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git-branch(1)                      Git Manual                      git-branch(1)




NAME

       git-branch - List, create, or delete branches


SYNOPSIS

       git branch [--color[=<when>] | --no-color] [--show-current]
               [-v [--abbrev=<n> | --no-abbrev]]
               [--column[=<options>] | --no-column] [--sort=<key>]
               [--merged [<commit>]] [--no-merged [<commit>]]
               [--contains [<commit>]] [--no-contains [<commit>]]
               [--points-at <object>] [--format=<format>]
               [(-r | --remotes) | (-a | --all)]
               [--list] [<pattern>...]
       git branch [--track[=(direct|inherit)] | --no-track] [-f]
               [--recurse-submodules] <branchname> [<start-point>]
       git branch (--set-upstream-to=<upstream> | -u <upstream>) [<branchname>]
       git branch --unset-upstream [<branchname>]
       git branch (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
       git branch (-c | -C) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
       git branch (-d | -D) [-r] <branchname>...
       git branch --edit-description [<branchname>]



DESCRIPTION

       If --list is given, or if there are no non-option arguments, existing
       branches are listed; the current branch will be highlighted in green and
       marked with an asterisk. Any branches checked out in linked worktrees
       will be highlighted in cyan and marked with a plus sign. Option -r causes
       the remote-tracking branches to be listed, and option -a shows both local
       and remote branches.

       If a <pattern> is given, it is used as a shell wildcard to restrict the
       output to matching branches. If multiple patterns are given, a branch is
       shown if it matches any of the patterns.

       Note that when providing a <pattern>, you must use --list; otherwise the
       command may be interpreted as branch creation.

       With --contains, shows only the branches that contain the named commit
       (in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the
       named commit), --no-contains inverts it. With --merged, only branches
       merged into the named commit (i.e. the branches whose tip commits are
       reachable from the named commit) will be listed. With --no-merged only
       branches not merged into the named commit will be listed. If the <commit>
       argument is missing it defaults to HEAD (i.e. the tip of the current
       branch).

       The command's second form creates a new branch head named <branchname>
       which points to the current HEAD, or <start-point> if given. As a special
       case, for <start-point>, you may use "A...B" as a shortcut for the merge
       base of A and B if there is exactly one merge base. You can leave out at
       most one of A and B, in which case it defaults to HEAD.

       Note that this will create the new branch, but it will not switch the
       working tree to it; use "git switch <newbranch>" to switch to the new
       branch.

       When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, Git sets up
       the branch (specifically the branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge
       configuration entries) so that git pull will appropriately merge from the
       remote-tracking branch. This behavior may be changed via the global
       branch.autoSetupMerge configuration flag. That setting can be overridden
       by using the --track and --no-track options, and changed later using git
       branch --set-upstream-to.

       With a -m or -M option, <oldbranch> will be renamed to <newbranch>. If
       <oldbranch> had a corresponding reflog, it is renamed to match
       <newbranch>, and a reflog entry is created to remember the branch
       renaming. If <newbranch> exists, -M must be used to force the rename to
       happen.

       The -c and -C options have the exact same semantics as -m and -M, except
       instead of the branch being renamed, it will be copied to a new name,
       along with its config and reflog.

       With a -d or -D option, <branchname> will be deleted. You may specify
       more than one branch for deletion. If the branch currently has a reflog
       then the reflog will also be deleted.

       Use -r together with -d to delete remote-tracking branches. Note, that it
       only makes sense to delete remote-tracking branches if they no longer
       exist in the remote repository or if git fetch was configured not to
       fetch them again. See also the prune subcommand of git-remote(1) for a
       way to clean up all obsolete remote-tracking branches.


OPTIONS

       -d, --delete
           Delete a branch. The branch must be fully merged in its upstream
           branch, or in HEAD if no upstream was set with --track or
           --set-upstream-to.

       -D
           Shortcut for --delete --force.

       --create-reflog
           Create the branch's reflog. This activates recording of all changes
           made to the branch ref, enabling use of date based sha1 expressions
           such as "<branchname>@{yesterday}". Note that in non-bare
           repositories, reflogs are usually enabled by default by the
           core.logAllRefUpdates config option. The negated form
           --no-create-reflog only overrides an earlier --create-reflog, but
           currently does not negate the setting of core.logAllRefUpdates.

