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dtrace(1)                 BSD General Commands Manual                dtrace(1)


NAME

     dtrace -- dynamic tracing compiler and tracing utility


SYNOPSIS

     dtrace [-aACeFhHlqSvVwZ] [-b bufsz] [-c cmd] [-D name [=value]] [-I path]
            [-L path] [-o output] [-s script] [-U name] [-x arg[=value]]
            [-p pid] [-P provider [[predicate] action]]
            [-m [provider:] module [[predicate] action]]
            [-f [[provider:] module:] function [[predicate] action]]
            [-n [[[provider:] module:] function:] name [[predicate] action]]
            [-i probe-id [[predicate] action]] [-W pname]


DESCRIPTION

     DTrace is a comprehensive dynamic tracing framework ported from Solaris.
     DTrace provides a powerful infrastructure that permits administrators,
     developers, and service personnel to concisely answer arbitrary questions
     about the behavior of the operating system and user programs.

     The dtrace command provides a generic interface to the essential services
     provided by the DTrace facility, including:

           o   Options that list the set of probes and providers currently
               published by DTrace

           o   Options that enable probes directly using any of the probe
               description specifiers (provider, module, function, name)

           o   Options that run the D compiler and compile one or more D pro-
               gram files or programs written directly on the command line

           o   Options that generate anonymous tracing programs

           o   Options that generate program stability reports

           o   Options that modify DTrace tracing and buffering behavior and
               enable additional D compiler features

     You can use dtrace to create D scripts by using it in a shebang declara-
     tion to create an interpreter file.  You can also use dtrace to attempt
     to compile D programs and determine their properties without actually
     enabling traces using the -e option.


OPTIONS

     The arguments accepted by the -P, -m, -f, -n, and -i options can include
     an optional D language predicate enclosed in slashes and an optional D
     language action statement list enclosed in braces.  D program code speci-
     fied on the command line must be appropriately quoted to avoid interpre-
     tation of meta-characters by the shell.

     The following options are supported:

     -arch=value
                 Set dtrace target data model.  See arch(1) for a list of cur-
                 rently supported architectures.

     -a          Claim anonymous tracing state and display the traced data.
                 You can combine the -a option with the -e option to force
                 dtrace to exit immediately after consuming the anonymous
                 tracing state rather than continuing to wait for new data.

     -A          Generate a plist(5) of directives for anonymous tracing.  If
                 the -A option is specified, dtrace compiles any D programs
                 specified using the -s option or on the command-line and con-
                 structs a plist(5) of dtrace directives to enable the speci-
                 fied probes for anonymous tracing and then exits.  By
                 default, dtrace attempts to store the plist to the file
                 /System/Library/Extensions/dtrace_dof.kext/Contents/Info.plist.
                 This behavior can be modified using the -o option to specify
                 an alternate output file.

     -b bufsz    Set the principal trace buffer size to bufsz.  The trace
                 buffer size can include any of the size suffixes k, m, g, or
                 t.  If the buffer space cannot be allocated, dtrace attempts
                 to reduce the buffer size or exit depending on the setting of
                 the bufresize property.

     -c cmd      Run the specified command cmd and exit upon its completion.
                 If more than one -c option is present on the command line,
                 dtrace exits when all commands have exited, reporting the
                 exit status for each child process as it terminates.  The
                 process ID of the first command is made available to any D
                 programs specified on the command line or using the -s option
                 through the $target macro variable.

     -C          Run the C preprocessor in clang(1) over D programs before
                 compiling them.  You can pass options to the C preprocessor
                 using the -D, -U, -I, and -H options.

     -D name [=value]
                 Define name when invoking clang(1) (enabled using the -C
                 option).  If you specify an additional value, the name is
                 assigned the corresponding value.  This option passes the -D
                 option to each clang(1) invocation.

     -e          Exit after compiling any requests and consuming anonymous
                 tracing state (-a option) but prior to enabling any probes.
                 You can combine this option with the -a option to print
                 anonymous tracing data and exit.  You can also combine this
                 option with D compiler options.  This combination verifies
                 that the programs compile without actually executing them and
                 enabling the corresponding instrumentation.

     -f [[provider:] module:] function [[predicate] action]
                 Specify function name to trace or list (-l option).  The cor-
                 responding argument can include any of the probe description
                 forms provider:module:function, module:function, or function.
                 Unspecified probe description fields are left blank and match
                 any probes regardless of the values in those fields.  If no
                 qualifiers other than function are specified in the descrip-
                 tion, all probes with the corresponding function are matched.
                 The -f argument can be suffixed with an optional D probe
                 clause.  You can specify more than one -f option on the com-
                 mand line at a time.

