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ditto(1)                  BSD General Commands Manual                 ditto(1)


NAME

     ditto -- copy directory hierarchies, create and extract archives


SYNOPSIS

     ditto [-v] [-V] [-X] [<options>] src ... dst_directory
     ditto [-v] [-V] [<options>] src_file dst_file
     ditto -c [-z | -j | -k] [-v] [-V] [-X] [<options>] src dst_archive
     ditto -x [-z | -j | -k] [-v] [-V] [<options>] src_archive ...
           dst_directory
     ditto -h | --help


DESCRIPTION

     In its first form, ditto copies one or more source files or directories
     to a destination directory.  If the destination directory does not exist
     it will be created before the first source is copied.  If the destination
     directory already exists then the source directories are merged with the
     previous contents of the destination.

     In its second form, ditto copies a file to the supplied dst_file path-
     name.

     The next two forms reflect ditto's ability to create and extract ar-
     chives.  These archives can be either CPIO format (preferred for unix
     content) or PKZip (for Windows compatibility).  src_archive (and
     dst_archive) can be the single character '-', causing ditto to read
     (write) archive data from stdin (or to stdout, respectively).

     ditto follows symbolic links provided as arguments but does not follow
     any links as it traverses the source or destination hierarchies.  ditto
     overwrites existing files, symbolic links, and devices in the destination
     when these are copied from a source.  The resulting files, links, and
     devices will have the same mode, access time, modification time, owner,
     and group as the source items from which they are copied.  Pipes, sock-
     ets, and files with names beginning with .nfs or .afpDeleted will be
     ignored.  ditto does not modify the mode, owner, group, extended
     attributes, or ACLs of existing directories in the destination.  Files
     and symbolic links cannot overwrite directories or vice-versa.

     ditto can be used to "thin" Universal Mach-O binaries during a copy.
     ditto can also copy files selectively based on the contents of a BOM
     ("Bill of Materials") file.  ditto preserves file hard links (but not
     directory hard links) present in the source directories and preserves
     setuid and setgid modes when run as the superuser.

     ditto will preserve resource forks and HFS meta-data information when
     copying unless instructed otherwise using --norsrc .  Similarly, ditto
     will preserve extended attributes and Access Control Lists (ACLs) unless
     --noextattr or --noacl is passed.  DITTONORSRC can be set in the environ-
     ment as an alias to --norsrc --noextattr --noacl on the command line.


OPTIONS

     -h            Print full usage.

     -v            Print a line of output to stderr for each source directory
                   copied.

     -V            Print a line of output to stderr for every file, symbolic
                   link, and device copied.

     -X            When copying one or more source directories, do not descend
                   into directories that have a different device ID.

     -c            Create an archive at the destination path.  The default
                   format is CPIO, unless -k is given.  CPIO archives should
                   be stored in files with names ending in .cpio.  Compressed
                   CPIO archives should be stored in files with names ending
                   in .cpgz.

     -z            Create compressed CPIO archives, using gzip(1) compression.

     -j            Create compressed CPIO archives, using bzip2(1) compres-
                   sion.

     -x            Extract the archives given as source arguments. The format
                   is assumed to be CPIO, unless -k is given.  Compressed CPIO
                   is automatically handled.

     -k            Create or extract from a PKZip archive instead of the
                   default CPIO.  PKZip archives should be stored in filenames
                   ending in .zip.

     --keepParent  When creating an archive, embed the parent directory name
                   src in dst_archive.

     --arch arch   Thin Universal binaries to the specified architecture.  If
                   multiple --arch options are specified then the resulting
                   destination file will contain each of the specified archi-
                   tectures (if they are present in the source file).  arch
                   should be specified as "i386", "x86_64", etc.

     --bom bom     Copy only files, links, devices, and directories that are
                   present in the specified BOM.

     --rsrc        Preserve resource forks and HFS meta-data.  ditto will
                   store this data in Carbon-compatible ._ AppleDouble files
                   on filesystems that do not natively support resource forks.
                   As of Mac OS X 10.4, --rsrc is default behavior.

     --norsrc      Do not preserve resource forks and HFS meta-data.  If both
                   --norsrc and --rsrc are passed, whichever is passed last
                   will take precedence.  Both options override DITTONORSRC.
                   Unless explicitly specified, --norsrc also implies
                   --noextattr and --noacl to match the behavior of Mac OS X
                   10.4.

     --extattr     Preserve extended attributes (requires --rsrc). As of Mac
                   OS X 10.5, --extattr is the default.

     --noextattr   Do not preserve extended attributes (requires --norsrc).

     --qtn         Preserve quarantine information.  As of Mac OS X 10.5,
                   --qtn is the default.

     --noqtn       Do not preserve quarantine information.