       -f, --force
           Reset <branchname> to <startpoint>, even if <branchname> exists
           already. Without -f, git branch refuses to change an existing branch.
           In combination with -d (or --delete), allow deleting the branch
           irrespective of its merged status, or whether it even points to a
           valid commit. In combination with -m (or --move), allow renaming the
           branch even if the new branch name already exists, the same applies
           for -c (or --copy).

       -m, --move
           Move/rename a branch, together with its config and reflog.

       -M
           Shortcut for --move --force.

       -c, --copy
           Copy a branch, together with its config and reflog.

       -C
           Shortcut for --copy --force.

       --color[=<when>]
           Color branches to highlight current, local, and remote-tracking
           branches. The value must be always (the default), never, or auto.

       --no-color
           Turn off branch colors, even when the configuration file gives the
           default to color output. Same as --color=never.

       -i, --ignore-case
           Sorting and filtering branches are case insensitive.

       --column[=<options>], --no-column
           Display branch listing in columns. See configuration variable
           column.branch for option syntax.  --column and --no-column without
           options are equivalent to always and never respectively.

           This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.

       -r, --remotes
           List or delete (if used with -d) the remote-tracking branches.
           Combine with --list to match the optional pattern(s).

       -a, --all
           List both remote-tracking branches and local branches. Combine with
           --list to match optional pattern(s).

       -l, --list
           List branches. With optional <pattern>..., e.g.  git branch --list
           'maint-*', list only the branches that match the pattern(s).

       --show-current
           Print the name of the current branch. In detached HEAD state, nothing
           is printed.

       -v, -vv, --verbose
           When in list mode, show sha1 and commit subject line for each head,
           along with relationship to upstream branch (if any). If given twice,
           print the path of the linked worktree (if any) and the name of the
           upstream branch, as well (see also git remote show <remote>). Note
           that the current worktree's HEAD will not have its path printed (it
           will always be your current directory).

       -q, --quiet
           Be more quiet when creating or deleting a branch, suppressing
           non-error messages.

       --abbrev=<n>
           In the verbose listing that show the commit object name, show the
           shortest prefix that is at least <n> hexdigits long that uniquely
           refers the object. The default value is 7 and can be overridden by
           the core.abbrev config option.

       --no-abbrev
           Display the full sha1s in the output listing rather than abbreviating
           them.

       -t, --track[=(direct|inherit)]
           When creating a new branch, set up branch.<name>.remote and
           branch.<name>.merge configuration entries to set "upstream" tracking
           configuration for the new branch. This configuration will tell git to
           show the relationship between the two branches in git status and git
           branch -v. Furthermore, it directs git pull without arguments to pull
           from the upstream when the new branch is checked out.

           The exact upstream branch is chosen depending on the optional
           argument: -t, --track, or --track=direct means to use the start-point
           branch itself as the upstream; --track=inherit means to copy the
           upstream configuration of the start-point branch.

           The branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable specifies how git
           switch, git checkout and git branch should behave when neither
           --track nor --no-track are specified:

           The default option, true, behaves as though --track=direct were given
           whenever the start-point is a remote-tracking branch.  false behaves
           as if --no-track were given.  always behaves as though --track=direct
           were given.  inherit behaves as though --track=inherit were given.
           simple behaves as though --track=direct were given only when the
           start-point is a remote-tracking branch and the new branch has the
           same name as the remote branch.

           See git-pull(1) and git-config(1) for additional discussion on how
           the branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge options are used.

       --no-track
           Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
           branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable is set.

       --recurse-submodules
           THIS OPTION IS EXPERIMENTAL! Causes the current command to recurse
           into submodules if submodule.propagateBranches is enabled. See
           submodule.propagateBranches in git-config(1). Currently, only branch
           creation is supported.

           When used in branch creation, a new branch <branchname> will be
           created in the superproject and all of the submodules in the
           superproject's <start-point>. In submodules, the branch will point to
           the submodule commit in the superproject's <start-point> but the
           branch's tracking information will be set up based on the submodule's
           branches and remotes e.g.  git branch --recurse-submodules topic
           origin/main will create the submodule branch "topic" that points to
           the submodule commit in the superproject's "origin/main", but tracks
           the submodule's "origin/main".

       --set-upstream
           As this option had confusing syntax, it is no longer supported.
           Please use --track or --set-upstream-to instead.

       -u <upstream>, --set-upstream-to=<upstream>
           Set up <branchname>'s tracking information so <upstream> is
           considered <branchname>'s upstream branch. If no <branchname> is
           specified, then it defaults to the current branch.