     -F          Coalesce trace output by identifying function entry and
                 return.  Function entry probe reports are indented and their
                 output is prefixed with `->'.  Function return probe reports
                 are unindented and their output is prefixed with `<-'.  Sys-
                 tem call entry probe reports are indented and their output is
                 prefixed with `=>'.  System call return probe reports are
                 unindented and their output is prefixed with `<='.

     -h          Generate a header file containing macros that correspond to
                 probes in the specified provider definitions.  If the -o
                 option is present, the header file is saved using the path-
                 name specified as the argument for that option.  If the -o
                 option is not present and the DTrace program is contained
                 within a file whose name is filename.d, then the header file
                 is saved using the name filename.h.

     -H          Print the pathnames of included files when invoking clang(1)
                 (enabled using the -C option).  This option passes the -H
                 option to each clang(1) invocation, causing it to display the
                 list of pathnames, one for each line, to standard error.

     -i probe-id [[predicate] action]
                 Specify probe identifier (probe-id) to trace or list (l
                 option).  You can specify probe IDs using decimal integers as
                 shown by `dtrace -l`.  The -i argument can be suffixed with
                 an optional D probe clause.  You can specify more than one -i
                 option at a time.

     -I path     Add the specified directory path to the search path for
                 #include files when invoking clang(1) (enabled using the -C
                 option).  This option passes the -I option to each clang(1)
                 invocation.  The specified path is inserted into the search
                 path ahead of the default directory list.

     -l          List probes instead of enabling them.  If the -l option is
                 specified, dtrace produces a report of the probes matching
                 the descriptions given using the -P, -m, -f, -n, -i, and -s
                 options.  If none of these options are specified, this option
                 lists all probes.

     -L path     Add the specified directory path to the search path for
                 DTrace libraries.  DTrace libraries are used to contain com-
                 mon definitions that can be used when writing D programs.
                 The specified path is added after the default library search
                 path.

     -m [provider:] module [[predicate] action]
                 Specify module name to trace or list (-l option).  The corre-
                 sponding argument can include any of the probe description
                 forms provider:module or module.  Unspecified probe descrip-
                 tion fields are left blank and match any probes regardless of
                 the values in those fields.  If no qualifiers other than
                 module are specified in the description, all probes with a
                 corresponding module are matched.  The -m argument can be
                 suffixed with an optional D probe clause.  More than one -m
                 option can be specified on the command line at a time.

     -n [[[provider:] module:] function:] name [[predicate] action]
                 Specify probe name to trace or list (-l option).  The corre-
                 sponding argument can include any of the probe description
                 forms provider:module:function:name, module:function:name,
                 function:name, or name.  Unspecified probe description fields
                 are left blank and match any probes regardless of the values
                 in those fields.  If no qualifiers other than name are speci-
                 fied in the description, all probes with a corresponding name
                 are matched.  The -n argument can be suffixed with an
                 optional D probe clause.  More than one -n option can be
                 specified on the command line at a time.

     -o output   Specify the output file for the -A, -G, and -l options, or
                 for the traced data itself.  If the -A option is present and
                 -o is not present, the default output file is
                 /System/Library/Extensions/dtrace_dof.kext/Contents/Info.plist.
                 If the -G option is present and the -s option's argument is
                 of the form filename.d and -o is not present, the default
                 output file is filename.o.  Otherwise the default output file
                 is d.out.

     -p pid      Grab the specified process-ID pid, cache its symbol tables,
                 and exit upon its completion.  If more than one -p option is
                 present on the command line, dtrace exits when all commands
                 have exited, reporting the exit status for each process as it
                 terminates.  The first process-ID is made available to any D
                 programs specified on the command line or using the -s option
                 through the $target macro variable.

     -P provider [[predicate] action]
                 Specify provider name to trace or list (-l option).  The
                 remaining probe description fields module, function, and name
                 are left blank and match any probes regardless of the values
                 in those fields.  The -P argument can be suffixed with an
                 optional D probe clause.  You can specify more than one -P
                 option on the command line at a time.

     -q          Set quiet mode.  dtrace suppresses messages such as the num-
                 ber of probes matched by the specified options and D programs
                 and does not print column headers, the CPU ID, the probe ID,
                 or insert newlines into the output.  Only data traced and
                 formatted by D program statements such as `dtrace()' and
                 `printf()' is displayed to standard output.

     -s script   Compile the specified D program source file.  If the -e
                 option is present, the program is compiled but instrumenta-
                 tion is not enabled.  If the -l option is present, the pro-
                 gram is compiled and the set of probes matched by it is
                 listed, but instrumentation is not enabled.

                 If none of -e, -l, -G, or -A are present, the instrumentation
                 specified by the D program is enabled and tracing begins.

     -S          Show D compiler intermediate code.  The D compiler produces a
                 report of the intermediate code generated for each D program
                 to standard error.

