       stdscr, which is the size of the terminal screen, is supplied.   Others
       may be created with newwin.

       Note  that  curses  does not handle overlapping windows, that's done by
       the panel(3X) library.  This means that you can either  use  stdscr  or
       divide the screen into tiled windows and not using stdscr at all.  Mix-
       ing the two will result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects.

       Windows are referred to by variables declared as WINDOW *.  These  data
       structures  are  manipulated with routines described here and elsewhere
       in the ncurses manual pages.  Among those, the most basic routines  are
       move  and  addch.  More general versions of these routines are included
       with names beginning with w, allowing the user  to  specify  a  window.
       The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.

       After using routines to manipulate a window, refresh is called, telling
       curses to make the user's CRT screen look like stdscr.  The  characters
       in a window are actually of type chtype, (character and attribute data)
       so that other information about the character may also be  stored  with
       each character.

       Special windows called pads may also be manipulated.  These are windows
       which are not constrained to the size of the screen and whose  contents
       need  not  be completely displayed.  See curs_pad(3X) for more informa-

       In addition to drawing characters on the screen, video  attributes  and
       colors  may  be  supported,  causing  the characters to show up in such
       modes as underlined, in reverse video, or in color  on  terminals  that
       support  such  display  enhancements.   Line  drawing characters may be
       specified to be output.  On input, curses is  also  able  to  translate
       arrow and function keys that transmit escape sequences into single val-
       ues.  The video attributes, line drawing characters, and  input  values
       use  names,  defined  in  <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE, ACS_HLINE, and

   Environment variables
       If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or if the  pro-
       gram  is executing in a window environment, line and column information
       in the environment will override information read  by  terminfo.   This
       would affect a program running in an AT&T 630 layer, for example, where
       the size of a screen is changeable (see ENVIRONMENT).

       If the environment variable TERMINFO  is  defined,  any  program  using
       curses  checks  for  a local terminal definition before checking in the
       standard place.  For example, if TERM is set to att4424, then the  com-
       piled terminal definition is found in


       (The  a is copied from the first letter of att4424 to avoid creation of
       huge directories.)  However,  if  TERMINFO  is  set  to  $HOME/myterms,
       curses first checks


       and if that fails, it then checks


       This  is  useful  for developing experimental definitions or when write
       permission in /opt/local/share/terminfo is not available.

       The integer variables LINES and COLS are defined in <curses.h> and will
       be  filled  in  by  initscr with the size of the screen.  The constants
       TRUE and FALSE have the values 1 and 0, respectively.

       The curses routines also define the WINDOW * variable curscr  which  is
       used  for  certain  low-level  operations like clearing and redrawing a
       screen containing garbage.  The curscr can be used in only a  few  rou-

   Routine and Argument Names
       Many  curses routines have two or more versions.  The routines prefixed
       with w require a window argument.  The routines prefixed with p require
       a pad argument.  Those without a prefix generally use stdscr.

       The  routines  prefixed with mv require a y and x coordinate to move to
       before performing the appropriate action.  The mv routines imply a call
       to  move before the call to the other routine.  The coordinate y always
       refers to the row (of the window), and x always refers to  the  column.
       The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The  routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument and x and y
       coordinates.  The window argument is always specified before the  coor-

       In  each case, win is the window affected, and pad is the pad affected;
       win and pad are always pointers to type WINDOW.

       Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the  value  TRUE
       or  FALSE;  bf  is always of type bool.  Most of the data types used in
       the library routines, such as WINDOW,  SCREEN,  bool,  and  chtype  are
       defined  in  <curses.h>.   Types used for the terminfo routines such as
       TERMINAL are defined in <term.h>.

       This manual page describes functions which may appear in any configura-
       tion  of  the  library.   There  are  two  common configurations of the

               the "normal" library, which handles 8-bit characters.  The nor-
               mal  (8-bit) library stores characters combined with attributes
               in chtype data.

               Attributes alone (no corresponding character) may be stored  in
               chtype or the equivalent attr_t data.  In either case, the data
               is stored in something like an integer.

               Each cell (row and column) in a WINDOW is stored as a chtype.

               the so-called "wide" library, which handles  multibyte  charac-
               ters (see the section on ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS).  The "wide"
               library includes all of the calls from  the  "normal"  library.
               It adds about one third more calls using data types which store
               multibyte characters:

                    corresponds to chtype.  However it is a structure, because
                    more  data  is  stored  than can fit into an integer.  The
                    characters are large enough  to  require  a  full  integer
                    value - and there may be more than one character per cell.
                    The video attributes and  color  are  stored  in  separate
                    fields of the structure.

                    Each  cell  (row  and  column)  in a WINDOW is stored as a

                    stores a "wide" character.  Like chtype, this  may  be  an

                    stores  a  wchar_t or WEOF - not the same, though both may
                    have the same size.

