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sudoreplay(8)                System Manager's Manual               sudoreplay(8)


     sudoreplay - replay sudo session logs


     sudoreplay [-FhnRS] [-d dir] [-f filter] [-m num] [-s num] ID[@offset]

     sudoreplay [-h] [-d dir] -l [search expression]


     sudoreplay plays back or lists the output logs created by sudo.  When
     replaying, sudoreplay can play the session back in real-time, or the
     playback speed may be adjusted (faster or slower) based on the command line

     The ID should either be a six character sequence of digits and upper case
     letters, e.g., "0100A5" or a path name.  The ID may include an optional
     @offset suffix which may be used to start replaying at a specific time
     offset.  The @offset is specified as a number in seconds since the start of
     the session with an optional decimal fraction.

     Path names may be relative to the I/O log directory /var/log/sudo-io
     (unless overridden by the -d option) or fully qualified, beginning with a
     `/' character.  When a command is run via sudo with log_output enabled in
     the sudoers file, a "TSID=ID" string is logged via syslog(3) or to the sudo
     log file.  The ID may also be determined using sudoreplay's list mode.

     In list mode, sudoreplay can be used to find the ID of a session based on a
     number of criteria such as the user, tty, or command run.

     In replay mode, if the standard input and output are connected to a
     terminal and the -n option is not specified, sudoreplay will operate
     interactively.  In interactive mode, sudoreplay will attempt to adjust the
     terminal size to match that of the session and write directly to the
     terminal (not all terminals support this).  Additionally, it will poll the
     keyboard and act on the following keys:

     `\n' or `\r'  Skip to the next replay event; useful for long pauses.

     ` ' (space)   Pause output; press any key to resume.

     `<'           Reduce the playback speed by one half.

     `>'           Double the playback speed.

     The session can be interrupted via control-C.  When the session has
     finished, the terminal is restored to its original size if it was changed
     during playback.

     The options are as follows:

     -d dir, --directory=dir
             Store session logs in dir instead of the default, /var/log/sudo-io.

     -f filter, --filter=filter
             Select which I/O type(s) to display.  By default, sudoreplay will
             display the command's standard output, standard error, and tty
             output.  The filter argument is a comma-separated list, consisting
             of one or more of following: stdin, stdout, stderr, ttyin, and

     -F, --follow
             Enable "follow mode".  When replaying a session, sudoreplay will
             ignore end-of-file and keep replaying until the log is complete.
             This can be used to replay a session that is still in progress,
             similar to "tail -f".  An I/O log file is considered to be complete
             when the write bits have been cleared on the session's timing file.
             Versions of sudo prior to 1.9.1 do not clear the write bits upon

     -h, --help
             Display a short help message to the standard output and exit.

     -l, --list [search expression]
             Enable "list mode".  In this mode, sudoreplay will list available
             sessions in a format similar to the sudo log file format, sorted by
             file name (or sequence number).  Any control characters present in
             the log data are formatted in octal with a leading `#' character.
             For example, a horizontal tab is displayed as `#011' and an
             embedded carriage return is displayed as `#015'.  Space characters
             in the command name and arguments are also formatted in octal.

             If a search expression is specified, it will be used to restrict
             the IDs that are displayed.  An expression is composed of the
             following predicates:

             command pattern
                     Evaluates to true if the command run matches the POSIX
                     extended regular expression pattern.

             cwd directory
                     Evaluates to true if the command was run with the specified
                     current working directory.

             fromdate date
                     Evaluates to true if the command was run on or after date.
                     See Date and time format for a description of supported
                     date and time formats.

             group runas_group
                     Evaluates to true if the command was run with the specified
                     runas_group.  Unless a runas_group was explicitly specified
                     when sudo was run this field will be empty in the log.

             host hostname
                     Evaluates to true if the command was run on the specified

             runas runas_user
                     Evaluates to true if the command was run as the specified
                     runas_user.  By default, sudo runs commands as the root

             todate date
                     Evaluates to true if the command was run on or prior to
                     date.  See Date and time format for a description of
                     supported date and time formats.

             tty tty name
                     Evaluates to true if the command was run on the specified
                     terminal device.  The tty name should be specified without
                     the /dev/ prefix, e.g., tty01 instead of /dev/tty01.

             user user name
                     Evaluates to true if the ID matches a command run by user

             Predicates may be abbreviated to the shortest unique string.

             Predicates may be combined using and, or, and ! operators as well
             as `(' and `)' grouping (parentheses must generally be escaped from
             the shell).  The and operator is optional, adjacent predicates have
             an implied and unless separated by an or.