     -U name     Undefine the specified name when invoking clang(1) (enabled
                 using the -C option).  This option passes the -U option to
                 each clang(1) invocation.

     -v          Print an interface stability report for a specified D program
                 or listed probes.  If probes are being listed with -l, report
                 on each probe's description, arguments, and argument types
                 (if available).

     -V          Report the highest D programming interface version supported
                 by dtrace.  The version information is printed to standard
                 output and the dtrace command exits.

     -w          Permit destructive actions in D programs.  Without -w, dtrace
                 will not permit the compilation or enabling of a D program
                 that contains destructive actions.  Even with -w, destructive
                 actions are not allowed if System Integrity Protection is
                 enabled.  See csrutil(8).

     -W pname    Wait for the process named pname to launch.  Once it has
                 launched, compile and enable the provided D script.  Upon
                 exit of the process, dtrace exits.  If more than one -W
                 option is present on the command line, dtrace will stop each
                 process immediately after it launches, start tracing when all
                 processes have launched, and exit after all processes have
                 exited.  Only the first-specified process's PID will be
                 available to D programs through the $target macro variable.
                 Using this option automatically activates the -Z option.

     -x arg[=value]
                 Enable or modify a DTrace runtime option or D compiler
                 option.  Boolean options are enabled by specifying their
                 name.  Options with values are set by separating the option
                 name and value with an equals sign (=).  See EXTRA OPTIONS
                 for the exhaustive list of options.

     -Z          Permit probe descriptions that match zero probes.  If the -Z
                 option is not specified, dtrace reports an error and exits if
                 any probe descriptions specified in D program files (-s
                 option) or on the command line (-P, -m, -f, -n, or -i
                 options) contain descriptions that do not match any known
                 probes.


OPERANDS

     Zero or more additional arguments may be specified on the dtrace command
     line to define a set of macro variables ($1, $2, and so on) to be used in
     any D programs specified using the -s option or on the command-line.


C++ MANGLED NAMES

     By default, dtrace uses the demangled names of C++ symbols. You can tell
     dtrace to use the mangled symbol names by passing -xmangled to the com-
     mand.


OBJECTIVE-C PROVIDER

     The Objective-C provider is similar to the pid provider, and allows
     instrumentation of Objective-C classes and methods.  Objective-C probe
     specifiers use the following format:

     objcpid:[class-name[(category-name)]]:[[+|-]method-name]:[name]

     pid           The id number of the process.

     class-name    The name of the Objective-C class.

     category-name
                   The name of the category within the Objective-C class.

     method-name   The name of the Objective-C method.

     name          The name of the probe, `entry', `return', or an integer
                   instruction offset within the method.


OBJECTIVE-C PROVIDER EXAMPLES

     objc123:NSString:-*:entry
                   Every instance method of class NSString in process 123.

     objc123:NSString(*)::entry
                   Every method on every category of class NSString in process
                   123.

     objc123:NSString(foo):+*:entry
                   Every class method in NSString's foo category in process
                   123.

     objc123::-*:entry
                   Every instance method in every class and category in
                   process 123.

     objc123:NSString(foo):-dealloc:entry
                   The dealloc method in the foo category of class NSString in
                   process 123.

     objc123::method?with?many?colons?:entry
                   The method method:with:many:colons: in every class in
                   process 123.  (A ?  wildcard must be used to match colon
                   characters inside of Objective-C method names, as they
                   would otherwise be parsed as the provider field
                   separators.)


BUILDING CODE CONTAINING USDT PROBES

     The process of adding USDT probes to code is slightly different than doc-
     umented in the Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide.  The steps for adding
     probes are as follows:

     1.   Name the provider and specify its probes, using the following form:

          provider Example {
                  probe increment(int);
          };

          This defines the Example provider with one probe, increment, that
          takes a single int argument.  Providers can define multiple probes
          and probes can take multiple arguments.

     2.   Process the provider description into a header file.

          The provider description must be converted into a form usable by
          ObjC/C/C++ code.  The dtrace command should be invoked with the -h
          option to do this.

          dtrace -h -s exampleProvider.d

          This will generate a header file named exampleProvider.h

     3.   Add probe invocations to the application.

          For each probe defined in the provider, the provider.h file will
          contain two macros.  The naming is as follows:

          PROVIDER_PROBENAME()
          PROVIDER_PROBENAME_ENABLED()

          In the Example provider, the increment probe becomes:

          EXAMPLE_INCREMENT()
          EXAMPLE_INCREMENT_ENABLED()

          Place a macro invocation in the code at each site to be traced.  If
          the arguments passed to a probe are expensive to calculate, you may
          guard the probe placement like this:

          if (EXAMPLE_INCREMENT_ENABLED()) {
                  argument = /* Expensive argument calculation code here */;
                  EXAMPLE_INCREMENT(argument);
          };

          The if test will only succeed when the increment probe is active.

