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groff_ms(7)            Miscellaneous Information Manual            groff_ms(7)


       groff_ms - GNU roff manuscript macro package for formatting documents


       groff -ms [option ...] [file ...]
       groff -m ms [option ...] [file ...]


       The GNU implementation of the ms macro package is part of the groff
       document formatting system.  The ms package is suitable for the
       composition of letters, memoranda, reports, and books.

       These groff macros support cover page and table of contents generation,
       automatically numbered headings, several paragraph styles, a variety of
       text styling options, footnotes, and multi-column page layouts.  ms
       supports the tbl(1), eqn(1), pic(1), and refer(1) preprocessors for
       inclusion of tables, mathematical equations, diagrams, and standardized
       bibliographic citations.

       This implementation is mostly compatible with the documented interface
       and behavior of AT&T Unix Version 7 ms.  Many extensions from 4.2BSD
       (Berkeley) and Tenth Edition Research Unix have been recreated.


       The ms macro package expects a certain amount of structure: a well-
       formed document contains at least one paragraphing or heading macro
       call.  To compose a simple document from scratch, begin it by calling
       .LP or .PP.  Longer documents have a structure as follows.

       Document type
              Calling the RP macro at the beginning of your document puts the
              document description (see below) on a cover page.  Otherwise, ms
              places this information on the first page, followed immediately
              by the body text.  Some document types found in other ms
              implementations are specific to AT&T or Berkeley, and are not
              supported in groff ms.

       Format and layout
              By setting registers and strings, you can configure your
              document's typeface, margins, spacing, headers and footers, and
              footnote arrangement.  See subsection "Document control
              settings" below.

       Document description
              A document description consists of any of: a title, one or more
              authors' names and affiliated institutions, an abstract, and a
              date or other identifier.  See subsection "Document description
              macros" below.

       Body text
              The main matter of your document follows its description (if
              any).  ms supports highly structured text consisting of
              paragraphs interspersed with multi-level headings (chapters,
              sections, subsections, and so forth) and augmented by lists,
              footnotes, tables, diagrams, and similar material.  The
              preponderance of subsections below covers these matters.

       Table of contents
              Macros enable the collection of entries for a table of contents
              (or index) as the material they discuss appears in the document.
              You then call a macro to emit the table of contents at the end
              of your document.  The table of contents must necessarily follow
              the rest of the text since GNU troff is a single-pass formatter;
              it thus cannot determine the page number of a division of the
              text until it has been set and output.  Since ms output was
              designed for the production of hard copy, the traditional
              procedure was to manually relocate the pages containing the
              table of contents between the cover page and the body text.
              Today, page resequencing is more often done in the digital
              domain.  An index works similarly, but because it typically
              needs to be sorted after collection, its preparation requires
              separate processing.

   Document control settings
       The following tables list the document control registers, strings, and
       special characters.  For any parameter whose default is unsatisfactory,
       define it before calling any ms macro other than RP.

                                   Margin settings
       Parameter            Definition               Effective       Default
       \n[PO]      Page offset (left margin)       next page        1i (0)
       \n[LL]      Line length                     next paragraph   6.5i (65n)
       \n[LT]      Title line length               next paragraph   6.5i (65n)
       \n[HM]      Top (header) margin             next page        1i
       \n[FM]      Bottom (footer) margin          next page        1i

                              Titles (headers, footers)
       Parameter               Definition                 Effective    Default
       \*[LH]      Left header text                      next header   empty
       \*[CH]      Center header text                    next header   -\n[%]-
       \*[RH]      Right header text                     next header   empty
       \*[LF]      Left footer text                      next footer   empty
       \*[CF]      Center footer text                    next footer   empty
       \*[RF]      Right footer text                     next footer   empty

                                    Text settings
       Parameter              Definition                Effective      Default
       \n[PS]      Point size                         next paragraph   10p
       \n[VS]      Vertical spacing (leading)         next paragraph   12p
       \n[HY]      Hyphenation mode                   next paragraph   6
       \*[FAM]     Font family                        next paragraph   T

        Parameter            Definition              Effective       Default
       \n[PI]        Indentation                   next paragraph   5n
       \n[PD]        Paragraph distance            next paragraph   0.3v (1v)
       \n[QI]        Quotation indentation         next paragraph   5n
       \n[PORPHANS]  # of initial lines kept       next paragraph   1

                                  Heading settings
        Parameter              Definition             Effective      Default
       \n[PSINCR]     Point size increment           next heading   1p
       \n[GROWPS]     Size increase depth limit      next heading   0
       \n[HORPHANS]   # of following lines kept      next heading   1
       \*[SN-STYLE]   Numbering style (alias)        next heading   \*[SN-DOT]

       \*[SN-STYLE] can alternatively be made an alias of \*[SN-NO-DOT] with
       the als request.

