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zip(1)                                                                zip(1)


       zip - package and compress (archive) files


       zip  [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [--longoption ...]  [-b path]
       [-n suffixes] [-t date] [-tt date] [zipfile [file ...]]  [-xi list]

       zipcloak (see separate man page)

       zipnote (see separate man page)

       zipsplit (see separate man page)

       Note:  Command line processing in zip has been changed to support  long
       options  and  handle all options and arguments more consistently.  Some
       old command lines that depend on command line  inconsistencies  may  no
       longer work.


       zip  is  a compression and file packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS,
       OS/2, Windows 9x/NT/XP, Minix, Atari, Macintosh, Amiga, and Acorn  RISC
       OS.   It  is analogous to a combination of the Unix commands tar(1) and
       compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil  Katz's  ZIP  for  MSDOS

       A  companion  program  (unzip(1L))  unpacks  zip archives.  The zip and
       unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP (supporting
       most PKZIP features up to PKZIP version 4.6), and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can
       work with archives produced  by  zip  (with  some  exceptions,  notably
       streamed  archives,  but  recent  changes  in the zip file standard may
       facilitate better compatibility).  zip version 3.0 is  compatible  with
       PKZIP  2.04  and  also supports the Zip64 extensions of PKZIP 4.5 which
       allow archives as well as files to exceed the previous 2 GB limit (4 GB
       in  some  cases).  zip also now supports bzip2 compression if the bzip2
       library is included when zip is compiled.  Note that PKUNZIP 1.10  can-
       not extract files produced by PKZIP 2.04 or zip 3.0. You must use PKUN-
       ZIP 2.04g or unzip 5.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.

       See the EXAMPLES section at the bottom of this  page  for  examples  of
       some typical uses of zip.

       Large Archives and Zip64.   zip automatically uses the Zip64 extensions
       when files larger than 4 GB are added to an archive,  an  archive  con-
       taining  Zip64 entries is updated (if the resulting archive still needs
       Zip64), the size of the archive will exceed 4 GB, or when the number of
       entries  in  the archive will exceed about 64K.  Zip64 is also used for
       archives streamed from standard input as the size of such archives  are
       not  known  in advance, but the option -fz- can be used to force zip to
       create PKZIP 2 compatible archives (as long as Zip64 extensions are not
       needed).   You must use a PKZIP 4.5 compatible unzip, such as unzip 6.0
       or later, to extract files using the Zip64 extensions.

       In addition, streamed archives, entries encrypted with standard encryp-
       tion,  or  split archives created with the pause option may not be com-
       patible with PKZIP as data descriptors are used and PKZIP at  the  time
       of  this  writing does not support data descriptors (but recent changes
       in the PKWare published zip standard now include some support  for  the
       data descriptor format zip uses).

       Mac  OS  X.   Though  previous Mac versions had their own zip port, zip
       supports Mac OS X as part of the  Unix  port  and  most  Unix  features
       apply.   References  to "MacOS" below generally refer to MacOS versions
       older than OS X.  Support for some Mac OS features in the Unix Mac OS X
       port, such as resource forks, is expected in the next zip release.

       For  a  brief  help  on  zip and unzip, run each without specifying any
       parameters on the command line.


       The program is useful for packaging a set of  files  for  distribution;
       for archiving files; and for saving disk space by temporarily compress-
       ing unused files or directories.

       The zip program puts one or more compressed files into a single zip ar-
       chive,  along  with information about the files (name, path, date, time
       of last modification, protection, and check information to verify  file
       integrity).  An entire directory structure can be packed into a zip ar-
       chive with a single command.  Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are com-
       mon for text files.  zip has one compression method (deflation) and can
       also store files without compression.  (If bzip2 support is added,  zip
       can  also  compress using bzip2 compression, but such entries require a
       reasonably modern unzip  to  decompress.   When  bzip2  compression  is
       selected,  it replaces deflation as the default method.)  zip automati-
       cally chooses the better of the two (deflation or store or, if bzip2 is
       selected, bzip2 or store) for each file to be compressed.

       Command format.  The basic command format is

              zip options archive inpath inpath ...

       where  archive  is a new or existing zip archive and inpath is a direc-
       tory or file path optionally including wildcards.  When given the  name
       of  an existing zip archive, zip will replace identically named entries
       in the zip archive (matching the relative names as stored  in  the  ar-
       chive)  or  add  entries for new names.  For example, if exists
       and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2, and the  directory  foo  contains
       the files foo/file1 and foo/file3, then:

              zip -r foo

       or more concisely

              zip -r foo foo

       will  replace foo/file1 in and add foo/file3 to  After
       this,  contains  foo/file1,  foo/file2,  and  foo/file3,  with
       foo/file2 unchanged from before.

       So if before the zip command is executed has:

               foo/file1 foo/file2

       and directory foo has:

               file1 file3

       then will have:

               foo/file1 foo/file2 foo/file3

       where foo/file1 is replaced and foo/file3 is new.

       -@ file lists.   If  a file list is specified as -@ [Not on MacOS], zip
       takes the list of input files from standard input instead of  from  the
       command line.  For example,

              zip -@ foo

       will store the files listed one per line on stdin in

       Under  Unix,  this option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction
       with the find (1) command.  For example, to archive all  the  C  source
       files in the current directory and its subdirectories:

              find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note  that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding

       Streaming input and output.  zip will also accept a single  dash  ("-")
       as the zip file name, in which case it will write the zip file to stan-
       dard output, allowing the output to be piped to  another  program.  For

              zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would  write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block
       size for the purpose of backing up the current directory.

       zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to  be  com-
       pressed,  in  which  case  it  will  read the file from standard input,
       allowing zip to take input from another program. For example:

              tar cf - . | zip backup -

       would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing
       up  the  current  directory. This generally produces better compression
       than the previous example using the -r  option  because  zip  can  take
       advantage of redundancy between files. The backup can be restored using
       the command

              unzip -p backup | tar xf -

       When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal,  zip  acts
       as  a filter, compressing standard input to standard output.  For exam-

              tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

              tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with  the  program
       funzip  which  is  provided in the unzip package, or by gunzip which is
       provided in the gzip package (but some gunzip may not support  this  if
       zip used the Zip64 extensions). For example:

              dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       The stream can also be saved to a file and unzip used.

       If  Zip64  support  for  large files and archives is enabled and zip is
       used as a filter, zip creates a Zip64 archive that requires a PKZIP 4.5
       or  later compatible unzip to read it.  This is to avoid amgibuities in
       the zip file structure as defined in the current zip  standard  (PKWARE
       AppNote)  where  the decision to use Zip64 needs to be made before data
       is written for the entry, but for a stream the size of the data is  not
       known at that point.  If the data is known to be smaller than 4 GB, the
       option -fz- can be used to prevent use of Zip64, but zip will exit with
       an  error if Zip64 was in fact needed.  zip 3 and unzip 6 and later can
       read archives with Zip64 entries.  Also, zip removes the  Zip64  exten-
       sions  if  not  needed  when  archive  entries  are  copied (see the -U
       (--copy) option).

       When directing the output to another file, note that all options should
       be before the redirection including -x.  For example:

              zip archive "*.h" "*.c" -x donotinclude.h orthis.h > tofile

       Zip files.   When  changing  an  existing zip archive, zip will write a
       temporary file with the new contents, and only replace the old one when
       the  process  of  creating  the  new version has been completed without

       If the name of the zip archive  does  not  contain  an  extension,  the
       extension  .zip  is  added.  If  the name already contains an extension
       other than .zip, the existing extension is  kept  unchanged.   However,
       split  archives  (archives  split over multiple files) require the .zip
       extension on the last split.

