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X(7)                                                                      X(7)


       X - a portable, network-transparent window system


       The  X  Window System is a network transparent window system which runs
       on a wide range of computing and graphics machines.  It should be rela-
       tively straightforward to build the X.Org Foundation software distribu-
       tion on most ANSI C and POSIX compliant systems.  Commercial  implemen-
       tations are also available for a wide range of platforms.

       The  X.Org  Foundation  requests  that the following names be used when
       referring to this software:

                                   X Window System
                                    X Version 11
                             X Window System, Version 11

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.


       X Window System servers run on computers  with  bitmap  displays.   The
       server distributes user input to and accepts output requests from vari-
       ous client programs through a variety of different interprocess  commu-
       nication  channels.   Although  the  most common case is for the client
       programs to be running on the same machine as the server,  clients  can
       be  run transparently from other machines (including machines with dif-
       ferent architectures and operating systems) as well.

       X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and  text  and  graphics
       operations, on both monochrome and color displays.  For a full explana-
       tion of the functions that are available, see the Xlib - C  Language  X
       Interface  manual,  the  X  Window System Protocol specification, the X
       Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual, and  various  toolkit

       The number of programs that use X is quite large.  Programs provided in
       the core X.Org Foundation distribution include:  a  terminal  emulator,
       xterm;  a  window manager, twm; a display manager, xdm; a console redi-
       rect program, xconsole; a mail interface, xmh; a bitmap editor, bitmap;
       resource  listing/manipulation  tools,  appres, editres; access control
       programs, xauth, xhost, and iceauth; user preference setting  programs,
       xrdb, xcmsdb, xset, xsetroot, xstdcmap, and xmodmap; clocks, xclock and
       oclock; a font displayer, (xfd; utilities for listing information about
       fonts, windows, and displays, xlsfonts, xwininfo, xlsclients, xdpyinfo,
       xlsatoms, and xprop; screen image manipulation  utilities,  xwd,  xwud,
       and  xmag; a performance measurement utility, x11perf; a font compiler,
       bdftopcf; a font server and related utilities, xfs, fsinfo,  fslsfonts,
       fstobdf;  a display server and related utilities, Xserver, rgb, mkfont-
       dir; a print server and  related  utilities,  Xprt,  xplsprinters,  and
       xprehashprinterlist;  remote  execution  utilities,  rstart  and xon; a
       clipboard  manager,  xclipboard;  keyboard  description  compiler   and
       related  utilities,  xkbcomp, setxkbmap xkbprint, xkbbell, xkbevd, xkb-
       vleds, and xkbwatch; a utility to terminate clients,  xkill;  an  opti-
       mized  X  protocol  proxy, lbxproxy; a firewall security proxy, xfwp; a
       proxy manager to control them, proxymngr; a utility  to  find  proxies,
       xfindproxy;  web  browser  plug-ins, and; an RX
       MIME-type helper program, xrx; and a utility to cause part  or  all  of
       the screen to be redrawn, xrefresh.

       Many  other  utilities,  window  managers,  games,  toolkits,  etc. are
       included as user-contributed software in the X.Org Foundation distribu-
       tion,  or  are  available on the Internet.  See your site administrator
       for details.


       There are two main ways of getting the X server and an initial  set  of
       client  applications  started.   The  particular method used depends on
       what operating system you are running and whether or not you use  other
       window systems in addition to X.

       xdm (the X Display Manager)
               If you want to always have X running on your display, your site
               administrator can set your machine up to use the X Display Man-
               ager  xdm.   This program is typically started by the system at
               boot time and takes care of keeping the server running and get-
               ting  users  logged in.  If you are running xdm, you will see a
               window on the screen welcoming you to the system and asking for
               your  username  and password.  Simply type them in as you would
               at a normal terminal, pressing the Return key after  each.   If
               you  make  a mistake, xdm will display an error message and ask
               you to try again.  After you have successfully logged  in,  xdm
               will  start  up your X environment.  By default, if you have an
               executable file named .xsession in  your  home  directory,  xdm
               will treat it as a program (or shell script) to run to start up
               your initial clients (such as  terminal  emulators,  clocks,  a
               window  manager,  user settings for things like the background,
               the speed of the pointer, etc.).  Your site  administrator  can
               provide details.

       xinit (run manually from the shell)
               Sites  that support more than one window system might choose to
               use the xinit program for starting X manually.  If this is true
               for  your  machine,  your site administrator will probably have
               provided a program named "x11", "startx", or "xstart" that will
               do  site-specific  initialization  (such  as loading convenient
               default resources,  running  a  window  manager,  displaying  a
               clock,  and starting several terminal emulators) in a nice way.
               If not, you can build such a script using  the  xinit  program.
               This  utility  simply  runs one user-specified program to start
               the server, runs another to start up any desired  clients,  and
               then  waits  for either to finish.  Since either or both of the
               user-specified programs may be a shell script, this gives  sub-
               stantial  flexibility  at the expense of a nice interface.  For
               this reason, xinit is not intended for end users.