                                  Footnote settings
       Parameter             Definition               Effective      Default
       \n[FI]      Indentation                      next footnote   2n
       \n[FF]      Format                           next footnote   0
       \n[FPS]     Point size                       next footnote   \n[PS]-2p
       \n[FVS]     Vertical spacing (leading)       next footnote   \n[FPS]+2p
       \n[FPD]     Paragraph distance (spacing)     next footnote   \n[PD]/2
       \*[FR]      Line length ratio                special         11/12

                                  Display settings
       Parameter               Definition                Effective    Default
       \n[DD]      Display distance (spacing)            special     0.5v (1v)
       \n[DI]      Display indentation                   special     0.5i

                                   Other settings
         Parameter               Definition              Effective     Default
       \n[MINGW]       Minimum gutter width             next page      2n
       \n[TC-MARGIN]   TOC page number margin width     next PX call   \w'000'
       \[TC-LEADER]    TOC leader character             next PX call   .\h'1m'

       For entries marked "special" in the "Effective" column, see the
       discussion in the applicable section below.  The PO, LL, and LT
       register defaults vary by output device and paper format; the values
       shown are for typesetters using U.S. letter paper, and then terminals.
       See section "Paper format" of groff(1).  The PD and DD registers use
       the larger value if the vertical motion quantum of the output device is
       too coarse for the smaller one; usually, this is the case only for
       output to terminals and emulators thereof.  The "gutter" affected by
       \n[MINGW] is the gap between columns in multiple-column page
       arrangements.  The TC-MARGIN register and TC-LEADER special character
       affect the formatting of tables of contents assembled by the XS, XA,
       and XE macros.

   Document description macros
       Define information describing the document by calling the macros below
       in the order shown; .DA or .ND can be called to set the document date
       (or other identifier) at any time before (a) the abstract, if present,
       or (b) its information is required in a header or footer.  Use of these
       macros is optional, except that .TL is mandatory if any of .RP, .AU,
       .AI, or .AB is called, and .AE is mandatory if .AB is called.

       .RP [no-repeat-info] [no-renumber]
              Use the "report" (AT&T: "released paper") format for your
              document, creating a separate cover page.  The default
              arrangement is to place most of the document description (title,
              author names and institutions, and abstract, but not the date)
              at the top of the first page.  If the optional no-repeat-info
              argument is given, ms produces a cover page but does not repeat
              any of its information on subsequently (but see the DA macro
              below regarding the date).  Normally, .RP sets the page number
              following the cover page to 1.  Specifying the optional no-
              renumber argument suppresses this alteration.  Optional
              arguments can occur in any order.  "no" is recognized as a
              synonym of no-repeat-info for AT&T compatibility.

       .TL    Specify the document title.  ms collects text on input lines
              following this call into the title until reaching .AU, .AB, or a
              heading or paragraphing macro call.

       .AU    Specify an author's name.  ms collects text on input lines
              following this call into the author's name until reaching .AI,
              .AB, another .AU, or a heading or paragraphing macro call.  Call
              it repeatedly to specify multiple authors.

       .AI    Specify the preceding author's institution.  An .AU call is
              usefully followed by at most one .AI call; if there are more,
              the last .AI call controls.  ms collects text on input lines
              following this call into the author's institution until reaching
              .AU, .AB, or a heading or paragraphing macro call.

       .DA [x ...]
              Typeset the current date, or any arguments x, in the center
              footer, and, if .RP is also called, left-aligned at the end of
              the document description on the cover page.

       .ND [x ...]
              Typeset the current date, or any arguments x, if .RP is also
              called, left-aligned at the end of the document description on
              the cover page.  This is groff ms's default.

       .AB [no]
              Begin the abstract.  ms collects text on input lines following
              this call into the abstract until reaching an .AE call.  By
              default, ms places the word "ABSTRACT" centered and in italics
              above the text of the abstract.  The optional argument "no"
              suppresses this heading.

       .AE    End the abstract.

   Text settings
       The FAM string, a GNU extension, sets the font family for body text;
       the default is "T".  The PS and VS registers set the type size and
       vertical spacing (distance between text baselines), respectively.  The
       font family and type size are ignored on terminal devices.  Setting
       these parameters before the first call of a heading, paragraphing, or
       (non-date) document description macro also applies them to headers,
       footers, and (for FAM) footnotes.

       The HY register defines the automatic hyphenation mode used with the hy
       request.  Setting \n[HY] to 0 is equivalent to using the nh request.
       This is a Tenth Edition Research Unix extension.

   Typographical symbols
       ms provides a few strings to obtain typographical symbols not easily
       entered with the keyboard.  These and many others are available as
       special character escape sequences--see groff_char(7).

       \*[-]  Interpolate an em dash.

       \*[U]  Interpolate typographer's quotation marks where available, and
              neutral double quotes otherwise.  \*[Q] is the left quote and
              \*[U] the right.