               The "wide" library provides new functions which  are  analogous
               to  functions  in the "normal" library.  There is a naming con-
               vention which relates many of the normal/wide variants: a  "_w"
               is  inserted  into  the  name.   For  example,  waddch  becomes

   Routine Name Index
       The following table lists each curses routine and the name of the  man-
       ual  page  on  which  it  is  described.  Routines flagged with `*' are
       ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4 or present in SVr4.

                     curses Routine Name     Manual Page Name
                     COLOR_PAIR              curs_color(3X)
                     PAIR_NUMBER             curs_attr(3X)
                     _nc_free_and_exit       curs_memleaks(3X)*
                     _nc_freeall             curs_memleaks(3X)*
                     _nc_tracebits           curs_trace(3X)*
                     _traceattr              curs_trace(3X)*
                     _traceattr2             curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracechar              curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracechtype            curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracechtype2           curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracedump              curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracef                 curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracemouse             curs_trace(3X)*
                     add_wch                 curs_add_wch(3X)
                     add_wchnstr             curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     add_wchstr              curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     addch                   curs_addch(3X)
                     addchnstr               curs_addchstr(3X)
                     addchstr                curs_addchstr(3X)
                     addnstr                 curs_addstr(3X)
                     addnwstr                curs_addwstr(3X)
                     addstr                  curs_addstr(3X)
                     addwstr                 curs_addwstr(3X)
                     assume_default_colors   default_colors(3X)*
                     attr_get                curs_attr(3X)
                     attr_off                curs_attr(3X)
                     attr_on                 curs_attr(3X)
                     attr_set                curs_attr(3X)
                     attroff                 curs_attr(3X)
                     attron                  curs_attr(3X)
                     attrset                 curs_attr(3X)

                     baudrate                curs_termattrs(3X)
                     beep                    curs_beep(3X)
                     bkgd                    curs_bkgd(3X)
                     bkgdset                 curs_bkgd(3X)
                     bkgrnd                  curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                     bkgrndset               curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                     border                  curs_border(3X)
                     border_set              curs_border_set(3X)
                     box                     curs_border(3X)
                     box_set                 curs_border_set(3X)
                     can_change_color        curs_color(3X)
                     cbreak                  curs_inopts(3X)
                     chgat                   curs_attr(3X)
                     clear                   curs_clear(3X)
                     clearok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                     clrtobot                curs_clear(3X)
                     clrtoeol                curs_clear(3X)
                     color_content           curs_color(3X)
                     color_set               curs_attr(3X)
                     copywin                 curs_overlay(3X)
                     curs_set                curs_kernel(3X)
                     curses_version          curs_extend(3X)*
                     def_prog_mode           curs_kernel(3X)
                     def_shell_mode          curs_kernel(3X)
                     define_key              define_key(3X)*
                     del_curterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                     delay_output            curs_util(3X)
                     delch                   curs_delch(3X)
                     deleteln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                     delscreen               curs_initscr(3X)
                     delwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     derwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     doupdate                curs_refresh(3X)
                     dupwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     echo                    curs_inopts(3X)
                     echo_wchar              curs_add_wch(3X)
                     echochar                curs_addch(3X)
                     endwin                  curs_initscr(3X)
                     erase                   curs_clear(3X)
                     erasechar               curs_termattrs(3X)
                     erasewchar              curs_termattrs(3X)
                     filter                  curs_util(3X)
                     flash                   curs_beep(3X)
                     flushinp                curs_util(3X)
                     get_wch                 curs_get_wch(3X)
                     get_wstr                curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     getattrs                curs_attr(3X)
                     getbegx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getbegy                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getbegyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                     getbkgd                 curs_bkgd(3X)
                     getbkgrnd               curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                     getcchar                curs_getcchar(3X)
                     getch                   curs_getch(3X)
                     getcurx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getcury                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getmaxx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getmaxy                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getmaxyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                     getmouse                curs_mouse(3X)*
                     getn_wstr               curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     getnstr                 curs_getstr(3X)
                     getparx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getpary                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getparyx                curs_getyx(3X)

                     getstr                  curs_getstr(3X)
                     getsyx                  curs_kernel(3X)
                     getwin                  curs_util(3X)
                     getyx                   curs_getyx(3X)
                     halfdelay               curs_inopts(3X)
                     has_colors              curs_color(3X)
                     has_ic                  curs_termattrs(3X)
                     has_il                  curs_termattrs(3X)
                     has_key                 curs_getch(3X)*
                     hline                   curs_border(3X)
                     hline_set               curs_border_set(3X)
                     idcok                   curs_outopts(3X)
                     idlok                   curs_outopts(3X)
                     immedok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                     in_wch                  curs_in_wch(3X)
                     in_wchnstr              curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     in_wchstr               curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     inch                    curs_inch(3X)
                     inchnstr                curs_inchstr(3X)
                     inchstr                 curs_inchstr(3X)
                     init_color              curs_color(3X)
                     init_pair               curs_color(3X)
                     initscr                 curs_initscr(3X)
                     innstr                  curs_instr(3X)
                     innwstr                 curs_inwstr(3X)
                     ins_nwstr               curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     ins_wch                 curs_ins_wch(3X)
                     ins_wstr                curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     insch                   curs_insch(3X)
                     insdelln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                     insertln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                     insnstr                 curs_insstr(3X)
                     insstr                  curs_insstr(3X)
                     instr                   curs_instr(3X)
                     intrflush               curs_inopts(3X)
                     inwstr                  curs_inwstr(3X)
                     is_cleared              curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_idcok                curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_idlok                curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_immedok              curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_keypad               curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_leaveok              curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_linetouched          curs_touch(3X)
                     is_nodelay              curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_notimeout            curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_pad                  curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_scrollok             curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_subwin               curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_syncok               curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_term_resized         resizeterm(3X)*
                     is_wintouched           curs_touch(3X)
                     isendwin                curs_initscr(3X)
                     key_defined             key_defined(3X)*
                     key_name                curs_util(3X)
                     keybound                keybound(3X)*
                     keyname                 curs_util(3X)
                     keyok                   keyok(3X)*
                     keypad                  curs_inopts(3X)
                     killchar                curs_termattrs(3X)
                     killwchar               curs_termattrs(3X)
                     leaveok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                     longname                curs_termattrs(3X)
                     mcprint                 curs_print(3X)*
                     meta                    curs_inopts(3X)
                     mouse_trafo             curs_mouse(3X)*