     4.   Compile and link your program normally.  No additional compiler or
          linker flags are required.


EXTRA OPTIONS

     These options can be set by either passing them to -x or be set in dtrace

   Compile-time options
     amin=attributes
                   Set the values for the minimum stability attributes for D
                   program execution.  attributes is a tuple of the form
                   name-stability/data-stability/dependency-class.  Valid
                   interface and data stability attribute values are:

                         o   Internal: interfaces to dtrace implementation
                             details.  These interfaces might change between
                             minor releases.

                         o   Private: interfaces to undocumented operating
                             system implementation details.  Might change
                             between minor releases.

                         o   Obsolete: interfaces to currently-supported fea-
                             tures which are scheduled to be removed in a
                             future release.

                         o   External: interfaces to features not controlled
                             by the operating system vendor.

                         o   Unstable: interfaces which may change without
                             warning.

                         o   Evolving: may become Standard or Stable but may
                             still change in a future major release.

                         o   Stable: Mature interface which should not change.

                         o   Standard: Complies with an industry standard and
                             will not change.

     arch=value    Set the target data model.  See arch(1) for a list of cur-
                   rently supported architectures.  Has the same effect as the
                   -arch option.

     argref        Ignore additional positional command-line arguments instead
                   of reporting an error.

     core          After execution is complete, cause dtrace to call abort(3)
                   instead of exit(3).  On some systems, this will create a
                   core dump.

     cpp           Run the C preprocessor in clang(1) over D programs before
                   compiling them.  Has the same effect as the -C option.

     cpphdrs       Specify the -H option to clang(1) to print the name of each
                   header file used.

     cpppath=path  Sets the path of the clang(1) preprocessor

     ctypes=path   Write out CTF definitions of all C types used in all pro-
                   grams at the end of a D compilation run in path.

     debug         Enable DTrace debug messages.

     defaultargs   Allow references to unspecified macro arguments.  Use 0 as
                   the value for an unspecified argument.

     define        Adds an implicit #define into the predefines buffer of the
                   preprocessor.  Has the same effect as the -D option.

     disallow_dsym
                   Do not use dSYM files for userspace symbolication.

     droptags      Prints drop tags, [DTRACE_DROP_$TYPE] values describing
                   drop types, to the drop tags handler (by default, to
                   stderr).

     empty         Allow compilation of empty D files.

     encoding=[ascii|utf8]
                   Sets the encoding used for output.  utf8 will show Unicode
                   block elements for histograms.

     errtags       Prefix default error message with error tags.

     evaltime=[preinit|postinit]
                   Control when DTrace starts instrumenting a new process,
                   before or after library initializers have run.

     incdir=value  Add the specified directory to the search path for includes
                   files in the preprocessor.

     iregs=value   Size of the DIF (DTrace Intermediate Format) integer regis-
                   ter set.  The default value is 8.

     late=[dynamic|static]
                   Sets whether references to dynamic translators are allowed.

     libdir=path   Add a library directory in the library search path.

     mangled       Show mangled symbols for C++/Swift probes instead of deman-
                   gled symbols.

     nolibs        Do not include D system libraries. Prevents access to
                   dtrace system library identifiers but speeds up DTrace
                   launch.

     nojtanalysis  Disable jump table analysis.  The default behavior of the
                   pid provider is to not provide `return' or offset probes
                   for functions which appear to contain jump tables.  "Jump
                   tables are often generated for switch statements." Dis-
                   abling jump table analysis can lead to inappropriately
                   placed probes, data corruption, or even crashes in the tar-
                   get process.

     noerror       Do not show error messages.

     pgmax=value   Sets the maximum number of processes DTrace can grab at the
                   same time.  Default value is 8.

     preallocate=value[k|m]
                   Preallocate memory in dtrace before running the script.

     pspec         Interpret ambiguous specifiers as probe names.

     strip         Strip non-loadable sections from the D program.

     tree=value    Bitmap to show the dtrace compiler parse tree at different
                   stages (1|2|4).

     tregs=value   Size of the DIF tuple register set.  This controls the num-
                   ber of arguments that can be passed to functions.  Default
                   value is 8.

     undef=value   Adds an implicit #undef value into the predefines buffer of
                   the preprocessor.

     verbose       Show D compiler intermediate code (DIFO).  The D compiler
                   will produce a report of the intermediate code generated
                   for each D program to stderr(4) Has the same effect as the
                   -S option.

     version       Request a specific version of the DTrace scripting lan-
                   guage.  This will disable all identifiers / translators /
                   functions that are from a newer version than the specified
                   version.

     zdefs         Permit probe descriptions that match zero probes.  Has the
                   same effect as the -Z option.

