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groff_www(7)           Miscellaneous Information Manual           groff_www(7)


       groff_www - GNU roff macros for authoring web pages


       groff -m www [option ...] [file ...]


       This manual page describes the GNU www macro package, which is part of
       the groff(7) document formatting system.  This macro file is
       automatically loaded by the default troffrc file when the formatter
       (usually groff(1)) is called with either of the options -Thtml or
       -Txhtml.  To see hyperlinks in action, format this man page using one
       of those options.

       This document is a basic guide; the HTML output driver (grohtml)
       remains in an alpha state.  It has been included with the distribution
       to encourage testing.

       Here is a summary of the functions found in this macro set.

       .JOBNAME     split output into multiple files
       .HX          automatic heading level cut off
       .BCL         specify colours on a web page
       .BGIMG       specify background image
       .URL         create a URL using two parameters
       .FTP         create an FTP reference
       .MTO         create an HTML email address
       .TAG         generate an HTML name
       .IMG         include an image file
       .PIMG        include PNG image
       .MPIMG       place PNG on the margin and wrap text around it
       .HnS         begin heading
       .HnE         end heading
       .LK          emit automatically collected links.
       .HR          produce a horizontal rule
       .NHR         suppress automatic generation of rules.
       .HTL         only generate HTML title
       .HEAD        add data to <head> block
       .ULS         unorder list begin
       .ULE         unorder list end
       .OLS         ordered list begin
       .OLE         ordered list end
       .DLS         definition list begin
       .DLE         definition list end
       .LI          insert a list item
       .DC          generate a drop capital
       .HTML        pass an HTML raw request to the device driver
       .CDS         code example begin
       .CDE         code example end
       .ALN         place links on left of main text.
       .LNS         start a new two-column table with links in the left.
       .LNE         end the two-column table.
       .LINKSTYLE   initialize default URL attributes.


       .JOBNAME filename
              Split output into multiple HTML files.  A file is split whenever
              a .SH or .NH 1 is encountered.  Its argument is the file stem
              name for future output files.  This option is equivalent to
              grohtml's -j option.

       .HX n  Specify the cut off depth when generating links from section
              headings.  For example, a parameter of 2 would cause grohtml to
              generate a list of links for .NH 1 and .NH 2 but not for .NH 3.

                     .HX 0

              tells grohtml that no heading links should be created at all.
              Another method for turning automatic headings off is by issuing
              the command-line switch -P-l to groff.

       .BCL foreground background active not-visited visited
              This macro takes five parameters: foreground, background, active
              hypertext link, hypertext link not yet visited, and visited
              hypertext link colour.

       .BGIMG imagefile
              the only parameter to this macro is the background image file.

       .URL url [description] [after]
              generates a URL using either one, two, or three arguments.  The
              first parameter is the actual URL, the second is the name of the
              link, and the third is optional stuff to be printed immediately
              afterwards.  If description and after are absent then the URL
              becomes the anchor text.  Hyphenation is disabled while printing
              the actual URL; explicit breakpoints should be inserted with the
              \: escape sequence.  Here is how to encode foo <http://foo

                     .URL http://\:foo\ foo :

              If this is processed by a device other than -Thtml or -Txhtml it
              appears as:

                     foo <>:

              The URL macro can be of any type; for example, we can reference
              Eric Raymond's pic guide <pic.html> by:

                     .URL pic\:.html "Eric Raymond's pic guide"

       .MTO address [description] [after]
              Generate an email HTML reference.  The first argument is
              mandatory as the email address.  The optional second argument is
              the text you see in your browser.  If an empty argument is
              given, address is used instead.  An optional third argument is
              stuff printed immediately afterwards.  Hyphenation is disabled
              while printing the actual email address.  For example, Joe User
              <> can be achieved by the following macro:

                     .MTO "Joe User"

              All URLs currently are treated as consuming no textual space in
              groff.  This could be considered as a bug since it causes some
              problems.  To circumvent this, www.tmac inserts a zero-width
              character which expands to a harmless space (only if run with
              -Thtml or -Txhtml).

       .FTP url [description] [after]
              indicates that data can be obtained via FTP.  The first argument
              is the URL and the second is the browser text.  A third
              argument, similar to the macros above, is intended for stuff
              printed immediately afterwards.  The second and the third
              parameter are optional.  Hyphenation is disabled while printing
              the actual URL.  As an example, here is the location of the GNU
              FTP server <>.  The macro example above can be
              specified as:

                     .FTP ftp://\:ftp\:.gnu\ "GNU FTP server" .

       .TAG name
              Generates an HTML name tag from its argument.  This can then be
              referenced using the URL <#URL> macro.  As you can see, you must
              precede the tag name with # since it is a local reference.  This
              link was achieved via placing a TAG in the URL description
              above; the source looks like this:

                     .B URL
                     .TAG URL
                     a URL using either two or three arguments.

       .IMG [-R|-L|-C] filename [width] [height]
              Include a picture into the document.  The first argument is the
              horizontal location: right, left, or center (-R, -L, or -C).
              Alignment is centered by default (-C).  The second argument is
              the filename.  The optional third and fourth arguments are the
              width and height.  If the width is absent it defaults to 1 inch.
              If the height is absent it defaults to the width.  This maps
              onto an HTML img tag.  If you are including a PNG image then it
              is advisable to use the PIMG macro.