                     mouseinterval           curs_mouse(3X)*
                     mousemask               curs_mouse(3X)*
                     move                    curs_move(3X)
                     mvadd_wch               curs_add_wch(3X)
                     mvadd_wchnstr           curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     mvadd_wchstr            curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     mvaddch                 curs_addch(3X)
                     mvaddchnstr             curs_addchstr(3X)
                     mvaddchstr              curs_addchstr(3X)
                     mvaddnstr               curs_addstr(3X)
                     mvaddnwstr              curs_addwstr(3X)
                     mvaddstr                curs_addstr(3X)
                     mvaddwstr               curs_addwstr(3X)
                     mvchgat                 curs_attr(3X)
                     mvcur                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                     mvdelch                 curs_delch(3X)
                     mvderwin                curs_window(3X)
                     mvget_wch               curs_get_wch(3X)
                     mvget_wstr              curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     mvgetch                 curs_getch(3X)
                     mvgetn_wstr             curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     mvgetnstr               curs_getstr(3X)
                     mvgetstr                curs_getstr(3X)
                     mvhline                 curs_border(3X)
                     mvhline_set             curs_border_set(3X)
                     mvin_wch                curs_in_wch(3X)
                     mvin_wchnstr            curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     mvin_wchstr             curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     mvinch                  curs_inch(3X)
                     mvinchnstr              curs_inchstr(3X)
                     mvinchstr               curs_inchstr(3X)
                     mvinnstr                curs_instr(3X)
                     mvinnwstr               curs_inwstr(3X)
                     mvins_nwstr             curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     mvins_wch               curs_ins_wch(3X)
                     mvins_wstr              curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     mvinsch                 curs_insch(3X)
                     mvinsnstr               curs_insstr(3X)
                     mvinsstr                curs_insstr(3X)
                     mvinstr                 curs_instr(3X)
                     mvinwstr                curs_inwstr(3X)
                     mvprintw                curs_printw(3X)
                     mvscanw                 curs_scanw(3X)
                     mvvline                 curs_border(3X)
                     mvvline_set             curs_border_set(3X)
                     mvwadd_wch              curs_add_wch(3X)
                     mvwadd_wchnstr          curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     mvwadd_wchstr           curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     mvwaddch                curs_addch(3X)
                     mvwaddchnstr            curs_addchstr(3X)
                     mvwaddchstr             curs_addchstr(3X)
                     mvwaddnstr              curs_addstr(3X)
                     mvwaddnwstr             curs_addwstr(3X)
                     mvwaddstr               curs_addstr(3X)
                     mvwaddwstr              curs_addwstr(3X)
                     mvwchgat                curs_attr(3X)
                     mvwdelch                curs_delch(3X)
                     mvwget_wch              curs_get_wch(3X)
                     mvwget_wstr             curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     mvwgetch                curs_getch(3X)
                     mvwgetn_wstr            curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     mvwgetnstr              curs_getstr(3X)
                     mvwgetstr               curs_getstr(3X)
                     mvwhline                curs_border(3X)
                     mvwhline_set            curs_border_set(3X)

