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git-worktree(1)                    Git Manual                    git-worktree(1)




NAME

       git-worktree - Manage multiple working trees


SYNOPSIS

       git worktree add [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [--lock [--reason <string>]]
                          [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<commit-ish>]
       git worktree list [-v | --porcelain [-z]]
       git worktree lock [--reason <string>] <worktree>
       git worktree move <worktree> <new-path>
       git worktree prune [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
       git worktree remove [-f] <worktree>
       git worktree repair [<path>...]
       git worktree unlock <worktree>



DESCRIPTION

       Manage multiple working trees attached to the same repository.

       A git repository can support multiple working trees, allowing you to
       check out more than one branch at a time. With git worktree add a new
       working tree is associated with the repository, along with additional
       metadata that differentiates that working tree from others in the same
       repository. The working tree, along with this metadata, is called a
       "worktree".

       This new worktree is called a "linked worktree" as opposed to the "main
       worktree" prepared by git-init(1) or git-clone(1). A repository has one
       main worktree (if it's not a bare repository) and zero or more linked
       worktrees. When you are done with a linked worktree, remove it with git
       worktree remove.

       In its simplest form, git worktree add <path> automatically creates a new
       branch whose name is the final component of <path>, which is convenient
       if you plan to work on a new topic. For instance, git worktree add
       ../hotfix creates new branch hotfix and checks it out at path ../hotfix.
       To instead work on an existing branch in a new worktree, use git worktree
       add <path> <branch>. On the other hand, if you just plan to make some
       experimental changes or do testing without disturbing existing
       development, it is often convenient to create a throwaway worktree not
       associated with any branch. For instance, git worktree add -d <path>
       creates a new worktree with a detached HEAD at the same commit as the
       current branch.

       If a working tree is deleted without using git worktree remove, then its
       associated administrative files, which reside in the repository (see
       "DETAILS" below), will eventually be removed automatically (see
       gc.worktreePruneExpire in git-config(1)), or you can run git worktree
       prune in the main or any linked worktree to clean up any stale
       administrative files.

       If the working tree for a linked worktree is stored on a portable device
       or network share which is not always mounted, you can prevent its
       administrative files from being pruned by issuing the git worktree lock
       command, optionally specifying --reason to explain why the worktree is
       locked.


COMMANDS

       add <path> [<commit-ish>]
           Create a worktree at <path> and checkout <commit-ish> into it. The
           new worktree is linked to the current repository, sharing everything
           except per-worktree files such as HEAD, index, etc. As a convenience,
           <commit-ish> may be a bare "-", which is synonymous with @{-1}.

           If <commit-ish> is a branch name (call it <branch>) and is not found,
           and neither -b nor -B nor --detach are used, but there does exist a
           tracking branch in exactly one remote (call it <remote>) with a
           matching name, treat as equivalent to:

               $ git worktree add --track -b <branch> <path> <remote>/<branch>

           If the branch exists in multiple remotes and one of them is named by
           the checkout.defaultRemote configuration variable, we'll use that one
           for the purposes of disambiguation, even if the <branch> isn't unique
           across all remotes. Set it to e.g.  checkout.defaultRemote=origin to
           always checkout remote branches from there if <branch> is ambiguous
           but exists on the origin remote. See also checkout.defaultRemote in
           git-config(1).

           If <commit-ish> is omitted and neither -b nor -B nor --detach used,
           then, as a convenience, the new worktree is associated with a branch
           (call it <branch>) named after $(basename <path>). If <branch>
           doesn't exist, a new branch based on HEAD is automatically created as
           if -b <branch> was given. If <branch> does exist, it will be checked
           out in the new worktree, if it's not checked out anywhere else,
           otherwise the command will refuse to create the worktree (unless
           --force is used).

       list
           List details of each worktree. The main worktree is listed first,
           followed by each of the linked worktrees. The output details include
           whether the worktree is bare, the revision currently checked out, the
           branch currently checked out (or "detached HEAD" if none), "locked"
           if the worktree is locked, "prunable" if the worktree can be pruned
           by the prune command.

       lock
           If a worktree is on a portable device or network share which is not
           always mounted, lock it to prevent its administrative files from
           being pruned automatically. This also prevents it from being moved or
           deleted. Optionally, specify a reason for the lock with --reason.

       move
           Move a worktree to a new location. Note that the main worktree or
           linked worktrees containing submodules cannot be moved with this
           command. (The git worktree repair command, however, can reestablish
           the connection with linked worktrees if you move the main worktree
           manually.)

       prune
           Prune worktree information in $GIT_DIR/worktrees.

       remove
           Remove a worktree. Only clean worktrees (no untracked files and no
           modification in tracked files) can be removed. Unclean worktrees or
           ones with submodules can be removed with --force. The main worktree
           cannot be removed.

       repair [<path>...]
           Repair worktree administrative files, if possible, if they have
           become corrupted or outdated due to external factors.