       Paragraphing macros break, or terminate, any pending output line so
       that a new paragraph can begin.  Several paragraph types are available,
       differing in how indentation applies to them: to left, right, or both
       margins; to the first output line of the paragraph, all output lines,
       or all but the first.  All paragraphing macro calls cause the insertion
       of vertical space in the amount stored in the PD register, except at
       page or column breaks, or adjacent to displays.

       The PORPHANS register defines the minimum number of initial lines of
       any paragraph that must be kept together to avoid isolated lines at the
       bottom of a page.  If a new paragraph is started close to the bottom of
       a page, and there is insufficient space to accommodate \n[PORPHANS]
       lines before an automatic page break, then a page break is forced
       before the start of the paragraph.  This is a GNU extension.

       .LP    Set a paragraph without any (additional) indentation.

       .PP    Set a paragraph with a first-line left indentation in the amount
              stored in the PI register.

       .IP [marker [width]]
              Set a paragraph with a left indentation.  The optional marker is
              not indented and is empty by default.  width overrides the
              indentation amount in \n[PI]; its default unit is "n".  Once
              specified, width applies to further .IP calls until specified
              again or a heading or different paragraphing macro is called.

       .QP    Set a paragraph indented from both left and right margins by

       .QE    Begin (QS) and end (QE) a region where each paragraph is
              indented from both margins by \n[QI].  The text between .QS and
              .QE can be structured further by use of other paragraphing

       .XP    Set an "exdented" paragraph--one with a left indentation of
              \n[PI] on every line except the first (also known as a hanging
              indent).  This is a Berkeley extension.

       Use headings to create a hierarchical structure for your document.  The
       ms macros print headings in bold using the same font family and, by
       default, type size as the body text.  Headings are available with and
       without automatic numbering.  Text on input lines following the macro
       call becomes the heading's title.  Call a paragraphing macro to end the
       heading text and start the section's content.

       .NH [depth]
              Set an automatically numbered heading.  ms produces a numbered
              heading in the form a.b.c..., to any level desired, with the
              numbering of each depth increasing automatically and being reset
              to zero when a more significant depth is increased.  "1" is the
              most significant or coarsest division of the document.  Only
              non-zero values are output.  If depth is omitted, it is taken to
              be 1.  If you specify depth such that an ascending gap occurs
              relative to the previous NH call--that is, you "skip a depth",
              as by ".NH 1" and then ".NH 3", groff ms emits a warning on the
              standard error stream.

       .NH S heading-depth-index ...
              Alternatively, you can give NH a first argument of "S", followed
              by integers to number the heading depths explicitly.  Further
              automatic numbering, if used, resumes using the specified
              indices as their predecessors.  This feature is a Berkeley

       After .NH is called, the assigned number is made available in the
       strings SN-DOT (as it appears in a printed heading with default
       formatting, followed by a terminating period) and SN-NO-DOT (with the
       terminating period omitted).  These are GNU extensions.

       You can control the style used to print numbered headings by defining
       an appropriate alias for the string SN-STYLE.  By default, \*[SN-STYLE]
       is aliased to \*[SN-DOT].  If you prefer to omit the terminating period
       from numbers appearing in numbered headings, you may alias it to
       \*[SN-NO-DOT].  Any such change in numbering style becomes effective
       from the next use of .NH following redefinition of the alias for
       \*[SN-STYLE].  The formatted number of the current heading is available
       in \*[SN] (a feature first documented by Berkeley); this string
       facilitates its inclusion in, for example, table captions, equation
       labels, and .XS/.XA/.XE table of contents entries.

       .SH [depth]
              Set an unnumbered heading.  The optional depth argument is a GNU
              extension indicating the heading depth corresponding to the
              depth argument of .NH.  It matches the type size at which the
              heading is set to that of a numbered heading at the same depth
              when the \n[GROWPS] and \n[PSINCR] heading size adjustment
              mechanism is in effect.

       The PSINCR register defines an increment in type size to be applied to
       a heading at a lesser depth than that specified in \n[GROWPS].  The
       value of \n[PSINCR] should be specified in points with the "p" scaling
       unit and may include a fractional component.

       The GROWPS register defines the heading depth above which the type size
       increment set by \n[PSINCR] becomes effective.  For each heading depth
       less than the value of \n[GROWPS], the type size is increased by
       \n[PSINCR].  Setting \n[GROWPS] to a value less than 2 disables the
       incremental heading size feature.

       In other words, if the value of GROWPS register is greater than the
       depth argument to a .NH or .SH call, the type size of a heading
       produced by these macros increases by \n[PSINCR] units over \n[PS]
       multiplied by the difference of \n[GROWPS] and depth.