       --unset-upstream
           Remove the upstream information for <branchname>. If no branch is
           specified it defaults to the current branch.

       --edit-description
           Open an editor and edit the text to explain what the branch is for,
           to be used by various other commands (e.g.  format-patch,
           request-pull, and merge (if enabled)). Multi-line explanations may be
           used.

       --contains [<commit>]
           Only list branches which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
           specified). Implies --list.

       --no-contains [<commit>]
           Only list branches which don't contain the specified commit (HEAD if
           not specified). Implies --list.

       --merged [<commit>]
           Only list branches whose tips are reachable from the specified commit
           (HEAD if not specified). Implies --list.

       --no-merged [<commit>]
           Only list branches whose tips are not reachable from the specified
           commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies --list.

       <branchname>
           The name of the branch to create or delete. The new branch name must
           pass all checks defined by git-check-ref-format(1). Some of these
           checks may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.

       <start-point>
           The new branch head will point to this commit. It may be given as a
           branch name, a commit-id, or a tag. If this option is omitted, the
           current HEAD will be used instead.

       <oldbranch>
           The name of an existing branch to rename.

       <newbranch>
           The new name for an existing branch. The same restrictions as for
           <branchname> apply.

       --sort=<key>
           Sort based on the key given. Prefix - to sort in descending order of
           the value. You may use the --sort=<key> option multiple times, in
           which case the last key becomes the primary key. The keys supported
           are the same as those in git for-each-ref. Sort order defaults to the
           value configured for the branch.sort variable if exists, or to
           sorting based on the full refname (including refs/... prefix). This
           lists detached HEAD (if present) first, then local branches and
           finally remote-tracking branches. See git-config(1).

       --points-at <object>
           Only list branches of the given object.

       --format <format>
           A string that interpolates %(fieldname) from a branch ref being shown
           and the object it points at. The format is the same as that of git-
       for-each-ref(1).


CONFIGURATION

       pager.branch is only respected when listing branches, i.e., when --list
       is used or implied. The default is to use a pager. See git-config(1).

       Everything above this line in this section isn't included from the git-
       config(1) documentation. The content that follows is the same as what's
       found there:

       branch.autoSetupMerge
           Tells git branch, git switch and git checkout to set up new branches
           so that git-pull(1) will appropriately merge from the starting point
           branch. Note that even if this option is not set, this behavior can
           be chosen per-branch using the --track and --no-track options. The
           valid settings are: false -- no automatic setup is done; true --
           automatic setup is done when the starting point is a remote-tracking
           branch; always --  automatic setup is done when the starting point is
           either a local branch or remote-tracking branch; inherit -- if the
           starting point has a tracking configuration, it is copied to the new
           branch; simple -- automatic setup is done only when the starting
           point is a remote-tracking branch and the new branch has the same
           name as the remote branch. This option defaults to true.

       branch.autoSetupRebase
           When a new branch is created with git branch, git switch or git
           checkout that tracks another branch, this variable tells Git to set
           up pull to rebase instead of merge (see "branch.<name>.rebase"). When
           never, rebase is never automatically set to true. When local, rebase
           is set to true for tracked branches of other local branches. When
           remote, rebase is set to true for tracked branches of remote-tracking
           branches. When always, rebase will be set to true for all tracking
           branches. See "branch.autoSetupMerge" for details on how to set up a
           branch to track another branch. This option defaults to never.

       branch.sort
           This variable controls the sort ordering of branches when displayed
           by git-branch(1). Without the "--sort=<value>" option provided, the
           value of this variable will be used as the default. See git-for-each-
       ref(1) field names for valid values.

       branch.<name>.remote
           When on branch <name>, it tells git fetch and git push which remote
           to fetch from/push to. The remote to push to may be overridden with
           remote.pushDefault (for all branches). The remote to push to, for the
           current branch, may be further overridden by
           branch.<name>.pushRemote. If no remote is configured, or if you are
           not on any branch and there is more than one remote defined in the
           repository, it defaults to origin for fetching and remote.pushDefault
           for pushing. Additionally, . (a period) is the current local
           repository (a dot-repository), see branch.<name>.merge's final note
           below.

       branch.<name>.pushRemote
           When on branch <name>, it overrides branch.<name>.remote for pushing.
           It also overrides remote.pushDefault for pushing from branch <name>.
           When you pull from one place (e.g. your upstream) and push to another
           place (e.g. your own publishing repository), you would want to set
           remote.pushDefault to specify the remote to push to for all branches,
           and use this option to override it for a specific branch.

