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grops(1)                                                              grops(1)


       grops - PostScript driver for groff


       grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -Idir ] [ -ppapersize ]
             [ -Pprologue ] [ -wn ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its


       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.  Normally grops
       should be invoked by using  the  groff  command  with  a  -Tps  option.
       (Actually,  this  is  the  default  for groff.)  If no files are given,
       grops will read the standard input.  A filename of -  will  also  cause
       grops  to read the standard input.  PostScript output is written to the
       standard output.  When grops is run by groff options can be  passed  to
       grops using the groff -P option.

       Note  that grops doesn't produce a valid document structure (conforming
       to the Document Structuring Convention) if called  with  multiple  file
       arguments.   To print such concatenated output it is necessary to deac-
       tivate DSC handling in the printing program or previewer.


       -bn    Provide workarounds for older  printers,  broken  spoolers,  and
              previewers.   Normally  grops produces output at PostScript Lan-
              guageLevel 2 that conforms to the Document  Structuring  Conven-
              tions  version 3.0.  Some older printers, spoolers, and preview-
              ers can't handle such output.  The  value  of  n  controls  what
              grops  does  to  make its output acceptable to such programs.  A
              value of 0 will cause grops not to employ any workarounds.

              Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup and %%EndDocumentSetup comments
              should  be generated; this is needed for early versions of Tran-
              Script that get confused by  anything  between  the  %%EndProlog
              comment and the first %%Page comment.

              Add  2  if  lines in included files beginning with %!  should be
              stripped out; this is needed for Sun's pageview previewer.

              Add 4 if %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog  comments  should  be
              stripped out of included files; this is needed for spoolers that
              don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDocument comments.

              Add 8 if the first line of the PostScript output should be %!PS-
              Adobe-2.0 rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is needed when  using
              Sun's Newsprint with a printer that requires page reversal.

              Add  16  if  no media size information should be included in the
              document (this is, neither  use  %%DocumentMedia  nor  the  set-
              pagedevice PostScript command).  This was the behaviour of groff
              version 1.18.1 and earlier; it  is  needed  for  older  printers
              which  don't  understand PostScript LanguageLevel 2.  It is also
              necessary if the output is further processed to get an  encapsu-
              lated PS (EPS) file -- see below.

              The default value can be specified by a

                     broken n

              command in the DESC file.  Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend  directory  dir/devname to the search path for prologue,
              font, and device description files; name  is  the  name  of  the
              device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess  the  page  length.   This  generates PostScript code that
              guesses the page length.  The guess will be correct only if  the
              imageable  area is vertically centered on the page.  This option
              allows you to generate documents that can  be  printed  both  on
              letter (8.5x11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -Idir  This  option  may  be  used to specify a directory to search for
              files on the command line and files named in \X'ps: import'  and
              \X'ps:  file' escapes.  The current directory is always searched
              first.  This option may be specified more than once; the  direc-
              tories  will  be  searched in the order specified.  No directory
              search is performed for files specified using an absolute  path.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

              Set  physical  dimension  of  output medium.  This overrides the
              papersize, paperlength, and  paperwidth  commands  in  the  DESC
              file;  it  accepts  the same arguments as the papersize command.
              See groff_font (5) for details.

              Use the file prologue-file (in the font path)  as  the  prologue
              instead  of  the  default  prologue  file prologue.  This option
              overrides the environment variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths  of  an
              em.  If this option is not given, the line thickness defaults to
              0.04 em.

       -v     Print the version number.


       There are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted  at  font  positions  1
       to 4.  The fonts are grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P, and T
       having members in each of these styles:

              AR     AvantGarde-Book
              AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique
              AB     AvantGarde-Demi
              ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique
              BMR    Bookman-Light
              BMI    Bookman-LightItalic
              BMB    Bookman-Demi
              BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic
              CR     Courier
              CI     Courier-Oblique
              CB     Courier-Bold
              CBI    Courier-BoldOblique
              HR     Helvetica
              HI     Helvetica-Oblique
              HB     Helvetica-Bold
              HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique
              HNR    Helvetica-Narrow
              HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique
              HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold
              HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique
              NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
              NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic
              NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold
              NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic
              PR     Palatino-Roman
              PI     Palatino-Italic
              PB     Palatino-Bold
              PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic
              TR     Times-Roman
              TI     Times-Italic
              TB     Times-Bold
              TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

              ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There are also some special fonts called S for the PS Symbol font,  and
       SS,  containing  slanted  lowercase Greek letters taken from PS Symbol.
       Zapf Dingbats is available as ZD and a reversed version of ZapfDingbats
       (with  symbols pointing in the opposite direction) is available as ZDR;
       most characters in these fonts are unnamed and must be  accessed  using