       From the user's perspective, every X server has a display name  of  the


       This  information is used by the application to determine how it should
       connect to the server and which screen it should  use  by  default  (on
       displays with multiple monitors):

               The  hostname  specifies  the  name of the machine to which the
               display is physically connected.  If the hostname is not given,
               the most efficient way of communicating to a server on the same
               machine will be used.

               The phrase "display" is usually used to refer to collection  of
               monitors  that  share  a  common  keyboard  and pointer (mouse,
               tablet, etc.).  Most workstations tend to only  have  one  key-
               board,  and  therefore,  only  one display.  Larger, multi-user
               systems, however, frequently have several displays so that more
               than  one  person can be doing graphics work at once.  To avoid
               confusion, each display on a machine is assigned a display num-
               ber  (beginning  at  0)  when  the X server for that display is
               started.  The display number must always be given in a  display

               Some  displays share a single keyboard and pointer among two or
               more monitors.  Since each monitor has its own set of  windows,
               each  screen  is assigned a screen number (beginning at 0) when
               the X server for that display is started.  If the screen number
               is not given, screen 0 will be used.

       On  POSIX  systems,  the default display name is stored in your DISPLAY
       environment variable.  This variable is set automatically by the  xterm
       terminal  emulator.   However,  when  you log into another machine on a
       network, you will need to set DISPLAY by hand to point to your display.
       For example,

           % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
           $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY
       The  xon  script can be used to start an X program on a remote machine;
       it automatically sets the DISPLAY variable correctly.

       Finally, most X programs accept a command line option of -display  dis-
       playname to temporarily override the contents of DISPLAY.  This is most
       commonly used to pop windows on another person's screen or as part of a
       "remote shell" command to start an xterm pointing back to your display.
       For example,

           % xeyes -display joesws:0 -geometry 1000x1000+0+0
           % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &

       X servers listen for connections on a variety of  different  communica-
       tions  channels  (network  byte  streams,  shared memory, etc.).  Since
       there can be more than one way of contacting a given server, The  host-
       name  part of the display name is used to determine the type of channel
       (also called a transport layer) to be used.  X servers  generally  sup-
       port the following types of connections:

               The  hostname  part  of  the  display  name should be the empty
               string.  For example:  :0, :1, and :0.1.   The  most  efficient
               local transport will be chosen.

               The  hostname  part  of  the  display name should be the server
               machine's IP address name.  Full  Internet  names,  abbreviated
               names,   and  IP  addresses  are  all  allowed.   For  example:
     , expo:0,, bigmachine:1, and  hydra:0.1.

               The  hostname  part  of  the  display name should be the server
               machine's nodename, followed by two colons instead of one.  For
               example:  myws::0, big::1, and hydra::0.1.


       An  X  server can use several types of access control.  Mechanisms pro-
       vided in Release 6 are:
           Host Access                   Simple host-based access control.
           MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1            Shared plain-text "cookies".
           XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1           Secure DES based private-keys.
           SUN-DES-1                     Based on Sun's secure rpc system.
           MIT-KERBEROS-5                Kerberos Version 5 user-to-user.

       Xdm initializes access control for the server and  also  places  autho-
       rization  information  in a file accessible to the user.  Normally, the
       list of hosts from which connections  are  always  accepted  should  be
       empty,  so that only clients with are explicitly authorized can connect
       to the display.  When you add entries to the host  list  (with  xhost),
       the  server  no  longer  performs any authorization on connections from
       those machines.  Be careful with this.

       The file from which Xlib extracts authorization data can  be  specified
       with  the  environment  variable  XAUTHORITY,  and defaults to the file
       .Xauthority in the home directory.  Xdm uses $HOME/.Xauthority and will
       create it or merge in authorization records if it already exists when a
       user logs in.

       If you use several machines and share a common  home  directory  across
       all of the machines by means of a network file system, you never really
       have to worry about authorization files, the system  should  work  cor-
       rectly  by default.  Otherwise, as the authorization files are machine-
       independent, you can simply copy the files to share  them.   To  manage
       authorization  files,  use  xauth.   This program allows you to extract
       records and insert them into other files.  Using  this,  you  can  send
       authorization  to remote machines when you login, if the remote machine
       does not share a common home directory with your local  machine.   Note
       that  authorization  information transmitted ``in the clear'' through a
       network file system or using ftp or rcp can be ``stolen'' by a  network
       eavesdropper,  and  as  such  may  enable unauthorized access.  In many
       environments, this level of security is not a concern, but  if  it  is,
       you  need  to  know the exact semantics of the particular authorization
       data to know if this is actually a problem.

       For more information on access control, see the Xsecurity manual  page.


       One of the advantages of using window systems instead of hardwired ter-
       minals is that applications don't have to be restricted to a particular
       size  or  location  on the screen.  Although the layout of windows on a
       display is controlled by the window manager that the  user  is  running
       (described  below),  most  X programs accept a command line argument of
       the form -geometry WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF (where WIDTH,  HEIGHT,  XOFF,
       and  YOFF are numbers) for specifying a preferred size and location for
       this application's main window.