   Run-time Options
     aggsize=value [m|k]
                   Sets the aggregation buffer size in bytes, kibi or
                   mebibytes.

     bufsize=value[m|k]
                   Sets the principal trace buffer size.  Has the same effect
                   as the -b option.

     buflimit=1-99
                   Threshold percentage of buffer size at which early buffer
                   switches will be done.  75% is the default.

     bufpolicy=[ring|fill|switch]
                   Sets the buffer policy. The default buffer policy is
                   switch.

     bufresize=[auto|manual]
                   Sets whether the per-CPU buffer size can be halved when the
                   kernel cannot allocate enough memory.  Auto is the default
                   value.

     cleanrate=value[ns|us|ms|s|m|h|d|hz]
                   Cleaning rate for speculative buffers.

     cpu=value     CPU on which to enable tracing.

     destructive   Allow destructive actions.  Has the same effect as the -w
                   option.

     dynvarsize=value
                   Dynamic variable space size.

     grabanon      Claim anonymous tracing state and display the trace data.
                   Has the same effect as the -a option.

     nspec=value   Number of speculative buffers.

     specsize=value[k|m]
                   Speculation buffer size.

     stackframes=value
                   Number of stack frames shown for kernel backtraces.

     statusrate=value[ns|us|ms|s|m|h|d|hz]
                   Rate at which user space dtrace will poll the kernel for
                   status.

     strsize=maxStringSize
                   Maximum string size.

     temporal=[true|false]
                   Sort events so that output is in time order. Defaults to
                   true.

     ustackframes=frameCount
                   Number of stack frames shown for userspace backtraces.

   Dynamic Run-time Options
     agghist=file ... [true|false]
                   Shows a histogram for all aggregations.

     aggpack       Pack aggregations together, only showing one line per
                   aggregation.

     aggrate=value[us|ms|s|m|h|d|hz]
                   Sets the aggregation buffer retrieval rate.

     aggsortkey    Sort aggregation by key order with ties broken by value.

     aggsortkeypos=value
                   Position of the aggregate key on which the output is
                   sorted.

     aggsortpos=value
                   Position in the argument in the aggregate function on which
                   the output is sorted.

     aggsortrev    Sort aggregations in reverse order.

     aggzoom       Scales the height of bars in histograms in proportion of
                   the bucket of greatest value instead of the full height of
                   the histogram.

     flowindent    Indent function entry/returns with -> / <-. Has the same
                   effect as the -F option.

     quiet         Output only explicitly traced data. Has the same effect as
                   the -q option.

     rawbytes      Always print tracemem output in hexadecimal.

     stackindent   Number of white space characters to use when indenting
                   stack() or ustack() output.

     stacksymbols=frameCount[true|false]
                   Whether stack symbols are symbolicated or not. Defaults to
                   true.

     switchrate=value[ns|us|ms|s|m|h|d|hz]
                   Rate of principal buffer switching.


SUPPORTED BUILT-IN VARIABLES

     dtrace supplies the following built-in, read-only variables.

     uint64_t arg0-arg9
         Arguments of the current probe invocation represented as unsigned
         64-bit integers.  In the `entry' probe actions of the syscall,
         mach_trap, fbt, and pid providers, these variables contain the traced
         function's arguments.  In the `return' probe actions of the fbt and
         pid providers, arg0 contains the instruction offset (into the func-
         tion) from which the function returned and arg1 contains the func-
         tion's return value.  In the `return' probe actions of the syscall
         and mach_trap providers, both arg0 and arg1 are set to the function's
         return value.  The profile and tick providers set arg1 to the address
         of the instruction that was running when the action fired.

     args[]
         Typed arguments of the current probe, if available.  See -v.

     uint64_t caller
         The kernel address of the instruction that called the current func-
         tion.  As DTrace actions are always called from kernel context, this
         variable is non-zero even when probes are triggered from user space.

     processorid_t cpu
         Integer identifier of the logical CPU on which this probe action
         triggered.

     uint64_t cpucycles (Darwin-specific)
         Number of CPU cycles elapsed on the current CPU.  See also vcycles.

     uint64_t cpuinstrs (Darwin-specific)
         Number of instructions "retired" by the current logical CPU, if
         available.  This count excludes instructions speculatively issued by
         the processor which didn't actually need to be executed.  See also
         vinstrs.

     thread_t curthread
         Address of the OS thread structure corresponding to the thread which
         triggered the current probe action.

     user_addr_t dispatchqaddr (Darwin-specific)
         If the probe action was triggered from a user space context which
         included a dispatch queue, the address of that queue.

     uint_t id
         The current probe's unique identifier within the currently running
         OS, as shown with -l.