                     mvwin                   curs_window(3X)
                     mvwin_wch               curs_in_wch(3X)
                     mvwin_wchnstr           curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     mvwin_wchstr            curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     mvwinch                 curs_inch(3X)
                     mvwinchnstr             curs_inchstr(3X)
                     mvwinchstr              curs_inchstr(3X)
                     mvwinnstr               curs_instr(3X)
                     mvwinnwstr              curs_inwstr(3X)
                     mvwins_nwstr            curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     mvwins_wch              curs_ins_wch(3X)
                     mvwins_wstr             curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     mvwinsch                curs_insch(3X)
                     mvwinsnstr              curs_insstr(3X)
                     mvwinsstr               curs_insstr(3X)
                     mvwinstr                curs_instr(3X)
                     mvwinwstr               curs_inwstr(3X)
                     mvwprintw               curs_printw(3X)
                     mvwscanw                curs_scanw(3X)
                     mvwvline                curs_border(3X)
                     mvwvline_set            curs_border_set(3X)
                     napms                   curs_kernel(3X)
                     newpad                  curs_pad(3X)
                     newterm                 curs_initscr(3X)
                     newwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     nl                      curs_outopts(3X)
                     nocbreak                curs_inopts(3X)
                     nodelay                 curs_inopts(3X)
                     noecho                  curs_inopts(3X)
                     nofilter                curs_util(3X)*
                     nonl                    curs_outopts(3X)
                     noqiflush               curs_inopts(3X)
                     noraw                   curs_inopts(3X)
                     notimeout               curs_inopts(3X)
                     overlay                 curs_overlay(3X)
                     overwrite               curs_overlay(3X)
                     pair_content            curs_color(3X)
                     pechochar               curs_pad(3X)
                     pnoutrefresh            curs_pad(3X)
                     prefresh                curs_pad(3X)
                     printw                  curs_printw(3X)
                     putp                    curs_terminfo(3X)
                     putwin                  curs_util(3X)
                     qiflush                 curs_inopts(3X)
                     raw                     curs_inopts(3X)
                     redrawwin               curs_refresh(3X)
                     refresh                 curs_refresh(3X)
                     reset_prog_mode         curs_kernel(3X)
                     reset_shell_mode        curs_kernel(3X)
                     resetty                 curs_kernel(3X)
                     resize_term             resizeterm(3X)*
                     resizeterm              resizeterm(3X)*
                     restartterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                     ripoffline              curs_kernel(3X)
                     savetty                 curs_kernel(3X)
                     scanw                   curs_scanw(3X)
                     scr_dump                curs_scr_dump(3X)
                     scr_init                curs_scr_dump(3X)
                     scr_restore             curs_scr_dump(3X)
                     scr_set                 curs_scr_dump(3X)
                     scrl                    curs_scroll(3X)
                     scroll                  curs_scroll(3X)
                     scrollok                curs_outopts(3X)
                     set_curterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                     set_term                curs_initscr(3X)

                     setcchar                curs_getcchar(3X)
                     setscrreg               curs_outopts(3X)
                     setsyx                  curs_kernel(3X)
                     setterm                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                     setupterm               curs_terminfo(3X)
                     slk_attr                curs_slk(3X)*
                     slk_attr_off            curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attr_on             curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attr_set            curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attroff             curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attron              curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attrset             curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_clear               curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_color               curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_init                curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_label               curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_noutrefresh         curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_refresh             curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_restore             curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_set                 curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_touch               curs_slk(3X)
                     standend                curs_attr(3X)
                     standout                curs_attr(3X)
                     start_color             curs_color(3X)
                     subpad                  curs_pad(3X)
                     subwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     syncok                  curs_window(3X)
                     term_attrs              curs_termattrs(3X)
                     termattrs               curs_termattrs(3X)
                     termname                curs_termattrs(3X)
                     tgetent                 curs_termcap(3X)
                     tgetflag                curs_termcap(3X)
                     tgetnum                 curs_termcap(3X)
                     tgetstr                 curs_termcap(3X)
                     tgoto                   curs_termcap(3X)
                     tigetflag               curs_terminfo(3X)
                     tigetnum                curs_terminfo(3X)
                     tigetstr                curs_terminfo(3X)
                     tiparm                  curs_terminfo(3X)*
                     timeout                 curs_inopts(3X)
                     touchline               curs_touch(3X)
                     touchwin                curs_touch(3X)
                     tparm                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                     tputs                   curs_termcap(3X)
                     tputs                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                     trace                   curs_trace(3X)*
                     typeahead               curs_inopts(3X)
                     unctrl                  curs_util(3X)
                     unget_wch               curs_get_wch(3X)
                     ungetch                 curs_getch(3X)
                     ungetmouse              curs_mouse(3X)*
                     untouchwin              curs_touch(3X)
                     use_default_colors      default_colors(3X)*
                     use_env                 curs_util(3X)
                     use_extended_names      curs_extend(3X)*
                     use_legacy_coding       legacy_coding(3X)*
                     use_tioctl              curs_util(3X)
                     vid_attr                curs_terminfo(3X)
                     vid_puts                curs_terminfo(3X)
                     vidattr                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                     vidputs                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                     vline                   curs_border(3X)
                     vline_set               curs_border_set(3X)
                     vw_printw               curs_printw(3X)
                     vw_scanw                curs_scanw(3X)