       The WIDTH and HEIGHT parts of the geometry  specification  are  usually
       measured  in either pixels or characters, depending on the application.
       The XOFF and YOFF parts are measured in pixels and are used to  specify
       the  distance  of  the window from the left or right and top and bottom
       edges of the screen, respectively.  Both types of offsets are  measured
       from  the indicated edge of the screen to the corresponding edge of the
       window.  The X offset may be specified in the following ways:

       +XOFF   The left edge of the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in from
               the left edge of the screen (i.e., the X coordinate of the win-
               dow's origin will be XOFF).  XOFF may  be  negative,  in  which
               case the window's left edge will be off the screen.

       -XOFF   The  right  edge  of  the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in
               from the right edge of the screen.  XOFF may  be  negative,  in
               which case the window's right edge will be off the screen.

       The Y offset has similar meanings:

       +YOFF   The  top  edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels below the top
               edge of the screen (i.e., the Y coordinate of the window's ori-
               gin  will  be  YOFF).   YOFF may be negative, in which case the
               window's top edge will be off the screen.

       -YOFF   The bottom edge of the window is to be YOFF  pixels  above  the
               bottom edge of the screen.  YOFF may be negative, in which case
               the window's bottom edge will be off the screen.

       Offsets must be given as pairs; in other words,  in  order  to  specify
       either XOFF or YOFF both must be present.  Windows can be placed in the
       four corners of the screen using the following specifications:

       +0+0    upper left hand corner.

       -0+0    upper right hand corner.

       -0-0    lower right hand corner.

       +0-0    lower left hand corner.

       In the following examples, a terminal emulator is placed in roughly the
       center of the screen and a load average monitor, mailbox, and clock are
       placed in the upper right hand corner:

           xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
           xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
           xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
           xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &


       The layout of windows on the screen is controlled by  special  programs
       called window managers.  Although many window managers will honor geom-
       etry specifications as given, others may choose to ignore them (requir-
       ing  the user to explicitly draw the window's region on the screen with
       the pointer, for example).

       Since window managers are regular (albeit complex) client  programs,  a
       variety  of  different user interfaces can be built.  The X.Org Founda-
       tion distribution comes with a window manager named twm which  supports
       overlapping  windows,  popup  menus,  point-and-click  or click-to-type
       input models, title bars, nice icons (and an icon manager for those who
       don't like separate icon windows).

       See  the user-contributed software in the X.Org Foundation distribution
       for other popular window managers.


       Collections of characters for displaying text  and  symbols  in  X  are
       known  as  fonts.  A font typically contains images that share a common
       appearance and look nice together (for example, a  single  size,  bold-
       ness,  slant, and character set).  Similarly, collections of fonts that
       are based on a common type face  (the  variations  are  usually  called
       roman, bold, italic, bold italic, oblique, and bold oblique) are called

       Fonts come in various sizes.  The X  server  supports  scalable  fonts,
       meaning it is possible to create a font of arbitrary size from a single
       source for the font.  The server supports scaling  from  outline  fonts
       and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from outline fonts usually produces signifi-
       cantly better results than scaling from bitmap fonts.

       An X server can obtain fonts from individual files stored  in  directo-
       ries  in  the  file system, or from one or more font servers, or from a
       mixtures of directories and font  servers.   The  list  of  places  the
       server looks when trying to find a font is controlled by its font path.
       Although most installations will choose to have  the  server  start  up
       with  all  of  the commonly used font directories in the font path, the
       font path can be changed at any time with the xset  program.   However,
       it  is  important  to  remember  that  the  directory  names are on the
       server's machine, not on the application's.

       Bitmap font files are usually  created  by  compiling  a  textual  font
       description  into binary form, using bdftopcf.  Font databases are cre-
       ated by running the mkfontdir program in the directory  containing  the
       source  or compiled versions of the fonts.  Whenever fonts are added to
       a directory, mkfontdir should be rerun so that the server can find  the
       new fonts.  To make the server reread the font database, reset the font
       path with the xset program.  For example, to add a font  to  a  private
       directory, the following commands could be used:

           % cp newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
           % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
           % xset fp rehash

       The  xfontsel  and  xlsfonts programs can be used to browse through the
       fonts available on a server.  Font names tend to be fairly long as they
       contain  all  of the information needed to uniquely identify individual
       fonts.  However, the X server supports wildcarding of  font  names,  so
       the full specification


       might be abbreviated as:


       Because  the  shell  also  has special meanings for * and ?, wildcarded
       font names should be quoted:

           % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'

       The xlsfonts program can be used to list all of the fonts that match  a
       given  pattern.  With no arguments, it lists all available fonts.  This
       will usually list the same font at many different sizes.  To  see  just
       the base scalable font names, try using one of the following patterns:


       To  convert  one of the resulting names into a font at a specific size,
       replace one of the first two zeros with a  nonzero  value.   The  field
       containing the first zero is for the pixel size; replace it with a spe-
       cific height in pixels to name a font at that size.  Alternatively, the
       field containing the second zero is for the point size; replace it with
       a specific size in decipoints (there are 722.7 decipoints to the  inch)
       to  name a font at that size.  The last zero is an average width field,
       measured in tenths of pixels; some servers will anamorphically scale if
       this value is specified.