     uint_t epid
         A unique identifier representing the current probe action's enable-
         ment within the current D program.  An action can match multiple
         probes.

     int errno
         Error value returned by the last system call performed on the current
         thread.

     string execname
         Current process name.

     gid_t gid
         Primary group ID of the current process.

     uint_t ipl
         Current interrupt level.  On Darwin, either 0 or 1.

     uint64_t machtimestamp (Darwin-specific)
         Current mach_absolute_time() timestamp.

     pid_t pid
         Process ID of the current process.

     pid_t ppid
         Parent process ID of the current process.

     string probeprov, probemod, probefunc, probename
         Respectively, the names of the current probe's provider, module,
         function, and name.  See -n.

     uint32_t stackdepth
         Number of kernel-mode stack frames on the current thread.

     id_t tid
         Thread ID of the current thread.

     uint64_t timestamp
         Current value in nanoseconds from some system-wide fixed point in the
         past.

     uid_t uid
         User ID of the current process.

     uint64_t ucaller
         The user space address from which the currently-running function was
         called, or zero if the function was called from the kernel.

     uint32_t ustackdepth
         Number of user space stack frames on the current thread.

     uint64_t uregs[]
         The current thread's register values immediately prior to the last
         transition from user to kernel execution.  /usr/lib/dtrace/regs* pro-
         vides contstants for the indicies of each register's value in the
         array.

     uint64_t vcycles (Darwin-specific)
         Number of CPU cycles elapsed while running the current thread.  This
         value includes cycles elapsed while processing interrupts with this
         thread.  See also cpucycles.

     uint64_t vinstrs (Darwin-specific)
         Number of instructions retired by the current thread, if available.
         This value includes instructinos retired while processing interrupts
         with this thread.  See also cpuinstrs.

     uint64_t vtimestamp
         Time in nanoseconds that the current thread has spent running on any
         CPU.

     uint64_t walltimestamp
         Current number of nanoseconds since the Unix Epoch (00:00 UTC January
         1st, 1070).


SUPPORTED SUBROUTINES

     D subroutines can only effect internal D program state.  Many D subrou-
     tines have no effects outside the current D program clause.

     const char* arguments accept either D string objects or pointers to C
     strings.  C strings are assumed to be terminated with a NUL (0) byte.
     DTrace pointers refer to kernel virtual address space unlesse otherwise
     indicated.

     A number of DTrace's subroutines return scratch objects.  These scratch
     objects are only valid for the current invocation of the immediately-
     enclosing D program clause.

     void* alloca(size_t* nbytes)
         Create a new nbytes-sized scratch buffer.

     string basename(const char* pathstr)
         Copy the last `/'-delimited component of pathstr into a new scratch
         string.

     void bcopy(void* src, void* scratch, size_t size)
         Copy size bytes from address src to the existing scratch buffer
         scratch.

     string cleanpath(const char* pathstr)
         Copy a canonical representation of pathstr into a new scratch string.
         The resulting string will not contain any unnecessary or redundant
         `./' or `../' substrings.

     void* copyin(user_addr_t src, size_t size)
         Copy size bytes from the current user space address src to a new
         scratch buffer.

     string copyinstr(user_addr_t src, [size_t maxchars])
         Copy a NUL-terminated C string from the current user space address
         src into a new scratch string. If maxchars is specified, it will
         limit the total number of characters that can be copied.  If it is
         not specified, the run-time option strsize will limit the maximum
         number of characters copied.

     void copyinto(user_addr_t src, size_t size, void *scratch)
         Copy size bytes from the current user space address src to the exist-
         ing scratch buffer scratch.

     string dirname(const char *pathstr)
         Copy all but the last `/'-delimited component of pathstr into a new
         scratch string.

     major_t getmajor(dev_t dev)
         Extract the major device number for dev.

     minor_t getminor(dev_t dev)
         Extract the minor device number for dev.

     uint32_t htonl(uint32_t hostlong)
         Convert hostlong from host byte order to network byte order.

     uint64_t htonll(uint64_t hostlonglong)
         Convert hostlonglong from host byte order to network byte order.

     uint16_t htons(uint16_t hostshort)
         Convert hostshort from host byte order to network byte order.

     int index(const char* str, const char* searchstr, [int start])
         Return the character offset of the first occurence of searchstr
         within str, optionally starting the search at character offset start.

     int rindex(const char* str, const char* searchstr, [int start])
         Return the character offset of the last occurence of the C string
         searchstr within str, optionally starting the reverse-search at char-
         acter offset start.

     string inet_ntoa(uint32_t* addr)
         Create a scratch string representing the IPv4 address pointed to by
         addr in dotted-decimal notation.

