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troff(1)                                                              troff(1)




NAME

       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system


SYNOPSIS

       [file ...]


DESCRIPTION

       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It is part of the
       groff document formatting system.  It is functionally  compatible  with
       UNIX  troff,  but  has  many extensions, see groff_diff(7).  Usually it
       should be invoked using the groff(1) command which will also  run  pre-
       processors  and  postprocessors  in  the appropriate order and with the
       appropriate options.


OPTIONS

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its
       parameter.

       -a        Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b        Print  a  backtrace with each warning or error message.  This
                 backtrace should help track down the cause of the error.  The
                 line  numbers  given  in the backtrace may not always be cor-
                 rect, for troff's idea of line numbers gets confused by as or
                 am requests.

       -c        Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).

       -C        Enable compatibility mode.

       -dcs      -dname=s Define c or name to be a string s; c must be  a  one
                 letter name.

       -E        Inhibit  all error messages of troff.  Note that this doesn't
                 affect messages output to standard error  by  macro  packages
                 using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam     Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir     Search  in  directory (or directory path) dir for subdirecto-
                 ries devname (name is the name of the device) and  there  for
                 the  DESC  file  and  font  files.  dir is scanned before all
                 other font directories.

       -i        Read the standard input after all the named input files  have
                 been processed.

       -Idir     This option may be used to add a directory to the search path
                 for files (both those on the command line and those named  in
                 .psbb  requests).   The  search  path is initialized with the
                 current directory.  This option may be  specified  more  than
                 once;  the  directories are then searched in the order speci-
                 fied (but before the current directory).  If you want to make
                 the  current  directory be read before other directories, add
                 -I. at the appropriate place.

                 No directory search is performed for files with  an  absolute
                 file name.

       -mname    Read in the file name.tmac.  If it isn't found, try tmac.name
                 instead.  It will be first searched for in directories  given
                 with the -M command line option, then in directories given in
                 the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the current
                 directory  (only  if  in  unsafe  mode),  the home directory,
                 /opt/local/lib/groff/site-tmac,  /opt/local/share/groff/site-
                 tmac, and /opt/local/share/groff/1.22.3/tmac.

       -Mdir     Search  directory  (or  directory  path) dir for macro files.
                 This is scanned before all other macro directories.

       -nnum     Number the first page num.

       -olist    Output only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of
                 page ranges; n means print page n, m-n means print every page
                 between m and n, -n means print every page up to n, n-  means
                 print  every page from n.  troff will exit after printing the
                 last page in the list.

       -rcn      -rname=n Set number register c or name to n; c must be a  one
                 character name; n can be any troff numeric expression.

       -R        Don't load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname    Prepare  output  for device name, rather than the default ps;
                 see groff(1) for a more detailed description.

       -U        Unsafe mode.  This will enable the following requests:  open,
                 opena,  pso,  sy, and pi.  For security reasons, these poten-
                 tially dangerous requests are disabled  otherwise.   It  will
                 also add the current directory to the macro search path.

       -v        Print the version number.

       -wname    Enable warning name.  Available warnings are described in the
                 section WARNINGS below.  For example, to enable all warnings,
                 use -w all.  Multiple -w options are allowed.

       -Wname    Inhibit warning name.  Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z        Suppress formatted output.


WARNINGS

       The  warnings that can be given by troff are divided into the following
       categories.  The name associated with each warning is used  by  the  -w
       and  -W  options;  the  number  is used by the warn request, and by the
       .warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.


                +---------------------+-----------------------------+
                |Bit   Code   Warning | Bit    Code       Warning   |
                +---------------------+-----------------------------+
                |  0      1   char    |  10      1024   reg         |
                |  1      2   number  |  11      2048   tab         |
                |  2      4   break   |  12      4096   right-brace |
                |  3      8   delim   |  13      8192   missing     |
                |  4     16   el      |  14     16384   input       |
                |  5     32   scale   |  15     32768   escape      |
                |  6     64   range   |  16     65536   space       |
                |  7    128   syntax  |  17    131072   font        |
                |  8    256   di      |  18    262144   ig          |
                |  9    512   mac     |  19    524288   color       |
                |                     |  20   1048576   file        |
                +---------------------+-----------------------------+

       break           4   In  fill  mode,  lines which could not be broken so
                           that their length was less than  the  line  length.
                           This is enabled by default.

       char            1   Non-existent   characters.    This  is  enabled  by
                           default.

       color      524288   Color related warnings.

       delim           8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di            256   Use of di or da without an argument when  there  is
                           no current diversion.