       Scanning and reading files.  When zip starts, it  scans  for  files  to
       process  (if  needed).  If this scan takes longer than about 5 seconds,
       zip will display  a  "Scanning  files"  message  and  start  displaying
       progress  dots  every  2  seconds  or  every so many entries processed,
       whichever takes longer.  If there is more than 2 seconds  between  dots
       it  could indicate that finding each file is taking time and could mean
       a slow network connection for example.  (Actually the initial file scan
       is  a  two-step  process where the directory scan is followed by a sort
       and these two steps are separated with a space in the dots.  If  updat-
       ing an existing archive, a space also appears between the existing file
       scan and the new file scan.)  The scanning  files  dots  are  not  con-
       trolled  by the -ds dot size option, but the dots are turned off by the
       -q quiet option.  The -sf show files option can be  used  to  scan  for
       files  and  get  the  list of files scanned without actually processing

       If zip is not able to read a file, it issues a warning  but  continues.
       See  the -MM option below for more on how zip handles patterns that are
       not matched and files that  are  not  readable.   If  some  files  were
       skipped, a warning is issued at the end of the zip operation noting how
       many files were read and how many skipped.

       Command modes.  zip now supports two distinct types of  command  modes,
       external  and  internal.  The external modes (add, update, and freshen)
       read files from the file system (as well as from an  existing  archive)
       while  the  internal  modes  (delete  and  copy) operate exclusively on
       entries in an existing archive.

              Update existing entries and add new files.  If the archive  does
              not exist create it.  This is the default mode.

       update (-u)
              Update  existing entries if newer on the file system and add new
              files.  If the archive does not exist issue warning then  create
              a new archive.

       freshen (-f)
              Update  existing entries of an archive if newer on the file sys-
              tem.  Does not add new files to the archive.

       delete (-d)
              Select entries in an existing archive and delete them.

       copy (-U)
              Select entries in an existing archive and copy them to a new ar-
              chive.  This new mode is similar to update but command line pat-
              terns select entries in the existing archive rather  than  files
              from  the  file system and it uses the --out option to write the
              resulting archive to a new file rather than update the  existing
              archive, leaving the original archive unchanged.

       The new File Sync option (-FS) is also considered a new mode, though it
       is similar to update.  This mode  synchronizes  the  archive  with  the
       files  on  the OS, only replacing files in the archive if the file time
       or size of the OS file is different, adding  new  files,  and  deleting
       entries from the archive where there is no matching file.  As this mode
       can delete entries from the archive, consider making a backup  copy  of
       the archive.

       Also see -DF for creating difference archives.

       See  each option description below for details and the EXAMPLES section
       below for examples.

       Split archives.  zip version 3.0 and later can create  split  archives.
       A  split  archive  is a standard zip archive split over multiple files.
       (Note that split archives are not just archives split in to pieces,  as
       the  offsets of entries are now based on the start of each split.  Con-
       catenating the pieces together will invalidate these offsets, but unzip
       can  usually  deal  with it.  zip will usually refuse to process such a
       spliced archive unless the -FF fix option is used to fix the  offsets.)

       One use of split archives is storing a large archive on multiple remov-
       able media.  For a split archive with 20 split files the files are typ-
       ically  named  (replace  ARCHIVE  with  the  name  of your archive) AR-
       CHIVE.z01, ARCHIVE.z02, ..., ARCHIVE.z19,  Note  that  the
       last  file  is  the  .zip  file.  In contrast, spanned archives are the
       original multi-disk archive generally requiring floppy disks and  using
       volume  labels  to store disk numbers.  zip supports split archives but
       not spanned archives, though a procedure exists  for  converting  split
       archives  of  the  right size to spanned archives.  The reverse is also
       true, where each file of a spanned archive can be copied  in  order  to
       files with the above names to create a split archive.

       Use  -s  to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is
       given as a number followed optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB),
       or  t (TB) (the default is m).  The -sp option can be used to pause zip
       between splits to allow changing removable media, for example, but read
       the descriptions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though  zip does not update split archives, zip provides the new option
       -O (--output-file or --out) to allow split archives to be  updated  and
       saved in a new archive.  For example,

              zip foo.c bar.c --out

       reads  archive,  even if split, adds the files foo.c and
       bar.c, and writes the resulting archive to   If  inar- is split then defaults to the same split size.
       Be aware that if and any split files  that  are  created
       with  it  already exist, these are always overwritten as needed without
       warning.  This may be changed in the future.

       Unicode.  Though the zip standard requires storing paths in an  archive
       using  a  specific character set, in practice zips have stored paths in
       archives in whatever the local character set is.  This creates problems
       when  an  archive is created or updated on a system using one character
       set and then extracted on another system using  a  different  character
       set.  When compiled with Unicode support enabled on platforms that sup-
       port wide characters, zip now stores, in addition to the standard local
       path  for  backward  compatibility,  the UTF-8 translation of the path.
       This provides a common universal character set for storing  paths  that
       allows  these paths to be fully extracted on other systems that support
       Unicode and to match as close as possible on systems that don't.

       On Win32 systems where paths are internally stored as Unicode but  rep-
       resented in the local character set, it's possible that some paths will
       be skipped during a local character set directory scan.  zip with  Uni-
       code support now can read and store these paths.  Note that Win 9x sys-
       tems and FAT file systems don't fully support Unicode.

       Be aware that console windows on Win32 and Unix, for example, sometimes
       don't  accurately  show all characters due to how each operating system
       switches in character sets for display.  However, directory  navigation
       tools should show the correct paths if the needed fonts are loaded.

       Command line format.  This version of zip has updated command line pro-
       cessing and support for long options.

       Short options take the form

              -s[-][s[-]...][value][=value][ value]

       where s is a one or two character short option.  A  short  option  that
       takes  a value is last in an argument and anything after it is taken as
       the value.  If the option can be negated and  "-"  immediately  follows
       the  option, the option is negated.  Short options can also be given as
       separate arguments

              -s[-][value][=value][ value] -s[-][value][=value][ value] ...

       Short options in general take values either as part of the  same  argu-
       ment  or  as  the following argument.  An optional = is also supported.





              -tt mmddyyyy

       all work.  The -x and -i options accept  lists  of  values  and  use  a
       slightly  different format described below.  See the -x and -i options.

       Long options take the form

              --longoption[-][=value][ value]

       where the option starts with --, has a multicharacter name, can include
       a  trailing  dash to negate the option (if the option supports it), and
       can have a value (option argument) specified by preceeding  it  with  =
       (no spaces).  Values can also follow the argument.  So



              --before-date mmddyyyy

       both work.

       Long option names can be shortened to the shortest unique abbreviation.
       See the option descriptions below for which support long  options.   To
       avoid confusion, avoid abbreviating a negatable option with an embedded
       dash ("-") at the dash if you plan to negate it (the parser would  con-
       sider  a  trailing  dash,  such  as  for the option --some-option using
       --some- as the option, as part of  the  name  rather  than  a  negating
       dash).   This  may  be  changed to force the last dash in --some- to be
       negating in the future.


              [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.

              Adjust self-extracting executable  archive.   A  self-extracting
              executable  archive  is created by prepending the SFX stub to an
              existing archive. The -A option tells zip to  adjust  the  entry
              offsets  stored in the archive to take into account this "pream-
              ble" data.

       Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a  special  case.   At
       present, only the Amiga port of zip is capable of adjusting or updating
       these without corrupting them. -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if
       other updates need to be made.

              [WIN32]   Once  archive  is  created  (and tested if -T is used,
              which is recommended), clear the  archive  bits  of  files  pro-
              cessed.   WARNING:  Once  the bits are cleared they are cleared.
              You may want to use the -sf show files option to store the  list
              of  files  processed  in  case  the  archive  operation  must be
              repeated.  Also consider using the -MM must  match  option.   Be
              sure to check out -DF as a possibly better way to do incremental

              [WIN32]  Only include files  that  have  the  archive  bit  set.
              Directories  are  not stored when -AS is used, though by default
              the paths of entries, including directories, are stored as usual
              and can be used by most unzips to recreate directories.