       The \n[HORPHANS] register operates in conjunction with the NH and SH
       macros to inhibit the printing of isolated headings at the bottom of a
       page; it specifies the minimum number of lines of the subsequent
       paragraph that must be kept on the same page as the heading.  If
       insufficient space remains on the current page to accommodate the
       heading and this number of lines of paragraph text, a page break is
       forced before the heading is printed.  Any display macro call or tbl,
       pic, or eqn region between the heading and the subsequent paragraph
       suppresses this grouping.

   Typeface and decoration
       The ms macros provide a variety of ways to style text.  Attend closely
       to the ordering of arguments labeled pre and post, which is not
       intuitive.  Support for pre arguments is a GNU extension.

       .B [text [post [pre]]]
              Style text in bold, followed by post in the previous font style
              without intervening space, and preceded by pre similarly.
              Without arguments, ms styles subsequent text in bold until the
              next paragraphing, heading, or no-argument typeface macro call.

       .R [text [post [pre]]]
              As .B, but use the roman style (upright text of normal weight)
              instead of bold.  Argument recognition is a GNU extension.

       .I [text [post [pre]]]
              As .B, but use an italic or oblique style instead of bold.

       .BI [text [post [pre]]]
              As .B, but use a bold italic or bold oblique style instead of
              upright bold.  This is a Tenth Edition Research Unix extension.

       .CW [text [post [pre]]]
              As .B, but use a constant-width (monospaced) roman typeface
              instead of bold.  This is a Tenth Edition Research Unix

       .BX [text]
              Typeset text and draw a box around it.  On terminal devices,
              reverse video is used instead.  If you want text to contain
              space, use unbreakable space or horizontal motion escape
              sequences (\~, \space, \^, \|, \0, or \h).

       .UL [text [post]]
              Typeset text with an underline.  post, if present, is set after
              text with no intervening space.

       .LG    Set subsequent text in larger type (2 points larger than the
              current size) until the next type size, paragraphing, or heading
              macro call.  You can specify this macro multiple times to
              enlarge the type size as needed.

       .SM    Set subsequent text in smaller type (2 points smaller than the
              current size) until the next type size, paragraphing, or heading
              macro call.  You can specify this macro multiple times to reduce
              the type size as needed.

       .NL    Set subsequent text at the normal type size (\n[PS]).

       When pre is used, a hyphenation control escape sequence \% that would
       ordinarily start text must start pre instead.

       groff ms also offers strings to begin and end super- and subscripting.
       These are GNU extensions.

       \*}    Begin and end superscripting, respectively.

       \*>    Begin and end subscripting, respectively.

   Indented regions
       You may need to indent a region of text while otherwise formatting it
       normally.  Indented regions can be nested.

       .RS    Begin a region where headings, paragraphs, and displays are
              indented (further) by \n[PI].

       .RE    End the (next) most recent indented region.

   Keeps, boxed keeps, and displays
       On occasion, you may want to keep several lines of text, or a region of
       a document, together on a single page, preventing an automatic page
       break within certain boundaries.  This can cause a page break to occur
       earlier than it normally would.

       You can alternatively specify a floating keep: if a keep cannot fit on
       the current page, ms holds its contents and allows text following the
       keep (in the source document) to fill in the remainder of the current
       page.  When the page breaks, whether by reaching the end or bp request,
       ms puts the floating keep at the beginning of the next page.

       .KS    Begin a keep.

       .KF    Begin a floating keep.

       .KE    End (floating) keep.

       As an alternative to the keep mechanism, the ne request forces a page
       break if there is not at least the amount of vertical space specified
       in its argument remaining on the page.

       A boxed keep has a frame drawn around it.

       .B1    Begin a keep with a box drawn around it.

       .B2    End boxed keep.

       Boxed keep macros cause breaks; if you need to box a word or phrase
       within a line, see the BX macro in section "Highlighting" above.  Box
       lines are drawn as close as possible to the text they enclose so that
       they are usable within paragraphs.  If you wish to place one or more
       paragraphs in a boxed keep, you may improve their appearance by calling
       .B1 after the first paragraphing macro, and by adding a small amount of
       vertical space before calling .B2.

       If you want a boxed keep to float, you will need to enclose the .B1 and
       .B2 calls within a pair of .KF and .KE calls.

       Displays turn off filling; lines of verse or program code are shown
       with their lines broken as in the source document without requiring br
       requests between lines.  Displays can be kept on a single page or
       allowed to break across pages.  The DS macro begins a kept display of
       the layout specified in its first argument; non-kept displays are begun
       with dedicated macros corresponding to their layout.

       .DS L
       .LD    Begin (DS: kept) left-aligned display.

       .DS [I [indent]]
       .ID [indent]
              Begin (DS: kept) display indented by indent if specified, \n[DI]

       .DS B
       .BD    Begin (DS: kept) block display: the entire display is left-
              aligned, but indented such that the longest line in the display
              is centered on the page.

       .DS C
       .CD    Begin (DS: kept) centered display: each line in the display is

       .DS R
       .RD    Begin (DS: kept) right-aligned display.  This is a GNU

       .DE    End any display.

