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stdio(3)                 BSD Library Functions Manual                 stdio(3)


NAME

     stdio -- standard input/output library functions


LIBRARY

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)


SYNOPSIS

     #include <stdio.h>

     FILE *stdin;
     FILE *stdout;
     FILE *stderr;

     Note: The current implementation does not allow these variables to be
     evaluated at C compile/link time.  That is, a runtime calculation must be
     performed, such as:

           #include <stdio.h>

           static FILE *var;

           int main() {
               var = stdout;
           }


DESCRIPTION

     The standard I/O library provides a simple and efficient buffered stream
     I/O interface.  Input and output is mapped into logical data streams and
     the physical I/O characteristics are concealed.  The functions and macros
     are listed below; more information is available from the individual man
     pages.

     A stream is associated with an external file (which may be a physical
     device) by opening a file, which may involve creating a new file.  Creat-
     ing an existing file causes its former contents to be discarded.  If a
     file can support positioning requests (such as a disk file, as opposed to
     a terminal) then a file position indicator associated with the stream is
     positioned at the start of the file (byte zero), unless the file is
     opened with append mode.  If append mode is used, the position indicator
     will be placed at the end-of-file.  The position indicator is maintained
     by subsequent reads, writes and positioning requests.  All input occurs
     as if the characters were read by successive calls to the fgetc(3) func-
     tion; all output takes place as if all characters were written by succes-
     sive calls to the fputc(3) function.

     A file is disassociated from a stream by closing the file.  Output
     streams are flushed (any unwritten buffer contents are transferred to the
     host environment) before the stream is disassociated from the file.  The
     value of a pointer to a FILE object is indeterminate (garbage) after a
     file is closed.

     A file may be subsequently reopened, by the same or another program exe-
     cution, and its contents reclaimed or modified (if it can be repositioned
     at the start).  If the main function returns to its original caller, or
     the exit(3) function is called, all open files are closed (hence all out-
     put streams are flushed) before program termination.  Other methods of
     program termination may not close files properly and hence buffered out-
     put may be lost.  In particular, _exit(2) does not flush stdio files.
     Neither does an exit due to a signal.  Buffers are flushed by abort(3) as
     required by POSIX, although previous implementations did not.

     This implementation makes no distinction between ``text'' and ``binary''
     streams.  In effect, all streams are binary.  No translation is performed
     and no extra padding appears on any stream.

     At program startup, three streams are predefined and need not be opened
     explicitly:
           o   standard input (for reading conventional input),
           o   standard output (for writing conventional output), and
           o   standard error (for writing diagnostic output).
     These streams are abbreviated stdin, stdout and stderr.  Initially, the
     standard error stream is unbuffered; the standard input and output
     streams are fully buffered if and only if the streams do not refer to an
     interactive or ``terminal'' device, as determined by the isatty(3) func-
     tion.  In fact, all freshly-opened streams that refer to terminal devices
     default to line buffering, and pending output to such streams is written
     automatically whenever such an input stream is read.  Note that this
     applies only to ``true reads''; if the read request can be satisfied by
     existing buffered data, no automatic flush will occur.  In these cases,
     or when a large amount of computation is done after printing part of a
     line on an output terminal, it is necessary to fflush(3) the standard
     output before going off and computing so that the output will appear.
     Alternatively, these defaults may be modified via the setvbuf(3) func-
     tion.

     The stdio library is a part of the library libc and routines are automat-
     ically loaded as needed by the C compiler.  The SYNOPSIS sections of the
     following manual pages indicate which include files are to be used, what
     the compiler declaration for the function looks like and which external
     variables are of interest.