       .PIMG [-R|-L|-C] filename [width [height]]
              Include an image in PNG format.  This macro takes exactly the
              same parameters as the IMG macro; it has the advantage of
              working with PostScript and HTML devices also since it can
              automatically convert the image into the EPS format, using the
              following programs of the netpbm package: pngtopnm, pnmcrop, and
              pnmtops.  If the document isn't processed with -Thtml or -Txhtml
              it is necessary to use the -U option of groff.

       .MPIMG [-R|-L] [-G gap] filename [width [height]]
              Place a PNG image on the margin and wrap text around it.  The
              first parameters are optional.  The alignment: left or right (-L
              or -R) specifies the margin where the picture is placed at.  The
              default alignment is left (-L).  Optionally, -G gap can be used
              to arrange a gap between the picture and the text that wraps
              around it.  The default gap width is zero.
              The first non-optional argument is the filename.  The optional
              following arguments are the width and height.  If the width is
              absent it defaults to 1 inch.  If the height is absent it
              defaults to the width.  Example:

                     .MPIMG -L -G 2c foo.png 3c 1.5c

              The height and width may also be given as percentages.  The
              PostScript device calculates the width from the .l register and
              the height from the .p register.  For example:

                     .MPIMG -L -G 2c foo.png 15%

       .HnS n Begin heading.  The numeric heading level n is specified by the
              first parameter.  Use this macro if your headings contain URL,
              FTP or MTO macros.  Example:

                     .HnS 1
                     GNU Troff
                     .URL https://\:www\:.gnu\\:software/\:groff/
                     .URL http://www\:.gnu\ GNU

              In this case you might wish to disable automatic links to
              headings.  This can be done via -P-l from the command line.

       .HnE   End heading.

       .LK    Force grohtml to place the automatically generated links at this

       .HR    Generate a full-width horizontal rule for -Thtml and -Txhtml.
              No effect for all other devices.

       .NHR   Suppress generation of the top and bottom rules which grohtml
              emits by default.

       .HTL   Generate an HTML title only.  This differs from the TL macro of
              the ms macro package which generates both an HTML title and an
              <H1> heading.  Use it to provide an HTML title as search engine
              fodder but a graphic title in the document.  The macro
              terminates when a space or break is seen (.sp, .br).

       .HEAD  Add arbitrary HTML data to the <head> block.  Ignored if not
              processed with -Thtml or -Txhtml.  Example:

                     .HEAD "<link \
                       rel=""icon"" \
                       type=""image/png"" \

       .HTML  All text after this macro is treated as raw HTML.  If the
              document is processed without -Thtml or -Txhtml then the macro
              is ignored.  Internally, this macro is used as a building block
              for other higher-level macros.

              For example, the BGIMG macro is defined as

                     .de BGIMG
                     .   HTML <body background=\\$1>

       .DC l text [color]
              Produce a drop capital.  The first parameter is the letter to be
              dropped and enlarged, the second parameter text is the adjoining
              text whose height the first letter should not exceed.  The
              optional third parameter is the color of the dropped letter.  It
              defaults to black.

       .CDS   Start displaying a code section in constant width font.

       .CDE   End code display

       .ALN [color] [percentage]
              Place section heading links automatically to the left of the
              main text.  The color argument is optional and if present
              indicates which HTML background color is to be used under the
              links.  The optional percentage indicates the amount of width to
              devote to displaying the links.  The default values are #eeeeee
              and 30 for color and percentage width, respectively.  This macro
              should only be called once at the beginning of the document.
              After calling this macro each section heading emits an HTML
              table consisting of the links in the left and the section text
              on the right.

       .LNS   Start a new two-column table with links in the left column.
              This can be called if the document has text before the first .SH
              and if .ALN is used.  Typically this is called just before the
              first paragraph and after the main title as it indicates that
              text after this point should be positioned to the right of the
              left-hand navigational links.

       .LNE   End a two-column table.  This should be called at the end of the
              document if .ALN was used.

       .LINKSTYLE color [ fontstyle [ openglyph closeglyph ] ]
              Initialize default URL attributes to be used if this macro set
              is not used with the HTML device.  The macro set initializes
              itself with the following call

                     .LINKSTYLE blue CR \[la] \[ra]

              but these values will be superseded by a user call to LINKSTYLE.

Section heading links

       By default grohtml generates links to all section headings and places
       these at the top of the HTML document.  (See LINKS <#LK> for details of
       how to switch this off or alter the position).

Limitations of grohtml

       tbl(1) tables are rendered as PNG images.  Paul DuBois's approach with
       tblcvt(1), part of the troffcvt distribution <
       software/troffcvt/>, should be explored.




       The www macro package was written by Gaius Mulley <>,
       with additions by Werner Lemberg <> and Bernd Warken

See also

       groff(1), troff(1), grohtml(1), netpbm(1)

groff 1.23.0                      2 July 2023                     groff_www(7)

groff 1.23.0 - Generated Fri Dec 22 19:38:47 CST 2023
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