       The  default  color  for  \m and \M is black; for colors defined in the
       `rgb' color space, setrgbcolor is used, for `cmy' and  `cmyk'  setcmyk-
       color,  and for `gray' setgray.  Note that setcmykcolor is a PostScript
       LanguageLevel 2 command and thus not available on some older  printers.

       grops  understands  various  X  commands  produced  using the \X escape
       sequence; grops will only interpret commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
              This  executes  the  arbitrary PostScript commands in code.  The
              PostScript currentpoint will be set to the position  of  the  \X
              command  before  executing  code.  The origin will be at the top
              left corner of the page, and y coordinates  will  increase  down
              the  page.   A  procedure  u will be defined that converts groff
              units to the coordinate system in effect.  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

              will draw a horizontal  line  one  inch  long.   code  may  make
              changes to the graphics state, but any changes will persist only
              to the end of the page.  A dictionary containing the definitions
              specified  by  the def and mdef will be on top of the dictionary
              stack.  If your code adds definitions to  this  dictionary,  you
              should allocate space for them using \X'ps mdef n'.  Any defini-
              tions will persist only until the end of the page.  If  you  use
              the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro, code
              can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     .de y
                     ps: exec
                     \nx u 0 rlineto

              is another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long.

       \X'ps: file name'
              This is the same as the exec command except that the  PostScript
              code is read from file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
              Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.
              There should be at most one definition  per  \X  command.   Long
              definitions  can be split over several \X commands; all the code
              arguments are simply joined together separated by newlines.  The
              definitions  are  placed  in a dictionary which is automatically
              pushed on the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
              If  you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a
              macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
              Like def, except that code may  contain  up  to  n  definitions.
              grops  needs  to know how many definitions code contains so that
              it can create an appropriately sized  PostScript  dictionary  to
              contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
              Import  a PostScript graphic from file.  The arguments llx, lly,
              urx, and ury give the bounding box of the graphic in the default
              PostScript  coordinate  system; they should all be integers; llx
              and lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left corner  of
              the  graphic;  urx  and  ury  are the x and y coordinates of the
              upper right corner of the graphic; width and height are integers
              that  give  the  desired  width and height in groff units of the
              graphic.  The graphic will be scaled so that it has  this  width
              and  height  and translated so that the lower left corner of the
              graphic is located at the position associated with  \X  command.
              If the height argument is omitted it will be scaled uniformly in
              the x and y directions so that it has the specified width.  Note
              that  the  contents  of  the  \X  command are not interpreted by
              troff; so vertical space for the graphic  is  not  automatically
              added,  and  the  width  and height arguments are not allowed to
              have attached scaling indicators.  If the PostScript  file  com-
              plies  with  the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions and con-
              tains a %%BoundingBox comment, then  the  bounding  box  can  be
              automatically  extracted  from  within  groff  by using the psbb

              See groff_tmac(5) for a description of  the  PSPIC  macro  which
              provides  a  convenient  high-level  interface  for inclusion of
              PostScript graphics.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
              No output will be generated for text and drawing  commands  that
              are  bracketed  with  these  \X  commands.   These  commands are
              intended for use when output from troff will be previewed before
              being  processed  with grops; if the previewer is unable to dis-
              play certain characters or other constructs, then other  substi-
              tute  characters  or  constructs  can  be used for previewing by
              bracketing them with these \X commands.

              For example, gxditview is not able  to  display  a  proper  \(em
              character because the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this
              problem can be overcome by executing the following request

                     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
                     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
                     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

              In this case, gxditview will be unable to display the \(em char-
              acter  and will draw the line, whereas grops will print the \(em
              character and ignore the line (this  code  is  already  in  file
              Xps.tmac  which  will be loaded if a document intended for grops
              is previewed with gxditview).

       The input to grops must be in the format output by troff(1).   This  is
       described in groff_out(5).

       In  addition, the device and font description files for the device used
       must meet certain requirements.  The device and font description  files
       supplied for ps device meet all these requirements.  afmtodit(1) can be
       used to create font files from AFM files.  The resolution  must  be  an
       integer multiple of 72 times the sizescale.  The ps device uses a reso-
       lution of 72000 and a sizescale of 1000.

       The device description file  must  contain  a  valid  paper  size;  see
       groff_font(5) for more information.