       One  of  the  following  forms  can  be used to name a font server that
       accepts TCP connections:


       The hostname specifies the name (or decimal  numeric  address)  of  the
       machine  on  which the font server is running.  The port is the decimal
       TCP port on which the font server is listening  for  connections.   The
       cataloguelist  specifies a list of catalogue names, with '+' as a sepa-

       Examples: tcp/, tcp/

       One of the following forms can be used  to  name  a  font  server  that
       accepts DECnet connections:


       The  nodename  specifies  the  name (or decimal numeric address) of the
       machine on which the font server is running.  The objname is a  normal,
       case-insensitive  DECnet  object  name.   The cataloguelist specifies a
       list of catalogue names, with '+' as a separator.

       Examples: DECnet/SRVNOD::FONT$DEFAULT,  decnet/44.70::font$special/sym-


       Most  applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through resources
       or command line arguments) the colors of various elements in  the  text
       and  graphics  they  display.   A  color  can be specified either by an
       abstract color name, or by a numerical color specification.  The numer-
       ical  specification  can  identify  a  color in either device-dependent
       (RGB) or device-independent terms.  Color strings are case-insensitive.

       X supports the use of abstract color names, for example, "red", "blue".
       A value for this abstract name is obtained by  searching  one  or  more
       color  name  databases.   Xlib  first searches zero or more client-side
       databases; the number, location, and  content  of  these  databases  is
       implementation  dependent.   If  the  name  is  not found, the color is
       looked up in the X server's database.  The text form of  this  database
       is commonly stored in the file usr/X11/lib/X11/rgb.txt.

       A  numerical  color  specification consists of a color space name and a
       set of values in the following syntax:


       An RGB Device specification is identified by the prefix "rgb:" and  has
       the following syntax:


               <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh | hhh | hhhh
               h := single hexadecimal digits
       Note  that  h indicates the value scaled in 4 bits, hh the value scaled
       in 8 bits, hhh the value scaled in 12 bits, and hhhh the  value  scaled
       in  16  bits,  respectively.  These values are passed directly to the X
       server, and are assumed to be gamma corrected.

       The eight primary colors can be represented as:

           black                rgb:0/0/0
           red                  rgb:ffff/0/0
           green                rgb:0/ffff/0
           blue                 rgb:0/0/ffff
           yellow               rgb:ffff/ffff/0
           magenta              rgb:ffff/0/ffff
           cyan                 rgb:0/ffff/ffff
           white                rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff

       For backward compatibility, an older syntax  for  RGB  Device  is  sup-
       ported, but its continued use is not encouraged.  The syntax is an ini-
       tial sharp sign character followed by a numeric specification,  in  one
       of the following formats:

           #RGB                      (4 bits each)
           #RRGGBB                   (8 bits each)
           #RRRGGGBBB                (12 bits each)
           #RRRRGGGGBBBB             (16 bits each)

       The  R,  G, and B represent single hexadecimal digits.  When fewer than
       16 bits each are specified, they represent the most-significant bits of
       the  value (unlike the "rgb:" syntax, in which values are scaled).  For
       example, #3a7 is the same as #3000a0007000.

       An RGB intensity specification is identified by the prefix "rgbi:"  and
       has the following syntax:


       The red, green, and blue are floating point values between 0.0 and 1.0,
       inclusive.  They represent linear intensity values, with 1.0 indicating
       full  intensity,  0.5  half intensity, and so on.  These values will be
       gamma corrected by Xlib before being sent to the X server.   The  input
       format for these values is an optional sign, a string of numbers possi-
       bly containing a decimal point, and an optional exponent field contain-
       ing an E or e followed by a possibly signed integer string.

       The  standard device-independent string specifications have the follow-
       ing syntax:

           CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>             (none, 1, none)
           CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>             (~.6, ~.6, 1)
           CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>             (~.75, ~.85, 1)
           CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>             (100, none, none)
           CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>             (100, none, none)
           TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>             (360, 100, 100)

       All of the values (C, H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v,  y,  x)  are  floating
       point  values.   Some  of the values are constrained to be between zero
       and some upper bound; the upper bounds are given in parentheses  above.
       The syntax for these values is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string of
       digits possibly containing a decimal point, and  an  optional  exponent
       field  consisting  of  an 'E' or 'e' followed by an optional '+' or '-'
       followed by a string of digits.

       For more information on device independent color, see the  Xlib  refer-
       ence manual.