              The  archive  bit  is set by the operating system when a file is
              modified and, if used with -AC, -AS can provide  an  incremental
              backup  capability.   However, other applications can modify the
              archive bit and it may not be  a  reliable  indicator  of  which
              files  have  changed since the last archive operation.  Alterna-
              tive ways to create incremental backups are using -t to use file
              dates,  though  this won't catch old files copied to directories
              being archived, and -DF to create a differential archive.

              [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).

       -Bn    [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
              bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
              bit  8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files

       -b path
       --temp-path path
              Use  the specified path for the temporary zip archive. For exam-

                     zip -b /tmp stuff *

              will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp,  copy-
              ing  over  to  the  current directory when done. This
              option is useful when updating an existing archive and the  file
              system containing this old archive does not have enough space to
              hold both old and new archives at the same time.  It may also be
              useful  when  streaming in some cases to avoid the need for data
              descriptors.  Note that using this option may require  zip  take
              additional time to copy the archive file when done to the desti-
              nation file system.

              Add one-line comments for each file.  File  operations  (adding,
              updating)  are  done  first, and the user is then prompted for a
              one-line comment for each file.  Enter the comment  followed  by
              return, or just return for no comment.

              [VMS]   Preserve  case  all  on VMS.  Negating this option (-C-)

              [VMS]  Preserve case ODS2 on VMS.  Negating this  option  (-C2-)

              [VMS]   Preserve  case ODS5 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C5-)

              Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

              will remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that  start
              with  foo/harry/,  and all of the files that end with .o (in any
              path).  Note that shell pathname expansion  has  been  inhibited
              with  backslashes,  so  that zip can see the asterisks, enabling
              zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead  of  the
              contents  of  the  current  directory.  (The backslashes are not
              used on MSDOS-based platforms.)  Can also use quotes  to  escape
              the asterisks as in

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk "foo/harry/*" "*.o"

              Not  escaping  the asterisks on a system where the shell expands
              wildcards could result in the asterisks  being  converted  to  a
              list  of  files  in  the current directory and that list used to
              delete entries from the archive.

              Under MSDOS, -d is case sensitive when it matches names  in  the
              zip  archive.  This requires that file names be entered in upper
              case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system.  (We  con-
              sidered making this case insensitive on systems where paths were
              case insensitive, but it is possible the  archive  came  from  a
              system where case does matter and the archive could include both
              Bar and bar as separate files in the archive.)  But see the  new
              option -ic to ignore case in the archive.

              Display  running  byte  counts  showing the bytes zipped and the
              bytes to go.

              Display running count of entries zipped and entries to go.

              Display dots while each entry is zipped (except  on  ports  that
              have  their  own progress indicator).  See -ds below for setting
              dot size.  The default is a dot every 10 MB of input  file  pro-
              cessed.   The -v option also displays dots (previously at a much
              higher rate than this but now -v also defaults  to  10  MB)  and
              this rate is also controlled by -ds.

              [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.
              Good  for  exporting   files   to   foreign   operating-systems.
              Resource-forks will be ignored at all.

              Display  progress dots for the archive instead of for each file.
              The command

                         zip -qdgds 10m

              will turn off most output except dots every 10 MB.

       -ds size
       --dot-size size
              Set amount of input file processed for each dot displayed.   See
              -dd to enable displaying dots.  Setting this option implies -dd.
              Size is in the format nm where n is a number and m is  a  multi-
              plier.  Currently m can be k (KB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB), so
              if n is 100 and m is k, size would be 100k which is 100 KB.  The
              default is 10 MB.

              The -v option also displays dots and now defaults to 10 MB also.
              This rate is also controlled by this option.  A size of 0  turns
              dots off.

              This  option does not control the dots from the "Scanning files"
              message as zip scans for input files.  The dot size for that  is
              fixed  at  2  seconds or a fixed number of entries, whichever is

              Display the uncompressed size of each entry.

              Display the volume (disk) number each entry is being read  from,
              if reading an existing archive, and being written to.

              Do  not  create  entries  in  the  zip  archive for directories.
              Directory  entries  are  created  by  default  so   that   their
              attributes  can  be  saved  in the zip archive.  The environment
              variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default  options.  For
              example under Unix with sh:

                     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

              (The  variable  ZIPOPT  can be used for any option, including -i
              and -x using a new option format detailed below, and can include
              several  options.)  The option -D is a shorthand for -x "*/" but
              the latter previously could not be set as default in the  ZIPOPT
              environment  variable  as  the  contents of ZIPOPT gets inserted
              near the beginning of the command line and the file list had  to
              end at the end of the line.

              This  version  of  zip does allow -x and -i options in ZIPOPT if
              the form

               -x file file ... @

              is used, where the @ (an argument that is just @) terminates the

              Create  an archive that contains all new and changed files since
              the original archive was created.  For this to work,  the  input
              file  list  and current directory must be the same as during the
              original zip operation.

              For example, if the existing archive was created using

                     zip -r foofull .

              from the bar directory, then the command

                     zip -r foofull . -DF --out foonew

              also from the bar directory creates the archive foonew with just
              the  files  not  in foofull and the files where the size or file
              time of the files do not match those in foofull.

              Note that the timezone environment variable  TZ  should  be  set
              according to the local timezone in order for this option to work
              correctly.  A change in timezone since the original archive  was
              created  could  result  in no times matching and all files being

              A possible approach to backing up a directory might be to create
              a  normal  archive  of  the  contents of the directory as a full
              backup, then use this option to create incremental backups.

              Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a  password  which
              is  entered  on  the terminal in response to a prompt (this will
              not be echoed; if standard error is not a  tty,  zip  will  exit
              with  an  error).   The  password prompt is repeated to save the
              user from typing errors.

              [OS/2] Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as  file-

              Replace  (freshen)  an existing entry in the zip archive only if
              it has been modified more recently than the version  already  in
              the zip archive; unlike the update option (-u) this will not add
              files that are not already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -f foo

              This command should be run from the same  directory  from  which
              the  original zip command was run, since paths stored in zip ar-
              chives are always relative.

              Note that the timezone environment variable  TZ  should  be  set
              according  to  the local timezone in order for the -f, -u and -o
              options to work correctly.

              The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do  with
              the  differences  between  the Unix-format file times (always in
              GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time)
              and  the  necessity  to  compare the two.  A typical TZ value is
              ``MET-1MEST'' (Middle European time  with  automatic  adjustment
              for ``summertime'' or Daylight Savings Time).

              The  format is TTThhDDD, where TTT is the time zone such as MET,
              hh is the difference between GMT  and  local  time  such  as  -1
              above, and DDD is the time zone when daylight savings time is in
              effect.  Leave off the DDD if there is no daylight savings time.
              For the US Eastern time zone EST5EDT.

              Fix  the zip archive. The -F option can be used if some portions
              of the archive are missing, but  requires  a  reasonably  intact
              central  directory.   The input archive is scanned as usual, but
              zip will ignore some problems.  The resulting archive should  be
              valid, but any inconsistent entries will be left out.

              When  doubled  as in -FF, the archive is scanned from the begin-
              ning and zip scans for special signatures to identify the limits
              between  the  archive members. The single -F is more reliable if
              the archive is not too much damaged, so try this option first.

              If the archive is too damaged or the end has been truncated, you
              must  use  -FF.   This  is  a change from zip 2.32, where the -F
              option is able to read a truncated archive.  The -F  option  now
              more  reliably  fixes  archives  with  minor  damage and the -FF
              option is needed to fix archives where -F might have been suffi-
              cient before.

              Neither  option will recover archives that have been incorrectly
              transferred in ascii mode instead of binary. After  the  repair,
              the  -t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC.
              Such files cannot be recovered; you can remove them from the ar-
              chive using the -d option of zip.

