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sudo.conf(5)                BSD File Formats Manual               sudo.conf(5)


NAME

     sudo.conf -- configuration for sudo front end


DESCRIPTION

     The sudo.conf file is used to configure the sudo front end.  It specifies
     the security policy and I/O logging plugins, debug flags as well as plug-
     in-agnostic path names and settings.

     The sudo.conf file supports the following directives, described in detail
     below.

     Plugin    a security policy or I/O logging plugin

     Path      a plugin-agnostic path

     Set       a front end setting, such as disable_coredump or group_source

     Debug     debug flags to aid in debugging sudo, sudoreplay, visudo, and
               the sudoers plugin.

     The pound sign (`#') is used to indicate a comment.  Both the comment
     character and any text after it, up to the end of the line, are ignored.

     Long lines can be continued with a backslash (`\') as the last character
     on the line.  Note that leading white space is removed from the beginning
     of lines even when the continuation character is used.

     Non-comment lines that don't begin with Plugin, Path, Debug, or Set are
     silently ignored.

     The sudo.conf file is always parsed in the ``C'' locale.

   Plugin configuration
     sudo supports a plugin architecture for security policies and input/out-
     put logging.  Third parties can develop and distribute their own policy
     and I/O logging plugins to work seamlessly with the sudo front end.
     Plugins are dynamically loaded based on the contents of sudo.conf.

     A Plugin line consists of the Plugin keyword, followed by the symbol_name
     and the path to the dynamic shared object that contains the plugin.  The
     symbol_name is the name of the approval_plugin, audit_plugin, io_plugin,
     or policy_plugin struct contained in the plugin.  If a plugin implements
     multiple plugin types, there must be a Plugin line for each unique symbol
     name.  The path may be fully qualified or relative.  If not fully quali-
     fied, it is relative to the directory specified by the plugin_dir Path
     setting, which defaults to /opt/local/libexec/sudo.  In other words:

           Plugin sudoers_policy sudoers.so

     is equivalent to:

           Plugin sudoers_policy /opt/local/libexec/sudo/sudoers.so

     If the plugin was compiled statically into the sudo binary instead of
     being installed as a dynamic shared object, the path should be specified
     without a leading directory, as it does not actually exist in the file
     system.  For example:

           Plugin sudoers_policy sudoers.so

     Starting with sudo 1.8.5, any additional parameters after the path are
     passed as arguments to the plugin's open function.  For example, to over-
     ride the compile-time default sudoers file mode:

           Plugin sudoers_policy sudoers.so sudoers_mode=0440

     See the sudoers(5) manual for a list of supported arguments.

     The same dynamic shared object may contain multiple plugins, each with a
     different symbol name.  The file must be owned by uid 0 and only writable
     by its owner.  Because of ambiguities that arise from composite policies,
     only a single policy plugin may be specified.  This limitation does not
     apply to I/O plugins.

     If no sudo.conf file is present, or if it contains no Plugin lines, the
     sudoers plugin will be used as the default security policy, for I/O log-
     ging (if enabled by the policy) and for auditing.  This is equivalent to
     the following:

           Plugin sudoers_policy sudoers.so
           Plugin sudoers_io sudoers.so
           Plugin sudoers_audit sudoers.so

     Starting with sudo version 1.9.1, some of the logging functionality of
     the sudoers plugin has been moved from the policy plugin to an audit
     plugin.  To maintain compatibility with sudo.conf files from older sudo
     versions, if sudoers is configured as the security policy, it will be
     used as an audit plugin as well.  This guarantees that the logging behav-
     ior will be consistnet with that of sudo versions 1.9.0 and below.

     For more information on the sudo plugin architecture, see the
     sudo_plugin(5) manual.