     -m, --max-wait max_wait
             Specify an upper bound on how long to wait between key presses or
             output data.  By default, sudoreplay will accurately reproduce the
             delays between key presses or program output.  However, this can be
             tedious when the session includes long pauses.  When the -m option
             is specified, sudoreplay will limit these pauses to at most
             max_wait seconds.  The value may be specified as a floating point
             number, e.g., 2.5.  A max_wait of zero or less will eliminate the
             pauses entirely.

     -n, --non-interactive
             Do not prompt for user input or attempt to re-size the terminal.
             The session is written to the standard output, not directly to the
             user's terminal.

     -R, --no-resize
             Do not attempt to re-size the terminal to match the terminal size
             of the session.

     -S, --suspend-wait
             Wait while the command was suspended.  By default, sudoreplay will
             ignore the time interval between when the command was suspended and
             when it was resumed.  If the -S option is specified, sudoreplay
             will wait instead.

     -s, --speed speed_factor
             This option causes sudoreplay to adjust the number of seconds it
             will wait between key presses or program output.  This can be used
             to slow down or speed up the display.  For example, a speed_factor
             of 2 would make the output twice as fast whereas a speed_factor of
             .5 would make the output twice as slow.

     -V, --version
             Print the sudoreplay versions version number and exit.

   Date and time format
     The time and date may be specified multiple ways, common formats include:

     HH:MM:SS am MM/DD/CCYY timezone
             24 hour time may be used in place of am/pm.

     HH:MM:SS am Month, Day Year timezone
             24 hour time may be used in place of am/pm, and month and day names
             may be abbreviated.  Month and day of the week names must be
             specified in English.

             ISO time format

     DD Month CCYY HH:MM:SS
             The month name may be abbreviated.

     Either time or date may be omitted, the am/pm and timezone are optional.
     If no date is specified, the current day is assumed; if no time is
     specified, the first second of the specified date is used.  The less
     significant parts of both time and date may also be omitted, in which case
     zero is assumed.

     The following are all valid time and date specifications:

     now     The current time and date.

             Exactly one day from now.

             24 hours ago.

     2 hours ago
             2 hours ago.

     next Friday
             The first second of the Friday in the next (upcoming) week.  Not to
             be confused with "this Friday" which would match the Friday of the
             current week.

     last week
             The current time but 7 days ago.  This is equivalent to "a week

     a fortnight ago
             The current time but 14 days ago.

     10:01 am 9/17/2009
             10:01 am, September 17, 2009.

     10:01 am
             10:01 am on the current day.

     10      10:00 am on the current day.

             00:00 am, September 17, 2009.

     10:01 am Sep 17, 2009
             10:01 am, September 17, 2009.

     Relative time specifications do not always work as expected.  For example,
     the "next" qualifier is intended to be used in conjunction with a day such
     as "next Monday".  When used with units of weeks, months, years, etc the
     result will be one more than expected.  For example, "next week" will
     result in a time exactly two weeks from now, which is probably not what was
     intended.  This will be addressed in a future version of sudoreplay.

   Debugging sudoreplay
     sudoreplay versions 1.8.4 and higher support a flexible debugging framework
     that is configured via Debug lines in the sudo.conf(5) file.

     For more information on configuring sudo.conf(5), refer to its manual.


     /opt/local/etc/sudo.conf  Debugging framework configuration

     /var/log/sudo-io          The default I/O log directory.

                               Example session log info.

                               Example session log info (JSON format).

                               Example session standard input log.

                               Example session standard output log.

                               Example session standard error log.

                               Example session tty input file.

                               Example session tty output file.

                               Example session timing file.

     The stdin, stdout and stderr files will be empty unless sudo was used as
     part of a pipeline for a particular command.


     List sessions run by user millert:

         # sudoreplay -l user millert

     List sessions run by user bob with a command containing the string vi:

         # sudoreplay -l user bob command vi

     List sessions run by user jeff that match a regular expression:

         # sudoreplay -l user jeff command '/bin/[a-z]*sh'

     List sessions run by jeff or bob on the console:

         # sudoreplay -l ( user jeff or user bob ) tty console


     script(1), sudo.conf(5), sudo(8)


     Many people have worked on sudo over the years; this version consists of
     code written primarily by:

           Todd C. Miller

     See the file in the sudo distribution
     ( for an exhaustive list of people
     who have contributed to sudo.


     If you believe you have found a bug in sudoreplay, you can submit a bug
     report at


     Limited free support is available via the sudo-users mailing list, see to subscribe or search the


     sudoreplay is provided "AS IS" and any express or implied warranties,
     including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability
     and fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed.  See the
     file distributed with sudo or for
     complete details.

Sudo 1.9.13                     January 16, 2023                     Sudo 1.9.13

sudo 1.9.13 - Generated Sat Feb 18 06:15:06 CST 2023
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