       The distance stored in \n[DD] is inserted before and after each pair of
       display macros; this is a Berkeley extension.  In groff ms, this
       distance replaces any adjacent inter-paragraph distance or subsequent
       spacing prior to a section heading.  The DI register is a GNU
       extension; its value is an indentation applied to displays created with
       .DS and .ID without arguments, to ".DS I" without an indentation
       argument, and to equations set with ".EQ I".  Changes to either
       register take effect at the next display boundary.

   Tables, figures, equations, and references
       The ms package is often used with the tbl, pic, eqn, and refer
       preprocessors.  The \n[DD] distance is also applied to regions of the
       document preprocessed with eqn, pic, and tbl.  Mark text meant for
       preprocessors by enclosing it in pairs of tokens as follows, with
       nothing between the dot and the macro name.  The preprocessors match
       these tokens only at the start of an input line.

       .TS [H]
       .TE    Demarcate a table to be processed by the tbl preprocessor.  The
              optional H argument instructs ms to repeat table rows (often
              column headings) at the top of each new page the table spans, if
              applicable; calling the TH macro marks the end of such rows.
              tbl(1) provides a comprehensive reference to the preprocessor
              and offers examples of its use.

       .PF    .PS begins a picture to be processed by the pic preprocessor;
              either of .PE or .PF ends it, the latter with "flyback" to the
              vertical position at its top.

       .EQ [align []
       .EN    Demarcate an equation to be processed by the eqn preprocessor.
              The equation is centered by default; align can be C, L, or I to
              (explicitly) center, left-align, or indent it by \n[DI],
              respectively.  If specified, label is set right-aligned.

       .]     Demarcate a bibliographic citation to be processed by the refer
              preprocessor.  refer(1) provides a comprehensive reference to
              the preprocessor and the format of its bibliographic database.

       When refer emits collected references (as might be done on a "Works
       Cited" page), it interpolates the string \*[REFERENCES] as an
       unnumbered heading (.SH).

       Attempting to place a multi-page table inside a keep can lead to
       unpleasant results, particularly if the tbl "allbox" option is used.

       A footnote is typically anchored to a place in the text with a marker,
       which is a small integer, a symbol, or arbitrary user-specified text.

       \**    Place an automatic number, an automatically generated numeric
              footnote marker, in the text.  Each time this string is
              interpolated, the number it produces increments by one.
              Automatic numbers start at 1.  This is a Berkeley extension.

       Enclose the footnote text in FS and FE macro calls to set it at the
       nearest available "foot", or bottom, of a text column or page.

       .FS [marker]
              Begin a footnote.  The .FS-MARK hook (see below) is called with
              any supplied marker argument, which is then also placed at the
              beginning of the footnote text.  If marker is omitted, the next
              pending automatic number enqueued by interpolation of the *
              string is used, and if none exists, nothing is prefixed.

       .FE    End footnote text.

       groff ms provides a hook macro, FS-MARK, for user-determined operations
       to be performed when the FS macro is called.  It is passed the same
       arguments as .FS itself.  By default, this macro has an empty
       definition.  .FS-MARK is a GNU extension.

       Footnote text is formatted as paragraphs are, using analogous
       parameters.  The registers FI, FPD, FPS, and FVS correspond to PI, PD,
       PS, and VS, respectively; FPD, FPS, and FVS are GNU extensions.

       The FF register controls the formatting of automatically numbered
       footnote paragraphs, and those for which .FS is given a marker
       argument, at the bottom of a column or page as follows.

              0      Set an automatic number, or a specified FS marker
                     argument, as a superscript (on typesetter devices) or
                     surrounded by square brackets (on terminals).  The
                     footnote paragraph is indented as with .PP if there is an
                     .FS argument or an automatic number, and as with .LP
                     otherwise.  This is the default.

              1      As 0, but set the marker as regular text, and follow an
                     automatic number with a period.

              2      As 1, but without indentation (like .LP).

              3      As 1, but set the footnote paragraph with the marker
                     hanging (like .IP).

   Language and localization
       groff ms provides several strings that you can customize for your own
       purposes, or redefine to adapt the macro package to languages other
       than English.  It is already localized for Czech, German, French,
       Italian, and Swedish.  Load the desired localization macro package
       after ms; see groff_tmac(5).

                  String            Default
              \*[REFERENCES]   References
              \*[ABSTRACT]     \f[I]ABSTRACT\f[]
              \*[TOC]          Table of Contents
              \*[MONTH1]       January
              \*[MONTH2]       February
              \*[MONTH3]       March
              \*[MONTH4]       April
              \*[MONTH5]       May
              \*[MONTH6]       June
              \*[MONTH7]       July
              \*[MONTH8]       August
              \*[MONTH9]       September
              \*[MONTH10]      October
              \*[MONTH11]      November
              \*[MONTH12]      December
       The default for ABSTRACT includes font selection escape sequences to
       set the word in italics.

