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git-log(1)                         Git Manual                         git-log(1)


       git-log - Show commit logs


       git log [<options>] [<revision-range>] [[--] <path>...]


       Shows the commit logs.

       List commits that are reachable by following the parent links from the
       given commit(s), but exclude commits that are reachable from the one(s)
       given with a ^ in front of them. The output is given in reverse
       chronological order by default.

       You can think of this as a set operation. Commits reachable from any of
       the commits given on the command line form a set, and then commits
       reachable from any of the ones given with ^ in front are subtracted from
       that set. The remaining commits are what comes out in the command's
       output. Various other options and paths parameters can be used to further
       limit the result.

       Thus, the following command:

           $ git log foo bar ^baz

       means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo or bar, but not
       from baz".

       A special notation "<commit1>..<commit2>" can be used as a short-hand for
       "^<commit1> <commit2>". For example, either of the following may be used

           $ git log origin..HEAD
           $ git log HEAD ^origin

       Another special notation is "<commit1>...<commit2>" which is useful for
       merges. The resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference between
       the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:

           $ git log A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
           $ git log A...B

       The command takes options applicable to the git-rev-list(1) command to
       control what is shown and how, and options applicable to the git-diff(1)
       command to control how the changes each commit introduces are shown.


           Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames (works only for
           a single file).

       --no-decorate, --decorate[=short|full|auto|no]
           Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown. If short is
           specified, the ref name prefixes refs/heads/, refs/tags/ and
           refs/remotes/ will not be printed. If full is specified, the full ref
           name (including prefix) will be printed. If auto is specified, then
           if the output is going to a terminal, the ref names are shown as if
           short were given, otherwise no ref names are shown. The option
           --decorate is short-hand for --decorate=short. Default to
           configuration value of log.decorate if configured, otherwise, auto.

       --decorate-refs=<pattern>, --decorate-refs-exclude=<pattern>
           For each candidate reference, do not use it for decoration if it
           matches any patterns given to --decorate-refs-exclude or if it
           doesn't match any of the patterns given to --decorate-refs. The
           log.excludeDecoration config option allows excluding refs from the
           decorations, but an explicit --decorate-refs pattern will override a
           match in log.excludeDecoration.

           If none of these options or config settings are given, then
           references are used as decoration if they match HEAD, refs/heads/,
           refs/remotes/, refs/stash/, or refs/tags/.

           When specified, this option clears all previous --decorate-refs or
           --decorate-refs-exclude options and relaxes the default decoration
           filter to include all references. This option is assumed if the
           config value log.initialDecorationSet is set to all.

           Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each commit
           was reached.

       --[no-]mailmap, --[no-]use-mailmap
           Use mailmap file to map author and committer names and email
           addresses to canonical real names and email addresses. See git-

           Without this flag, git log -p <path>... shows commits that touch the
           specified paths, and diffs about the same specified paths. With this,
           the full diff is shown for commits that touch the specified paths;
           this means that "<path>..." limits only commits, and doesn't limit
           diff for those commits.

           Note that this affects all diff-based output types, e.g. those
           produced by --stat, etc.

           Include a line "log size <number>" in the output for each commit,
           where <number> is the length of that commit's message in bytes.
           Intended to speed up tools that read log messages from git log output
           by allowing them to allocate space in advance.

       -L<start>,<end>:<file>, -L:<funcname>:<file>
           Trace the evolution of the line range given by <start>,<end>, or by
           the function name regex <funcname>, within the <file>. You may not
           give any pathspec limiters. This is currently limited to a walk
           starting from a single revision, i.e., you may only give zero or one
           positive revision arguments, and <start> and <end> (or <funcname>)
           must exist in the starting revision. You can specify this option more
           than once. Implies --patch. Patch output can be suppressed using
           --no-patch, but other diff formats (namely --raw, --numstat,
           --shortstat, --dirstat, --summary, --name-only, --name-status,
           --check) are not currently implemented.

           <start> and <end> can take one of these forms:

           o   number

               If <start> or <end> is a number, it specifies an absolute line
               number (lines count from 1).

           o   /regex/

               This form will use the first line matching the given POSIX regex.
               If <start> is a regex, it will search from the end of the
               previous -L range, if any, otherwise from the start of file. If
               <start> is ^/regex/, it will search from the start of file. If
               <end> is a regex, it will search starting at the line given by

           o   +offset or -offset

               This is only valid for <end> and will specify a number of lines
               before or after the line given by <start>.

           If :<funcname> is given in place of <start> and <end>, it is a
           regular expression that denotes the range from the first funcname
           line that matches <funcname>, up to the next funcname line.
           :<funcname> searches from the end of the previous -L range, if any,
           otherwise from the start of file.  ^:<funcname> searches from the
           start of file. The function names are determined in the same way as
           git diff works out patch hunk headers (see Defining a custom
           hunk-header in gitattributes(5)).

           Show only commits in the specified revision range. When no
           <revision-range> is specified, it defaults to HEAD (i.e. the whole
           history leading to the current commit).  origin..HEAD specifies all
           the commits reachable from the current commit (i.e.  HEAD), but not
           from origin. For a complete list of ways to spell <revision-range>,
           see the Specifying Ranges section of gitrevisions(7).

       [--] <path>...
           Show only commits that are enough to explain how the files that match
           the specified paths came to be. See History Simplification below for
           details and other simplification modes.

           Paths may need to be prefixed with -- to separate them from options
           or the revision range, when confusion arises.

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
       special notations explained in the description, additional commit
       limiting may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
       --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using it with
       --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits whose log message has a line
       that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
       options, such as --reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
           Limit the number of commits to output.

           Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
           Show commits more recent than a specific date.

           Show all commits more recent than a specific date. This visits all
           commits in the range, rather than stopping at the first commit which
           is older than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
           Show commits older than a specific date.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines
           that match the specified pattern (regular expression). With more than
           one --author=<pattern>, commits whose author matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen (similarly for multiple --committer=<pattern>).

           Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that match the
           specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option unless
           --walk-reflogs is in use.

           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the
           specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

           When --notes is in effect, the message from the notes is matched as
           if it were part of the log message.

           Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep, instead
           of ones that match at least one.

           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not match
           the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
           Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to
           letter case.

           Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions; this
           is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
           instead of the default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
           Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
           pattern as a regular expression).

       -P, --perl-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular

           Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional
           compile-time dependency. If Git wasn't compiled with support for them
           providing this option will cause it to die.

           Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

           Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as

           Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly the
           same as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
           Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent
           commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges,
           --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.  --max-parents=0 gives all
           root commits and --min-parents=3 all octopus merges.

           --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no
           limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has 0
           or more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no
           upper limit).

           When finding commits to include, follow only the first parent commit
           upon seeing a merge commit. This option can give a better overview
           when viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch, because
           merges into a topic branch tend to be only about adjusting to updated
           upstream from time to time, and this option allows you to ignore the
           individual commits brought in to your history by such a merge.

           This option also changes default diff format for merge commits to
           first-parent, see --diff-merges=first-parent for details.

           When finding commits to exclude (with a ^), follow only the first
           parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This can be used to find
           the set of changes in a topic branch from the point where it diverged
           from the remote branch, given that arbitrary merges can be valid
           topic branch changes.

           Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all
           following revision specifiers, up to the next --not.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/, along with HEAD, are listed on
           the command line as <commit>.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit branches to ones
           matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end
           is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit tags to ones matching
           given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit remote-tracking
           branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or
           [, /* at the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are
           listed on the command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is
           automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /*
           at the end is implied.

           Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all,
           --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider.
           Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns up to the
           next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob option (other
           options or arguments do not clear accumulated patterns).

           The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags, or
           refs/remotes when applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes,
           respectively, and they must begin with refs/ when applied to --glob
           or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given explicitly.

           Do not include refs that would be hidden by git-receive-pack or
           git-upload-pack by consulting the appropriate receive.hideRefs or
           uploadpack.hideRefs configuration along with transfer.hideRefs (see
           git-config(1)). This option affects the next pseudo-ref option --all
           or --glob and is cleared after processing them.

           Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
           command line as <commit>.

           Pretend as if all objects mentioned as ref tips of alternate
           repositories were listed on the command line. An alternate repository
           is any repository whose object directory is specified in
           objects/info/alternates. The set of included objects may be modified
           by core.alternateRefsCommand, etc. See git-config(1).

           By default, all working trees will be examined by the following
           options when there are more than one (see git-worktree(1)): --all,
           --reflog and --indexed-objects. This option forces them to examine
           the current working tree only.

           Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the
           bad input was not given.

           Pretend as if the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad was listed and as
           if it was followed by --not and the good bisection refs
           refs/bisect/good-* on the command line.

           In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them
           from the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading
           commits and start reading paths to limit the result.

           Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with =
           rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with +.

           Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit on
           the "other side" when the set of commits are limited with symmetric

           For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list
           all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right (see the
           example below in the description of the --left-right option).
           However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the other
           branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from branch A).
           With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
           List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric difference,
           i.e. only those which would be marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

           For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits
           from B which are in A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In
           other words, this lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More
           precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact

           A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to limit
           the output to the commits on our side and mark those that have been
           applied to the other side of a forked history with git log --cherry
           upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream mybranch.

       -g, --walk-reflogs
           Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
           from the most recent one to older ones. When this option is used you
           cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
           commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

           With --pretty format other than oneline and reference (for obvious
           reasons), this causes the output to have two extra lines of
           information taken from the reflog. The reflog designator in the
           output may be shown as ref@{Nth} (where Nth is the
           reverse-chronological index in the reflog) or as ref@{timestamp}
           (with the timestamp for that entry), depending on a few rules:

            1. If the starting point is specified as ref@{Nth}, show the index

            2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show the
               timestamp format.

            3. If neither was used, but --date was given on the command line,
               show the timestamp in the format requested by --date.

            4. Otherwise, show the index format.

           Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
           information on the same line. This option cannot be combined with
           --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

           Under --pretty=reference, this information will not be shown at all.

           After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict
           and don't exist on all heads to merge.

           Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are prefixed with

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example
       the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
       History Simplification, one part is selecting the commits and the other
       is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

           Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

           Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

       Default mode
           Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final
           state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if
           the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches with the same

           Include all commits from the default mode, but also any merge commits
           that are not TREESAME to the first parent but are TREESAME to a later
           parent. This mode is helpful for showing the merge commits that
           "first introduced" a change to a branch.

           Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

           Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful

           All commits in the simplified history are shown.

           Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges
           from the resulting history, as there are no selected commits
           contributing to this merge.

           When given a range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or
           commit2 ^commit1), only display commits in that range that are
           ancestors of <commit>, descendants of <commit>, or <commit> itself.
           If no commit is specified, use commit1 (the excluded part of the
           range) as <commit>. Can be passed multiple times; if so, a commit is
           included if it is any of the commits given or if it is an ancestor or
           descendant of one of them.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that
       modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for foo,
       they look different and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
       illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
       that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit graph:

                    /     /   /   /   /   /
                   I     B   C   D   E   Y
                    \   /   /   /   /   /
                     `-------------'   X

       The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of
       each merge. The commits are:

       o   I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents "asdf",
           and a file quux exists with contents "quux". Initial commits are
           compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

       o   In A, foo contains just "foo".

       o   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence
           TREESAME to all parents.

       o   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to "foobar", so it
           is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   D sets foo to "baz". Its merge O combines the strings from N and D to
           "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the strings to
           "quux xyzzy".  P is TREESAME to O, but not to E.

       o   X is an independent root commit that added a new file side, and Y
           modified it.  Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P, and Q
           is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding commits
       based on whether --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via --parents or
       --children) are used. The following settings are available.

       Default mode
           Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent (though
           this can be changed, see --sparse below). If the commit was a merge,
           and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that parent. (Even if
           there are several TREESAME parents, follow only one of them.)
           Otherwise, follow all parents.

           This results in:

                        /     /   /

           Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
           available, removed B from consideration entirely.  C was considered
           via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an empty tree,
           so I is !TREESAME.

           Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
           not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
           parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
           This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all
           parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them. Even if
           more than one side of the merge has commits that are included, this
           does not imply that the merge itself is! In the example, we get

                       I  A  B  N  D  O  P  Q

           M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents.  E, C and B
           were all walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not

           Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
           about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
           them disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
           Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though this
           can be changed, see --sparse below).

           Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
           Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
           themselves. This results in

                        /     /   /   /   /
                       I     B   /   D   /
                        \   /   /   /   /

           Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was
           pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
           rewritten to contain E's parent I. The same happened for C and N, and
           X, Y and Q.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
       affects inclusion:

           Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to any

           All commits that are walked are included.

           Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges: if
           one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
           sides of the merge are never walked.

           First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history with
           parent rewriting does (see above).

           Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final
           history according to the following rules:

           o   Set C' to C.

           o   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In the
               process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or that
               are root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove
               duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents that we are
               TREESAME to.

           o   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit (has
               zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
               Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.

           The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
           --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

                        /     /       /
                       I     B       D
                        \   /       /

           Note the major differences in N, P, and Q over --full-history:

           o   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of the
               other parent M. Still, N remained because it is !TREESAME.

           o   P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then removed
               completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

           o   Q's parent list had Y simplified to X.  X was then removed,
               because it was a TREESAME root.  Q was then removed completely,
               because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

       There is another simplification mode available:

           Limit the displayed commits to those which are an ancestor of
           <commit>, or which are a descendant of <commit>, or are <commit>

           As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

                          /     \       \
                        /                     \

           A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M,
           but excludes the ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to see
           what happened to the history leading to M since D, in the sense that
           "what does M have that did not exist in D". The result in this
           example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of

           When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with the
           bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we might want to view
           only the subset of D..M that are actually descendants of D, i.e.
           excluding C and K. This is exactly what the --ancestry-path option
           does. Applied to the D..M range, it results in:

                                \       \

           We can also use --ancestry-path=D instead of --ancestry-path which
           means the same thing when applied to the D..M range but is just more

           If we instead are interested in a given topic within this range, and
           all commits affected by that topic, we may only want to view the
           subset of D..M which contain that topic in their ancestry path. So,
           using --ancestry-path=H D..M for example would result in:


           Whereas --ancestry-path=K D..M would result in


       Before discussing another option, --show-pulls, we need to create a new
       example history.

       A common problem users face when looking at simplified history is that a
       commit they know changed a file somehow does not appear in the file's
       simplified history. Let's demonstrate a new example and show how options
       such as --full-history and --simplify-merges works in that case:

                    /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                   I     B   \  R-'`-Z'   /
                    \   /     \/         /
                     \ /      /\        /
                      `---X--'  `---Y--'

       For this example, suppose I created file.txt which was modified by A, B,
       and X in different ways. The single-parent commits C, Z, and Y do not
       change file.txt. The merge commit M was created by resolving the merge
       conflict to include both changes from A and B and hence is not TREESAME
       to either. The merge commit R, however, was created by ignoring the
       contents of file.txt at M and taking only the contents of file.txt at X.
       Hence, R is TREESAME to X but not M. Finally, the natural merge
       resolution to create N is to take the contents of file.txt at R, so N is
       TREESAME to R but not C. The merge commits O and P are TREESAME to their
       first parents, but not to their second parents, Z and Y respectively.

       When using the default mode, N and R both have a TREESAME parent, so
       those edges are walked and the others are ignored. The resulting history
       graph is:


       When using --full-history, Git walks every edge. This will discover the
       commits A and B and the merge M, but also will reveal the merge commits O
       and P. With parent rewriting, the resulting graph is:

                    /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                   I     B   \  R-'`--'   /
                    \   /     \/         /
                     \ /      /\        /
                      `---X--'  `------'

       Here, the merge commits O and P contribute extra noise, as they did not
       actually contribute a change to file.txt. They only merged a topic that
       was based on an older version of file.txt. This is a common issue in
       repositories using a workflow where many contributors work in parallel
       and merge their topic branches along a single trunk: many unrelated
       merges appear in the --full-history results.