                     vwprintw                curs_printw(3X)
                     vwscanw                 curs_scanw(3X)
                     wadd_wch                curs_add_wch(3X)
                     wadd_wchnstr            curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     wadd_wchstr             curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     waddch                  curs_addch(3X)
                     waddchnstr              curs_addchstr(3X)
                     waddchstr               curs_addchstr(3X)
                     waddnstr                curs_addstr(3X)
                     waddnwstr               curs_addwstr(3X)
                     waddstr                 curs_addstr(3X)
                     waddwstr                curs_addwstr(3X)
                     wattr_get               curs_attr(3X)
                     wattr_off               curs_attr(3X)
                     wattr_on                curs_attr(3X)
                     wattr_set               curs_attr(3X)
                     wattroff                curs_attr(3X)
                     wattron                 curs_attr(3X)
                     wattrset                curs_attr(3X)
                     wbkgd                   curs_bkgd(3X)
                     wbkgdset                curs_bkgd(3X)
                     wbkgrnd                 curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                     wbkgrndset              curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                     wborder                 curs_border(3X)
                     wborder_set             curs_border_set(3X)
                     wchgat                  curs_attr(3X)
                     wclear                  curs_clear(3X)
                     wclrtobot               curs_clear(3X)
                     wclrtoeol               curs_clear(3X)
                     wcolor_set              curs_attr(3X)
                     wcursyncup              curs_window(3X)
                     wdelch                  curs_delch(3X)
                     wdeleteln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                     wecho_wchar             curs_add_wch(3X)
                     wechochar               curs_addch(3X)
                     wenclose                curs_mouse(3X)*
                     werase                  curs_clear(3X)
                     wget_wch                curs_get_wch(3X)
                     wget_wstr               curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     wgetbkgrnd              curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                     wgetch                  curs_getch(3X)
                     wgetdelay               curs_opaque(3X)*
                     wgetn_wstr              curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     wgetnstr                curs_getstr(3X)
                     wgetparent              curs_opaque(3X)*
                     wgetscrreg              curs_opaque(3X)*
                     wgetstr                 curs_getstr(3X)
                     whline                  curs_border(3X)
                     whline_set              curs_border_set(3X)
                     win_wch                 curs_in_wch(3X)
                     win_wchnstr             curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     win_wchstr              curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     winch                   curs_inch(3X)
                     winchnstr               curs_inchstr(3X)
                     winchstr                curs_inchstr(3X)
                     winnstr                 curs_instr(3X)
                     winnwstr                curs_inwstr(3X)
                     wins_nwstr              curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     wins_wch                curs_ins_wch(3X)
                     wins_wstr               curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     winsch                  curs_insch(3X)
                     winsdelln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                     winsertln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                     winsnstr                curs_insstr(3X)
                     winsstr                 curs_insstr(3X)

                     winstr                  curs_instr(3X)
                     winwstr                 curs_inwstr(3X)
                     wmouse_trafo            curs_mouse(3X)*
                     wmove                   curs_move(3X)
                     wnoutrefresh            curs_refresh(3X)
                     wprintw                 curs_printw(3X)
                     wredrawln               curs_refresh(3X)
                     wrefresh                curs_refresh(3X)
                     wresize                 wresize(3X)*
                     wscanw                  curs_scanw(3X)
                     wscrl                   curs_scroll(3X)
                     wsetscrreg              curs_outopts(3X)
                     wstandend               curs_attr(3X)
                     wstandout               curs_attr(3X)
                     wsyncdown               curs_window(3X)
                     wsyncup                 curs_window(3X)
                     wtimeout                curs_inopts(3X)
                     wtouchln                curs_touch(3X)
                     wunctrl                 curs_util(3X)
                     wvline                  curs_border(3X)
                     wvline_set              curs_border_set(3X)


       Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure and an  integer
       value other than ERR upon successful completion, unless otherwise noted
       in the routine descriptions.

       As a general rule, routines check for null pointers passed  as  parame-
       ters, and handle this as an error.

       All  macros  return  the  value  of  the  w  version, except setscrreg,
       wsetscrreg, getyx,  getbegyx,  and  getmaxyx.   The  return  values  of
       setscrreg,  wsetscrreg,  getyx,  getbegyx,  and  getmaxyx are undefined
       (i.e., these should not be used as the right-hand  side  of  assignment

       Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.


       The  following  environment symbols are useful for customizing the run-
       time behavior of the ncurses library.  The  most  important  ones  have
       been already discussed in detail.

       When  set, change occurrences of the command_character (i.e., the cmdch
       capability) of the loaded terminfo entries to the value of  this  vari-
       able.  Very few terminfo entries provide this feature.

       Because this name is also used in development environments to represent
       the C compiler's name, ncurses ignores it if it does not happen to be a
       single character.

       The  debugging library checks this environment variable when the appli-
       cation has redirected output to a file.  The variable's  numeric  value
       is  used  for  the  baudrate.  If no value is found, ncurses uses 9600.
       This allows testers to construct repeatable test-cases that  take  into
       account costs that depend on baudrate.

       Specify the width of the screen in characters.  Applications running in
       a windowing environment usually are able to obtain  the  width  of  the
       window  in  which they are executing.  If neither the COLUMNS value nor
       the terminal's screen size is available, ncurses uses  the  size  which
       may  be specified in the terminfo database (i.e., the cols capability).

       It is important that your  application  use  a  correct  size  for  the
       screen.   This  is  not always possible because your application may be
       running on a host which does not honor NAWS (Negotiations About  Window
       Size),  or  because  you are temporarily running as another user.  How-
       ever, setting COLUMNS and/or LINES overrides the library's use  of  the
       screen size obtained from the operating system.

       Either  COLUMNS  or LINES symbols may be specified independently.  This
       is mainly useful to circumvent legacy misfeatures of terminal  descrip-
       tions, e.g., xterm which commonly specifies a 65 line screen.  For best
       results, lines and cols should not be specified in a terminal  descrip-
       tion for terminals which are run as emulations.

       Use  the  use_env  function  to disable all use of external environment
       (but not including system calls) to determine the screen size.  Use the
       use_tioctl function to update COLUMNS or LINES to match the screen size
       obtained from system calls or the terminal database.

       Specifies the total time, in milliseconds, for which ncurses will await
       a  character  sequence,  e.g., a function key.  The default value, 1000
       milliseconds, is enough for most uses.  However, it is made a  variable
       to accommodate unusual applications.