     --acl         Preserve Access Control Lists (ACLs).  As of Mac OS X 10.5,
                   --acl is the default.

     --noacl       Do not preserve ACLs.

     --nocache     Do not perform copies using the Mac OS X Unified Buffer
                   Cache. Files read and written will not be cached, although
                   if the file is already present in the cache, the cached
                   information will be used.

     --hfsCompression
                   When copying files or extracting content from an archive,
                   if the destination is an HFS+ volume that supports compres-
                   sion, all the content will be compressed if appropriate.
                   This is only supported on Mac OS X 10.6 or later, and is
                   only intended to be used in installation and backup scenar-
                   ios that involve system files. Since files using HFS+ com-
                   pression are not readable on versions of Mac OS X earlier
                   than 10.6, this flag should not be used when dealing with
                   non-system files or other user-generated content that will
                   be used on a version of Mac OS X earlier than 10.6.

     --nohfsCompression
                   Do not compress files with HFS+ compression when copying or
                   extracting content from an archive unless the content is
                   already compressed with HFS+ compression.  This flag is
                   only supported on Mac OS X 10.6 or later.
                   --nohfsCompression is the default.

     --preserveHFSCompression
                   When copying files to an HFS+ volume that supports compres-
                   sion, ditto will preserve the compression of any source
                   files that were using HFS+ compression.  This flag is only
                   supported on Mac OS X 10.6 or later.
                   --preserveHFSCompression is the default.

     --nopreserveHFSCompression
                   Do not preserve HFS+ compression when copying files that
                   are already compressed with HFS+ compression. This is only
                   supported on Mac OS X 10.6 or later.

     --sequesterRsrc
                   When creating a PKZip archive, preserve resource forks and
                   HFS meta-data in the subdirectory __MACOSX.  PKZip extrac-
                   tion will automatically find these resources.

     --zlibCompressionLevel num
                   Sets the compression level to use when creating a PKZip ar-
                   chive. The compression level can be set from 0 to 9, where
                   0 represents no compression, and 9 represents optimal
                   (slowest) compression. By default, ditto will use the
                   default compression level as defined by zlib.

     --password    When extracting a password-encrypted ZIP archive, you must
                   specify --password to allow ditto to prompt for a password
                   to use to extract the contents of the file. If this option
                   is not provided, and a password-encrypted file is encoun-
                   tered, ditto will emit an error message.


EXAMPLES

     The command:
           ditto src_directory dst_directory
     copies the contents of src_directory into dst_directory, creating
     dst_directory if it does not already exist.

     The command:
           ditto src_directory dir/dst_directory
     copies the contents of src_directory into dir/dst_directory, creating dir
     and dst_directory if they don't already exist.

     The command:
           ditto src-1 ... src-n dst_directory
     copies the contents of all of the src directories into dst_directory,
     creating dst_directory if it does not already exist.

     The command:
           ditto --arch ppc universal_file thin_file
     copies the contents of universal_file into thin_file, thinning executable
     code to ppc-only on the fly.

     The command:
           ditto -c --norsrc Scripts -|ssh rhost ditto -x --norsrc - ./Scripts
     copies Scripts, skipping any resources or meta-data, to rhost.

     The command:
           pax -f archive.cpio
     will list the files in the CPIO archive archive.cpio.

     The command:
           pax -zf archive.cpgz
     will list the files in the compressed CPIO archive archive.cpgz.

     The command:
           ditto -c -k --sequesterRsrc --keepParent src_directory archive.zip
     will create a PKZip archive similarly to the Finder's Compress function-
     ality.

     The command:
           unzip -l archive.zip
     will list the files in the PKZip archive archive.zip.


ERRORS

     ditto returns 0 if everything is copied, otherwise non-zero.  ditto
     almost never gives up, preferring to report errors along the way.  Diag-
     nostic messages will be printed to standard error.


ENVIRONMENT

     DITTOABORT  If the environment variable DITTOABORT is set, ditto will
                 call abort(3) if it encounters a fatal error.

     DITTONORSRC
                 If DITTONORSRC is set but --rsrc, --extattr, and --acl are
                 not specified, ditto will not preserve those additional types
                 of metadata.


BUGS

     ditto doesn't copy directories into directories in the same way as cp(1).
     In particular,
           ditto foo bar
     will copy the contents of foo into bar, whereas
           cp -r foo bar
     copies foo itself into bar. Though this is not a bug, some may consider
     this bug-like behavior.  --keepParent for non-archive copies will eventu-
     ally alleviate this problem.


SEE ALSO

     bom(5), lsbom(8), mkbom(8), cpio(1), zip(1), gzip(1), bzip2(1), tar(1).

Mac OS X                       December 19, 2008                      Mac OS X

Mac OS X 10.7 - Generated Wed Aug 3 07:51:54 CDT 2011