   Headers and footers
       There are multiple ways to produce headers and footers.  One is to
       define the strings LH, CH, and RH to set the left, center, and right
       headers, respectively; and LF, CF, and RF to set the left, center, and
       right footers.  This approach suffices for documents that do not
       distinguish odd- and even-numbered pages.

       Another method is to call macros that set headers or footers for odd-
       or even-numbered pages.  Each such macro takes a delimited argument
       separating the left, center, and right header or footer texts from each
       other.  You can replace the neutral apostrophes (') shown below with
       any character not appearing in the header or footer text.  These macros
       are Berkeley extensions.

       .OH 'left'center'right'
       .OF 'left'center'right'
       .EH 'left'center'right'
       .EF 'left'center'right'
              The OH and EH macros define headers for odd- (recto) and even-
              numbered (verso) pages, respectively; the OF and EF macros
              define footers for them.

       With either method, a percent sign % in header or footer text is
       replaced by the current page number.  By default, ms places no header
       on a page numbered "1" (regardless of its number format).

       .P1    Typeset the header even on page 1.  To be effective, this macro
              must be called before the header trap is sprung on any page
              numbered "1".  This is a Berkeley extension.

       For even greater flexibility, ms permits redefinition of the macros
       called when the page header and footer traps are sprung.  PT ("page
       trap") is called by ms when the header is to be written, and BT
       ("bottom trap") when the footer is to be.  The groff page location trap
       that ms sets up to format the header also calls the (normally
       undefined) HD macro after .PT; you can define .HD if you need
       additional processing after setting the header.  The HD hook is a
       Berkeley extension.  Any such macros you (re)define must implement any
       desired specialization for odd-, even-, or first numbered pages.

   Tab stops
       Use the ta request to set tab stops as needed.

       .TA    Reset the tab stops to the ms default (every 5 ens).  Redefine
              this macro to create a different set of default tab stops.

       Control margins using the registers summarized in the "Margins" portion
       of the table in section "Document control settings" above.  There is no
       setting for the right margin; the combination of page offset \n[PO] and
       line length \n[LL] determines it.

   Multiple columns
       ms can set text in as many columns as reasonably fit on the page.  The
       following macros force a page break if a multi-column layout is active
       when they are called.  \n[MINGW] is the default minimum gutter width;
       it is a GNU extension.  When multiple columns are in use, keeps and the
       HORPHANS and PORPHANS registers work with respect to column breaks
       instead of page breaks.

       .1C    Arrange page text in a single column (the default).

       .2C    Arrange page text in two columns.

       .MC [column-width [gutter-width]]
              Arrange page text in multiple columns.  If you specify no
              arguments, it is equivalent to the 2C macro.  Otherwise,
              column-width is the width of each column and gutter-width is the
              minimum distance between columns.

   Creating a table of contents
       Define an entry to appear in the table of contents by bracketing its
       text between calls to the XS and XE macros.  A typical application is
       to call them immediately after NH or SH and repeat the heading text
       within them.  The XA macro, used within .XS/.XE pairs, supplements an
       entry--for instance, when it requires multiple output lines, whether
       because a heading is too long to fit or because style dictates that
       page numbers not be repeated.  You may wish to indent the text thus
       wrapped to correspond to its heading depth; this can be done in the
       entry text by prefixing it with tabs or horizontal motion escape
       sequences, or by providing a second argument to the XA macro.  .XS and
       .XA automatically associate the page number where they are called with
       the text following them, but they accept arguments to override this
       behavior.  At the end of the document, call TC or PX to emit the table
       of contents; .TC resets the page number to i (Roman numeral one), and
       then calls PX.  All of these macros are Berkeley extensions.

       .XS [page-number]
       .XA [page-number [indentation]]
       .XE    Begin, supplement, and end a table of contents entry.  Each
              entry is associated with page-number (otherwise the current page
              number); a page-number of "no" prevents a leader and page number
              from being emitted for that entry.  Use of .XA within .XS/.XE is
              optional; it can be repeated.  If indentation is present, a
              supplemental entry is indented by that amount; ens are assumed
              if no unit is indicated.  Text on input lines between .XS and
              .XE is stored for later recall by .PX.

       .PX [no]
              Switch to single-column layout.  Unless "no" is specified,
              center and interpolate \*[TOC] in bold and two points larger
              than the body text.  Emit the table of contents entries.

       .TC [no]
              Set the page number to 1, the page number format to lowercase
              Roman numerals, and call PX (with a "no" argument, if present).

       The remaining features in this subsection are GNU extensions.  groff ms
       obviates the need to repeat heading text after .XS calls.  Call .XN and
       .XH after .NH and .SH, respectively.  Text to be appended to the
       formatted section heading, but not to appear in the table of contents
       entry, can follow these calls.

