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tset(1)                                                                tset(1)


       tset, reset - terminal initialization


       tset [-IQVcqrsw] [-] [-e ch] [-i ch] [-k ch] [-m mapping] [terminal]
       reset [-IQVcqrsw] [-] [-e ch] [-i ch] [-k ch] [-m mapping] [terminal]


   tset - initialization
       This program initializes terminals.

       First,  tset retrieves the current terminal mode settings for your ter-
       minal.  It does this by successively testing

       o   the standard error,

       o   standard output,

       o   standard input and

       o   ultimately "/dev/tty"

       to obtain terminal settings.  Having  retrieved  these  settings,  tset
       remembers which file descriptor to use when updating settings.

       Next,  tset  determines  the type of terminal that you are using.  This
       determination is done as follows, using the first terminal type  found.

       1. The terminal argument specified on the command line.

       2. The value of the TERM environmental variable.

       3.  (BSD  systems only.) The terminal type associated with the standard
       error output device in the /etc/ttys file.   (On  System-V-like  UNIXes
       and  systems using that convention, getty does this job by setting TERM
       according to the type passed to it by /etc/inittab.)

       4. The default terminal type, "unknown".

       If the terminal type was not specified  on  the  command-line,  the  -m
       option mappings are then applied (see the section TERMINAL TYPE MAPPING
       for more information).  Then, if the terminal type begins with a  ques-
       tion  mark ("?"), the user is prompted for confirmation of the terminal
       type.  An empty response confirms the type, or,  another  type  can  be
       entered  to specify a new type.  Once the terminal type has been deter-
       mined, the terminal description for the terminal is retrieved.   If  no
       terminal  description  is  found for the type, the user is prompted for
       another terminal type.

       Once the terminal description is retrieved,

       o   if the "-w" option is enabled, tset may update the terminal's  win-
           dow size.

           If  the  window  size cannot be obtained from the operating system,
           but the terminal description (or environment, e.g., LINES and  COL-
           UMNS  variables  specify  this), use this to set the operating sys-
           tem's notion of the window size.

       o   if the "-c" option is enabled, the backspace,  interrupt  and  line
           kill characters (among many other things) are set

       o   unless the "-I" option is enabled, the terminal and tab initializa-
           tion strings are sent to the standard error output, and tset  waits
           one second (in case a hardware reset was issued).

       o   Finally,  if  the  erase,  interrupt  and line kill characters have
           changed, or are not set to their default values, their  values  are
           displayed to the standard error output.

   reset - reinitialization
       When invoked as reset, tset sets the terminal modes to "sane" values:

       o   sets cooked and echo modes,

       o   turns off cbreak and raw modes,

       o   turns on newline translation and

       o   resets any unset special characters to their default values

       before doing the terminal initialization described above.  Also, rather
       than using the terminal initialization strings, it  uses  the  terminal
       reset strings.

       The  reset command is useful after a program dies leaving a terminal in
       an abnormal state:

       o   you may have to type


           (the line-feed character is normally control-J) to get the terminal
           to  work,  as  carriage-return  may  no longer work in the abnormal

       o   Also, the terminal will often not echo the command.


       The options are as follows:

       -c   Set control characters and modes.

       -e   Set the erase character to ch.

       -I   Do not send the terminal or tab initialization strings to the ter-

       -i   Set the interrupt character to ch.

       -k   Set the line kill character to ch.

       -m   Specify a mapping from a port type to a terminal.  See the section
            TERMINAL TYPE MAPPING for more information.

       -Q   Do not display any values for the erase, interrupt and  line  kill
            characters.  Normally tset displays the values for control charac-
            ters which differ from the system's default values.

       -q   The terminal type is displayed to the  standard  output,  and  the
            terminal  is not initialized in any way.  The option "-" by itself
            is equivalent but archaic.

       -r   Print the terminal type to the standard error output.

       -s   Print the sequence of shell commands to initialize the environment
            variable TERM to the standard output.  See the section SETTING THE
            ENVIRONMENT for details.

       -V   reports the version of ncurses which was used in this program, and

       -w   Resize  the  window  to  match the size deduced via setupterm(3X).
            Normally this has no effect,  unless  setupterm  is  not  able  to
            detect the window size.