       When using the --simplify-merges option, the commits O and P disappear
       from the results. This is because the rewritten second parents of O and P
       are reachable from their first parents. Those edges are removed and then
       the commits look like single-parent commits that are TREESAME to their
       parent. This also happens to the commit N, resulting in a history view as

                    /     /    \
                   I     B      R
                    \   /      /
                     \ /      /

       In this view, we see all of the important single-parent changes from A,
       B, and X. We also see the carefully-resolved merge M and the
       not-so-carefully-resolved merge R. This is usually enough information to
       determine why the commits A and B "disappeared" from history in the
       default view. However, there are a few issues with this approach.

       The first issue is performance. Unlike any previous option, the
       --simplify-merges option requires walking the entire commit history
       before returning a single result. This can make the option difficult to
       use for very large repositories.

       The second issue is one of auditing. When many contributors are working
       on the same repository, it is important which merge commits introduced a
       change into an important branch. The problematic merge R above is not
       likely to be the merge commit that was used to merge into an important
       branch. Instead, the merge N was used to merge R and X into the important
       branch. This commit may have information about why the change X came to
       override the changes from A and B in its commit message.

           In addition to the commits shown in the default history, show each
           merge commit that is not TREESAME to its first parent but is TREESAME
           to a later parent.

           When a merge commit is included by --show-pulls, the merge is treated
           as if it "pulled" the change from another branch. When using
           --show-pulls on this example (and no other options) the resulting
           graph is:


           Here, the merge commits R and N are included because they pulled the
           commits X and R into the base branch, respectively. These merges are
           the reason the commits A and B do not appear in the default history.

           When --show-pulls is paired with --simplify-merges, the graph
           includes all of the necessary information:

                         .-A---M--.   N
                        /     /    \ /
                       I     B      R
                        \   /      /
                         \ /      /

           Notice that since M is reachable from R, the edge from N to M was
           simplified away. However, N still appears in the history as an
           important commit because it "pulled" the change R into the main

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big
       picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that are not
       referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in other words, kept
       after history simplification rules described above) if (1) they are
       referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the paths given on
       the command line. All other commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be
       simplified away).

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
           show commits in the commit timestamp order.

           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
           show commits in the author timestamp order.

           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and avoid
           showing commits on multiple lines of history intermixed.

           For example, in a commit history like this:

                       \              \

           where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, git rev-list
           and friends with --date-order show the commits in the timestamp
           order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

           With --topo-order, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5 3
           1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to avoid
           showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed

           Output the commits chosen to be shown (see Commit Limiting section
           above) in reverse order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs.

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.

           Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
           This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument unsorted
           is given, the commits are shown in the order they were given on the
           command line. Otherwise (if sorted or no argument was given), the
           commits are shown in reverse chronological order by commit time.
           Cannot be combined with --graph.

           Overrides a previous --no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format, where
           <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller,
           reference, email, raw, format:<string> and tformat:<string>. When
           <format> is none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it acts as
           if --pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

           See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for each
           format. When =<format> part is omitted, it defaults to medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
           configuration (see git-config(1)).

           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name,
           show a prefix that names the object uniquely. "--abbrev=<n>" (which
           also modifies diff output, if it is displayed) option can be used to
           specify the minimum length of the prefix.

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
           people using 80-column terminals.

           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
           --abbrev-commit, either explicit or implied by other options such as
           "--oneline". It also overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.

           This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used

           Commit objects record the character encoding used for the log message
           in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command
           to re-code the commit log message in the encoding preferred by the
           user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8. Note that if
           an object claims to be encoded in X and we are outputting in X, we
           will output the object verbatim; this means that invalid sequences in
           the original commit may be copied to the output. Likewise, if
           iconv(3) fails to convert the commit, we will quietly output the
           original object verbatim.

       --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
           Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces to fill
           to the next display column that is multiple of <n>) in the log
           message before showing it in the output.  --expand-tabs is a
           short-hand for --expand-tabs=8, and --no-expand-tabs is a short-hand
           for --expand-tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

           By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent the log
           message by 4 spaces (i.e.  medium, which is the default, full, and

           Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit, when
           showing the commit log message. This is the default for git log, git
           show and git whatchanged commands when there is no --pretty,
           --format, or --oneline option given on the command line.

           By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the
           core.notesRef and notes.displayRef variables (or corresponding
           environment overrides). See git-config(1) for more details.

           With an optional <ref> argument, use the ref to find the notes to
           display. The ref can specify the full refname when it begins with
           refs/notes/; when it begins with notes/, refs/ and otherwise
           refs/notes/ is prefixed to form a full name of the ref.

           Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are
           being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from
           "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo --notes" will show both notes from
           "refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).

           Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes option, by
           resetting the list of notes refs from which notes are shown. Options
           are parsed in the order given on the command line, so e.g. "--notes
           --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes from

       --show-notes[=<ref>], --[no-]standard-notes
           These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes
           options instead.

           Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the signature
           to gpg --verify and show the output.

           Synonym for --date=relative.

           Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such as
           when using --pretty. config variable sets a default value
           for the log command's --date option. By default, dates are shown in
           the original time zone (either committer's or author's). If -local is
           appended to the format (e.g., iso-local), the user's local time zone
           is used instead.

           --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. "2
           hours ago". The -local option has no effect for --date=relative.

           --date=local is an alias for --date=default-local.

           --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in a ISO 8601-like
           format. The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:

           o   a space instead of the T date/time delimiter

           o   a space between time and time zone

           o   no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone

           --date=iso-strict (or --date=iso8601-strict) shows timestamps in
           strict ISO 8601 format.

           --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822 format,
           often found in email messages.

           --date=short shows only the date, but not the time, in YYYY-MM-DD

           --date=raw shows the date as seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01
           00:00:00 UTC), followed by a space, and then the timezone as an
           offset from UTC (a + or - with four digits; the first two are hours,
           and the second two are minutes). I.e., as if the timestamp were
           formatted with strftime("%s %z")). Note that the -local option does
           not affect the seconds-since-epoch value (which is always measured in
           UTC), but does switch the accompanying timezone value.

           --date=human shows the timezone if the timezone does not match the
           current time-zone, and doesn't print the whole date if that matches
           (ie skip printing year for dates that are "this year", but also skip
           the whole date itself if it's in the last few days and we can just
           say what weekday it was). For older dates the hour and minute is also

           --date=unix shows the date as a Unix epoch timestamp (seconds since
           1970). As with --raw, this is always in UTC and therefore -local has
           no effect.

           --date=format:... feeds the format ... to your system strftime,
           except for %s, %z, and %Z, which are handled internally. Use
           --date=format:%c to show the date in your system locale's preferred
           format. See the strftime manual for a complete list of format
           placeholders. When using -local, the correct syntax is

           --date=default is the default format, and is based on ctime(3)
           output. It shows a single line with three-letter day of the week,
           three-letter month, day-of-month, hour-minute-seconds in "HH:MM:SS"
           format, followed by 4-digit year, plus timezone information, unless
           the local time zone is used, e.g.  Thu Jan 1 00:00:00 1970 +0000.

           Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit
           parent..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
           Simplification above.

           Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit
           child..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification

           Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is reachable from.
           Commits from the left side are prefixed with < and those from the
           right with >. If combined with --boundary, those commits are prefixed
           with -.

           For example, if you have this topology:

                            y---b---b  branch B
                           / \ /
                          /   .
                         /   / \
                        o---x---a---a  branch A

           you would get an output like this:

                       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
                       -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
                       -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

           Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history on
           the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines to be
           printed in between commits, in order for the graph history to be
           drawn properly. Cannot be combined with --no-walk.

           This enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification above.

           This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the --date-order
           option may also be specified.

           When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened which
           can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits do not
           belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier in between them
           in that case. If <barrier> is specified, it is the string that will
           be shown instead of the default one.