       .XN heading-text
              Format heading-text and create a corresponding table of contents
              entry; the indentation is computed from the depth argument of
              the preceding NH call.

       .XH depth heading-text
              As .XN, but use depth to determine the indentation.

       groff ms encourages customization of table of contents entry
       production.  (Re-)define any of the following macros as desired.

       .XN-REPLACEMENT heading-text
       .XH-REPLACEMENT depth heading-text
              These hook macros implement .XN and .XH, and call XN-INIT and
              XH-INIT, respectively, then call XH-UPDATE-TOC with the
              arguments given them.

              These hook macros do nothing by default.

       .XH-UPDATE-TOC depth heading-text
              Bracket heading-text with XS and XE calls, indenting it by 2 ens
              per level of depth beyond the first.

       You can customize the style of the leader that bridges each table of
       contents entry with its page number; define the TC-LEADER special
       character by using the char request.  A typical leader combines the dot
       glyph "." with a horizontal motion escape sequence to spread the dots.
       The width of the page number field is stored in the TC-MARGIN register.

Differences from AT&T ms

       The groff ms macros are an independent reimplementation, using no AT&T
       code.  Since they take advantage of the extended features of groff,
       they cannot be used with AT&T troff.  groff ms supports features
       described above as Berkeley and Tenth Edition Research Unix extensions,
       and adds several of its own.

       o  The internals of groff ms differ from the internals of AT&T ms.
          Documents that depend upon implementation details of AT&T ms may not
          format properly with groff ms.  Such details include macros whose
          function was not documented in the AT&T ms manual ("Typing Documents
          on the UNIX System: Using the -ms Macros with Troff and Nroff", M.
          E. Lesk, Bell Laboratories, 1978).

       o  The error-handling policy of groff ms is to detect and report
          errors, rather than to ignore them silently.

       o  Tenth Edition Research Unix supported P1/P2 macros to bracket code
          examples; groff ms does not.

       o  groff ms does not work in GNU troff's AT&T compatibility mode.  If
          loaded when that mode is enabled, it aborts processing with a
          diagnostic message.

       o  Multiple line spacing is not supported.  Use a larger vertical
          spacing instead.

       o  groff ms uses the same header and footer defaults in both nroff and
          troff modes as AT&T ms does in troff mode; AT&T's default in nroff
          mode is to put the date, in U.S. traditional format (e.g., "January
          1, 2021"), in the center footer (the CF string).

       o  Many groff ms macros, including those for paragraphs, headings, and
          displays, cause a reset of paragraph rendering parameters, and may
          change the indentation; they do so not by incrementing or
          decrementing it, but by setting it absolutely.  This can cause
          problems for documents that define additional macros of their own
          that try to manipulate indentation.  Use .RS and .RE instead of the
          in request.

       o  AT&T ms interpreted the values of the registers PS and VS in points,
          and did not support the use of scaling units with them.  groff ms
          interprets values of the registers PS, VS, FPS, and FVS, equal to or
          larger than 1,000 (one thousand) as decimal fractions multiplied
          by 1,000.  (Register values are converted to and stored as basic
          units.  See "Measurements" in the groff Texinfo manual or in
          groff(7)).  This threshold makes use of a scaling unit with these
          parameters practical for high-resolution devices while preserving
          backward compatibility.  It also permits expression of non-integral
          type sizes.  For example, "groff -rPS=10.5p" at the shell prompt is
          equivalent to placing ".nr PS 10.5p" at the beginning of the

       o  AT&T ms's AU macro supported arguments used with some document
          types; groff ms does not.

       o  Right-aligned displays are available.  The AT&T ms manual observes
          that "it is tempting to assume that ".DS R" will right adjust lines,
          but it doesn't work".  In groff ms, it does.

       o  To make groff ms use the default page offset (which also specifies
          the left margin), the PO register must stay undefined until the
          first ms macro is called.  This implies that \n[PO] should not be
          used early in the document, unless it is changed also: accessing an
          undefined register automatically defines it.

       o  groff ms supports the PN register, but it is not necessary; you can
          access the page number via the usual % register and invoke the af
          request to assign a different format to it if desired.  (If you
          redefine the ms PT macro and desire special treatment of certain
          page numbers--like "1"--you may need to handle a non-Arabic page
          number format, as groff ms's .PT does; see the macro package source.
          groff ms aliases the PN register to %.)

       o  The AT&T ms manual documents registers CW and GW as setting the
          default column width and "intercolumn gap", respectively, and which
          applied when .MC was called with fewer than two arguments.  groff ms
          instead treats .MC without arguments as synonymous with .2C; there
          is thus no occasion for a default column width register.  Further,
          the MINGW register and the second argument to .MC specify a minimum
          space between columns, not the fixed gutter width of AT&T ms.

       o  The AT&T ms manual did not document the QI register; Berkeley and
          groff ms do.

       o  The register GS is set to 1 by the groff ms macros, but is not used
          by the AT&T ms package.  Documents that need to determine whether
          they are being formatted with groff ms or another implementation
          should test this register.