       The  most common instance where you may wish to change this value is to
       work with slow hosts, e.g., running on a network.  If the  host  cannot
       read  characters rapidly enough, it will have the same effect as if the
       terminal did not send characters  rapidly  enough.   The  library  will
       still see a timeout.

       Note  that  xterm  mouse  events  are built up from character sequences
       received from the xterm.  If your application makes heavy use of multi-
       ple-clicking,  you  may wish to lengthen this default value because the
       timeout applies to the composed multi-click event as well as the  indi-
       vidual clicks.

       In addition to the environment variable, this implementation provides a
       global variable with the same name.  Portable applications  should  not
       rely  upon  the  presence  of  ESCDELAY in either form, but setting the
       environment variable rather than the global variable  does  not  create
       problems when compiling an application.

       Tells  ncurses where your home directory is.  That is where it may read
       and write auxiliary terminal descriptions:


       Like COLUMNS, specify the height of the screen in characters.  See COL-
       UMNS for a detailed description.

       This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.  It specifies the order of but-
       tons on the mouse.  OS/2 numbers a 3-button mouse  inconsistently  from
       other platforms:

       1 = left
       2 = right
       3 = middle.

       This variable lets you customize the mouse.  The variable must be three
       numeric digits 1-3 in any order, e.g., 123 or 321.  If it is not speci-
       fied, ncurses uses 132.

       Override  the compiled-in assumption that the terminal's default colors
       are white-on-black (see default_colors(3X)).  You  may  set  the  fore-
       ground  and  background  color values with this environment variable by
       proving a 2-element list: foreground,background.  For example, to  tell
       ncurses  to  not assume anything about the colors, set this to "-1,-1".
       To make it green-on-black, set it to "2,0".  Any  positive  value  from
       zero to the terminfo max_colors value is allowed.

       This applies only to the MinGW port of ncurses.

       The  Console2 program's handling of the Microsoft Console API call Cre-
       ateConsoleScreenBuffer is defective.  Applications which use this  will
       hang.   However,  it is possible to simulate the action of this call by
       mapping coordinates,  explicitly  saving  and  restoring  the  original
       screen  contents.   Setting the environment variable NCGDB has the same

       This applies only to ncurses configured to use the GPM interface.

       If present, the environment variable is a list of one or more  terminal
       names  against which the TERM environment variable is matched.  Setting
       it to an empty value disables the GPM  interface;  using  the  built-in
       support for xterm, etc.

       If the environment variable is absent, ncurses will attempt to open GPM
       if TERM contains "linux".

       Ncurses may use tabs as part of the cursor movement  optimization.   In
       some  cases,  your  terminal driver may not handle these properly.  Set
       this environment variable to disable the feature.  You can also  adjust
       your  stty settings to avoid the problem.  NCURSES_NO_MAGIC_COOKIE Some
       terminals use a magic-cookie feature which requires special handling to
       make highlighting and other video attributes display properly.  You can
       suppress the highlighting entirely for these terminals by setting  this
       environment variable.

       Most  of the terminal descriptions in the terminfo database are written
       for real "hardware" terminals.   Many  people  use  terminal  emulators
       which run in a windowing environment and use curses-based applications.
       Terminal emulators can duplicate all of  the  important  aspects  of  a
       hardware  terminal,  but  they  do  not have the same limitations.  The
       chief limitation of a hardware terminal from  the  standpoint  of  your
       application  is  the  management  of  dataflow, i.e., timing.  Unless a
       hardware terminal is interfaced into  a  terminal  concentrator  (which
       does flow control), it (or your application) must manage dataflow, pre-
       venting overruns.  The cheapest solution (no hardware cost) is for your
       program  to  do this by pausing after operations that the terminal does
       slowly, such as clearing the display.

       As a result, many terminal  descriptions  (including  the  vt100)  have
       delay  times embedded.  You may wish to use these descriptions, but not
       want to pay the performance penalty.

       Set the NCURSES_NO_PADDING environment  variable  to  disable  all  but
       mandatory padding.  Mandatory padding is used as a part of special con-
       trol sequences such as flash.

       This setting is obsolete.  Before changes

          o   started with 5.9 patch 20120825 and

          o   continued though 5.9 patch 20130126

       ncurses enabled buffered output during terminal  initialization.   This
       was done (as in SVr4 curses) for performance reasons.  For testing pur-
       poses, both of ncurses and certain applications, this feature was  made
       optional.   Setting  the  NCURSES_NO_SETBUF  variable  disabled  output
       buffering, leaving the output in the original (usually  line  buffered)

       In  the  current implementation, ncurses performs its own buffering and
       does not require this workaround.  It does not modify the buffering  of
       the standard output.

       The  reason  for the change was to make the behavior for interrupts and
       other signals more robust.  One drawback  is  that  certain  nonconven-
       tional  programs  would mix ordinary stdio calls with ncurses calls and
       (usually) work.  This is no longer possible since ncurses is not  using
       the  buffered  standard  output  but  its  own output (to the same file
       descriptor).  As a special case, the low-level calls such as putp still
       use the standard output.  But high-level curses calls do not.