   Path settings
     A Path line consists of the Path keyword, followed by the name of the
     path to set and its value.  For example:

           Path intercept /opt/local/libexec/sudo/sudo_intercept.so
           Path noexec /opt/local/libexec/sudo/sudo_noexec.so
           Path askpass /usr/X11R6/bin/ssh-askpass

     If no path name is specified, features relying on the specified setting
     will be disabled.  Disabling Path settings is only supported in sudo ver-
     sion 1.8.16 and higher.

     The following plugin-agnostic paths may be set in the
     /opt/local/etc/sudo.conf file:

     askpass   The fully qualified path to a helper program used to read the
               user's password when no terminal is available.  This may be the
               case when sudo is executed from a graphical (as opposed to
               text-based) application.  The program specified by askpass
               should display the argument passed to it as the prompt and
               write the user's password to the standard output.  The value of
               askpass may be overridden by the SUDO_ASKPASS environment vari-
               able.

     devsearch
               An ordered, colon-separated search path of directories to look
               in for device nodes.  This is used when mapping the process's
               tty device number to a device name on systems that do not pro-
               vide such a mechanism.  Sudo will not recurse into sub-directo-
               ries.  If terminal devices may be located in a sub-directory of
               /dev, that path must be explicitly listed in devsearch.  The
               default value is
               /dev/pts:/dev/vt:/dev/term:/dev/zcons:/dev/pty:/dev

               This option is ignored on systems that support either the
               devname() or _ttyname_dev() functions, for example BSD, macOS
               and Solaris.

     intercept
               The fully-qualified path to a shared library containing a wrap-
               pers for the execl(), execle(), execlp(), execv(), execve(),
               execvp(), and execvpe() library functions that intercepts
               attempts to run further commands and performs a policy check
               before allowing them to be executed.  This is used to implement
               the intercept functionality on systems that support LD_PRELOAD
               or its equivalent.  The default value is
               /opt/local/libexec/sudo/sudo_intercept.so.

     noexec    The fully-qualified path to a shared library containing wrap-
               pers for the execl(), execle(), execlp(), exect(), execv(),
               execve(), execveat(), execvP(), execvp(), execvpe(), fexecve(),
               popen(), posix_spawn(), posix_spawnp(), system(), and wordexp()
               library functions that prevent the execution of further com-
               mands.  This is used to implement the noexec functionality on
               systems that support LD_PRELOAD or its equivalent.  The default
               value is /opt/local/libexec/sudo/sudo_noexec.so.

     plugin_dir
               The default directory to use when searching for plugins that
               are specified without a fully qualified path name.  The default
               value is /opt/local/libexec/sudo.

   Other settings
     The sudo.conf file also supports the following front end settings:

     disable_coredump
               Core dumps of sudo itself are disabled by default to prevent
               the disclosure of potentially sensitive information.  To aid in
               debugging sudo crashes, you may wish to re-enable core dumps by
               setting ``disable_coredump'' to false in sudo.conf as follows:

                     Set disable_coredump false

               All modern operating systems place restrictions on core dumps
               from set-user-ID processes like sudo so this option can be
               enabled without compromising security.  To actually get a sudo
               core file you will likely need to enable core dumps for set-
               user-ID processes.  On BSD and Linux systems this is accom-
               plished in the sysctl(8) command.  On Solaris, the coreadm(1m)
               command is used to configure core dump behavior.

               This setting is only available in sudo version 1.8.4 and
               higher.

     developer_mode
               By default sudo refuses to load plugins which can be modified
               by other than the root user.  The plugin should be owned by
               root and write access permissions should be disabled for
               ``group'' and ``other''.  To make development of a plugin eas-
               ier, you can disable that by setting ``developer_mode'' option
               to true in sudo.conf as follows:

                     Set developer_mode true

               Please note that this creates a security risk, so it is not
               recommended on critical systems such as a desktop machine for
               daily use, but is intended to be used in development environ-
               ments (VM, container, etc).  Before enabling developer mode,
               ensure you understand the implications.