              Note  that  -FF may have trouble fixing archives that include an
              embedded zip archive that was stored  (without  compression)  in
              the  archive  and,  depending  on  the  damage,  it may find the
              entries in the embedded archive rather than the archive  itself.
              Try -F first as it does not have this problem.

              The  format  of  the fix commands have changed.  For example, to
              fix the damaged archive,

                     zip -F foo --out foofix

              tries to read the entries normally, copying good entries to  the
              new  archive  If this doesn't work, as when the ar-
              chive is truncated, or if some entries you know are in  the  ar-
              chive are missed, then try

                     zip -FF foo --out foofixfix

              and  compare the resulting archive to the archive created by -F.
              The -FF option may create an inconsistent archive.  Depending on
              what  is damaged, you can then use the -F option to fix that ar-

              A split archive with missing split files can be fixed  using  -F
              if  you  have the last split of the archive (the .zip file).  If
              this file is missing, you must use -FF to fix the archive, which
              will prompt you for the splits you have.

              Currently  the fix options can't recover entries that have a bad
              checksum or are otherwise damaged.

       --fifo [Unix]  Normally zip  skips  reading  any  FIFOs  (named  pipes)
              encountered, as zip can hang if the FIFO is not being fed.  This
              option tells zip to read the contents of any FIFO it finds.

              Synchronize the contents of an archive with the files on the OS.
              Normally  when  an  archive  is updated, new files are added and
              changed files are updated but files that no longer exist on  the
              OS  are not deleted from the archive.  This option enables a new
              mode that checks entries in the archive against the file system.
              If  the file time and file size of the entry matches that of the
              OS file, the entry is copied from the  old  archive  instead  of
              being  read from the file system and compressed.  If the OS file
              has changed, the entry is read and compressed as usual.  If  the
              entry  in the archive does not match a file on the OS, the entry
              is deleted.  Enabling this option should  create  archives  that
              are  the  same  as  new archives, but since existing entries are
              copied instead of compressed, updating an existing archive  with
              -FS  can  be much faster than creating a new archive.  Also con-
              sider using -u for updating an archive.

              For this option to work, the archive should be updated from  the
              same  directory  it  was created in so the relative paths match.
              If few files are being copied from the old archive,  it  may  be
              faster to create a new archive instead.

              Note  that  the  timezone  environment variable TZ should be set
              according to the local timezone in order for this option to work
              correctly.   A change in timezone since the original archive was
              created could result in no times matching and  recompression  of
              all files.

              This option deletes files from the archive.  If you need to pre-
              serve the original archive, make a copy of the archive first  or
              use  the  --out  option  to  output the updated archive to a new
              file.  Even though it may be slower, creating a new archive with
              a  new  archive name is safer, avoids mismatches between archive
              and OS paths, and is preferred.

              Grow (append to) the specified zip archive, instead of  creating
              a  new one. If this operation fails, zip attempts to restore the
              archive to its original state. If the restoration fails, the ar-
              chive  might  become  corrupted.  This  option  is  ignored when
              there's no existing archive or when at least one archive  member
              must be updated or deleted.

              Display  the  zip  help information (this also appears if zip is
              run with no arguments).

              Display extended help including more  on  command  line  format,
              pattern matching, and more obscure options.

       -i files
       --include files
              Include only the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

              which  will include only the files that end in .c in the current
              directory and its subdirectories. (Note  for  PKZIP  users:  the
              equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              PKZIP  does  not  allow  recursion in directories other than the
              current one.)  The backslash avoids the shell filename substitu-
              tion,  so  that  the  name  matching  is performed by zip at all
              directory levels.  [This is for Unix and other systems  where  \
              escapes  the  next character.  For other systems where the shell
              does not process * do not use \ and the above is

                     zip -r foo . -i *.c

              Examples are  for  Unix  unless  otherwise  specified.]   So  to
              include  dir,  a directory directly under the current directory,

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/\*


                     zip -r foo . -i "dir/*"

              to match paths such as dir/a and dir/b/file.c [on ports  without
              wildcard expansion in the shell such as MSDOS and Windows

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/*

              is  used.]   Note  that  currently  the trailing / is needed for
              directories (as in

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/

              to include directory dir).

              The long option form of the first example is

                     zip -r foo . --include \*.c

              and does the same thing as the short option form.

              Though the command syntax used to require -i at the end  of  the
              command  line,  this  version  actually allows -i (or --include)
              anywhere.  The list of files terminates  at  the  next  argument
              starting with -, the end of the command line, or the list termi-
              nator @ (an argument that is just @).  So the above can be given

                     zip -i \*.c @ -r foo .

              for  example.   There must be a space between the option and the
              first file of a list.  For just one file you can use the  single
              value form

                     zip -i\*.c -r foo .

              (no space between option and value) or

                     zip --include=\*.c -r foo .

              as  additional  examples.  The single value forms are not recom-
              mended because they can be confusing  and,  in  particular,  the
              -ifile  format  can  cause  problems if the first letter of file
              combines with i to form a two-letter  option  starting  with  i.
              Use -sc to see how your command line will be parsed.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo  . -i@include.lst

              which  will  only include the files in the current directory and
              its  subdirectories  that  match  the  patterns  in   the   file

              Files to -i and -x are patterns matching internal archive paths.
              See -R for more on patterns.

              [Acorn RISC OS] Don't scan through Image files.  When used,  zip
              will  not  consider Image files (eg. DOS partitions or Spark ar-
              chives when SparkFS is loaded) as  directories  but  will  store
              them as single files.

              For example, if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive
              will result in a zipfile containing a directory  (and  its  con-
              tent)  while  using the 'I' option will result in a zipfile con-
              taining a Spark archive. Obviously this second case will also be
              obtained (without the 'I' option) if SparkFS isn't loaded.

              [VMS,  WIN32]  Ignore  case when matching archive entries.  This
              option is only available on systems where the case of  files  is
              ignored.  On systems with case-insensitive file systems, case is
              normally ignored when matching files on the file system  but  is
              not  ignored for -f (freshen), -d (delete), -U (copy), and simi-
              lar modes when matching against archive  entries  (currently  -f
              ignores case on VMS) because archive entries can be from systems
              where case does matter and names that are the  same  except  for
              case can exist in an archive.  The -ic option makes all matching
              case insensitive.  This can result in multiple  archive  entries
              matching a command line pattern.

              Store  just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and do not
              store directory names. By default, zip will store the full  path
              (relative to the current directory).

              [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path including
              volume will be stored. By default  the  relative  path  will  be

              Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

              Attempt  to  convert  the  names  and paths to conform to MSDOS,
              store only the MSDOS attribute (just the  user  write  attribute
              from  Unix), and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though
              it was not); for compatibility with PKUNZIP  under  MSDOS  which
              cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots.

              Translate  the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS con-
              vention CR LF. This option should not be used on  binary  files.
              This  option can be used on Unix if the zip file is intended for
              PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If the input files already contain  CR  LF,
              this option adds an extra CR. This is to ensure that unzip -a on
              Unix will get back an exact copy of the original file,  to  undo
              the effect of zip -l.  See -ll for how binary files are handled.

              Append to existing logfile.  Default is to overwrite.

       -lf logfilepath
       --logfile-path logfilepath
              Open a logfile at the given path.  By default any existing  file
              at  that location is overwritten, but the -la option will result
              in an existing file being opened and  the  new  log  information
              appended  to any existing information.  Only warnings and errors
              are written to the log unless the -li option is also given, then
              all information messages are also written to the log.

              Include  information  messages, such as file names being zipped,
              in the log.  The default is to only include  the  command  line,
              any warnings and errors, and the final status.

              Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option
              should not be used on binary files.  This option can be used  on
              MSDOS  if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix.  If the
              file is converted and the file is later determined to be  binary
              a warning is issued and the file is probably corrupted.  In this
              release if -ll detects binary in the first buffer  read  from  a
              file,  zip now issues a warning and skips line end conversion on
              the file.  This check seems to catch all  binary  files  tested,
              but  the original check remains and if a converted file is later
              determined to be binary that warning is  still  issued.   A  new
              algorithm  is  now  being  used for binary detection that should
              allow line end conversion of text files  in  UTF-8  and  similar

              Display the zip license.