       The  X keyboard model is broken into two layers:  server-specific codes
       (called keycodes) which represent the physical keys,  and  server-inde-
       pendent  symbols  (called keysyms) which represent the letters or words
       that appear on the keys.  Two tables are kept in the  server  for  con-
       verting keycodes to keysyms:

       modifier list
               Some  keys (such as Shift, Control, and Caps Lock) are known as
               modifier and are used to  select  different  symbols  that  are
               attached  to  a single key (such as Shift-a generates a capital
               A, and Control-l generates a control character ^L).  The server
               keeps  a list of keycodes corresponding to the various modifier
               keys.  Whenever a key is pressed or released, the server gener-
               ates an event that contains the keycode of the indicated key as
               well as a mask that specifies which of the  modifier  keys  are
               currently  pressed.  Most servers set up this list to initially
               contain the various shift, control, and shift lock keys on  the

       keymap table
               Applications  translate  event keycodes and modifier masks into
               keysyms using a keysym table which contains one  row  for  each
               keycode and one column for various modifier states.  This table
               is initialized by the server to correspond to normal typewriter
               conventions.   The  exact  semantics of how the table is inter-
               preted to produce keysyms depends on  the  particular  program,
               libraries,  and  language  input method used, but the following
               conventions for the first four keysyms in each row  are  gener-
               ally adhered to:

       The  first  four  elements  of  the  list  are split into two groups of
       keysyms.  Group 1 contains the first and second keysyms; Group  2  con-
       tains  the  third  and fourth keysyms.  Within each group, if the first
       element is alphabetic and the the second element is the special  keysym
       NoSymbol,  then  the group is treated as equivalent to a group in which
       the first element is the lowercase letter and the second element is the
       uppercase letter.

       Switching between groups is controlled by the keysym named MODE SWITCH,
       by attaching that keysym to some key and attaching that key to any  one
       of  the  modifiers  Mod1  through  Mod5.   This  modifier is called the
       ``group modifier.''  Group 1 is used when the group  modifier  is  off,
       and Group 2 is used when the group modifier is on.

       Within a group, the modifier state determines which keysym to use.  The
       first keysym is used when the Shift and Lock modifiers  are  off.   The
       second keysym is used when the Shift modifier is on, when the Lock mod-
       ifier is on and the second keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when  the
       Lock  modifier  is on and is interpreted as ShiftLock.  Otherwise, when
       the Lock modifier is on and is interpreted as CapsLock,  the  state  of
       the  Shift  modifier  is  applied first to select a keysym; but if that
       keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the corresponding uppercase keysym
       is used instead.


       Most  X programs attempt to use the same names for command line options
       and arguments.  All applications written with the X Toolkit  Intrinsics
       automatically accept the following options:

       -display display
               This option specifies the name of the X server to use.

       -geometry geometry
               This option specifies the initial size and location of the win-

       -bg color, -background color
               Either option specifies the color to use for the  window  back-

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
               Either option specifies the color to use for the window border.

       -bw number, -borderwidth number
               Either option specifies the width in pixels of the window  bor-

       -fg color, -foreground color
               Either  option specifies the color to use for text or graphics.

       -fn font, -font font
               Either option specifies the font to use for displaying text.

               This option indicates that  the  user  would  prefer  that  the
               application's  windows  initially not be visible as if the win-
               dows had be immediately iconified by the user.  Window managers
               may choose not to honor the application's request.

               This  option  specifies  the name under which resources for the
               application should be found.  This option is  useful  in  shell
               aliases  to  distinguish between invocations of an application,
               without resorting to creating links  to  alter  the  executable
               file name.

       -rv, -reverse
               Either  option  indicates  that  the  program  should  simulate
               reverse video if possible, often by swapping the foreground and
               background colors.  Not all programs honor this or implement it
               correctly.  It is usually only used on monochrome displays.

               This option indicates that  the  program  should  not  simulate
               reverse  video.   This  is  used to override any defaults since
               reverse video doesn't always work properly.

               This option specifies the timeout in milliseconds within  which
               two  communicating applications must respond to one another for
               a selection request.

               This option indicates that requests to the X server  should  be
               sent synchronously, instead of asynchronously.  Since Xlib nor-
               mally buffers requests to the server, errors do not necessarily
               get  reported  immediately after they occur.  This option turns
               off the buffering so that the application can be debugged.   It
               should never be used with a working program.

       -title string
               This  option  specifies  the  title to be used for this window.
               This information is sometimes used by a window manager to  pro-
               vide some sort of header identifying the window.

       -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
               This  option specifies the language, territory, and codeset for
               use in resolving resource and other filenames.

       -xrm resourcestring
               This option specifies a resource name and value to override any
               defaults.   It  is  also very useful for setting resources that
               don't have explicit command line arguments.


       To make the tailoring of applications to personal preferences easier, X
       provides  a  mechanism for storing default values for program resources
       (e.g. background color, window title, etc.)  Resources are specified as
       strings  that  are  read  in from various places when an application is
       run.  Program components are named in a hierarchical fashion, with each
       node  in  the hierarchy identified by a class and an instance name.  At
       the top level is the class and instance name of the application itself.
       By  convention,  the  class  name of the application is the same as the
       program name, but with  the first letter capitalized  (e.g.  Bitmap  or
       Emacs)  although  some  programs  that begin with the letter ``x'' also
       capitalize the second letter for historical reasons.