       During  initialization,  the  ncurses  library checks for special cases
       where VT100 line-drawing (and the corresponding alternate character set
       capabilities)  described  in  the  terminfo  are  known  to be missing.
       Specifically, when running in a UTF-8 locale, the Linux console  emula-
       tor  and  the GNU screen program ignore these.  Ncurses checks the TERM
       environment variable for these.  For other special  cases,  you  should
       set this environment variable.  Doing this tells ncurses to use Unicode
       values which correspond to the VT100 line-drawing glyphs.   That  works
       for  the special cases cited, and is likely to work for terminal emula-

       When setting this variable, you should set it to a nonzero value.  Set-
       ting  it  to  zero  (or  to a nonnumber) disables the special check for
       "linux" and "screen".

       As an alternative to the environment variable, ncurses  checks  for  an
       extended  terminfo  capability  U8.  This is a numeric capability which
       can be compiled using tic -x.  For example

          # linux console, if patched to provide working
          # VT100 shift-in/shift-out, with corresponding font.
          linux-vt100|linux console with VT100 line-graphics,
                  U8#0, use=linux,

          # uxterm with vt100Graphics resource set to false
          xterm-utf8|xterm relying on UTF-8 line-graphics,
                  U8#1, use=xterm,

       The name "U8" is chosen to be two characters, to permit it to  be  used
       by applications that use ncurses' termcap interface.

       During   initialization,  the  ncurses  debugging  library  checks  the
       NCURSES_TRACE environment variable.  If it is  defined,  to  a  numeric
       value,  ncurses calls the trace function, using that value as the argu-

       The argument values, which are defined  in  curses.h,  provide  several
       types  of information.  When running with traces enabled, your applica-
       tion will write the file trace to the current directory.

       See curs_trace(3X) for more information.

       Denotes your terminal type.  Each terminal  type  is  distinct,  though
       many are similar.

       TERM  is commonly set by terminal emulators to help applications find a
       workable terminal description.  Some of those choose a popular approxi-
       mation,  e.g.,  "ansi", "vt100", "xterm" rather than an exact fit.  Not
       infrequently, your application will have problems with  that  approach,
       e.g., incorrect function-key definitions.

       If  you set TERM in your environment, it has no effect on the operation
       of the terminal emulator.  It only affects the  way  applications  work
       within  the  terminal.  Likewise, as a general rule (xterm being a rare
       exception), terminal emulators which allow you to  specify  TERM  as  a
       parameter  or configuration value do not change their behavior to match
       that setting.

       If the ncurses  library  has  been  configured  with  termcap  support,
       ncurses  will  check for a terminal's description in termcap form if it
       is not available in the terminfo database.

       The TERMCAP environment variable contains either a terminal description
       (with newlines stripped out), or a file name telling where the informa-
       tion denoted by the TERM environment variable exists.  In either  case,
       setting  it directs ncurses to ignore the usual place for this informa-
       tion, e.g., /etc/termcap.

       Overrides the directory in which ncurses  searches  for  your  terminal
       description.   This is the simplest, but not the only way to change the
       list of directories.  The complete list of directories  in  order  fol-

          o   the  last  directory to which ncurses wrote, if any, is searched

          o   the directory specified by the TERMINFO environment variable

          o   $HOME/.terminfo

          o   directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS environment variable

          o   one or more directories whose names are configured and  compiled
              into the ncurses library, i.e.,

             o   no  default  value  (corresponding to the TERMINFO_DIRS vari-

             o   /opt/local/share/terminfo  (corresponding  to  the   TERMINFO

       Specifies  a  list  of directories to search for terminal descriptions.
       The list is separated by colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2

       All  of the terminal descriptions are in terminfo form.  Normally these
       are stored in a directory tree, using subdirectories named by the first
       letter of the terminal names therein.

       If  ncurses  is  built  with a hashed database, then each entry in this
       list can also be the path of the corresponding database file.

       If ncurses is built with a support for reading termcap files  directly,
       then an entry in this list may be the path of a termcap file.

       If  TERMCAP  does not hold a file name then ncurses checks the TERMPATH
       environment variable.  This is a list of filenames separated by  spaces
       or colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX.

       If  the  TERMPATH environment variable is not set, ncurses looks in the
       files /etc/termcap, /usr/share/misc/termcap and $HOME/.termcap, in that

       The library may be configured to disregard the following variables when
       the current user is the superuser (root), or if  the  application  uses
       setuid or setgid permissions:



       Several different configurations are possible, depending on the config-
       ure script options used when building ncurses.  There are  a  few  main
       options  whose  effects are visible to the applications developer using

            The standard include for ncurses is as noted in SYNOPSIS:

          #include <curses.h>

            This option is used to avoid filename conflicts  when  ncurses  is
            not the main implementation of curses of the computer.  If ncurses
            is installed disabling overwrite, it puts its headers in a  subdi-
            rectory, e.g.,

          #include <ncurses/curses.h>

            It  also  omits  a  symbolic  link  which  would  allow you to use
            -lcurses to build executables.