              Move  the  specified  files into the zip archive; actually, this
              deletes the target directories/files after making the  specified
              zip  archive.  If a directory becomes empty after removal of the
              files, the directory is also  removed.  No  deletions  are  done
              until zip has created the archive without error.  This is useful
              for conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous so it is
              recommended to use it in combination with -T to test the archive
              before removing all input files.

              All input patterns must match at least one file  and  all  input
              files  found  must  be readable.  Normally when an input pattern
              does not match a file the "name not matched" warning  is  issued
              and  when  an  input file has been found but later is missing or
              not readable a missing or not readable warning  is  issued.   In
              either  case zip continues creating the archive, with missing or
              unreadable new files being skipped and files already in the  ar-
              chive remaining unchanged.  After the archive is created, if any
              files were not readable zip returns the OPEN error code  (18  on
              most  systems)  instead  of the normal success return (0 on most
              systems).  With -MM set, zip exits as soon as an  input  pattern
              is not matched (whenever the "name not matched" warning would be
              issued) or when an input file is not readable.  In  either  case
              zip exits with an OPEN error and no archive is created.

              This option is useful when a known list of files is to be zipped
              so any missing or unreadable files will result in an error.   It
              is less useful when used with wildcards, but zip will still exit
              with an error if any input pattern doesn't match  at  least  one
              file  and  if  any matched files are unreadable.  If you want to
              create the archive anyway and only need to know  if  files  were
              skipped, don't use -MM and just check the return code.  Also -lf
              could be useful.

       -n suffixes
       --suffixes suffixes
              Do not attempt to compress files named with the given  suffixes.
              Such  files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output zip
              file, so that zip doesn't waste  its  time  trying  to  compress
              them.   The  suffixes  are  separated  by either colons or semi-
              colons.  For example:

                     zip -rn  foo foo

              will copy everything from foo into, but will  store  any
              files  that end in .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif, or .snd without trying
              to compress them (image and sound files  often  have  their  own
              specialized compression methods).  By default, zip does not com-
              press     files     with     extensions     in     the      list
       Such files are stored directly in
              the output archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used
              to change the default options. For example under Unix with csh:

                     setenv ZIPOPT "-n"

              To attempt compression on all files, use:

                     zip -n : foo

              The  maximum  compression option -9 also attempts compression on
              all files regardless of extension.

              On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes  (3
              hex  digit format). By default, zip does not compress files with
              filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files  and
              PackDir files).

              Do not perform internal wildcard processing (shell processing of
              wildcards is still done by the shell unless  the  arguments  are
              escaped).   Useful if a list of paths is being read and no wild-
              card substitution is desired.

              [Amiga, MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS  filenotes  as  zipfile  com-
              ments.  They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip. If
              -c is used also, you are prompted for comments  only  for  those
              files that do not have filenotes.

              Set  the  "last  modified" time of the zip archive to the latest
              (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip
              archive.   This  can  be  used  without any other operations, if
              desired.  For example:

              zip -o foo

              will change the last modified time of to the latest time
              of the entries in

       -O output-file
       --output-file output-file
              Process  the  archive  changes as usual, but instead of updating
              the existing archive, output the  new  archive  to  output-file.
              Useful for updating an archive without changing the existing ar-
              chive and the input archive must be a different  file  than  the
              output archive.

              This  option  can  be used to create updated split archives.  It
              can also be used with -U to copy entries from  an  existing  ar-
              chive to a new archive.  See the EXAMPLES section below.

              Another  use  is  converting  zip  files  from one split size to
              another.  For instance, to convert an archive  with  700  MB  CD
              splits to one with 2 GB DVD splits, can use:

                     zip -s 2g --out

              which uses copy mode.  See -U below.  Also:

                     zip -s 0 --out

              will convert a split archive to a single-file archive.

              Copy  mode  will  convert stream entries (using data descriptors
              and which should be  compatible  with  most  unzips)  to  normal
              entries  (which should be compatible with all unzips), except if
              standard encryption  was  used.   For  archives  with  encrypted
              entries,  zipcloak  will decrypt the entries and convert them to
              normal entries.

              Include relative file paths as part of the names of files stored
              in  the  archive.  This is the default.  The -j option junks the
              paths and just stores the names of the files.

       -P password
       --password password
              Use password to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).  THIS IS INSE-
              CURE!   Many  multi-user  operating systems provide ways for any
              user to see the current command line of any other user; even  on
              stand-alone  systems  there  is  always  the threat of over-the-
              shoulder peeking.  Storing the plaintext password as part  of  a
              command  line  in  an  automated script is even worse.  Whenever
              possible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to enter pass-
              words.   (And  where  security  is  truly  important, use strong
              encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively
              weak standard encryption provided by zipfile utilities.)

              Quiet   mode;   eliminate  informational  messages  and  comment
              prompts.  (Useful, for example, in shell scripts and  background

       --Q-flag n
              [QDOS]  store information about the file in the file header with
              n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add headers for any file
              bit  1: Add headers for all files
              bit  2: Don't wait for interactive key press on exit

              Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

                     zip -r foo

              or more concisely

                     zip -r foo foo

              In this case, all the files and directories in foo are saved  in
              a zip archive named, including files with names starting
              with ".", since the recursion does not use the shell's file-name
              substitution  mechanism.  If you wish to include only a specific
              subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories, use
              the  -i  option  to specify the pattern of files to be included.
              You should not use -r with the name  ".*",  since  that  matches
              ".."   which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (proba-
              bly not what was intended).

              Multiple source directories are allowed as in

                     zip -r foo foo1 foo2

              which first zips up foo1 and then foo2, going down  each  direc-

              Note  that  while  wildcards  to -r are typically resolved while
              recursing down directories in the file system, any -R,  -x,  and
              -i  wildcards are applied to internal archive pathnames once the
              directories are scanned.  To have wildcards apply  to  files  in
              subdirectories  when recursing on Unix and similar systems where
              the shell does wildcard substitution, either  escape  all  wild-
              cards  or put all arguments with wildcards in quotes.  This lets
              zip see the wildcards and match files  in  subdirectories  using
              them as it recurses.

              Travel  the directory structure recursively starting at the cur-
              rent directory; for example:

                     zip -R foo "*.c"

              In this case, all the files matching *.c in the tree starting at
              the  current  directory  are  stored  into  a  zip archive named
      Note that *.c will match file.c, a/file.c and  a/b/.c.
              More than one pattern can be listed as separate arguments.  Note
              for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              Patterns are relative file paths as they appear in the  archive,
              or  will after zipping, and can have optional wildcards in them.
              For example, given the current directory is foo and under it are
              directories foo1 and foo2 and in foo1 is the file bar.c,

                     zip -R foo/*

              will zip up foo, foo/foo1, foo/foo1/bar.c, and foo/foo2.

                     zip -R */bar.c

              will  zip  up  foo/foo1/bar.c.   See the note for -r on escaping

              [WIN32]  Before zip 3.0, regular expression  list  matching  was
              enabled  by  default on Windows platforms.  Because of confusion
              resulting from the need to escape "[" and "]" in  names,  it  is
              now  off  by  default for Windows so "[" and "]" are just normal
              characters in names.  This option enables [] matching again.

       -s splitsize
       --split-size splitsize
              Enable creating a split archive and set the split size.  A split
              archive  is  an archive that could be split over many files.  As
              the archive is created, if the size of the archive  reaches  the
              specified  split  size,  that split is closed and the next split
              opened.  In general all splits but the last will  be  the  split
              size  and  the last will be whatever is left.  If the entire ar-
              chive is smaller than the split size a  single-file  archive  is

              Split  archives  are  stored in numbered files.  For example, if
              the output  archive  is  named  archive  and  three  splits  are
              required,  the  resulting archive will be in the three files ar-
              chive.z01, archive.z02, and  Do not change the num-
              bering  of  these  files  or the archive will not be readable as
              these are used to determine the order the splits are read.