       The precise syntax for resources is:

       ResourceLine      = Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec | <empty line>
       Comment           = "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
       IncludeFile       = "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName WhiteSpace
       FileName          = <valid filename for operating system>
       ResourceSpec      = WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":" WhiteSpace Value
       ResourceName      = [Binding] {Component Binding} ComponentName
       Binding           = "." | "*"
       WhiteSpace        = {<space> | <horizontal tab>}
       Component         = "?" | ComponentName
       ComponentName     = NameChar {NameChar}
       NameChar          = "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"
       Value             = {<any character except null or unescaped newline>}

       Elements separated by vertical bar (|) are alternatives.  Curly  braces
       ({...})  indicate  zero  or  more repetitions of the enclosed elements.
       Square brackets ([...]) indicate that the enclosed element is optional.
       Quotes ("...") are used around literal characters.

       IncludeFile  lines  are interpreted by replacing the line with the con-
       tents of the specified file.  The word "include" must be in  lowercase.
       The  filename  is  interpreted relative to the directory of the file in
       which the line occurs (for example, if the filename contains no  direc-
       tory or contains a relative directory specification).

       If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence of two or more Binding
       characters, the sequence will be replaced with single "." character  if
       the  sequence contains only "." characters, otherwise the sequence will
       be replaced with a single "*" character.

       A resource database never contains more than  one  entry  for  a  given
       ResourceName.  If a resource file contains multiple lines with the same
       ResourceName, the last line in the file is used.

       Any whitespace character before  or  after  the  name  or  colon  in  a
       ResourceSpec  are  ignored.  To allow a Value to begin with whitespace,
       the two-character sequence ``\space'' (backslash followed by space)  is
       recognized  and  replaced  by  a space character, and the two-character
       sequence ``\tab'' (backslash followed by horizontal tab) is  recognized
       and  replaced  by a horizontal tab character.  To allow a Value to con-
       tain embedded newline characters, the two-character sequence ``\n''  is
       recognized and replaced by a newline character.  To allow a Value to be
       broken across multiple lines in a text file, the two-character sequence
       ``\newline''  (backslash followed by newline) is recognized and removed
       from the value.  To allow a Value to contain arbitrary character codes,
       the four-character sequence ``\nnn'', where each n is a digit character
       in the range of ``0''-``7'', is recognized and replaced with  a  single
       byte that contains the octal value specified by the sequence.  Finally,
       the two-character sequence ``\\'' is recognized  and  replaced  with  a
       single backslash.

       When  an  application looks for the value of a resource, it specifies a
       complete path in the hierarchy, with both  class  and  instance  names.
       However,  resource  values are usually given with only partially speci-
       fied names and classes, using pattern matching constructs.  An asterisk
       (*) is a loose binding and is used to represent any number of interven-
       ing components, including none.  A period (.) is a tight binding and is
       used  to separate immediately adjacent components.  A question mark (?)
       is used to match any single component name or class.  A database  entry
       cannot  end  in  a  loose binding; the final component (which cannot be
       "?") must be specified.  The lookup  algorithm  searches  the  resource
       database for the entry that most closely matches (is most specific for)
       the full name and class being queried.  When  more  than  one  database
       entry  matches  the  full  name and class, precedence rules are used to
       select just one.

       The full name and class are scanned from left to  right  (from  highest
       level  in  the  hierarchy to lowest), one component at a time.  At each
       level, the corresponding component  and/or  binding  of  each  matching
       entry  is  determined,  and  these matching components and bindings are
       compared according to precedence rules.  Each of the rules  is  applied
       at  each level, before moving to the next level, until a rule selects a
       single entry over all others.  The rules (in order of precedence) are:

       1.   An entry that contains a matching component (whether name,  class,
            or  "?")  takes precedence over entries that elide the level (that
            is, entries that match the level in a loose binding).

       2.   An entry with a matching name takes precedence over  both  entries
            with  a matching class and entries that match using "?".  An entry
            with a matching class takes precedence  over  entries  that  match
            using "?".

       3.   An entry preceded by a tight binding takes precedence over entries
            preceded by a loose binding.

       Programs based on the X Tookit Intrinsics  obtain  resources  from  the
       following  sources (other programs usually support some subset of these

       RESOURCE_MANAGER root window property
               Any global resources that should be available to clients on all
               machines  should  be stored in the RESOURCE_MANAGER property on
               the root window of the first screen  using  the  xrdb  program.
               This  is  frequently  taken  care  of when the user starts up X
               through the display manager or xinit.

       SCREEN_RESOURCES root window property
               Any resources specific to a given  screen  (e.g.  colors)  that
               should be available to clients on all machines should be stored
               in the SCREEN_RESOURCES property on the  root  window  of  that
               screen.  The xrdb program will sort resources automatically and
               place them in RESOURCE_MANAGER or SCREEN_RESOURCES,  as  appro-

       application-specific files
               Directories  named by the environment variable XUSERFILESEARCH-
               PATH or the environment variable  XAPPLRESDIR  (which  names  a
               single  directory  and should end with a '/' on POSIX systems),
               plus  directories  in   a   standard   place   (usually   under
               /usr/X11/lib/X11/,  but  this can be overridden with the XFILE-
               SEARCHPATH environment variable) are searched for for  applica-
               tion-specific  resources.   For  example,  application  default
               resources are usually kept  in  /usr/X11/lib/X11/app-defaults/.
               See  the X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual for

               Any user- and machine-specific resources may  be  specified  by
               setting  the XENVIRONMENT environment variable to the name of a
               resource file to be loaded by all applications.  If this  vari-
               able  is not defined, a file named $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname is
               looked for instead, where hostname is  the  name  of  the  host
               where the application is executing.