     The following are defined as macros; these names may not be re-used with-
     out first removing their current definitions with #undef: BUFSIZ, EOF,
     FILENAME_MAX, FOPEN_MAX, L_ctermid, L_cuserid, L_tmpnam, NULL, P_tmpdir,
     SEEK_CUR, SEEK_END, SEEK_SET, TMP_MAX, clearerr, clearerr_unlocked, feof,
     feof_unlocked, ferror, ferror_unlocked, fileno, fileno_unlocked, fropen,
     fwopen, getc, getc_unlocked, getchar, getchar_unlocked, putc,
     putc_unlocked, putchar, putchar_unlocked, stderr, stdin and stdout.
     Function versions of the macro functions clearerr, clearerr_unlocked,
     feof, feof_unlocked, ferror, ferror_unlocked, fileno, fileno_unlocked,
     getc, getc_unlocked, getchar, getchar_unlocked, putc, putc_unlocked,
     putchar, and putchar_unlocked exist and will be used if the macro defini-
     tions are explicitly removed.


LEGACY SYNOPSIS

     The -D_NONSTD_SOURCE flag can be used to allow stdin, stdout, and/or
     stderr to be evaluated at compile/link time, as:

           #include <stdio.h>

           static FILE *var = stdout;


SEE ALSO

     close(2), open(2), read(2), write(2), compat(5)


STANDARDS

     The stdio library conforms to ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (``ISO C99'').


LIST OF FUNCTIONS

     Function       Description
     asprintf       formatted output conversion

     clearerr       check and reset stream status

     fclose         close a stream
     fdopen         stream open functions
     feof           check and reset stream status
     ferror         check and reset stream status
     fflush         flush a stream
     fgetc          get next character or word from input stream
     fgetln         get a line from a stream
     fgetpos        reposition a stream
     fgets          get a line from a stream
     fgetwc         get next wide character from input stream
     fgetws         get a line of wide characters from a stream
     fileno         check and reset stream status
     fopen          stream open functions
     fprintf        formatted output conversion
     fpurge         flush a stream
     fputc          output a character or word to a stream
     fputs          output a line to a stream
     fputwc         output a wide character to a stream
     fputws         output a line of wide characters to a stream
     fread          binary stream input/output
     freopen        stream open functions
     fropen         open a stream
     fscanf         input format conversion
     fseek          reposition a stream
     fsetpos        reposition a stream
     ftell          reposition a stream
     funopen        open a stream
     fwide          set/get orientation of stream
     fwopen         open a stream
     fwprintf       formatted wide character output conversion
     fwrite         binary stream input/output

     getc           get next character or word from input stream
     getchar        get next character or word from input stream
     getdelim       get a line from a stream
     getline        get a line from a stream
     gets           get a line from a stream
     getw           get next character or word from input stream
     getwc          get next wide character from input stream
     getwchar       get next wide character from input stream

     mkdtemp        create unique temporary directory
     mkstemp        create unique temporary file
     mktemp         create unique temporary file

     perror         system error messages
     printf         formatted output conversion
     putc           output a character or word to a stream
     putchar        output a character or word to a stream
     puts           output a line to a stream
     putw           output a character or word to a stream
     putwc          output a wide character to a stream
     putwchar       output a wide character to a stream

     remove         remove directory entry
     rewind         reposition a stream

     scanf          input format conversion
     setbuf         stream buffering operations
     setbuffer      stream buffering operations
     setlinebuf     stream buffering operations
     setvbuf        stream buffering operations
     snprintf       formatted output conversion
     sprintf        formatted output conversion
     sscanf         input format conversion
     strerror       system error messages
     swprintf       formatted wide character output conversion
     sys_errlist    system error messages
     sys_nerr       system error messages

     tempnam        temporary file routines
     tmpfile        temporary file routines
     tmpnam         temporary file routines

     ungetc         un-get character from input stream
     ungetwc        un-get wide character from input stream

     vasprintf      formatted output conversion
     vfprintf       formatted output conversion
     vfscanf        input format conversion
     vfwprintf      formatted wide character output conversion
     vprintf        formatted output conversion
     vscanf         input format conversion
     vsnprintf      formatted output conversion
     vsprintf       formatted output conversion
     vsscanf        input format conversion
     vswprintf      formatted wide character output conversion
     vwprintf       formatted wide character output conversion

     wprintf        formatted wide character output conversion


BUGS

     The standard buffered functions do not interact well with certain other
     library and system functions, especially vfork(2).

BSD                              March 3, 2009                             BSD

Mac OS X 10.8 - Generated Fri Aug 31 05:36:54 CDT 2012