       Each font description file must contain a command

              internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
       contain a command

              encoding enc_file

       which says that the PostScript  font  should  be  reencoded  using  the
       encoding  described in enc_file; this file should consist of a sequence
       of lines of the form:

              pschar code

       where pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and code  is  its
       position  in  the encoding expressed as a decimal integer; valid values
       are in the range 0 to 255.  Lines starting with # and blank  lines  are
       ignored.   The code for each character given in the font file must cor-
       respond to the code for the character in encoding file, or to the  code
       in  the  default encoding for the font if the PostScript font is not to
       be reencoded.  This code can be used with the  \N  escape  sequence  in
       troff  to  select  the character, even if the character does not have a
       groff name.  Every character in the font file must exist in  the  Post-
       Script  font,  and  the  widths  given  in the font file must match the
       widths used in the PostScript font.  grops will assume that a character
       with  a  groff  name of space is blank (makes no marks on the page); it
       can make use of such a character to generate more efficient and compact
       PostScript output.

       Note that grops is able to display all glyphs in a PostScript font, not
       only 256.  enc_file (or the default encoding if no encoding file speci-
       fied)  just  defines  the order of glyphs for the first 256 characters;
       all other glyphs are accessed with additional  encoding  vectors  which
       grops produces on the fly.

       grops  can  automatically  include  the downloadable fonts necessary to
       print the document.  Such fonts must be in PFA format.  Use  pfbtops(1)
       to  convert  a Type 1 font in PFB format.  Any downloadable fonts which
       should, when required, be included by grops must be listed in the  file
       /usr/share/groff/1.19.2/font/devps/download;  this  should  consist  of
       lines of the form

              font filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name
       of the file containing the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines
       are ignored; fields may be separated by tabs or spaces;  filename  will
       be  searched  for  using the same mechanism that is used for groff font
       metric files.  The download file itself will also be searched for using
       this  mechanism;  currently, only the first found file in the font path
       is used.

       If the file containing a downloadable font or  imported  document  con-
       forms  to  the  Adobe Document Structuring Conventions, then grops will
       interpret any comments in the files sufficiently to ensure that its own
       output  is  conforming.   It will also supply any needed font resources
       that are listed in the  download  file  as  well  as  any  needed  file
       resources.  It is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For
       example, suppose that you have a downloadable font called Garamond, and
       also a downloadable font called Garamond-Outline which depends on Gara-
       mond (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's font dictionary,
       and  change the PaintType), then it is necessary for Garamond to appear
       before Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document.  grops will  handle
       this  automatically  provided that the downloadable font file for Gara-
       mond-Outline indicates its dependence on Garamond by means of the Docu-
       ment Structuring Conventions, for example by beginning with the follow-
       ing lines

              %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
              %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
              %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed
       in  the  download file.  A downloadable font should not include its own
       name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops will not interpret  %%DocumentFonts  comments.   The  %%Document-
       NeededResources,     %%DocumentSuppliedResources,    %%IncludeResource,
       %%BeginResource,  and  %%EndResource  comments  (or  possibly  the  old
       %%DocumentNeededFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont, %%Begin-
       Font, and %%EndFont comments) should be used.

   Encapsulated PostScript
       grops itself doesn't emit bounding box information.  With the  help  of
       GhostScript the following commands will produce an encapsulated PS file
       foo.eps from input file foo:

              groff -P-b16 foo >
              gs -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=bbox -- 2> foo.bbox
              cat | sed -e '/%%Orientation/rfoo.bbx' > foo.eps
              rm foo.bbx

   TrueType fonts
       TrueType fonts can be used with grops if converted  first  to  Type  42
       format,  an  especial  PostScript  wrapper equivalent to the PFA format
       mentioned in pfbtops(1).  There are several different methods to gener-
       ate  a  type42 wrapper and most of them involve the use of a PostScript
       interpreter such as Ghostscript -- see gs(1).  Yet, the easiest  method
       involves  the  use  of  the  application  ttftot42.   This program uses
       freetype(3) (version 1.3.1) to generate type42 font wrappers and  well-
       formed  AFM  files  that can be fed to the afmtodit(1) script to create
       appropriate metric files.  The resulting font wrappers should be  added
       to the download file.  ttftot42 source code can be downloaded from <


              If  this is set to foo, then grops will use the file foo (in the
              font path) instead of the default prologue file  prologue.   The
              option -P overrides this environment variable.


              Device description file.

              Font description file for font F.

              List of downloadable fonts.

              Encoding used for text fonts.

              Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc

              Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.

              Macros  to  disable use of characters not present in older Post-
              Script printers (e.g. `eth' or `thorn').

              Temporary file.


       afmtodit(1),    groff(1),    troff(1),    pfbtops(1),     groff_out(5),
       groff_font(5), groff_char(7), groff_tmac(5)

       PostScript Language Document Structuring Conventions Specification

Groff Version 1.19.2            21 January 2005                       grops(1)

Mac OS X 10.6 - Generated Thu Sep 17 20:07:47 CDT 2009
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