       branch.<name>.merge
           Defines, together with branch.<name>.remote, the upstream branch for
           the given branch. It tells git fetch/git pull/git rebase which branch
           to merge and can also affect git push (see push.default). When in
           branch <name>, it tells git fetch the default refspec to be marked
           for merging in FETCH_HEAD. The value is handled like the remote part
           of a refspec, and must match a ref which is fetched from the remote
           given by "branch.<name>.remote". The merge information is used by git
           pull (which at first calls git fetch) to lookup the default branch
           for merging. Without this option, git pull defaults to merge the
           first refspec fetched. Specify multiple values to get an octopus
           merge. If you wish to setup git pull so that it merges into <name>
           from another branch in the local repository, you can point
           branch.<name>.merge to the desired branch, and use the relative path
           setting . (a period) for branch.<name>.remote.

       branch.<name>.mergeOptions
           Sets default options for merging into branch <name>. The syntax and
           supported options are the same as those of git-merge(1), but option
           values containing whitespace characters are currently not supported.

       branch.<name>.rebase
           When true, rebase the branch <name> on top of the fetched branch,
           instead of merging the default branch from the default remote when
           "git pull" is run. See "pull.rebase" for doing this in a non
           branch-specific manner.

           When merges (or just m), pass the --rebase-merges option to git
           rebase so that the local merge commits are included in the rebase
           (see git-rebase(1) for details).

           When the value is interactive (or just i), the rebase is run in
           interactive mode.

           NOTE: this is a possibly dangerous operation; do not use it unless
           you understand the implications (see git-rebase(1) for details).

       branch.<name>.description
           Branch description, can be edited with git branch --edit-description.
           Branch description is automatically added in the format-patch cover
           letter or request-pull summary.


EXAMPLES

       Start development from a known tag

               $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
               $ cd my2.6
               $ git branch my2.6.14 v2.6.14   (1)
               $ git switch my2.6.14

           1. This step and the next one could be combined into a single step
           with "checkout -b my2.6.14 v2.6.14".

       Delete an unneeded branch

               $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/.../git.git my.git
               $ cd my.git
               $ git branch -d -r origin/todo origin/html origin/man   (1)
               $ git branch -D test                                    (2)

           1. Delete the remote-tracking branches "todo", "html" and "man". The
           next fetch or pull will create them again unless you configure them
           not to. See git-fetch(1).
           2. Delete the "test" branch even if the "master" branch (or whichever
           branch is currently checked out) does not have all commits from the
           test branch.

       Listing branches from a specific remote

               $ git branch -r -l '<remote>/<pattern>'                 (1)
               $ git for-each-ref 'refs/remotes/<remote>/<pattern>'    (2)

           1. Using -a would conflate <remote> with any local branches you
           happen to have been prefixed with the same <remote> pattern.
           2. for-each-ref can take a wide range of options. See git-for-each-
       ref(1)

       Patterns will normally need quoting.


NOTES

       If you are creating a branch that you want to switch to immediately, it
       is easier to use the "git switch" command with its -c option to do the
       same thing with a single command.

       The options --contains, --no-contains, --merged and --no-merged serve
       four related but different purposes:

       o   --contains <commit> is used to find all branches which will need
           special attention if <commit> were to be rebased or amended, since
           those branches contain the specified <commit>.

       o   --no-contains <commit> is the inverse of that, i.e. branches that
           don't contain the specified <commit>.

       o   --merged is used to find all branches which can be safely deleted,
           since those branches are fully contained by HEAD.

       o   --no-merged is used to find branches which are candidates for merging
           into HEAD, since those branches are not fully contained by HEAD.

       When combining multiple --contains and --no-contains filters, only
       references that contain at least one of the --contains commits and
       contain none of the --no-contains commits are shown.

       When combining multiple --merged and --no-merged filters, only references
       that are reachable from at least one of the --merged commits and from
       none of the --no-merged commits are shown.


SEE ALSO

       git-check-ref-format(1), git-fetch(1), git-remote(1), "Understanding
       history: What is a branch?"[1] in the Git User's Manual.


GIT

       Part of the git(1) suite


NOTES

        1. "Understanding history: What is a branch?"
           git-htmldocs/user-manual.html#what-is-a-branch



Git 2.38.0                         10/02/2022                      git-branch(1)

git 2.38.0 - Generated Tue Oct 4 18:45:54 CDT 2022
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