           For instance, if the main worktree (or bare repository) is moved,
           linked worktrees will be unable to locate it. Running repair in the
           main worktree will reestablish the connection from linked worktrees
           back to the main worktree.

           Similarly, if the working tree for a linked worktree is moved without
           using git worktree move, the main worktree (or bare repository) will
           be unable to locate it. Running repair within the recently-moved
           worktree will reestablish the connection. If multiple linked
           worktrees are moved, running repair from any worktree with each
           tree's new <path> as an argument, will reestablish the connection to
           all the specified paths.

           If both the main worktree and linked worktrees have been moved
           manually, then running repair in the main worktree and specifying the
           new <path> of each linked worktree will reestablish all connections
           in both directions.

       unlock
           Unlock a worktree, allowing it to be pruned, moved or deleted.


OPTIONS

       -f, --force
           By default, add refuses to create a new worktree when <commit-ish> is
           a branch name and is already checked out by another worktree, or if
           <path> is already assigned to some worktree but is missing (for
           instance, if <path> was deleted manually). This option overrides
           these safeguards. To add a missing but locked worktree path, specify
           --force twice.

           move refuses to move a locked worktree unless --force is specified
           twice. If the destination is already assigned to some other worktree
           but is missing (for instance, if <new-path> was deleted manually),
           then --force allows the move to proceed; use --force twice if the
           destination is locked.

           remove refuses to remove an unclean worktree unless --force is used.
           To remove a locked worktree, specify --force twice.

       -b <new-branch>, -B <new-branch>
           With add, create a new branch named <new-branch> starting at
           <commit-ish>, and check out <new-branch> into the new worktree. If
           <commit-ish> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD. By default, -b refuses
           to create a new branch if it already exists.  -B overrides this
           safeguard, resetting <new-branch> to <commit-ish>.

       -d, --detach
           With add, detach HEAD in the new worktree. See "DETACHED HEAD" in
           git-checkout(1).

       --[no-]checkout
           By default, add checks out <commit-ish>, however, --no-checkout can
           be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations, such as
           configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout" in git-read-
           tree(1).

       --[no-]guess-remote
           With worktree add <path>, without <commit-ish>, instead of creating a
           new branch from HEAD, if there exists a tracking branch in exactly
           one remote matching the basename of <path>, base the new branch on
           the remote-tracking branch, and mark the remote-tracking branch as
           "upstream" from the new branch.

           This can also be set up as the default behaviour by using the
           worktree.guessRemote config option.

       --[no-]track
           When creating a new branch, if <commit-ish> is a branch, mark it as
           "upstream" from the new branch. This is the default if <commit-ish>
           is a remote-tracking branch. See --track in git-branch(1) for
           details.

       --lock
           Keep the worktree locked after creation. This is the equivalent of
           git worktree lock after git worktree add, but without a race
           condition.

       -n, --dry-run
           With prune, do not remove anything; just report what it would remove.

       --porcelain
           With list, output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts. This format
           will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user
           configuration. It is recommended to combine this with -z. See below
           for details.

       -z
           Terminate each line with a NUL rather than a newline when --porcelain
           is specified with list. This makes it possible to parse the output
           when a worktree path contains a newline character.

       -q, --quiet
           With add, suppress feedback messages.

       -v, --verbose
           With prune, report all removals.

           With list, output additional information about worktrees (see below).

       --expire <time>
           With prune, only expire unused worktrees older than <time>.

           With list, annotate missing worktrees as prunable if they are older
           than <time>.

       --reason <string>
           With lock or with add --lock, an explanation why the worktree is
           locked.

       <worktree>
           Worktrees can be identified by path, either relative or absolute.

           If the last path components in the worktree's path is unique among
           worktrees, it can be used to identify a worktree. For example if you
           only have two worktrees, at /abc/def/ghi and /abc/def/ggg, then ghi
           or def/ghi is enough to point to the former worktree.