               This setting is only available in sudo version 1.9.0 and
               higher.

     group_source
               sudo passes the invoking user's group list to the policy and
               I/O plugins.  On most systems, there is an upper limit to the
               number of groups that a user may belong to simultaneously (typ-
               ically 16 for compatibility with NFS).  On systems with the
               getconf(1) utility, running:
                     getconf NGROUPS_MAX
               will return the maximum number of groups.

               However, it is still possible to be a member of a larger number
               of groups--they simply won't be included in the group list
               returned by the kernel for the user.  Starting with sudo ver-
               sion 1.8.7, if the user's kernel group list has the maximum
               number of entries, sudo will consult the group database
               directly to determine the group list.  This makes it possible
               for the security policy to perform matching by group name even
               when the user is a member of more than the maximum number of
               groups.

               The group_source setting allows the administrator to change
               this default behavior.  Supported values for group_source are:

               static    Use the static group list that the kernel returns.
                         Retrieving the group list this way is very fast but
                         it is subject to an upper limit as described above.
                         It is ``static'' in that it does not reflect changes
                         to the group database made after the user logs in.
                         This was the default behavior prior to sudo 1.8.7.

               dynamic   Always query the group database directly.  It is
                         ``dynamic'' in that changes made to the group data-
                         base after the user logs in will be reflected in the
                         group list.  On some systems, querying the group
                         database for all of a user's groups can be time con-
                         suming when querying a network-based group database.
                         Most operating systems provide an efficient method of
                         performing such queries.  Currently, sudo supports
                         efficient group queries on AIX, BSD, HP-UX, Linux,
                         macOS and Solaris.  This is the default behavior on
                         macOS in sudo 1.9.6 and higher.

               adaptive  Only query the group database if the static group
                         list returned by the kernel has the maximum number of
                         entries.  This is the default behavior on systems
                         other than macOS in sudo 1.8.7 and higher.

               For example, to cause sudo to only use the kernel's static list
               of groups for the user:

                     Set group_source static

               This setting is only available in sudo version 1.8.7 and
               higher.

     max_groups
               The maximum number of user groups to retrieve from the group
               database.  Values less than one or larger than 1024 will be
               ignored.  This setting is only used when querying the group
               database directly.  It is intended to be used on systems where
               it is not possible to detect when the array to be populated
               with group entries is not sufficiently large.  By default, sudo
               will allocate four times the system's maximum number of groups
               (see above) and retry with double that number if the group
               database query fails.

               This setting is only available in sudo version 1.8.7 and
               higher.  It should not be required in sudo versions 1.8.24 and
               higher and may be removed in a later release.

     probe_interfaces
               By default, sudo will probe the system's network interfaces and
               pass the IP address of each enabled interface to the policy
               plugin.  This makes it possible for the plugin to match rules
               based on the IP address without having to query DNS.  On Linux
               systems with a large number of virtual interfaces, this may
               take a non-negligible amount of time.  If IP-based matching is
               not required, network interface probing can be disabled as fol-
               lows:

                     Set probe_interfaces false

               This setting is only available in sudo version 1.8.10 and
               higher.

   Debug settings
     sudo versions 1.8.4 and higher support a flexible debugging framework
     that can log what sudo is doing internally if there is a problem.

     A Debug line consists of the Debug keyword, followed by the name of the
     program, plugin or shared object to debug, the debug file name and a
     comma-separated list of debug flags.  The debug flag syntax used by sudo,
     the sudoers plugin and its associated programs and shared objects is
     subsystem@priority but a third-party plugin is free to use a different
     format so long as it does not include a comma (`,').

     Examples:

           Debug sudo /var/log/sudo_debug all@warn,plugin@info

     would log all debugging statements at the warn level and higher in addi-
     tion to those at the info level for the plugin subsystem.

           Debug sudo_intercept.so /var/log/intercept_debug all@debug

     would log all debugging statements, regardless of level, for the
     sudo_intercept.so shared object that implements sudo's intercept func-
     tionality.