              Split size is a number  optionally  followed  by  a  multiplier.
              Currently  the  number  must  be an integer.  The multiplier can
              currently be one of k (kilobytes), m (megabytes), g (gigabytes),
              or  t  (terabytes).   As  64k is the minimum split size, numbers
              without multipliers default to megabytes.  For example, to  cre-
              ate  a  split  archive  called  foo with the contents of the bar
              directory with splits of 670 MB that might be useful for burning
              on CDs, the command:

                     zip -s 670m -r foo bar

              could be used.

              Currently  the  old  splits  of a split archive are not excluded
              from a new archive, but they can be specifically  excluded.   If
              possible,  keep  the  input  and output archives out of the path
              being zipped when creating split archives.

              Using -s without -sp as above creates all the splits  where  foo
              is  being  written,  in  this  case the current directory.  This
              split mode updates the splits as the archive is  being  created,
              requiring  all  splits to remain writable, but creates split ar-
              chives that are readable by any unzip that  supports  split  ar-
              chives.   See  -sp  below  for  enabling  split pause mode which
              allows splits to be written directly to removable media.

              The option -sv can be used to enable verbose splitting and  pro-
              vide details of how the splitting is being done.  The -sb option
              can be used to ring the bell when zip pauses for the next  split

              Split  archives cannot be updated, but see the -O (--out) option
              for how a split archive can be updated as it is copied to a  new
              archive.   A  split archive can also be converted into a single-
              file archive using a split size of 0 or negating the -s option:

                     zip -s 0 --out

              Also see -U (--copy) for more on using copy mode.

              If splitting and using split pause mode, ring the bell when  zip
              pauses for each split destination.

              Show  the  command line starting zip as processed and exit.  The
              new command parser permutes the arguments, putting  all  options
              and  any values associated with them before any non-option argu-
              ments.  This allows an option to appear anywhere in the  command
              line  as  long as any values that go with the option go with it.
              This option displays the command line as zip sees it,  including
              any arguments from the environment such as from the ZIPOPT vari-
              able.  Where allowed, options later  in  the  command  line  can
              override options earlier in the command line.

              Show  the  files  that  would  be  operated  on, then exit.  For
              instance, if creating a new archive, this will  list  the  files
              that  would  be  added.   If the option is negated, -sf-, output
              only to an open log file.  Screen display is not recommended for
              large lists.

              Show  all  available options supported by zip as compiled on the
              current system.  As this command  reads  the  option  table,  it
              should include all options.  Each line includes the short option
              (if defined), the long option (if defined), the  format  of  any
              value  that  goes with the option, if the option can be negated,
              and a small description.  The value  format  can  be  no  value,
              required  value,  optional value, single character value, number
              value, or a list of values.  The output of this  option  is  not
              intended  to  show  how  to  use  any  option but only show what
              options are available.

              If splitting is enabled with -s, enable split pause mode.   This
              creates split archives as -s does, but stream writing is used so
              each split can be closed as soon as it is written and  zip  will
              pause  between each split to allow changing split destination or

              Though this split mode allows writing splits directly to  remov-
              able  media, it uses stream archive format that may not be read-
              able by some unzips.  Before relying on splits created with -sp,
              test a split archive with the unzip you will be using.

              To  convert a stream split archive (created with -sp) to a stan-
              dard archive see the --out option.

              As -sf, but also show Unicode version of the path if exists.

              As -sf, but only show Unicode version of  the  path  if  exists,
              otherwise show the standard version of the path.

              Enable various verbose messages while splitting, showing how the
              splitting is being done.

              [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden  files.
              [MacOS]  Includes finder invisible files, which are ignored oth-

       -t mmddyyyy
       --from-date mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified prior to  the  specified  date,
              where  mm  is  the  month  (00-12),  dd  is the day of the month
              (01-31), and  yyyy  is  the  year.   The  ISO 8601  date  format
              yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

                     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

              will  add  all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were
              last modified on or after 7 December 1991, to  the  zip  archive

       -tt mmddyyyy
       --before-date mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date,
              where mm is the month (00-12),  dd  is  the  day  of  the  month
              (01-31),  and  yyyy  is  the  year.   The  ISO 8601  date format
              yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

                     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories  that  were
              last  modified  before  30  November  1995,  to  the zip archive

              Test the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails,  the
              old  zip  file  is  unchanged  and (with the -m option) no input
              files are removed.

       -TT cmd
       --unzip-command cmd
              Use command cmd instead of 'unzip -tqq' to test an archive  when
              the  -T  option is used.  On Unix, to use a copy of unzip in the
              current directory instead of the standard  system  unzip,  could

               zip archive file1 file2 -T -TT "./unzip -tqq"

              In  cmd,  {}  is  replaced by the name of the temporary archive,
              otherwise the name of the archive is appended to the end of  the
              command.  The return code is checked for success (0 on Unix).

              Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it
              has been modified more recently than the version already in  the
              zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -u stuff *

              will  add any new files in the current directory, and update any
              files which have been modified since the zip  archive
              was  last  created/modified  (note that zip will not try to pack
     into itself when you do this).

              Note that the -u option with no input file arguments  acts  like
              the -f (freshen) option.

              Copy  entries  from  one archive to another.  Requires the --out
              option to specify a different output file  than  the  input  ar-
              chive.   Copy  mode is the reverse of -d delete.  When delete is
              being used with --out, the selected entries are deleted from the
              archive  and  all  other  entries are copied to the new archive,
              while copy mode selects the files to include in the new archive.
              Unlike -u update, input patterns on the command line are matched
              against archive entries only and not the file system files.  For

                     zip inarchive "*.c" --copy --out outarchive

              copies  entries  with  names ending in .c from inarchive to out-
              archive.  The wildcard must be escaped on some systems  to  pre-
              vent  the  shell  from substituting names of files from the file
              system which may have no relevance to the  entries  in  the  ar-

              If  no input files appear on the command line and --out is used,
              copy mode is assumed:

                     zip inarchive --out outarchive

              This is useful for changing split size for instance.  Encrypting
              and  decrypting  entries  is  not yet supported using copy mode.
              Use zipcloak for that.

       -UN v
       --unicode v
              Determine what zip should do with Unicode file names.   zip 3.0,
              in  addition  to  the standard file path, now includes the UTF-8
              translation of the path if the entry path is not entirely  7-bit
              ASCII.   When  an entry is missing the Unicode path, zip reverts
              back to the standard file path.   The  problem  with  using  the
              standard  path is this path is in the local character set of the
              zip that created the entry, which may  contain  characters  that
              are  not  valid  in  the  character set being used by the unzip.
              When zip is reading an archive, if an entry also has  a  Unicode
              path, zip now defaults to using the Unicode path to recreate the
              standard path using the current local character set.

              This option can be used to determine what  zip  should  do  with
              this  path  if  there  is a mismatch between the stored standard
              path and the stored UTF-8 path (which can happen if the standard
              path  was  updated).  In all cases, if there is a mismatch it is
              assumed that the standard path is  more  current  and  zip  uses
              that.  Values for v are

                     q - quit if paths do not match

                     w - warn, continue with standard path

                     i - ignore, continue with standard path

                     n - no Unicode, do not use Unicode paths

              The default is to warn and continue.