       The  arguments  for the -e, -i, and -k options may either be entered as
       actual characters or by using the "hat" notation, i.e.,  control-h  may
       be specified as "^H" or "^h".

       If neither -c or -w is given, both options are assumed.


       It  is often desirable to enter the terminal type and information about
       the terminal's capabilities into the shell's environment.  This is done
       using the -s option.

       When  the -s option is specified, the commands to enter the information
       into the shell's environment are written to the  standard  output.   If
       the  SHELL  environmental  variable ends in "csh", the commands are for
       csh, otherwise, they are for sh.  Note, the csh commands set and  unset
       the shell variable noglob, leaving it unset.  The following line in the
       .login or .profile files will initialize the environment correctly:

           eval `tset -s options ... `


       When the terminal is not hardwired into the system (or the current sys-
       tem  information  is  incorrect)  the  terminal  type  derived from the
       /etc/ttys file or the TERM environmental variable  is  often  something
       generic  like  network,  dialup,  or  unknown.   When tset is used in a
       startup script it is often desirable to provide information  about  the
       type of terminal used on such ports.

       The  -m  options  maps  from some set of conditions to a terminal type,
       that is, to tell tset "If I'm on this port at a particular speed, guess
       that I'm on that kind of terminal".

       The  argument  to  the  -m option consists of an optional port type, an
       optional operator, an optional baud  rate  specification,  an  optional
       colon  (":")  character and a terminal type.  The port type is a string
       (delimited by either the operator or the colon character).  The  opera-
       tor may be any combination of ">", "<", "@", and "!"; ">" means greater
       than, "<" means less than, "@" means equal to and "!" inverts the sense
       of  the  test.   The baud rate is specified as a number and is compared
       with the speed of the standard error output (which should be  the  con-
       trol terminal).  The terminal type is a string.

       If  the terminal type is not specified on the command line, the -m map-
       pings are applied to the terminal type.  If the port type and baud rate
       match  the mapping, the terminal type specified in the mapping replaces
       the current type.  If more than one mapping  is  specified,  the  first
       applicable mapping is used.

       For  example,  consider  the following mapping: dialup>9600:vt100.  The
       port type is dialup , the operator is >, the baud rate specification is
       9600, and the terminal type is vt100.  The result of this mapping is to
       specify that if the terminal type is  dialup,  and  the  baud  rate  is
       greater than 9600 baud, a terminal type of vt100 will be used.

       If  no  baud  rate  is specified, the terminal type will match any baud
       rate.  If no port type is specified, the terminal type will  match  any
       port  type.   For  example,  -m  dialup:vt100 -m :?xterm will cause any
       dialup port, regardless of baud rate, to match the terminal type vt100,
       and  any non-dialup port type to match the terminal type ?xterm.  Note,
       because of the leading question mark, the user will  be  queried  on  a
       default port as to whether they are actually using an xterm terminal.

       No  whitespace  characters  are  permitted  in  the -m option argument.
       Also, to avoid problems with meta-characters, it is suggested that  the
       entire -m option argument be placed within single quote characters, and
       that csh users insert a backslash character ("\") before  any  exclama-
       tion marks ("!").


       A  reset command appeared in 2BSD (April 1979), written by Kurt Shoens.
       This program set the erase and kill characters to ^H (backspace) and  @
       respectively.  Mark Horton improved that in 3BSD (October 1979), adding
       intr, quit, start/stop and eof characters as well as changing the  pro-
       gram to avoid modifying any user settings.

       Later  in  4.1BSD (December 1980), Mark Horton added a call to the tset
       program using the -I and -Q options, i.e., using that  to  improve  the
       terminal  modes.  With those options, that version of reset did not use
       the termcap database.

       A separate tset command was provided in 2BSD by Eric Allman.  While the
       oldest  published source (from 1979) provides both tset and reset, All-
       man's comments in the 2BSD source code indicate that he began  work  in
       October 1977, continuing development over the next few years.

       In  September 1980, Eric Allman modified tset, adding the code from the
       existing "reset" feature when tset was invoked as reset.   Rather  than
       simply  copying the existing program, in this merged version, tset used
       the termcap database to do additional (re)initialization of the  termi-
       nal.  This version appeared in 4.1cBSD, late in 1982.