       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline, email
       or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line. This line
       begins with "Merge: " and the hashes of ancestral commits are printed,
       separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not necessarily be
       the list of the direct parent commits if you have limited your view of
       history: for example, if you are only interested in changes related to a
       certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional formats
       by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either another format name,
       or a format: string, as described below (see git-config(1)). Here are the
       details of the built-in formats:

       o   oneline

               <hash> <title-line>

           This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       o   short

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>


       o   medium

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>
               Date:   <author-date>



       o   full

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>



       o   fuller

               commit <hash>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author-date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer-date>



       o   reference

               <abbrev-hash> (<title-line>, <short-author-date>)

           This format is used to refer to another commit in a commit message
           and is the same as --pretty='format:%C(auto)%h (%s, %ad)'. By
           default, the date is formatted with --date=short unless another
           --date option is explicitly specified. As with any format: with
           format placeholders, its output is not affected by other options like
           --decorate and --walk-reflogs.

       o   email

               From <hash> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author-date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title-line>


       o   mboxrd

           Like email, but lines in the commit message starting with "From "
           (preceded by zero or more ">") are quoted with ">" so they aren't
           confused as starting a new commit.

       o   raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the
           commit object. Notably, the hashes are displayed in full, regardless
           of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents information
           show the true parent commits, without taking grafts or history
           simplification into account. Note that this format affects the way
           commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown e.g. with
           git log --raw. To get full object names in a raw diff format, use

       o   format:<format-string>

           The format:<format-string> format allows you to specify which
           information you want to show. It works a little bit like printf
           format, with the notable exception that you get a newline with %n
           instead of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n"
           would show something like this:

               The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
               The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

           The placeholders are:

           o   Placeholders that expand to a single literal character:


                   a raw %

                   print a byte from a hex code

           o   Placeholders that affect formatting of later placeholders:

                   switch color to red

                   switch color to green

                   switch color to blue

                   reset color

                   color specification, as described under Values in the
                   "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of git-config(1). By default,
                   colors are shown only when enabled for log output (by
                   color.diff, color.ui, or --color, and respecting the auto
                   settings of the former if we are going to a terminal).
                   %C(auto,...) is accepted as a historical synonym for the
                   default (e.g., %C(auto,red)). Specifying %C(always,...) will
                   show the colors even when color is not otherwise enabled
                   (though consider just using --color=always to enable color
                   for the whole output, including this format and anything else
                   git might color).  auto alone (i.e.  %C(auto)) will turn on
                   auto coloring on the next placeholders until the color is
                   switched again.

                   left (<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

                   switch line wrapping, like the -w option of git-shortlog(1).

               %<( <N> [,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc])
                   make the next placeholder take at least N column widths,
                   padding spaces on the right if necessary. Optionally truncate
                   (with ellipsis ..) at the left (ltrunc) ..ft, the middle
                   (mtrunc) mi..le, or the end (trunc) rig.., if the output is
                   longer than N columns. Note 1: that truncating only works
                   correctly with N >= 2. Note 2: spaces around the N and M (see
                   below) values are optional. Note 3: Emojis and other wide
                   characters will take two display columns, which may over-run
                   column boundaries. Note 4: decomposed character combining
                   marks may be misplaced at padding boundaries.

               %<|( <M> )
                   make the next placeholder take at least until Mth display
                   column, padding spaces on the right if necessary. Use
                   negative M values for column positions measured from the
                   right hand edge of the terminal window.

               %>( <N> ), %>|( <M> )
                   similar to %<( <N> ), %<|( <M> ) respectively, but padding
                   spaces on the left

               %>>( <N> ), %>>|( <M> )
                   similar to %>( <N> ), %>|( <M> ) respectively, except that if
                   the next placeholder takes more spaces than given and there
                   are spaces on its left, use those spaces

               %><( <N> ), %><|( <M> )
                   similar to %<( <N> ), %<|( <M> ) respectively, but padding
                   both sides (i.e. the text is centered)

           o   Placeholders that expand to information extracted from the

                   commit hash

                   abbreviated commit hash

                   tree hash

                   abbreviated tree hash

                   parent hashes

                   abbreviated parent hashes

                   author name

                   author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-

                   author email

                   author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

                   author email local-part (the part before the @ sign)

                   author local-part (see %al) respecting .mailmap, see git-
       shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   author date (format respects --date= option)

                   author date, RFC2822 style

                   author date, relative

                   author date, UNIX timestamp

                   author date, ISO 8601-like format

                   author date, strict ISO 8601 format

                   author date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

                   author date, human style (like the --date=human option of

                   committer name

                   committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

                   committer email

                   committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

                   committer email local-part (the part before the @ sign)

                   committer local-part (see %cl) respecting .mailmap, see git-
       shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   committer date (format respects --date= option)

                   committer date, RFC2822 style

                   committer date, relative

                   committer date, UNIX timestamp

                   committer date, ISO 8601-like format

                   committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

                   committer date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

                   committer date, human style (like the --date=human option of

                   ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

                   ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

                   human-readable name, like git-describe(1); empty string for
                   undescribable commits. The describe string may be followed by
                   a colon and zero or more comma-separated options.
                   Descriptions can be inconsistent when tags are added or
                   removed at the same time.

                   o   tags[=<bool-value>]: Instead of only considering
                       annotated tags, consider lightweight tags as well.

                   o   abbrev=<number>: Instead of using the default number of
                       hexadecimal digits (which will vary according to the
                       number of objects in the repository with a default of 7)
                       of the abbreviated object name, use <number> digits, or
                       as many digits as needed to form a unique object name.

                   o   match=<pattern>: Only consider tags matching the given
                       glob(7) pattern, excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix.

                   o   exclude=<pattern>: Do not consider tags matching the
                       given glob(7) pattern, excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix.

                   ref name given on the command line by which the commit was
                   reached (like git log --source), only works with git log



                   sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename


                   raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

                   commit notes

                   raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

                   show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a bad
                   signature, "U" for a good signature with unknown validity,
                   "X" for a good signature that has expired, "Y" for a good
                   signature made by an expired key, "R" for a good signature
                   made by a revoked key, "E" if the signature cannot be checked
                   (e.g. missing key) and "N" for no signature

                   show the name of the signer for a signed commit

                   show the key used to sign a signed commit

                   show the fingerprint of the key used to sign a signed commit

                   show the fingerprint of the primary key whose subkey was used
                   to sign a signed commit

                   show the trust level for the key used to sign a signed commit

                   reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or refs/stash@{2
                   minutes ago}; the format follows the rules described for the
                   -g option. The portion before the @ is the refname as given
                   on the command line (so git log -g refs/heads/master would
                   yield refs/heads/master@{0}).

                   shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the refname
                   portion is shortened for human readability (so
                   refs/heads/master becomes just master).

                   reflog identity name

                   reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
       shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   reflog identity email

                   reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
       shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   reflog subject

                   display the trailers of the body as interpreted by git-
       interpret-trailers(1). The trailers string may be followed by
                   a colon and zero or more comma-separated options. If any
                   option is provided multiple times the last occurrence wins.

                   o   key=<key>: only show trailers with specified <key>.
                       Matching is done case-insensitively and trailing colon is
                       optional. If option is given multiple times trailer lines
                       matching any of the keys are shown. This option
                       automatically enables the only option so that non-trailer
                       lines in the trailer block are hidden. If that is not
                       desired it can be disabled with only=false. E.g.,
                       %(trailers:key=Reviewed-by) shows trailer lines with key

                   o   only[=<bool>]: select whether non-trailer lines from the
                       trailer block should be included.

                   o   separator=<sep>: specify a separator inserted between
                       trailer lines. When this option is not given each trailer
                       line is terminated with a line feed character. The string
                       <sep> may contain the literal formatting codes described
                       above. To use comma as separator one must use %x2C as it
                       would otherwise be parsed as next option. E.g.,
                       %(trailers:key=Ticket,separator=%x2C ) shows all trailer
                       lines whose key is "Ticket" separated by a comma and a

                   o   unfold[=<bool>]: make it behave as if interpret-trailer's
                       --unfold option was given. E.g.,
                       %(trailers:only,unfold=true) unfolds and shows all
                       trailer lines.

                   o   keyonly[=<bool>]: only show the key part of the trailer.

                   o   valueonly[=<bool>]: only show the value part of the

                   o   key_value_separator=<sep>: specify a separator inserted
                       between trailer lines. When this option is not given each
                       trailer key-value pair is separated by ": ". Otherwise it
                       shares the same semantics as separator=<sep> above.


           Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision
           traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options will insert an
           empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git
           log -g). The %d and %D placeholders will use the "short" decoration
           format if --decorate was not already provided on the command line.

       The boolean options accept an optional value [=<bool-value>]. The values
       true, false, on, off etc. are all accepted. See the "boolean" sub-section
       in "EXAMPLES" in git-config(1). If a boolean option is given with no
       value, it's enabled.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is
       inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the placeholder
       expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, all consecutive
       line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion are deleted if and only if
       the placeholder expands to an empty string.

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted
       immediately before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands
       to a non-empty string.

       o   tformat:

           The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it
           provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics. In
           other words, each commit has the message terminator character
           (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed between
           entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line format will
           be properly terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format
           does. For example:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

           In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is
           interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For example, these
           two are equivalent:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
               $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef


       By default, git log does not generate any diff output. The options below
       can be used to show the changes made by each commit.

       Note that unless one of --diff-merges variants (including short -m, -c,
       and --cc options) is explicitly given, merge commits will not show a
       diff, even if a diff format like --patch is selected, nor will they match
       search options like -S. The exception is when --first-parent is in use,
       in which case first-parent is the default format.

       -p, -u, --patch
           Generate patch (see section titled "Generating patch text with -p").

       -s, --no-patch
           Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like git show that show the
           patch by default, or to cancel the effect of --patch.

           Specify diff format to be used for merge commits. Default is off
           unless --first-parent is in use, in which case first-parent is the

           --diff-merges=(off|none), --no-diff-merges
               Disable output of diffs for merge commits. Useful to override
               implied value.

           --diff-merges=on, --diff-merges=m, -m
               This option makes diff output for merge commits to be shown in
               the default format.  -m will produce the output only if -p is
               given as well. The default format could be changed using
               log.diffMerges configuration parameter, which default value is

           --diff-merges=first-parent, --diff-merges=1
               This option makes merge commits show the full diff with respect
               to the first parent only.

               This makes merge commits show the full diff with respect to each
               of the parents. Separate log entry and diff is generated for each

           --diff-merges=remerge, --diff-merges=r, --remerge-diff
               With this option, two-parent merge commits are remerged to create
               a temporary tree object -- potentially containing files with
               conflict markers and such. A diff is then shown between that
               temporary tree and the actual merge commit.

               The output emitted when this option is used is subject to change,
               and so is its interaction with other options (unless explicitly

           --diff-merges=combined, --diff-merges=c, -c
               With this option, diff output for a merge commit shows the
               differences from each of the parents to the merge result
               simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
               and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
               which were modified from all parents.  -c implies -p.

           --diff-merges=dense-combined, --diff-merges=cc, --cc
               With this option the output produced by --diff-merges=combined is
               further compressed by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents
               in the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
               one of them without modification.  --cc implies -p.

           This flag causes combined diffs (used for merge commits) to list the
           name of the file from all parents. It thus only has effect when
           --diff-merges=[dense-]combined is in use, and is likely only useful
           if filename changes are detected (i.e. when either rename or copy
           detection have been requested).

       -U<n>, --unified=<n>
           Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual three.
           Implies --patch.

           Output to a specific file instead of stdout.

       --output-indicator-new=<char>, --output-indicator-old=<char>,
           Specify the character used to indicate new, old or context lines in
           the generated patch. Normally they are +, - and ' ' respectively.

           For each commit, show a summary of changes using the raw diff format.
           See the "RAW OUTPUT FORMAT" section of git-diff(1). This is different
           from showing the log itself in raw format, which you can achieve with

           Synonym for -p --raw.

           Show the tree objects in the diff output.

           Enable the heuristic that shifts diff hunk boundaries to make patches
           easier to read. This is the default.

           Disable the indent heuristic.

           Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is produced.

           Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

           Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

           Generate a diff using the "anchored diff" algorithm.

           This option may be specified more than once.

           If a line exists in both the source and destination, exists only
           once, and starts with this text, this algorithm attempts to prevent
           it from appearing as a deletion or addition in the output. It uses
           the "patience diff" algorithm internally.

           Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:

           default, myers
               The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the default.

               Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is

               Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.

               This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
               low-occurrence common elements".

           For instance, if you configured the diff.algorithm variable to a
           non-default value and want to use the default one, then you have to
           use --diff-algorithm=default option.

           Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary will be
           used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph part. Maximum
           width defaults to terminal width, or 80 columns if not connected to a
           terminal, and can be overridden by <width>. The width of the filename
           part can be limited by giving another width <name-width> after a
           comma. The width of the graph part can be limited by using
           --stat-graph-width=<width> (affects all commands generating a stat
           graph) or by setting diff.statGraphWidth=<width> (does not affect git
           format-patch). By giving a third parameter <count>, you can limit the
           output to the first <count> lines, followed by ... if there are more.

           These parameters can also be set individually with
           --stat-width=<width>, --stat-name-width=<name-width> and

           Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as
           file creations or deletions ("new" or "gone", optionally "+l" if it's
           a symlink) and mode changes ("+x" or "-x" for adding or removing
           executable bit respectively) in diffstat. The information is put
           between the filename part and the graph part. Implies --stat.

           Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted lines in
           decimal notation and pathname without abbreviation, to make it more
           machine friendly. For binary files, outputs two - instead of saying 0

           Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total
           number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted

       -X[<param1,param2,...>], --dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
           Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each
           sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can be customized by passing
           it a comma separated list of parameters. The defaults are controlled
           by the diff.dirstat configuration variable (see git-config(1)). The
           following parameters are available:

               Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have been
               removed from the source, or added to the destination. This
               ignores the amount of pure code movements within a file. In other
               words, rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much as
               other changes. This is the default behavior when no parameter is

               Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based diff
               analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts. (For binary
               files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary files have no
               natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive --dirstat
               behavior than the changes behavior, but it does count rearranged
               lines within a file as much as other changes. The resulting
               output is consistent with what you get from the other --*stat

               Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files
               changed. Each changed file counts equally in the dirstat
               analysis. This is the computationally cheapest --dirstat
               behavior, since it does not have to look at the file contents at

               Count changes in a child directory for the parent directory as
               well. Note that when using cumulative, the sum of the percentages
               reported may exceed 100%. The default (non-cumulative) behavior
               can be specified with the noncumulative parameter.

               An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by default).
               Directories contributing less than this percentage of the changes
               are not shown in the output.

           Example: The following will count changed files, while ignoring
           directories with less than 10% of the total amount of changed files,
           and accumulating child directory counts in the parent directories:

           Synonym for --dirstat=cumulative

           Synonym for --dirstat=files,param1,param2...

           Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as
           creations, renames and mode changes.

           Synonym for -p --stat.

           Separate the commits with NULs instead of with new newlines.

           Also, when --raw or --numstat has been given, do not munge pathnames
           and use NULs as output field terminators.

           Without this option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted
           as explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-

           Show only names of changed files. The file names are often encoded in
           UTF-8. For more information see the discussion about encoding in the
           git-log(1) manual page.

           Show only names and status of changed files. See the description of
           the --diff-filter option on what the status letters mean. Just like
           --name-only the file names are often encoded in UTF-8.

           Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When specifying
           --submodule=short the short format is used. This format just shows
           the names of the commits at the beginning and end of the range. When
           --submodule or --submodule=log is specified, the log format is used.
           This format lists the commits in the range like git-submodule(1)
           summary does. When --submodule=diff is specified, the diff format is
           used. This format shows an inline diff of the changes in the
           submodule contents between the commit range. Defaults to
           diff.submodule or the short format if the config option is unset.

           Show colored diff.  --color (i.e. without =<when>) is the same as
           --color=always.  <when> can be one of always, never, or auto.

           Turn off colored diff. It is the same as --color=never.

           Moved lines of code are colored differently. The <mode> defaults to
           no if the option is not given and to zebra if the option with no mode
           is given. The mode must be one of:

               Moved lines are not highlighted.

               Is a synonym for zebra. This may change to a more sensible mode
               in the future.

               Any line that is added in one location and was removed in another
               location will be colored with color.diff.newMoved. Similarly
               color.diff.oldMoved will be used for removed lines that are added
               somewhere else in the diff. This mode picks up any moved line,
               but it is not very useful in a review to determine if a block of
               code was moved without permutation.

               Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric characters are
               detected greedily. The detected blocks are painted using either
               the color.diff.{old,new}Moved color. Adjacent blocks cannot be
               told apart.

               Blocks of moved text are detected as in blocks mode. The blocks
               are painted using either the color.diff.{old,new}Moved color or
               color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative. The change between the two
               colors indicates that a new block was detected.

               Similar to zebra, but additional dimming of uninteresting parts
               of moved code is performed. The bordering lines of two adjacent
               blocks are considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.
               dimmed_zebra is a deprecated synonym.

           Turn off move detection. This can be used to override configuration
           settings. It is the same as --color-moved=no.

           This configures how whitespace is ignored when performing the move
           detection for --color-moved. These modes can be given as a comma
           separated list:

               Do not ignore whitespace when performing move detection.

               Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

               Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
               at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or more
               whitespace characters to be equivalent.

               Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
               even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.

               Initially ignore any whitespace in the move detection, then group
               the moved code blocks only into a block if the change in
               whitespace is the same per line. This is incompatible with the
               other modes.

           Do not ignore whitespace when performing move detection. This can be
           used to override configuration settings. It is the same as

           Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words. By
           default, words are delimited by whitespace; see --word-diff-regex
           below. The <mode> defaults to plain, and must be one of:

               Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies --color.

               Show words as [-removed-] and {+added+}. Makes no attempts to
               escape the delimiters if they appear in the input, so the output
               may be ambiguous.

               Use a special line-based format intended for script consumption.
               Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in the usual unified
               diff format, starting with a +/-/` ` character at the beginning
               of the line and extending to the end of the line. Newlines in the
               input are represented by a tilde ~ on a line of its own.

               Disable word diff again.

           Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is used to
           highlight the changed parts in all modes if enabled.

           Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of considering runs of
           non-whitespace to be a word. Also implies --word-diff unless it was
           already enabled.

           Every non-overlapping match of the <regex> is considered a word.
           Anything between these matches is considered whitespace and
           ignored(!) for the purposes of finding differences. You may want to
           append |[^[:space:]] to your regular expression to make sure that it
           matches all non-whitespace characters. A match that contains a
           newline is silently truncated(!) at the newline.

           For example, --word-diff-regex=. will treat each character as a word
           and, correspondingly, show differences character by character.

           The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration option,
           see gitattributes(5) or git-config(1). Giving it explicitly overrides
           any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers override
           configuration settings.

           Equivalent to --word-diff=color plus (if a regex was specified)

           Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file gives the
           default to do so.

           Whether to use empty blobs as rename source.

           Warn if changes introduce conflict markers or whitespace errors. What
           are considered whitespace errors is controlled by core.whitespace
           configuration. By default, trailing whitespaces (including lines that
           consist solely of whitespaces) and a space character that is
           immediately followed by a tab character inside the initial indent of
           the line are considered whitespace errors. Exits with non-zero status
           if problems are found. Not compatible with --exit-code.

           Highlight whitespace errors in the context, old or new lines of the
           diff. Multiple values are separated by comma, none resets previous
           values, default reset the list to new and all is a shorthand for
           old,new,context. When this option is not given, and the configuration
           variable diff.wsErrorHighlight is not set, only whitespace errors in
           new lines are highlighted. The whitespace errors are colored with

           Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full pre- and
           post-image blob object names on the "index" line when generating
           patch format output.

           In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that can be applied
           with git-apply. Implies --patch.

           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object name in
           diff-raw format output and diff-tree header lines, show the shortest
           prefix that is at least <n> hexdigits long that uniquely refers the
           object. In diff-patch output format, --full-index takes higher
           precedence, i.e. if --full-index is specified, full blob names will
           be shown regardless of --abbrev. Non default number of digits can be
           specified with --abbrev=<n>.

       -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
           Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create. This
           serves two purposes:

           It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite of a file
           not as a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with a very
           few lines that happen to match textually as the context, but as a
           single deletion of everything old followed by a single insertion of
           everything new, and the number m controls this aspect of the -B
           option (defaults to 60%).  -B/70% specifies that less than 30% of the
           original should remain in the result for Git to consider it a total
           rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a series of
           deletion and insertion mixed together with context lines).

           When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as the
           source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that disappeared
           as the source of a rename), and the number n controls this aspect of
           the -B option (defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies that a change with
           addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of the file's size are
           eligible for being picked up as a possible source of a rename to
           another file.

       -M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
           If generating diffs, detect and report renames for each commit. For
           following files across renames while traversing history, see
           --follow. If n is specified, it is a threshold on the similarity
           index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the file's
           size). For example, -M90% means Git should consider a delete/add pair
           to be a rename if more than 90% of the file hasn't changed. Without a
           % sign, the number is to be read as a fraction, with a decimal point
           before it. I.e., -M5 becomes 0.5, and is thus the same as -M50%.
           Similarly, -M05 is the same as -M5%. To limit detection to exact
           renames, use -M100%. The default similarity index is 50%.

       -C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
           Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder. If n
           is specified, it has the same meaning as for -M<n>.

           For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only if
           the original file of the copy was modified in the same changeset.
           This flag makes the command inspect unmodified files as candidates
           for the source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for large
           projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one -C option has
           the same effect.

       -D, --irreversible-delete
           Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not the
           diff between the preimage and /dev/null. The resulting patch is not
           meant to be applied with patch or git apply; this is solely for
           people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the text after the
           change. In addition, the output obviously lacks enough information to
           apply such a patch in reverse, even manually, hence the name of the

           When used together with -B, omit also the preimage in the deletion
           part of a delete/create pair.

           The -M and -C options involve some preliminary steps that can detect
           subsets of renames/copies cheaply, followed by an exhaustive fallback
           portion that compares all remaining unpaired destinations to all
           relevant sources. (For renames, only remaining unpaired sources are
           relevant; for copies, all original sources are relevant.) For N
           sources and destinations, this exhaustive check is O(N^2). This
           option prevents the exhaustive portion of rename/copy detection from
           running if the number of source/destination files involved exceeds
           the specified number. Defaults to diff.renameLimit. Note that a value
           of 0 is treated as unlimited.

           Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C), Deleted (D),
           Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type (i.e. regular file,
           symlink, submodule, ...) changed (T), are Unmerged (U), are Unknown
           (X), or have had their pairing Broken (B). Any combination of the
           filter characters (including none) can be used. When * (All-or-none)
           is added to the combination, all paths are selected if there is any
           file that matches other criteria in the comparison; if there is no
           file that matches other criteria, nothing is selected.

           Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to exclude. E.g.
           --diff-filter=ad excludes added and deleted paths.

           Note that not all diffs can feature all types. For instance, copied
           and renamed entries cannot appear if detection for those types is

           Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of the
           specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file. Intended for the
           scripter's use.

           It is useful when you're looking for an exact block of code (like a
           struct), and want to know the history of that block since it first
           came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the interesting
           block in the preimage back into -S, and keep going until you get the
           very first version of the block.

           Binary files are searched as well.

           Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed lines
           that match <regex>.