              Characters  that  are not valid in the current character set are
              escaped as #Uxxxx and #Lxxxxxx, where x is  an  ASCII  character
              for a hex digit.  The first is used if a 16-bit character number
              is sufficient to represent the Unicode character and the  second
              if  the character needs more than 16 bits to represent it's Uni-
              code character code.  Setting -UN to

                     e - escape

              as in

                     zip archive -sU -UN=e

              forces zip to escape all characters that are not printable 7-bit

              Normally zip stores UTF-8 directly in the standard path field on
              systems where UTF-8 is the current character set and stores  the
              UTF-8 in the new extra fields otherwise.  The option

                     u - UTF-8

              as in

                     zip archive dir -r -UN=UTF8

              forces  zip  to store UTF-8 as native in the archive.  Note that
              storing UTF-8 directly is the default on Unix systems that  sup-
              port  it.   This option could be useful on Windows systems where
              the escaped path is too large to be a valid path and  the  UTF-8
              version of the path is smaller, but native UTF-8 is not backward
              compatible on Windows systems.

              Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

              Normally, when applied to real operations, this  option  enables
              the  display of a progress indicator during compression (see -dd
              for more on dots) and requests  verbose  diagnostic  info  about
              zipfile structure oddities.

              However,  when -v is the only command line argument a diagnostic
              screen is printed instead.  This should now work even if  stdout
              is redirected to a file, allowing easy saving of the information
              for sending with bug reports to Info-ZIP.   The  version  screen
              provides  the help screen header with program name, version, and
              release date, some pointers to the Info-ZIP home  and  distribu-
              tion  sites,  and shows information about the target environment
              (compiler type and version, OS version, compilation date and the
              enabled optional features used to create the zip executable).

              [VMS]  Save VMS file attributes.  (Files are  truncated at EOF.)
              When a -V archive is unpacked on a non-VMS  system,   some  file
              types  (notably  Stream_LF  text  files   and  pure binary files
              like fixed-512) should be extracted intact.  Indexed  files  and
              file  types  with embedded record sizes (notably variable-length
              record types) will probably be seen as corrupt elsewhere.

              [VMS] Save VMS file attributes, and  all allocated blocks  in  a
              file,   including  any  data beyond EOF.  Useful for moving ill-
              formed files  among   VMS  systems.    When  a  -VV  archive  is
              unpacked  on a non-VMS system, almost all files will appear cor-

              [VMS] Append the version  number  of  the  files  to  the  name,
              including  multiple  versions  of files.  Default is to use only
              the most recent version of a specified file.

              [VMS] Append the version  number  of  the  files  to  the  name,
              including  multiple  versions  of  files, using the .nnn format.
              Default is to use only the most recent version  of  a  specified

              Wildcards match only at a directory level.  Normally zip handles
              paths as strings and given the paths



              an input pattern such as


              normally would match both paths, the * matching dir/file1.c  and
              file2.c.   Note  that in the first case a directory boundary (/)
              was crossed in the match.  With -ws no directory bounds will  be
              included  in  the  match,  making  wildcards local to a specific
              directory level.  So, with -ws enabled,  only  the  second  path
              would be matched.

              When using -ws, use ** to match across directory boundaries as *
              does normally.

       -x files
       --exclude files
              Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

              which will include the contents of foo in while  exclud-
              ing  all  the  files  that  end in .o.  The backslash avoids the
              shell filename substitution, so that the name matching  is  per-
              formed by zip at all directory levels.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst

              which  will include the contents of foo in while exclud-
              ing  all  the  files  that  match  the  patterns  in  the   file

              The long option forms of the above are

                     zip -r foo foo --exclude \*.o


                     zip -r foo foo --exclude @exclude.lst

              Multiple patterns can be specified, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o \*.c

              If  there is no space between -x and the pattern, just one value
              is assumed (no list):

                     zip -r foo foo -x\*.o

              See -i for more on include and exclude.

              Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on  OS/2,
              uid/gid  and  file  times  on  Unix).  The zip format uses extra
              fields to include additional information for each  entry.   Some
              extra fields are specific to particular systems while others are
              applicable to all systems.  Normally when zip reads entries from
              an  existing archive, it reads the extra fields it knows, strips
              the rest, and adds the extra fields applicable to  that  system.
              With -X, zip strips all old fields and only includes the Unicode
              and Zip64 extra fields (currently these two extra fields  cannot
              be disabled).

              Negating  this  option,  -X-,  includes  all  the  default extra
              fields, but also copies over any unrecognized extra fields.

              For UNIX and VMS (V8.3 and later), store symbolic links as  such
              in  the zip archive, instead of compressing and storing the file
              referred to by the link.  This  can  avoid  multiple  copies  of
              files  being  included in the archive as zip recurses the direc-
              tory trees and accesses files directly and by links.

              Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The
              comment  is  ended by a line containing just a period, or an end
              of file condition (^D on Unix, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and VMS).  The
              comment can be taken from a file:

                     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -Z cm
       --compression-method cm
              Set  the default compression method.  Currently the main methods
              supported by zip are store and deflate.  Compression method  can
              be set to:

              store  -  Setting  the compression method to store forces zip to
              store entries with no compression.   This  is  generally  faster
              than compressing entries, but results in no space savings.  This
              is the same as using -0 (compression level zero).

              deflate - This is the default method for zip.  If zip determines
              that  storing is better than deflation, the entry will be stored

              bzip2 - If bzip2 support is compiled in, this compression method
              also  becomes available.  Only some modern unzips currently sup-
              port the bzip2 compression method, so test the unzip you will be
              using  before relying on archives using this method (compression
              method 12).

              For example, to add bar.c to archive foo  using  bzip2  compres-

                     zip -Z bzip2 foo bar.c

              The compression method can be abbreviated:

                     zip -Zb foo bar.c

       (-0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9)
              Regulate  the  speed of compression using the specified digit #,
              where -0 indicates no compression (store all  files),  -1  indi-
              cates  the  fastest  compression speed (less compression) and -9
              indicates the slowest compression  speed  (optimal  compression,
              ignores the suffix list). The default compression level is -6.

              Though  still  being  worked, the intention is this setting will
              control compression speed for  all  compression  methods.   Cur-
              rently only deflation is controlled.

              [WIN32]  Use  priviliges  (if  granted) to obtain all aspects of
              WinNT security.

              Take the list of input files from standard input. Only one file-
              name per line.

              [MSDOS,  OS/2,  WIN32]  Include  the  volume label for the drive
              holding the first file to be compressed.  If you want to include
              only  the  volume  label  or  to force a specific drive, use the
              drive name as first file name, as in:

                     zip -$ foo a: c:bar


       The simplest example:

              zip stuff *

       creates the archive (assuming it does not exist) and puts all
       the  files in the current directory in it, in compressed form (the .zip
       suffix is added automatically, unless the archive name contains  a  dot
       already; this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes).

       Because  of the way the shell on Unix does filename substitution, files
       starting with "." are not included; to include these as well:

              zip stuff .* *

       Even this will not include any subdirectories from the  current  direc-

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

              zip -r foo foo

       creates  the  archive, containing all the files and directories
       in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory.

       You may want to make a zip archive that  contains  the  files  in  foo,
       without  recording  the directory name, foo.  You can use the -j option
       to leave off the paths, as in:

              zip -j foo foo/*

       If you are short on disk space, you might not have enough room to  hold
       both  the  original  directory and the corresponding compressed zip ar-
       chive.  In this case, you can create the archive in steps using the  -m
       option.   If  foo contains the subdirectories tom, dick, and harry, you

              zip -rm foo foo/tom
              zip -rm foo foo/dick
              zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where the first command creates, and the next two  add  to  it.
       At  the  completion  of  each  zip command, the last created archive is
       deleted, making room for the next zip command to function.

       Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The  size  is
       given as a number followed optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB),
       or t (TB).  The command

              zip -s 2g -r foo

       creates a split archive of the directory foo with splits no bigger than
       2 GB  each.   If  foo  contained 5 GB of contents and the contents were
       stored in the split archive without compression (to make  this  example
       simple),  this  would create three splits, split.z01 at 2 GB, split.z02
       at 2 GB, and at a little over 1 GB.