       Other developers (e.g., Keith Bostic and Jim Bloom) continued to modify
       tset until 4.4BSD was released in 1993.

       The ncurses implementation was lightly adapted from the 4.4BSD  sources
       for  a terminfo environment by Eric S. Raymond <>.


       Neither IEEE Std 1003.1/The Open  Group  Base  Specifications  Issue  7
       (POSIX.1-2008) nor X/Open Curses Issue 7 documents tset or reset.

       The  AT&T  tput utility (AIX, HPUX, Solaris) incorporated the terminal-
       mode manipulation as well as termcap-based features such  as  resetting
       tabstops from tset in BSD (4.1c), presumably with the intention of mak-
       ing tset obsolete.  However, each of those systems still provides tset.
       In fact, the commonly-used reset utility is always an alias for tset.

       The  tset utility provides for backward-compatibility with BSD environ-
       ments (under most modern UNIXes, /etc/inittab and getty(1) can set TERM
       appropriately for each dial-up line; this obviates what was tset's most
       important use).  This implementation behaves like 4.4BSD tset,  with  a
       few exceptions specified here.

       A  few  options are different because the TERMCAP variable is no longer
       supported under terminfo-based ncurses:

       o   The -S option of BSD tset no longer works; it prints an error  mes-
           sage to the standard error and dies.

       o   The -s option only sets TERM, not TERMCAP.

       There  was an undocumented 4.4BSD feature that invoking tset via a link
       named "TSET" (or via any other name beginning with an  upper-case  let-
       ter)  set  the  terminal to use upper-case only.  This feature has been

       The -A, -E, -h, -u and -v options were deleted from the tset utility in
       4.4BSD.   None of them were documented in 4.3BSD and all are of limited
       utility at best.  The -a, -d, and -p options are  similarly  not  docu-
       mented  or useful, but were retained as they appear to be in widespread
       use.  It is strongly recommended that any usage of these three  options
       be  changed  to  use the -m option instead.  The -a, -d, and -p options
       are therefore omitted from the usage summary above.

       Very old systems, e.g., 3BSD, used a different  terminal  driver  which
       was  replaced  in  4BSD in the early 1980s.  To accommodate these older
       systems, the 4BSD tset provided a -n option to  specify  that  the  new
       terminal  driver  should be used.  This implementation does not provide
       that choice.

       It is still permissible to specify the -e, -i, and -k  options  without
       arguments, although it is strongly recommended that such usage be fixed
       to explicitly specify the character.

       As of 4.4BSD, executing tset as reset no longer implies the -Q  option.
       Also, the interaction between the - option and the terminal argument in
       some historic implementations of tset has been removed.

       The -c and -w options are not found in earlier  implementations.   How-
       ever, a different window size-change feature was provided in 4.4BSD.

       o   In  4.4BSD,  tset uses the window size from the termcap description
           to set the window size if tset is not able  to  obtain  the  window
           size from the operating system.

       o   In ncurses, tset obtains the window size using setupterm, which may
           be from the operating system, the  LINES  and  COLUMNS  environment
           variables or the terminal description.

       Obtaining  the  window  size from the terminal description is common to
       both implementations, but considered obsolescent.  Its  only  practical
       use is for hardware terminals.  Generally speaking, a window size would
       be unset only if there were some problem obtaining the value  from  the
       operating  system  (and  setupterm would still fail).  For that reason,
       the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables may be useful  for  working
       around  window-size problems.  Those have the drawback that if the win-
       dow is resized, those variables must be recomputed and reassigned.   To
       do this more easily, use the resize(1) program.


       The tset command uses these environment variables:

            tells tset whether to initialize TERM using sh or csh syntax.

       TERM Denotes  your  terminal  type.   Each  terminal  type is distinct,
            though many are similar.

            may denote the location of a termcap database.  If it  is  not  an
            absolute pathname, e.g., begins with a "/", tset removes the vari-
            able from the environment before looking for the terminal descrip-


            system  port  name to terminal type mapping database (BSD versions

            terminal capability database


       csh(1),  sh(1),  stty(1),   curs_terminfo(3X),   tty(4),   terminfo(5),
       ttys(5), environ(7)

       This describes ncurses version 6.2 (patch 20200212).


ncurses 6.2 - Generated Sun Feb 16 09:59:52 CST 2020
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