   Unix Version 7 macros not implemented by groff ms
       Several macros described in the Unix Version 7 ms documentation are
       unimplemented by groff ms because they are specific to the requirements
       of documents produced internally by Bell Laboratories, some of which
       also require a glyph for the Bell System logo that groff does not
       support.  These macros implemented several document type formats (EG,
       IM, MF, MR, TM, TR), were meaningful only in conjunction with the use
       of certain document types (AT, CS, CT, OK, SG), stored the postal
       addresses of Bell Labs sites (HO, IH, MH, PY, WH), or lacked a stable
       definition over time (UX).

Legacy features

       groff ms retains some legacy features solely to support formatting of
       historical documents; contemporary ones should not use them because
       they can render poorly.  See groff_char(7) instead.

   AT&T ms accent mark strings
       AT&T ms defined accent mark strings as follows.

       String   Description
       \*[']    Apply acute accent to subsequent glyph.
       \*[`]    Apply grave accent to subsequent glyph.
       \*[:]    Apply dieresis (umlaut) to subsequent glyph.
       \*[^]    Apply circumflex accent to subsequent glyph.
       \*[~]    Apply tilde accent to subsequent glyph.
       \*[C]    Apply caron to subsequent glyph.
       \*[,]    Apply cedilla to subsequent glyph.

   Berkeley ms accent mark and glyph strings
       Berkeley ms offered an AM macro; calling it redefined the AT&T accent
       mark strings (except for \*C), applied them to the preceding glyph, and
       defined additional strings, some for spacing glyphs.

       .AM    Enable alternative accent mark and glyph-producing strings.

       String   Description
       \*[']    Apply acute accent to preceding glyph.
       \*[`]    Apply grave accent to preceding glyph.
       \*[:]    Apply dieresis (umlaut) to preceding glyph.
       \*[^]    Apply circumflex accent to preceding glyph.
       \*[~]    Apply tilde accent to preceding glyph.
       \*[,]    Apply cedilla to preceding glyph.
       \*[/]    Apply stroke (slash) to preceding glyph.
       \*[v]    Apply caron to preceding glyph.
       \*[_]    Apply macron to preceding glyph.
       \*[.]    Apply underdot to preceding glyph.
       \*[o]    Apply ring accent to preceding glyph.
       \*[?]    Interpolate inverted question mark.
       \*[!]    Interpolate inverted exclamation mark.
       \*[8]    Interpolate small letter sharp s.
       \*[q]    Interpolate small letter o with hook accent (ogonek).
       \*[3]    Interpolate small letter yogh.
       \*[d-]   Interpolate small letter eth.
       \*[D-]   Interpolate capital letter eth.
       \*[th]   Interpolate small letter thorn.
       \*[TH]   Interpolate capital letter thorn.
       \*[ae]   Interpolate small ae ligature.
       \*[AE]   Interpolate capital ae ligature.
       \*[oe]   Interpolate small oe ligature.
       \*[OE]   Interpolate capital oe ligature.

Naming conventions

       The following conventions are used for names of macros, strings, and
       registers.  External names available to documents that use the groff ms
       macros contain only uppercase letters and digits.

       Internally, the macros are divided into modules.  Conventions for
       identifier names are as follows.

       o  Names used only within one module are of the form module*name.

       o  Names used outside the module in which they are defined are of the
          form module@name.

       o  Names associated with a particular environment are of the form
          environment:name; these are used only within the par module.

       o  name does not have a module prefix.

       o  Constructed names used to implement arrays are of the form

       Thus the groff ms macros reserve the following names:

       o  Names containing the characters *, @, and :.

       o  Names containing only uppercase letters and digits.


              implements the package.

              implements refer(1) support for ms.

              is a wrapper enabling the package to be loaded with "groff -m


       The GNU version of the ms macro package was written by James Clark and
       contributors.  This document was written by Clark, Larry Kollar
       <>, and G. Branden Robinson <g.branden.robinson@>.

See also

       A manual is available in source and rendered form.  On your system, it
       may be compressed and/or available in additional formats.

              "Using groff with the ms Macro Package"; Larry Kollar and
              G. Branden Robinson.

              "Using PDF boxes with groff and the ms macros"; Deri James.
              BOXSTART and BOXSTOP macros are available via the sboxes
              extension package, enabling colored, bordered boxes when the pdf
              output device is used.

       Groff: The GNU Implementation of troff, by Trent A. Fisher and Werner
       Lemberg, is the primary groff manual.  You can browse it interactively
       with "info groff".

       groff(1), troff(1), tbl(1), pic(1), eqn(1), refer(1)

groff 1.23.0                      2 July 2023                      groff_ms(7)

groff 1.23.0 - Generated Fri Dec 22 19:36:25 CST 2023
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