       -xrm resourcestring
               Resources  can  also  be  specified from the command line.  The
               resourcestring is a single resource name  and  value  as  shown
               above.  Note that if the string contains characters interpreted
               by the shell (e.g., asterisk), they must be quoted.  Any number
               of -xrm arguments may be given on the command line.

       Program  resources  are  organized  into groups called classes, so that
       collections  of  individual  resources  (each  of  which   are   called
       instances) can be set all at once.  By convention, the instance name of
       a resource begins with a lowercase letter and class name with an  upper
       case  letter.   Multiple word resources are concatenated with the first
       letter of the succeeding words capitalized.  Applications written  with
       the X Toolkit Intrinsics will have at least the following resources:

       background (class Background)
               This  resource  specifies the color to use for the window back-

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
               This resource specifies the width in pixels of the window  bor-

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
               This resource specifies the color to use for the window border.

       Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics also have the resource
       foreground (class Foreground), specifying the color to use for text and
       graphics within the window.

       By combining class and instance specifications, application preferences
       can be set quickly and easily.  Users of color displays will frequently
       want to set Background and Foreground classes to  particular  defaults.
       Specific  color  instances  such as text cursors can then be overridden
       without having to define all of the related resources.  For example,

           bitmap*Dashed:  off
           XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
           XTerm*multiScroll:  on
           XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
           XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
           XTerm*curses:  on
           XTerm*Font:  6x10
           XTerm*scrollBar: on
           XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
           XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
           XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
           XTerm*cutNewline: off
           XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
           XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
           XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
           XLoad*Background: gold
           XLoad*Foreground: red
           XLoad*highlight: black
           XLoad*borderWidth: 0
           emacs*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
           emacs*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
           emacs*Foreground:  white
           emacs*Cursor:  white
           emacs*BorderColor:  white
           emacs*Font:  6x10
           xmag*geometry: -0-0
           xmag*borderColor:  white

       If these resources were stored in a file  called  .Xresources  in  your
       home  directory,  they  could be added to any existing resources in the
       server with the following command:

           % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources

       This is frequently how user-friendly startup  scripts  merge  user-spe-
       cific  defaults  into any site-wide defaults.  All sites are encouraged
       to set up convenient ways of automatically loading resources.  See  the
       Xlib manual section Resource Manager Functions for more information.


              This  is  the only mandatory environment variable. It must point
              to an X server. See section "Display Names" above.

              This must point to a file that contains authorization data.  The
              default   is   $HOME/.Xauthority.  See  Xsecurity(7),  xauth(1),
              xdm(1), Xau(3).

              This must point to a file that contains authorization data.  The
              default is $HOME/.ICEauthority.

              The  first non-empty value among these three determines the cur-
              rent locale's facet for character handling,  and  in  particular
              the   default   text   encoding.  See  locale(7),  setlocale(3),

              This variable can  be  set  to  contain  additional  information
              important  for  the  current  locale  setting.  Typically set to
              @im=<input-method> to enable  a  particular  input  method.  See

              This  must point to a directory containing the locale.alias file
              and Compose and XLC_LOCALE file hierarchies for all locales. The
              default value is /usr/X11/lib/X11/locale.

              This must point to a file containing X resources. The default is
              $HOME/.Xdefaults-<hostname>. Unlike /usr/X11/lib/X11/Xresources,
              it is consulted each time an X application starts.

              This  must  contain  a  colon  separated list of path templates,
              where libXt will search for resource files.  The  default  value
              consists of


              A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

                  %N => name (basename) being searched for
                  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
                  %S => suffix being searched for
                  %C => value of the resource "customization"
                        (class "Customization")
                  %L => the locale name
                  %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
                  %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
                  %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

              This  must  contain  a  colon  separated list of path templates,
              where libXt will search for user dependent resource  files.  The
              default value is:


              $XAPPLRESDIR defaults to $HOME, see below.

              A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

                  %N => name (basename) being searched for
                  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
                  %S => suffix being searched for
                  %C => value of the resource "customization"
                        (class "Customization")
                  %L => the locale name
                  %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
                  %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
                  %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

              This  must  point  to a base directory where the user stores his
              application dependent  resource  files.  The  default  value  is
              $HOME. Only used if XUSERFILESEARCHPATH is not set.

              This  must point to a file containing nonstandard keysym defini-
              tions.  The default value is /usr/X11/lib/X11/XKeysymDB.

       XCMSDB This must point to a color name database file. The default value
              is usr/X11/lib/X11/Xcms.txt.

              This must point to a configuration file for the Xft library. The
              default value is /usr/X11/lib/X11/XftConfig.