     As of sudo 1.8.12, multiple Debug entries may be specified per program.
     Older versions of sudo only support a single Debug entry per program.
     Plugin-specific Debug entries are also supported starting with sudo
     1.8.12 and are matched by either the base name of the plugin that was
     loaded (for example sudoers.so) or by the plugin's fully-qualified path
     name.  Previously, the sudoers plugin shared the same Debug entry as the
     sudo front end and could not be configured separately.

     The following priorities are supported, in order of decreasing severity:
     crit, err, warn, notice, diag, info, trace and debug.  Each priority,
     when specified, also includes all priorities higher than it.  For exam-
     ple, a priority of notice would include debug messages logged at notice
     and higher.

     The priorities trace and debug also include function call tracing which
     logs when a function is entered and when it returns.  For example, the
     following trace is for the get_user_groups() function located in
     src/sudo.c:

           sudo[123] -> get_user_groups @ src/sudo.c:385
           sudo[123] <- get_user_groups @ src/sudo.c:429 := groups=10,0,5

     When the function is entered, indicated by a right arrow `->', the pro-
     gram, process ID, function, source file and line number are logged.  When
     the function returns, indicated by a left arrow `<-', the same informa-
     tion is logged along with the return value.  In this case, the return
     value is a string.

     The following subsystems are used by the sudo front-end:

     all         matches every subsystem

     args        command line argument processing

     conv        user conversation

     edit        sudoedit

     event       event subsystem

     exec        command execution

     main        sudo main function

     netif       network interface handling

     pcomm       communication with the plugin

     plugin      plugin configuration

     pty         pseudo-terminal related code

     selinux     SELinux-specific handling

     util        utility functions

     utmp        utmp handling

     The sudoers(5) plugin includes support for additional subsystems.


FILES

     /opt/local/etc/sudo.conf  sudo front end configuration


EXAMPLES

     #
     # Default /opt/local/etc/sudo.conf file
     #
     # Sudo plugins:
     #   Plugin plugin_name plugin_path plugin_options ...
     #
     # The plugin_path is relative to /opt/local/libexec/sudo unless
     #   fully qualified.
     # The plugin_name corresponds to a global symbol in the plugin
     #   that contains the plugin interface structure.
     # The plugin_options are optional.
     #
     # The sudoers plugin is used by default if no Plugin lines are present.
     #Plugin sudoers_policy sudoers.so
     #Plugin sudoers_io sudoers.so
     #Plugin sudoers_audit sudoers.so

     #
     # Sudo askpass:
     #   Path askpass /path/to/askpass
     #
     # An askpass helper program may be specified to provide a graphical
     # password prompt for "sudo -A" support.  Sudo does not ship with its
     # own askpass program but can use the OpenSSH askpass.
     #
     # Use the OpenSSH askpass
     #Path askpass /usr/X11R6/bin/ssh-askpass
     #
     # Use the Gnome OpenSSH askpass
     #Path askpass /usr/libexec/openssh/gnome-ssh-askpass

     #
     # Sudo device search path:
     #   Path devsearch /dev/path1:/dev/path2:/dev
     #
     # A colon-separated list of paths to check when searching for a user's
     # terminal device.
     #
     #Path devsearch /dev/pts:/dev/vt:/dev/term:/dev/zcons:/dev/pty:/dev

     #
     # Sudo command interception:
     #   Path intercept /path/to/sudo_intercept.so
     #
     # Path to a shared library containing replacements for the execv()
     # and execve() library functions that perform a policy check to verify
     # the command is allowed and simply return an error if not.  This is
     # used to implement the "intercept" functionality on systems that
     # support LD_PRELOAD or its equivalent.
     #
     # The compiled-in value is usually sufficient and should only be changed
     # if you rename or move the sudo_intercept.so file.
     #
     #Path intercept /opt/local/libexec/sudo/sudo_intercept.so