REFS

       When using multiple worktrees, some refs are shared between all
       worktrees, but others are specific to an individual worktree. One example
       is HEAD, which is different for each worktree. This section is about the
       sharing rules and how to access refs of one worktree from another.

       In general, all pseudo refs are per-worktree and all refs starting with
       refs/ are shared. Pseudo refs are ones like HEAD which are directly under
       $GIT_DIR instead of inside $GIT_DIR/refs. There are exceptions, however:
       refs inside refs/bisect and refs/worktree are not shared.

       Refs that are per-worktree can still be accessed from another worktree
       via two special paths, main-worktree and worktrees. The former gives
       access to per-worktree refs of the main worktree, while the latter to all
       linked worktrees.

       For example, main-worktree/HEAD or main-worktree/refs/bisect/good resolve
       to the same value as the main worktree's HEAD and refs/bisect/good
       respectively. Similarly, worktrees/foo/HEAD or
       worktrees/bar/refs/bisect/bad are the same as
       $GIT_COMMON_DIR/worktrees/foo/HEAD and
       $GIT_COMMON_DIR/worktrees/bar/refs/bisect/bad.

       To access refs, it's best not to look inside $GIT_DIR directly. Instead
       use commands such as git-rev-parse(1) or git-update-ref(1) which will
       handle refs correctly.


CONFIGURATION FILE

       By default, the repository config file is shared across all worktrees. If
       the config variables core.bare or core.worktree are present in the common
       config file and extensions.worktreeConfig is disabled, then they will be
       applied to the main worktree only.

       In order to have worktree-specific configuration, you can turn on the
       worktreeConfig extension, e.g.:

           $ git config extensions.worktreeConfig true


       In this mode, specific configuration stays in the path pointed by git
       rev-parse --git-path config.worktree. You can add or update configuration
       in this file with git config --worktree. Older Git versions will refuse
       to access repositories with this extension.

       Note that in this file, the exception for core.bare and core.worktree is
       gone. If they exist in $GIT_DIR/config, you must move them to the
       config.worktree of the main worktree. You may also take this opportunity
       to review and move other configuration that you do not want to share to
       all worktrees:

       o   core.worktree should never be shared.

       o   core.bare should not be shared if the value is core.bare=true.

       o   core.sparseCheckout should not be shared, unless you are sure you
           always use sparse checkout for all worktrees.

       See the documentation of extensions.worktreeConfig in git-config(1) for
       more details.


DETAILS

       Each linked worktree has a private sub-directory in the repository's
       $GIT_DIR/worktrees directory. The private sub-directory's name is usually
       the base name of the linked worktree's path, possibly appended with a
       number to make it unique. For example, when $GIT_DIR=/path/main/.git the
       command git worktree add /path/other/test-next next creates the linked
       worktree in /path/other/test-next and also creates a
       $GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next directory (or $GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next1
       if test-next is already taken).

       Within a linked worktree, $GIT_DIR is set to point to this private
       directory (e.g. /path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next in the example) and
       $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set to point back to the main worktree's $GIT_DIR
       (e.g. /path/main/.git). These settings are made in a .git file located at
       the top directory of the linked worktree.

       Path resolution via git rev-parse --git-path uses either $GIT_DIR or
       $GIT_COMMON_DIR depending on the path. For example, in the linked
       worktree git rev-parse --git-path HEAD returns
       /path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/HEAD (not
       /path/other/test-next/.git/HEAD or /path/main/.git/HEAD) while git
       rev-parse --git-path refs/heads/master uses $GIT_COMMON_DIR and returns
       /path/main/.git/refs/heads/master, since refs are shared across all
       worktrees, except refs/bisect and refs/worktree.

       See gitrepository-layout(5) for more information. The rule of thumb is do
       not make any assumption about whether a path belongs to $GIT_DIR or
       $GIT_COMMON_DIR when you need to directly access something inside
       $GIT_DIR. Use git rev-parse --git-path to get the final path.

       If you manually move a linked worktree, you need to update the gitdir
       file in the entry's directory. For example, if a linked worktree is moved
       to /newpath/test-next and its .git file points to
       /path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next, then update
       /path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/gitdir to reference
       /newpath/test-next instead. Better yet, run git worktree repair to
       reestablish the connection automatically.