       The -sp option can be used to pause zip between splits to allow  chang-
       ing  removable  media, for example, but read the descriptions and warn-
       ings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though zip does not update split archives, zip provides the new  option
       -O (--output-file) to allow split archives to be updated and saved in a
       new archive.  For example,

              zip foo.c bar.c --out

       reads archive, even if split, adds the  files  foo.c  and
       bar.c,  and  writes  the resulting archive to  If inar- is split then defaults to the same split size.
       Be  aware that and any split files that are created with
       it are always overwritten without warning.  This may be changed in  the


       This  section  applies  only  to Unix.  Watch this space for details on
       MSDOS and VMS operation.  However, the special  wildcard  characters  *
       and [] below apply to at least MSDOS also.

       The  Unix  shells (sh, csh, bash, and others) normally do filename sub-
       stitution (also called "globbing") on command arguments.  Generally the
       special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match  any  character in the range indicated within the brackets
              (example: [a-f], [0-9]).  This form of wildcard matching  allows
              a  user  to specify a list of characters between square brackets
              and if any of the characters match the expression matches.   For

                     zip archive "*.[hc]"

              would  archive all files in the current directory that end in .h
              or .c.

              Ranges of characters are supported:

                     zip archive "[a-f]*"

              would add to the archive all files  starting  with  "a"  through

              Negation is also supported, where any character in that position
              not in the list matches.  Negation is supported by adding ! or ^
              to the beginning of the list:

                     zip archive "*.[!o]"

              matches files that don't end in ".o".

              On  WIN32, [] matching needs to be turned on with the -RE option
              to avoid the confusion that names with [ or ] have caused.

       When these characters are encountered (without  being  escaped  with  a
       backslash  or  quotes),  the  shell will look for files relative to the
       current path that match the pattern, and replace the  argument  with  a
       list of the names that matched.

       The  zip  program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip
       archive being modified or, in the  case  of  the  -x  (exclude)  or  -i
       (include)  options,  on  the  list of files to be operated on, by using
       backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the  name  expansion.
       In  general,  when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do, it
       first looks for the name in the file system.  If it finds it,  it  then
       adds  it  to the list of files to do.  If it does not find it, it looks
       for the name in the zip archive being modified (if  it  exists),  using
       the  pattern matching characters described above, if present.  For each
       match, it will add that name to the list  of  files  to  be  processed,
       unless  this  name  matches  one  given with the -x option, or does not
       match any name given with the -i option.

       The pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match
       names  that  end in ".o", no matter what the path prefix is.  Note that
       the backslash must precede every special character (i.e. ?*[]), or  the
       entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").

       In  general, use backslashes or double quotes for paths that have wild-
       cards to make zip do the pattern matching for file  paths,  and  always
       for paths and strings that have spaces or wildcards for -i, -x, -R, -d,
       and -U and anywhere zip needs to process the wildcards.


       The following environment  variables  are  read  and  used  by  zip  as

              contains  default  options  that  will be used when running zip.
              The contents of this environment variable will get added to  the
              command line just after the zip command.

              [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC  OS]  contains extensions separated by a : that will cause
              native filenames with one of  the  specified  extensions  to  be
              added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped.

              [VMS] see ZIPOPT


       compress(1), shar(1L), tar(1), unzip(1L), gzip(1L)


       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              2      unexpected end of zip file.

              3      a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
                     cessing may have completed successfully anyway; some bro-
                     ken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-

              4      zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers
                     during program initialization.

              5      a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.   Pro-
                     cessing probably failed immediately.

              6      entry  too  large  to  be  processed (such as input files
                     larger than 2 GB when not using Zip64 or trying  to  read
                     an existing archive that is too large) or entry too large
                     to be split with zipsplit

              7      invalid comment format

              8      zip -T failed or out of memory

              9      the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or simi-

              10     zip encountered an error while using a temp file

              11     read or seek error

              12     zip has nothing to do

              13     missing or empty zip file

              14     error writing to a file

              15     zip was unable to create a file to write to

              16     bad command line parameters

              18     zip could not open a specified file to read

              19     zip  was compiled with options not supported on this sys-

       VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as  other,  scarier-
       looking  things,  so zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.
       In general, zip sets VMS Facility = 1955 (0x07A3), Code = 2*  Unix_sta-
       tus,  and  an  appropriate  Severity  (as specified in ziperr.h).  More
       details  are  included  in   the   VMS-specific   documentation.    See
       [.vms]NOTES.TXT and [.vms]vms_msg_gen.c.


       zip 3.0 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce zip
       files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.

       zip files produced by zip 3.0 must not be updated by zip 1.1  or  PKZIP
       1.10,  if  they contain encrypted members or if they have been produced
       in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. The old versions of zip or PKZIP
       would create an archive with an incorrect format.  The old versions can
       list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because
       of  the  new  compression algorithm).  If you do not use encryption and
       use regular disk files, you do not have to care about this problem.

       Under VMS, not all of the odd file formats are treated properly.   Only
       stream-LF  format  zip files are expected to work with zip.  Others can
       be converted using Rahul Dhesi's BILF program.   This  version  of  zip
       handles some of the conversion internally.  When using Kermit to trans-
       fer zip files from VMS to MSDOS, type "set file  type  block"  on  VMS.
       When  transfering from MSDOS to VMS, type "set file type fixed" on VMS.
       In both cases, type "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under some older VMS versions, zip may  hang  for  file  specifications
       that use DECnet syntax foo::*.*.

       On OS/2, zip cannot match some names, such as those including an excla-
       mation mark or a hash sign.  This is a bug in OS/2 itself:  the  32-bit
       DosFindFirst/Next  don't  find  such names.  Other programs such as GNU
       tar are also affected by this bug.

       Under OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is  (for
       compatibility)  the  amount returned by the 16-bit version of DosQuery-
       PathInfo(). Otherwise OS/2 1.3 and 2.0 would report different EA  sizes
       when  DIRing  a  file.   However,  the structure layout returned by the
       32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different,  it  uses  extra  padding
       bytes  and  link  pointers  (it's  a linked list) to have all fields on
       4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions.  There-
       fore  the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size) dif-
       fers from that reported by DIR.   zip  stores  the  32-bit  format  for
       portability, even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1.3,
       so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.


       Copyright (C) 1997-2008 Info-ZIP.

       Currently distributed under the Info-ZIP license.

       Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler, Richard B. Wales, Jean-loup Gailly,
       Onno  van  der Linden, Kai Uwe Rommel, Igor Mandrichenko, John Bush and
       Paul Kienitz.

       Original copyright:

       Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use, copy, or
       redistribute  this  software  so  long as all of the original files are
       included, that it is not sold  for  profit,  and  that  this  copyright
       notice is retained.


       Please send bug reports and comments using the web page  at:   For  bug  reports,  please  include  the version of zip (see
       zip -h), the make options used to compile it (see zip -v), the  machine
       and operating system in use, and as much additional information as pos-


       Thanks to R. P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which  inspired  this
       project,  and  from which the shrink algorithm was stolen; to Phil Katz
       for placing in the public domain the zip file format, compression  for-
       mat,  and  .ZIP  filename extension, and for accepting minor changes to
       the file format; to Steve Burg for clarifications on the  deflate  for-
       mat;  to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful
       ideas for the compression algorithm; to  Keith  Petersen,  Rich  Wales,
       Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site
       for the Info-ZIP group to use; and most importantly,  to  the  Info-ZIP
       group  itself  (listed  in the file infozip.who) without whose tireless
       testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been  pos-
       sible.   Finally  we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator,
       David Kirschbaum, for getting us into this mess  in  the  first  place.
       The  manual page was rewritten for Unix by R. P. C. Rodgers and updated
       by E. Gordon for zip 3.0.

Info-ZIP                      16 June 2008 (v3.0)                      zip(1)

zip 3.0 - Generated Mon Nov 24 18:01:17 CST 2008
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