           To illustrate the difference between -S<regex> --pickaxe-regex and
           -G<regex>, consider a commit with the following diff in the same

               +    return frotz(nitfol, two->ptr, 1, 0);
               -    hit = frotz(nitfol, mf2.ptr, 1, 0);

           While git log -G"frotz\(nitfol" will show this commit, git log
           -S"frotz\(nitfol" --pickaxe-regex will not (because the number of
           occurrences of that string did not change).

           Unless --text is supplied patches of binary files without a textconv
           filter will be ignored.

           See the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7) for more information.

           Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of the
           specified object. Similar to -S, just the argument is different in
           that it doesn't search for a specific string but for a specific
           object id.

           The object can be a blob or a submodule commit. It implies the -t
           option in git-log to also find trees.

           When -S or -G finds a change, show all the changes in that changeset,
           not just the files that contain the change in <string>.

           Treat the <string> given to -S as an extended POSIX regular
           expression to match.

           Control the order in which files appear in the output. This overrides
           the diff.orderFile configuration variable (see git-config(1)). To
           cancel diff.orderFile, use -O/dev/null.

           The output order is determined by the order of glob patterns in
           <orderfile>. All files with pathnames that match the first pattern
           are output first, all files with pathnames that match the second
           pattern (but not the first) are output next, and so on. All files
           with pathnames that do not match any pattern are output last, as if
           there was an implicit match-all pattern at the end of the file. If
           multiple pathnames have the same rank (they match the same pattern
           but no earlier patterns), their output order relative to each other
           is the normal order.

           <orderfile> is parsed as follows:

           o   Blank lines are ignored, so they can be used as separators for

           o   Lines starting with a hash ("#") are ignored, so they can be used
               for comments. Add a backslash ("\") to the beginning of the
               pattern if it starts with a hash.

           o   Each other line contains a single pattern.

           Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns used for
           fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
           matches a pattern if removing any number of the final pathname
           components matches the pattern. For example, the pattern "foo*bar"
           matches "fooasdfbar" and "foo/bar/baz/asdf" but not "foobarx".

       --skip-to=<file>, --rotate-to=<file>
           Discard the files before the named <file> from the output (i.e.  skip
           to), or move them to the end of the output (i.e.  rotate to). These
           were invented primarily for use of the git difftool command, and may
           not be very useful otherwise.

           Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or on-disk file
           to tree contents.

       --relative[=<path>], --no-relative
           When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be told to
           exclude changes outside the directory and show pathnames relative to
           it with this option. When you are not in a subdirectory (e.g. in a
           bare repository), you can name which subdirectory to make the output
           relative to by giving a <path> as an argument.  --no-relative can be
           used to countermand both diff.relative config option and previous

       -a, --text
           Treat all files as text.

           Ignore carriage-return at the end of line when doing a comparison.

           Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

       -b, --ignore-space-change
           Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace at
           line end, and considers all other sequences of one or more whitespace
           characters to be equivalent.

       -w, --ignore-all-space
           Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences even
           if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.

           Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.

       -I<regex>, --ignore-matching-lines=<regex>
           Ignore changes whose all lines match <regex>. This option may be
           specified more than once.

           Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number of
           lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other. Defaults to
           diff.interHunkContext or 0 if the config option is unset.

       -W, --function-context
           Show whole function as context lines for each change. The function
           names are determined in the same way as git diff works out patch hunk
           headers (see Defining a custom hunk-header in gitattributes(5)).

           Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an external
           diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need to use this option with
           git-log(1) and friends.

           Disallow external diff drivers.

       --textconv, --no-textconv
           Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run when
           comparing binary files. See gitattributes(5) for details. Because
           textconv filters are typically a one-way conversion, the resulting
           diff is suitable for human consumption, but cannot be applied. For
           this reason, textconv filters are enabled by default only for git-
       git-format-patch(1) or diff
           plumbing commands.

           Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when> can be
           either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
           Using "none" will consider the submodule modified when it either
           contains untracked or modified files or its HEAD differs from the
           commit recorded in the superproject and can be used to override any
           settings of the ignore option in git-config(1) or gitmodules(5). When
           "untracked" is used submodules are not considered dirty when they
           only contain untracked content (but they are still scanned for
           modified content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work tree
           of submodules, only changes to the commits stored in the superproject
           are shown (this was the behavior until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all
           changes to submodules.

           Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

           Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

           Do not show any source or destination prefix.

           Prepend an additional prefix to every line of output.

           By default entries added by "git add -N" appear as an existing empty
           file in "git diff" and a new file in "git diff --cached". This option
           makes the entry appear as a new file in "git diff" and non-existent
           in "git diff --cached". This option could be reverted with
           --ita-visible-in-index. Both options are experimental and could be
           removed in future.

       For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also


       Running git-log(1), git-show(1), git-diff-index(1), git-
       diff-tree(1), or git-diff-files(1) with the -p option produces patch
       text. You can customize the creation of patch text via the
       GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS environment variables (see
       git(1)), and the diff attribute (see gitattributes(5)).

       What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
       diff format:

        1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header that looks like this:

               diff --git a/file1 b/file2

           The a/ and b/ filenames are the same unless rename/copy is involved.
           Especially, even for a creation or a deletion, /dev/null is not used
           in place of the a/ or b/ filenames.

           When rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the name of the
           source file of the rename/copy and the name of the file that
           rename/copy produces, respectively.

        2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:

               old mode <mode>
               new mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               copy from <path>
               copy to <path>
               rename from <path>
               rename to <path>
               similarity index <number>
               dissimilarity index <number>
               index <hash>..<hash> <mode>

           File modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers including the file
           type and file permission bits.

           Path names in extended headers do not include the a/ and b/ prefixes.

           The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged lines, and the
           dissimilarity index is the percentage of changed lines. It is a
           rounded down integer, followed by a percent sign. The similarity
           index value of 100% is thus reserved for two equal files, while 100%
           dissimilarity means that no line from the old file made it into the
           new one.

           The index line includes the blob object names before and after the
           change. The <mode> is included if the file mode does not change;
           otherwise, separate lines indicate the old and the new mode.

        3. Pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as explained for the
           configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-config(1)).

        4. All the file1 files in the output refer to files before the commit,
           and all the file2 files refer to files after the commit. It is
           incorrect to apply each change to each file sequentially. For
           example, this patch will swap a and b:

               diff --git a/a b/b
               rename from a
               rename to b
               diff --git a/b b/a
               rename from b
               rename to a

        5. Hunk headers mention the name of the function to which the hunk
           applies. See "Defining a custom hunk-header" in gitattributes(5) for
           details of how to tailor to this to specific languages.


       Any diff-generating command can take the -c or --cc option to produce a
       combined diff when showing a merge. This is the default format when
       showing merges with git-diff(1) or git-show(1). Note also that you can
       give suitable --diff-merges option to any of these commands to force
       generation of diffs in specific format.

       A "combined diff" format looks like this:

           diff --combined describe.c
           index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
           --- a/describe.c
           +++ b/describe.c
           @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
                   return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;

           - static void describe(char *arg)
            -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
           ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
            +      unsigned char sha1[20];
            +      struct commit *cmit;
                   struct commit_list *list;
                   static int initialized = 0;
                   struct commit_name *n;

            +      if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
            +      cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
            +      if (!cmit)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
                   if (!initialized) {
                           initialized = 1;

        1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like this (when
           the -c option is used):

               diff --combined file

           or like this (when the --cc option is used):

               diff --cc file

        2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines (this example
           shows a merge with two parents):

               index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
               mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>

           The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at least one of
           the <mode> is different from the rest. Extended headers with
           information about detected contents movement (renames and copying
           detection) are designed to work with diff of two <tree-ish> and are
           not used by combined diff format.

        3. It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header

               --- a/file
               +++ b/file

           Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff format,
           /dev/null is used to signal created or deleted files.

           However, if the --combined-all-paths option is provided, instead of a
           two-line from-file/to-file you get a N+1 line from-file/to-file
           header, where N is the number of parents in the merge commit

               --- a/file
               --- a/file
               --- a/file
               +++ b/file

           This extended format can be useful if rename or copy detection is
           active, to allow you to see the original name of the file in
           different parents.