       el             16   Use  of the el request with no matching ie request.

       escape      32768   Unrecognized escape sequences.   When  an  unrecog-
                           nized  escape  sequence  is encountered, the escape
                           character is ignored.

       file      1048576   Indicates a  missing  file  for  the  mso  request.
                           Enabled by default.

       font       131072   Non-existent fonts.  This is enabled by default.

       ig         262144   Invalid   escapes  in  text  ignored  with  the  ig
                           request.  These are conditions that are errors when
                           they do not occur in ignored text.

       input       16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac           512   Use  of  undefined  strings, macros and diversions.
                           When an undefined string,  macro  or  diversion  is
                           used,  that  string  is  automatically  defined  as
                           empty.  So, in most cases, at most one warning will
                           be given for each name.

       missing      8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number          2   Invalid  numeric  expressions.   This is enabled by
                           default.

       range          64   Out of range arguments.

       reg          1024   Use of undefined number registers.  When  an  unde-
                           fined  number  register  is  used, that register is
                           automatically defined to have a value of 0.  So, in
                           most  cases,  at most one warning will be given for
                           use of a particular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale          32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space       65536   Missing space between a request or  macro  and  its
                           argument.  This warning will be given when an unde-
                           fined name longer than two  characters  is  encoun-
                           tered,  and  the  first  two characters of the name
                           make a defined name.  The request or macro will not
                           be  invoked.   When this warning is given, no macro
                           is  automatically  defined.   This  is  enabled  by
                           default.  This warning will never occur in compati-
                           bility mode.

       syntax        128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab          2048   Inappropriate use of a tab character.   Either  use
                           of  a tab character where a number was expected, or
                           use of tab character in an unquoted macro argument.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All  warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that this
              covers all warnings that are useful with traditional macro pack-
              ages.

       w      All warnings.


ENVIRONMENT

       GROFF_TMAC_PATH
              A  colon  separated  list  of directories in which to search for
              macro files.  troff will scan directories given in the -M option
              before  these, and in standard directories (current directory if
              in unsafe mode, home directory,  /opt/local/lib/groff/site-tmac,
              /opt/local/share/groff/site-tmac,
              /opt/local/share/groff/1.22.3/tmac) after these.

       GROFF_TYPESETTER
              Default device.

       GROFF_FONT_PATH
              A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the
              devname  directory.  troff will scan directories given in the -F
              option   before   these,    and    in    standard    directories
              (/opt/local/share/groff/site-font,
              /opt/local/share/groff/1.22.3/font, /usr/lib/font) after  these.


FILES

       /opt/local/share/groff/1.22.3/tmac/troffrc
              Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

       /opt/local/share/groff/1.22.3/tmac/troffrc-end
              Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

       /opt/local/share/groff/1.22.3/tmac/name.tmac
              /opt/local/share/groff/1.22.3/tmac/tmac.name Macro files

       /opt/local/share/groff/1.22.3/font/devname/DESC
              Device description file for device name.

       /opt/local/share/groff/1.22.3/font/devname/F
              Font file for font F of device name.

       Note  that  troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in the current
       nor in the home directory by default for security reasons (even if  the
       -U   option  is  given).   Use  the  -M  command  line  option  or  the
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable to add these  directories  to  the
       search path if necessary.


SEE ALSO

       groff(1)
              The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

       groff(7)
              A  description of the groff language, including a short but com-
              plete reference  of  all  predefined  requests,  registers,  and
              escapes  of  plain groff.  From the command line, this is called
              by

                     man 7 groff

       groff_diff(7)
              The differences of the groff language and  the  classical  troff
              language.   Currently,  this  is the most actual document of the
              groff system.

       roff(7)
              An overview over groff and other roff systems, including  point-
              ers to further related documentation.

       The  groff  info  file,  cf.  info(1), presents all groff documentation
       within a single document.


COPYING

       Copyright (C) 1989-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This file is part of groff, the GNU roff type-setting system, which  is
       a GNU free software project..

       Permission  is  granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version  1.3  or
       any  later  version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
       Invariant Sections being this .ig-section and AUTHOR,  with  no  Front-
       Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts.

       A  copy  of the Free Documentation License is included as a file called
       FDL in the main directory of the groff source package.


AUTHORS

       This file was originally written by James Clark,  it  was  modified  by
       Werner Lemberg and Bernd Warken



Groff Version 1.22.3            4 November 2014                       troff(1)

groff 1.22.3 - Generated Tue Oct 13 16:02:48 CDT 2015
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