              This serves as main identifier for resources  belonging  to  the
              program  being executed. It defaults to the basename of pathname
              of the program.

              Denotes the session manager the application should connect.  See
              xsm(1), rstart(1).

              Setting   this  variable  to  a  non-empty  value  disables  the
              XFree86-Bigfont extension. This  extension  is  a  mechanism  to
              reduce the memory consumption of big fonts by use of shared mem-


              These variables influence the X Keyboard Extension.


       The following is a collection of sample command lines for some  of  the
       more  frequently  used  commands.  For more information on a particular
       command, please refer to that command's manual page.

           %  xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
           %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
           %  mkfontdir /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
           %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
           %  xmodmap $HOME/
           %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
           %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
           %  xset q
           %  twm
           %  xmag
           %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
           %  xeyes -geometry 48x48-48+0
           %  xbiff -update 20
           %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
           %  xwininfo -root
           %  xdpyinfo -display joesworkstation:0
           %  xhost -joesworkstation
           %  xrefresh
           %  xwd | xwud
           %  bitmap 32x32
           %  xcalc -bg blue -fg magenta
           %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0 -name myxterm $*
           %  xon filesysmachine xload


       A wide variety of error messages are generated from  various  programs.
       The  default  error  handler  in Xlib (also used by many toolkits) uses
       standard resources to construct diagnostic messages when errors  occur.
       The    defaults    for   these   messages   are   usually   stored   in
       usr/X11/lib/X11/XErrorDB.  If this file is not present, error  messages
       will be rather terse and cryptic.

       When  the  X  Toolkit  Intrinsics  encounter errors converting resource
       strings to the appropriate internal format, no error messages are  usu-
       ally  printed.  This is convenient when it is desirable to have one set
       of resources across a variety of displays (e.g. color  vs.  monochrome,
       lots  of  fonts  vs. very few, etc.), although it can pose problems for
       trying to determine why an application might be failing.  This behavior
       can be overridden by the setting the StringConversionsWarning resource.

       To force the X Toolkit Intrinsics to  always  print  string  conversion
       error  messages,  the  following  resource should be placed in the file
       that gets loaded onto the RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb pro-
       gram  (frequently called .Xresources or .Xres in the user's home direc-

           *StringConversionWarnings: on

       To have conversion messages printed for just a particular  application,
       the appropriate instance name can be placed before the asterisk:

           xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on


       XOrgFoundation(7),  XStandards(7),  Xsecurity(7), Xprint(7), appres(1),
       bdftopcf(1),   bitmap(1),    editres(1),    fsinfo(1),    fslsfonts(1),
       fstobdf(1),  iceauth(1),  imake(1),  lbxproxy(1),  kbd_mode(1), makede-
       pend(1),  mkfontdir(1),  oclock(1),  proxymngr(1),  rgb(1),  resize(1),
       rstart(1),  smproxy(1),  twm(1),  x11perf(1), x11perfcomp(1), xauth(1),
       xclipboard(1), xclock(1), xcmsdb(1), xconsole(1), xdm(1),  xdpyinfo(1),
       xfd(1), xfindproxy(1), xfs(1), xfwp(1), xhost(1), xinit(1), xkbbell(1),
       xkbcomp(1), xkbevd(1), xkbprint(1), xkbvleds(1), xkbwatch(1), xkill(1),
       xlogo(1),  xlsatoms(1),  xlsclients(1),  xlsfonts(1),  xmag(1), xmh(1),
       xmodmap(1), xon(1), xplsprinters(1),  xprop(1),  xrdb(1),  xrefresh(1),
       xrx(1),  xset(1),  xsetroot(1),  xsm(1), xstdcmap(1), xterm(1), xwd(1),
       xwininfo(1),  xwud(1).   Xserver(1),   Xdec(1),   Xdmx(1),   XmacII(1),
       Xsun(1),  Xnest(1),  Xvfb(1),  Xorg(1),  XDarwin(1), Xprt(1).  Xlib - C
       Language X Interface, and X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface


       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.


       A cast of thousands, literally.  Releases 6.7 and later are brought  to
       you by the X.Org Foundation, LLC. The names of all people who made it a
       reality will be found in the individual documents and source files.

       Releases 6.6 and 6.5 were done by The X.Org  Group.   Release  6.4  was
       done  by The X Project Team.  The Release 6.3 distribution was from The
       X Consortium, Inc.  The staff members at the X  Consortium  responsible
       for that release were: Donna Converse (emeritus), Stephen Gildea (emer-
       itus), Kaleb Keithley, Matt Landau (emeritus),  Ralph  Mor  (emeritus),
       Janet  O'Halloran, Bob Scheifler, Ralph Swick, Dave Wiggins (emeritus),
       and Reed Augliere.

       The X Window System standard was originally developed at the Laboratory
       for  Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and
       all rights thereto were assigned to the  X  Consortium  on  January  1,
       1994.   X  Consortium, Inc. closed its doors on December 31, 1996.  All
       rights to the X Window System have been assigned to The Open Group.

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