     string inet_ntoa6(struct in6_addr* addr)
         Create a scratch string representing the IPv6 address pointed to by
         addr in zero-compressed double-colon hexadecimal notaion
         (specifically RFC 1884 convention 2).

     string inet_ntop(int addrfamily, void *addr)
         Create a scratch string representing the IP address of type
         addrfamily pointed to by addr.  Valid values for addrfamily are
         AF_INET and AF_INET6.

     string lltostr(int64_t val, [int baseN])
         Create a scratch string representing val in base baseN notation.

     uint32_t ntohl(uint32_t netlong)
         Convert netlong from network byte order to host byte order.

     uint64_t ntohll(uint64_t netlonglong)
         Convert netlonglong from network byte order to host byte order.

     uint16_t ntohs(uint16_t netshort)
         Convert netshort from network byte order to host byte order.

     int progenyof(pid_t pid)
         Return non-zero if the calling process has a chain of parent pro-
         cesses leading to pid.

     int rand()
         Return a positive pseudo-random number.  It is easy to predict these
         numbers so they should be be used for cryptographic purposes.

     int speculation()
         Create a speculative buffer for use with speculate(), returning the
         buffer's identifier.  See also commit().

     string strchr(const char* str, char c)
         If str contains c, copy the characters starting at the first occur-
         rence of c and ending at the end of str into a new scratch string.
         If c is not present, return NULL.

     string strrchr(const char* str, char c)
         Like strchr(), but start from the last occurrence of c.

     size_t strlen(const char* str)
         Calculate the length of str in bytes.

     string strjoin(const char* str1, const char* str2)
         Concatenate str1 and str2 into a new scratch string.

     string strstr(const char* str, const char* prefix)
         If str contains prefix, copy the characters from prefix to the end of
         the string into a new scratch string.  If prefix is not present,
         return NULL.

     string strtok(const char* str, const char *delimchars)
         Like strtok(3), split str into multiple substrings, splitting on any
         of the characters in delimchars.  If the str is non-NULL, return the
         first token.  If str is non-NULL, return the next token from the most
         recently provided string.  delimchars can be changed in subsequent
         calls.  If no characters from delimchars are present whatever portion
         of str has not yet been tokenized, return NULL.

     string substr(const char* str, int start, [int length])
         Copy the characters in str from character offset start through the
         end of the string into a new scratch string.  length can be used to
         limit the number of characters copied to the new string.

     string tolower(const char *str)
         Copy str into a new scratch string, replacing all uppercase letters
         with their lowercase equivalents.

     string toupper(const char* str)
         Copy str into a new scratch string, replacing all lowercase letters
         with their uppercase equivalents.

     void* vm_kernel_addrperm(void* addr) (Darwin-specific)
         Calculate the unpermuted (or "unslid") address corresponding to the
         raw kernel address addr.  By default, DTrace uses, traces, and prints
         raw kernel addresses.  Unpermuted addresses will correspond with
         other user-visible addresses such as those shown in kextstat(8).
         With default System Integrity Protection settings, D programs are not
         permitted to access kernel address values or kernel memory contents.
         csrutil(8) can be used to change the settings.


SUPPORTED ACTIONS

     DTrace actions allow a D program to interact with the running system.
     The most benign actions record data to a DTrace buffer.  Destructive
     actions have effects on the system and must be enabled with -w.

     void* pointers may refer to either D scratch buffers or kernel virtual
     addresses.

     void breakpoint() (destructive)
         Stop the kernel and wait for a debugger.

     void chill(int nsecs) (destructive)
         Spin inside DTrace for the specified number of nanoseconds.  If this
         action is asked to spin for more than 500ms out of every second of
         wall clock time, an error will be reported.

     void clear(@aggr)
         Clear all values in @aggr.  The keys are retained.  See also trunc().

     void commit(int specid)
         Copy the contents of the speculative buffer specid to the main trac-
         ing buffer.

     void copyout(void *src, user_addr_t *dst, size_t size) (destructive)
         Copy size bytes from the buffer src into the current address space
         address dst.

     void copyoutstr(void *src, user_addr_t *dst, size_t maxbytes)
         (destructive)
         Copy a NUL-terminated C string from src to the current user address
         space address dst, copying no more than maxbytes.

     void discard(int specid)
         Discard the speculative buffer specid.

     void exit(int status)
         Stop tracing, cause dtrace to print any final results, and exit with
         status.

     void freopen(const char* path) (destructive)
         Open path and associate it with dtrace's standard output (closing any
         previously-associated file).

     void ftruncate()
         Truncate dtrace's stdout.

     void kdebug_trace(uint32_t debugid, [uint64_t arg1], [uint64_t arg2],
         [uint64_t arg3], [uint64_t arg4])
         (destructive, Darwin-specific)
         Emit an event to kdebug trace; arguments are optional and default to
         zero.  debugid is a four-part bit field definied in sys/kdebug.h.

     void kdebug_trace_string(uint32_t debugid, uint64_t str_id, const char*
         str)
         (destructive, Darwin-specific)
         Emit a string identified with str_id to kdebug trace.  debugid is the
         same as for kdebug_trace().