     #
     # Sudo noexec:
     #   Path noexec /path/to/sudo_noexec.so
     #
     # Path to a shared library containing replacements for the execv()
     # family of library functions that just return an error.  This is
     # used to implement the "noexec" functionality on systems that support
     # LD_PRELOAD or its equivalent.
     #
     # The compiled-in value is usually sufficient and should only be changed
     # if you rename or move the sudo_noexec.so file.
     #
     #Path noexec /opt/local/libexec/sudo/sudo_noexec.so

     #
     # Sudo plugin directory:
     #   Path plugin_dir /path/to/plugins
     #
     # The default directory to use when searching for plugins that are
     # specified without a fully qualified path name.
     #
     #Path plugin_dir /opt/local/libexec/sudo

     #
     # Sudo developer mode:
     #   Set developer_mode true|false
     #
     # Allow loading of plugins that are owned by non-root or are writable
     # by "group" or "other".  Should only be used during plugin development.
     #Set developer_mode true

     #
     # Core dumps:
     #   Set disable_coredump true|false
     #
     # By default, sudo disables core dumps while it is executing (they
     # are re-enabled for the command that is run).
     # To aid in debugging sudo problems, you may wish to enable core
     # dumps by setting "disable_coredump" to false.
     #
     #Set disable_coredump false

     #
     # User groups:
     #   Set group_source static|dynamic|adaptive
     #
     # Sudo passes the user's group list to the policy plugin.
     # If the user is a member of the maximum number of groups (usually 16),
     # sudo will query the group database directly to be sure to include
     # the full list of groups.
     #
     # On some systems, this can be expensive so the behavior is configurable.
     # The "group_source" setting has three possible values:
     #   static   - use the user's list of groups returned by the kernel.
     #   dynamic  - query the group database to find the list of groups.
     #   adaptive - if user is in less than the maximum number of groups.
     #              use the kernel list, else query the group database.
     #
     #Set group_source static

     #
     # Sudo interface probing:
     #   Set probe_interfaces true|false
     #
     # By default, sudo will probe the system's network interfaces and
     # pass the IP address of each enabled interface to the policy plugin.
     # On systems with a large number of virtual interfaces this may take
     # a noticeable amount of time.
     #
     #Set probe_interfaces false

     #
     # Sudo debug files:
     #   Debug program /path/to/debug_log subsystem@priority[,subsyste@priority]
     #
     # Sudo and related programs support logging debug information to a file.
     # The program is typically sudo, sudoers.so, sudoreplay or visudo.
     #
     # Subsystems vary based on the program; "all" matches all subsystems.
     # Priority may be crit, err, warn, notice, diag, info, trace or debug.
     # Multiple subsystem@priority may be specified, separated by a comma.
     #
     #Debug sudo /var/log/sudo_debug all@debug
     #Debug sudoers.so /var/log/sudoers_debug all@debug


SEE ALSO

     sudo_plugin(5), sudoers(5), sudo(8)


HISTORY

     See the HISTORY file in the sudo distribution (https://www.sudo.ws/his-
     tory.html) for a brief history of sudo.


AUTHORS

     Many people have worked on sudo over the years; this version consists of
     code written primarily by:

           Todd C. Miller

     See the CONTRIBUTORS file in the sudo distribution
     (https://www.sudo.ws/contributors.html) for an exhaustive list of people
     who have contributed to sudo.


BUGS

     If you feel you have found a bug in sudo, please submit a bug report at
     https://bugzilla.sudo.ws/


SUPPORT

     Limited free support is available via the sudo-users mailing list, see
     https://www.sudo.ws/mailman/listinfo/sudo-users to subscribe or search
     the archives.


DISCLAIMER

     sudo is provided ``AS IS'' and any express or implied warranties, includ-
     ing, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and
     fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed.  See the LICENSE file
     distributed with sudo or https://www.sudo.ws/license.html for complete
     details.

Sudo 1.9.8                     September 7, 2021                    Sudo 1.9.8

sudo 1.9.8 - Generated Tue Sep 14 14:39:51 CDT 2021
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