       To prevent a $GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from being pruned (which can be
       useful in some situations, such as when the entry's worktree is stored on
       a portable device), use the git worktree lock command, which adds a file
       named locked to the entry's directory. The file contains the reason in
       plain text. For example, if a linked worktree's .git file points to
       /path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next then a file named
       /path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/locked will prevent the test-next
       entry from being pruned. See gitrepository-layout(5) for details.

       When extensions.worktreeConfig is enabled, the config file
       .git/worktrees/<id>/config.worktree is read after .git/config is.


LIST OUTPUT FORMAT

       The worktree list command has two output formats. The default format
       shows the details on a single line with columns. For example:

           $ git worktree list
           /path/to/bare-source            (bare)
           /path/to/linked-worktree        abcd1234 [master]
           /path/to/other-linked-worktree  1234abc  (detached HEAD)


       The command also shows annotations for each worktree, according to its
       state. These annotations are:

       o   locked, if the worktree is locked.

       o   prunable, if the worktree can be pruned via git worktree prune.

           $ git worktree list
           /path/to/linked-worktree    abcd1234 [master]
           /path/to/locked-worktree    acbd5678 (brancha) locked
           /path/to/prunable-worktree  5678abc  (detached HEAD) prunable


       For these annotations, a reason might also be available and this can be
       seen using the verbose mode. The annotation is then moved to the next
       line indented followed by the additional information.

           $ git worktree list --verbose
           /path/to/linked-worktree              abcd1234 [master]
           /path/to/locked-worktree-no-reason    abcd5678 (detached HEAD) locked
           /path/to/locked-worktree-with-reason  1234abcd (brancha)
                   locked: worktree path is mounted on a portable device
           /path/to/prunable-worktree            5678abc1 (detached HEAD)
                   prunable: gitdir file points to non-existent location


       Note that the annotation is moved to the next line if the additional
       information is available, otherwise it stays on the same line as the
       worktree itself.

   Porcelain Format
       The porcelain format has a line per attribute. If -z is given then the
       lines are terminated with NUL rather than a newline. Attributes are
       listed with a label and value separated by a single space. Boolean
       attributes (like bare and detached) are listed as a label only, and are
       present only if the value is true. Some attributes (like locked) can be
       listed as a label only or with a value depending upon whether a reason is
       available. The first attribute of a worktree is always worktree, an empty
       line indicates the end of the record. For example:

           $ git worktree list --porcelain
           worktree /path/to/bare-source
           bare

           worktree /path/to/linked-worktree
           HEAD abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234
           branch refs/heads/master

           worktree /path/to/other-linked-worktree
           HEAD 1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234a
           detached

           worktree /path/to/linked-worktree-locked-no-reason
           HEAD 5678abc5678abc5678abc5678abc5678abc5678c
           branch refs/heads/locked-no-reason
           locked

           worktree /path/to/linked-worktree-locked-with-reason
           HEAD 3456def3456def3456def3456def3456def3456b
           branch refs/heads/locked-with-reason
           locked reason why is locked

           worktree /path/to/linked-worktree-prunable
           HEAD 1233def1234def1234def1234def1234def1234b
           detached
           prunable gitdir file points to non-existent location


       Unless -z is used any "unusual" characters in the lock reason such as
       newlines are escaped and the entire reason is quoted as explained for the
       configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-config(1)). For Example:

           $ git worktree list --porcelain
           ...
           locked "reason\nwhy is locked"
           ...



EXAMPLES

       You are in the middle of a refactoring session and your boss comes in and
       demands that you fix something immediately. You might typically use git-
       stash(1) to store your changes away temporarily, however, your working
       tree is in such a state of disarray (with new, moved, and removed files,
       and other bits and pieces strewn around) that you don't want to risk
       disturbing any of it. Instead, you create a temporary linked worktree to
       make the emergency fix, remove it when done, and then resume your earlier
       refactoring session.

           $ git worktree add -b emergency-fix ../temp master
           $ pushd ../temp
           # ... hack hack hack ...
           $ git commit -a -m 'emergency fix for boss'
           $ popd
           $ git worktree remove ../temp



BUGS

       Multiple checkout in general is still experimental, and the support for
       submodules is incomplete. It is NOT recommended to make multiple
       checkouts of a superproject.


GIT

       Part of the git(1) suite



Git 2.39.0                         12/12/2022                    git-worktree(1)

git 2.39.0 - Generated Tue Dec 13 08:56:26 CST 2022
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