        4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from accidentally
           feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff format was created for review
           of merge commit changes, and was not meant to be applied. The change
           is similar to the change in the extended index header:

               @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@

           There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the chunk header
           for combined diff format.

       Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two files A and B
       with a single column that has - (minus -- appears in A but removed in B),
       + (plus -- missing in A but added to B), or " " (space -- unchanged)
       prefix, this format compares two or more files file1, file2,... with one
       file X, and shows how X differs from each of fileN. One column for each
       of fileN is prepended to the output line to note how X's line is
       different from it.

       A - character in the column N means that the line appears in fileN but it
       does not appear in the result. A + character in the column N means that
       the line appears in the result, and fileN does not have that line (in
       other words, the line was added, from the point of view of that parent).

       In the above example output, the function signature was changed from both
       files (hence two - removals from both file1 and file2, plus ++ to mean
       one line that was added does not appear in either file1 or file2). Also
       eight other lines are the same from file1 but do not appear in file2
       (hence prefixed with +).

       When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a merge commit
       with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the parents). When shown by
       git diff-files -c, it compares the two unresolved merge parents with the
       working tree file (i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our version", file2 is
       stage 3 aka "their version").


       git log --no-merges
           Show the whole commit history, but skip any merges

       git log v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi
           Show all commits since version v2.6.12 that changed any file in the
           include/scsi or drivers/scsi subdirectories

       git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk
           Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file gitk. The --
           is necessary to avoid confusion with the branch named gitk

       git log --name-status release..test
           Show the commits that are in the "test" branch but not yet in the
           "release" branch, along with the list of paths each commit modifies.

       git log --follow builtin/rev-list.c
           Shows the commits that changed builtin/rev-list.c, including those
           commits that occurred before the file was given its present name.

       git log --branches --not --remotes=origin
           Shows all commits that are in any of local branches but not in any of
           remote-tracking branches for origin (what you have that origin

       git log master --not --remotes=*/master
           Shows all commits that are in local master but not in any remote
           repository master branches.

       git log -p -m --first-parent
           Shows the history including change diffs, but only from the "main
           branch" perspective, skipping commits that come from merged branches,
           and showing full diffs of changes introduced by the merges. This
           makes sense only when following a strict policy of merging all topic
           branches when staying on a single integration branch.

       git log -L '/int main/',/^}/:main.c
           Shows how the function main() in the file main.c evolved over time.

       git log -3
           Limits the number of commits to show to 3.


       Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

       o   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
           bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

       o   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This applies to
           tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as path names in
           command line arguments, environment variables and config files
           (.git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5) and

           Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as sequences
           of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding conversions (except
           on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII path names will
           mostly work even on platforms and file systems that use legacy
           extended ASCII encodings. However, repositories created on such
           systems will not work properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g. Linux,
           Mac, Windows) and vice versa. Additionally, many Git-based tools
           simply assume path names to be UTF-8 and will fail to display other
           encodings correctly.

       o   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
           extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
           ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and CJK
           multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in UTF-8,
       both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8 on
       projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more
       convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it. However,
       there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
           message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless
           you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to
           say this is to have i18n.commitEncoding in .git/config file, like

                       commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
           i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
           people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
           commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

        2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding header
           of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into UTF-8
           unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired output
           encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config file, like this:

                       logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
           i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level, because
       re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.


       See git-config(1) for core variables and git-diff(1) for settings related
       to diff generation.

           Default for the --format option. (See Pretty Formats above.) Defaults
           to medium.

           Encoding to use when displaying logs. (See Discussion above.)
           Defaults to the value of i18n.commitEncoding if set, and UTF-8

       Everything above this line in this section isn't included from the git-
       config(1) documentation. The content that follows is the same as what's
       found there:

           If true, makes git-log(1), git-show(1), and git-whatchanged(1) assume
           --abbrev-commit. You may override this option with
           Set the default date-time mode for the log command. Setting a value
           for is similar to using git log's --date option. See git-
       log(1) for details.

           If the format is set to "auto:foo" and the pager is in use, format
           "foo" will be the used for the date format. Otherwise "default" will
           be used.

           Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown by the log
           command. If short is specified, the ref name prefixes refs/heads/,
           refs/tags/ and refs/remotes/ will not be printed. If full is
           specified, the full ref name (including prefix) will be printed. If
           auto is specified, then if the output is going to a terminal, the ref
           names are shown as if short were given, otherwise no ref names are
           shown. This is the same as the --decorate option of the git log.

           By default, git log only shows decorations for certain known ref
           namespaces. If all is specified, then show all refs as decorations.

           Exclude the specified patterns from the log decorations. This is
           similar to the --decorate-refs-exclude command-line option, but the
           config option can be overridden by the --decorate-refs option.

           Set diff format to be used when --diff-merges=on is specified, see
           git-log(1) for details. Defaults to separate.

           If true, git log will act as if the --follow option was used when a
           single <path> is given. This has the same limitations as --follow,
           i.e. it cannot be used to follow multiple files and does not work
           well on non-linear history.

           A list of colors, separated by commas, that can be used to draw
           history lines in git log --graph.

           If true, the initial commit will be shown as a big creation event.
           This is equivalent to a diff against an empty tree. Tools like git-
       log(1) or git-whatchanged(1), which normally hide the root commit
           will now show it. True by default.

           If true, makes git-log(1), git-show(1), and git-whatchanged(1) assume

           If true, makes git-log(1), git-show(1), and git-whatchanged(1) assume
           --use-mailmap, otherwise assume --no-use-mailmap. True by default.

           Which merge strategy to choose by default when resolving notes
           conflicts. Must be one of manual, ours, theirs, union, or
           cat_sort_uniq. Defaults to manual. See "NOTES MERGE STRATEGIES"
           section of git-notes(1) for more information on each strategy.

           This setting can be overridden by passing the --strategy option to

           Which merge strategy to choose when doing a notes merge into
           refs/notes/<name>. This overrides the more general
           "notes.mergeStrategy". See the "NOTES MERGE STRATEGIES" section in
           git-notes(1) for more information on the available strategies.

           Which ref (or refs, if a glob or specified more than once), in
           addition to the default set by core.notesRef or GIT_NOTES_REF, to
           read notes from when showing commit messages with the git log family
           of commands.

           This setting can be overridden with the GIT_NOTES_DISPLAY_REF
           environment variable, which must be a colon separated list of refs or

           A warning will be issued for refs that do not exist, but a glob that
           does not match any refs is silently ignored.

           This setting can be disabled by the --no-notes option to the git log
           family of commands, or by the --notes=<ref> option accepted by those

           The effective value of "core.notesRef" (possibly overridden by
           GIT_NOTES_REF) is also implicitly added to the list of refs to be

           When rewriting commits with <command> (currently amend or rebase), if
           this variable is false, git will not copy notes from the original to
           the rewritten commit. Defaults to true. See also "notes.rewriteRef"

           This setting can be overridden with the GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_REF
           environment variable, which must be a colon separated list of refs or

           When copying notes during a rewrite (see the
           "notes.rewrite.<command>" option), determines what to do if the
           target commit already has a note. Must be one of overwrite,
           concatenate, cat_sort_uniq, or ignore. Defaults to concatenate.

           This setting can be overridden with the GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_MODE
           environment variable.

           When copying notes during a rewrite, specifies the (fully qualified)
           ref whose notes should be copied. May be a glob, in which case notes
           in all matching refs will be copied. You may also specify this
           configuration several times.

           Does not have a default value; you must configure this variable to
           enable note rewriting. Set it to refs/notes/commits to enable
           rewriting for the default commit notes.

           Can be overridden with the GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_REF environment
           variable. See notes.rewrite.<command> above for a further description
           of its format.


       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.40.0                         03/13/2023                         git-log(1)

git 2.40.0 - Generated Tue Mar 14 10:14:04 CDT 2023
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