            The configure script  renames  the  library  and  (if  the  --dis-
            able-overwrite  option is used) puts the header files in a differ-
            ent subdirectory.  All of the library names have a "w" appended to
            them, i.e., instead of


            you link with


            You must also define _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED when compiling for the
            wide-character library to use the extended (wide-character)  func-
            tions.   The curses.h file which is installed for the wide-charac-
            ter library is designed to be compatible with the normal library's
            header.   Only  the size of the WINDOW structure differs, and very
            few applications require more than a pointer to WINDOWs.   If  the
            headers  are  installed  allowing  overwrite,  the  wide-character
            library's headers should be installed last, to allow  applications
            to be built using either library from the same set of headers.

            The  configure  script  renames  the  library.  All of the library
            names have a "t"  appended  to  them  (before  any  "w"  added  by

            The global variables such as LINES are replaced by macros to allow
            read-only access.  At the same time, setter-functions are provided
            to  set  these  values.   Some applications (very few) may require
            changes to work with this convention.




            The shared and normal (static) library names differ by their  suf-
            fixes,  e.g., and libncurses.a.  The debug and pro-
            filing libraries add a "_g" and a "_p" to the root  names  respec-
            tively, e.g., libncurses_g.a and libncurses_p.a.

            The  trace  function normally resides in the debug library, but it
            is sometimes useful to configure this in the shared library.  Con-
            figure  scripts  should  check for the function's existence rather
            than assuming it is always in the debug library.


            directory containing initialization files for the  terminal  capa-
            bility   database  /opt/local/share/terminfo  terminal  capability


       terminfo(5) and related pages whose names begin  "curs_"  for  detailed
       routine descriptions.


       The  ncurses library can be compiled with an option (-DUSE_GETCAP) that
       falls back to the old-style /etc/termcap file  if  the  terminal  setup
       code  cannot  find a terminfo entry corresponding to TERM.  Use of this
       feature is not recommended, as it essentially includes an entire  term-
       cap  compiler  in the ncurses startup code, at significant cost in core
       and startup cycles.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for capturing mouse  events  on
       certain  terminals  (including  xterm).   See the curs_mouse(3X) manual
       page for details.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for responding to window resiz-
       ing events, e.g., when running in an xterm.  See the resizeterm(3X) and
       wresize(3X) manual pages for details.  In addition, the library may  be
       configured with a SIGWINCH handler.

       The  ncurses library extends the fixed set of function key capabilities
       of terminals by allowing the application designer to define  additional
       key  sequences at runtime.  See the define_key(3X) key_defined(3X), and
       keyok(3X) manual pages for details.

       The ncurses library can exploit the  capabilities  of  terminals  which
       implement  the  ISO-6429  SGR  39  and  SGR 49 controls, which allow an
       application to reset the terminal to its original foreground and  back-
       ground colors.  From the users' perspective, the application is able to
       draw colored text on a background whose  color  is  set  independently,
       providing  better  control  over color contrasts.  See the default_col-
       ors(3X) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library includes a function for directing application  out-
       put   to   a   printer  attached  to  the  terminal  device.   See  the
       curs_print(3X) manual page for details.


       The ncurses library is intended to be BASE-level  conformant  with  XSI
       Curses.   The  EXTENDED  XSI Curses functionality (including color sup-
       port) is supported.

       A small number of local differences (that  is,  individual  differences
       between  the XSI Curses and ncurses calls) are described in PORTABILITY
       sections of the library man pages.

       Unlike other implementations, this one checks parameters such as point-
       ers  to WINDOW structures to ensure they are not null.  The main reason
       for providing this behavior is to guard against programmer error.   The
       standard  interface  does  not provide a way for the library to tell an
       application which of several possible errors were detected.  Relying on
       this (or some other) extension will adversely affect the portability of
       curses applications.

       This implementation also contains several extensions:

       o   The routine has_key is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
           See the curs_getch(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The  routine  slk_attr  is  not  part of XPG4, nor is it present in
           SVr4.  See the curs_slk(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The routines getmouse, mousemask,  ungetmouse,  mouseinterval,  and
           wenclose  relating  to  mouse interfacing are not part of XPG4, nor
           are they present in SVr4.  See the curs_mouse(3X) manual  page  for

       o   The  routine  mcprint was not present in any previous curses imple-
           mentation.  See the curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The routine wresize is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
           See the wresize(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The WINDOW structure's internal details can be hidden from applica-
           tion programs.  See curs_opaque(3X) for the discussion of is_scrol-
           lok, etc.

       o   This  implementation  can be configured to provide rudimentary sup-
           port for multi-threaded  applications.   See  curs_threads(3X)  for

       o   This  implementation  can  also  be  configured to provide a set of
           functions which improve the ability  to  manage  multiple  screens.
           See curs_sp_funcs(3X) for details.

       In  historic  curses  versions, delays embedded in the capabilities cr,
       ind, cub1, ff and tab activated corresponding delay bits  in  the  UNIX
       tty driver.  In this implementation, all padding is done by sending NUL
       bytes.  This method is slightly more expensive, but narrows the  inter-
       face  to  the  UNIX  kernel  significantly  and increases the package's
       portability correspondingly.


       The header file <curses.h>  automatically  includes  the  header  files
       <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>.

       If  standard  output from a ncurses program is re-directed to something
       which is not a tty, screen updates will be directed to standard  error.
       This was an undocumented feature of AT&T System V Release 3 curses.


       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.


ncurses 6.0 - Generated Tue Aug 18 18:18:40 CDT 2015
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