     _symaddr func(user_addr_t addr)
         Print the symbol name corresponding to the kernel address addr.

     _symaddr mod(user_addr_t addr)
         Print the module name corresponding to the kernel address addr.

     void normalize(@aggr, int factor)
         When @aggr is traced, all of its values will be divided by factor.

     void denormalize(@aggr)
         Remove any normalization factor from @aggr.  Tracing this aggregation
         will return the total counts.

     void panic() (destructive)
         Panic the kernel with a generic message.

     void print(expression)
         Pretty-print expression inculding types and internal data structure.
         A newline will be included.

     void printa([Ft string format], @aggr)
         Pretty-print @aggr.  format can refer to the aggregation's keys in
         order.  The aggregation's value can be accessed with the flag `@'.
         For example, to print just aggregations values, one per line
               printa("%@u\n", @a);

     void printf(string format, ...)
         Print a custom-formatted string like printf(3).

     void raise(int signum) (destructive)
         Send signum to the current process.

     void setopt(const char* option, [const char* value])
         Set a dynamic run-time option.  See Dynamic Run-time Options.

     void speculate(int specid)
         Set the speculative buffer specid as the destination for all further
         tracing in the current D program clause.

     stack stack([int nframes])
         Record a kernel stack trace up to nframes deep.  If nframes is not
         specified, record up to stackframes frames.  See also Run-time
         Options.

     void stop() (destructive)
         Stop the current user process.

     void pidresume(pid_t pid) (destructive, Darwin-specific)
         Resume the process specified by pid.  See also stop() and raise().

     _symaddr sym(user_addr_t addr)
         Print the symbol name for the kernel address addr.

     void system(string program, ...) (destructive)
         Spawn program with any provided arguments in the same environment as
         dtrace.

     void trace(expression)
         Print expression.  No newline is emitted.

     void tracemem(addr, size_t nbytes)
         Print a hexidecimal representation of nbytes starting at the kernel
         address addr.

     void trunc(@aggr, [topn])
         Discard keys and their corresponding values from @aggr, optionally
         preserving the topn values and their corresponding keys.

     _usymaddr uaddr(user_addr_t addr)
         If available, pretty-print symbol information about the current user
         space address addr.  This information will include applicable module,
         function, and symbol names, as well as offsets into functions for
         code. If not available or applicable, just print addr.

     _usymaddr usym(user_addr_t addr)
         If available, print the name of the symbol representing addr in the
         current process's user address space.  Otherwise, print addr.

     _usymaddr ufunc(user_addr_t addr)
         If addr is within the boundaries of a known function in the current
         user space process, print the name of the function.  Otherwise, print
         addr.

     _usymaddr umod(user_addr_t addr)
         If addr is within the boundaries of a known module in the current
         user space process, print the name of the module.  Otherwise, print
         addr.

     stack ustack([int nframes])
         Record a user stack trace up to nframes deep.  If nframes isn't spec-
         ified, record up to ustackframes frames.  See also Run-time Options.


EXIT STATUS

     The following exit statuses are returned:

     0             Successful completion.

                   For D program requests, an exit status of 0 indicates that
                   programs were successfully compiled, probes were success-
                   fully enabled, or anonymous state was successfully
                   retrieved.  dtrace returns 0 even if the specified tracing
                   requests encountered errors or drops.

     1             An error occurred.

                   For D program requests, an exit status of 1 indicates that
                   program compilation failed or that the specified request
                   could not be satisfied.

     2             Invalid command line options or arguments were specified.


SEE ALSO

     clang(1), bitesize.d(1m), cpuwalk.d(1m), csrutil(8), diskhits(1m),
     dtruss(1m), errinfo(1m), execsnoop(1m), iofile.d(1m), iofileb.d(1m),
     iopattern.d(1m), iopending.d(1m), iosnoop(1m), iotop(1m), kill.d(1m),
     lastwords(1m), newproc.d(1m), opensnoop(1m)

     How to Use Oracle Solaris DTrace from Oracle Solaris and OpenSolaris
     System, Oracle Corporation, 2010,
     http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/server-storage/solaris10/solaris-
     dtrace-wp-167895.pdf.

     Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide, Oracle Corporation, 2010,
     http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19253-01/817-6223/.

Darwin                           June 12, 2017                          Darwin

Mac OS X 10.12.6 - Generated Sun Oct 29 06:43:30 CDT 2017
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