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lsof(8)                                                                lsof(8)




NAME

       lsof - list open files


SYNOPSIS

       lsof  [  -?abChKlnNOPRtUvVX  ]  [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [
       +|-D D ] [ +|-e s ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [
       -k  k  ]  [  +|-L  [l] ] [ +|-m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [ -p s ] [ +|-r
       [t[m<fmt>]] ] [ -s [p:s] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w ] [ -x
       [fl] ] [ -z [z] ] [ -Z [Z] ] [ -- ] [names]


DESCRIPTION

       Lsof  revision 4.87 lists on its standard output file information about
       files opened by processes for the following UNIX dialects:

            Apple Darwin 9 and Mac OS X 10.[567]
            FreeBSD 4.9 and 6.4 for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 8.2, 9.0 and 10.0 for AMD64-based systems
            Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
            Solaris 9, 10 and 11

       (See the DISTRIBUTION section of this manual page  for  information  on
       how to obtain the latest lsof revision.)

       An  open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file,
       a character special file, an executing text  reference,  a  library,  a
       stream  or  a  network  file  (Internet socket, NFS file or UNIX domain
       socket.)  A specific file or all the files in  a  file  system  may  be
       selected by path.

       Instead  of  a  formatted display, lsof will produce output that can be
       parsed by other programs.  See the -F, option description, and the OUT-
       PUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more information.

       In  addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in repeat
       mode.  In repeat mode it will produce output, delay,  then  repeat  the
       output  operation  until stopped with an interrupt or quit signal.  See
       the +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] option description for more information.


OPTIONS

       In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files  belonging  to
       all active processes.

       If  any  list  request option is specified, other list requests must be
       specifically requested - e.g., if -U is specified for  the  listing  of
       UNIX  socket  files, NFS files won't be listed unless -N is also speci-
       fied; or if a user list is specified with the -u  option,  UNIX  domain
       socket  files,  belonging  to  users  not  in the list, won't be listed
       unless the -U option is also specified.

       Normally list options that are specifically stated  are  ORed  -  i.e.,
       specifying  the  -i option without an address and the -ufoo option pro-
       duces a listing of all network files OR files  belonging  to  processes
       owned by user ``foo''.  The exceptions are:

       1) the `^' (negated) login name or user ID (UID), specified with the -u
          option;

       2) the `^' (negated) process ID (PID), specified with the -p option;

       3) the `^' (negated) process group ID (PGID),  specified  with  the  -g
          option;

       4) the `^' (negated) command, specified with the -c option;

       5) the  (`^')  negated  TCP or UDP protocol state names, specified with
          the -s [p:s] option.

       Since they represent exclusions, they are applied without ORing or AND-
       ing and take effect before any other selection criteria are applied.

       The -a option may be used to AND the selections.  For example, specify-
       ing -a, -U, and -ufoo produces a listing of only UNIX socket files that
       belong to processes owned by user ``foo''.

       Caution:  the  -a option causes all list selection options to be ANDed;
       it can't be used to cause ANDing of selected pairs of selection options
       by  placing it between them, even though its placement there is accept-
       able.  Wherever -a is placed, it causes the  ANDing  of  all  selection
       options.

       Items of the same selection set - command names, file descriptors, net-
       work addresses, process  identifiers,  user  identifiers,  zone  names,
       security  contexts - are joined in a single ORed set and applied before
       the result participates  in  ANDing.   Thus,  for  example,  specifying
       -i@aaa.bbb,  -i@ccc.ddd,  -a,  and -ufff,ggg will select the listing of
       files that belong to either login ``fff'' OR ``ggg'' AND  have  network
       connections to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options  may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g., the
       option set ``-a -b -C'' may be stated as -abC.  However,  since  values
       are optional following +|-f, -F, -g, -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r, -s, -S, -T, -x
       and -z.  when you have no values for them be careful that the following
       character isn't ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent the -F and
       -n options, or it might represent the n field identifier character fol-
       lowing  the  -F option.  When ambiguity is possible, start a new option
       with a `-' character - e.g., ``-F -n''.  If the next option is  a  file
       name,  follow the possibly ambiguous option with ``--'' - e.g., ``-F --
       name''.

       Either the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to a group of  options.
       Options that don't take on separate meanings for each prefix - e.g., -i
       - may be grouped under either prefix.  Thus, for example, ``+M -i'' may
       be  stated  as  ``+Mi''  and  the  group means the same as the separate
       options.  Be careful of prefix grouping when one or more options in the
       group  does  take on separate meanings under different prefixes - e.g.,
       +|-M; ``-iM'' is not the same request as ``-i +M''.  When in doubt, use
       separate options with appropriate prefixes.

       -? -h    These  two  equivalent  options  select  a usage (help) output
                list.  Lsof displays a shortened form of this output  when  it
                detects  an  error in the options supplied to it, after it has
                displayed messages explaining each  error.   (Escape  the  `?'
                character as your shell requires.)

       -a       causes list selection options to be ANDed, as described above.

       -A A     is available on systems configured for AFS  whose  AFS  kernel
                code  is  implemented via dynamic modules.  It allows the lsof
                user to specify A as an alternate name  list  file  where  the
                kernel  addresses  of the dynamic modules might be found.  See
                the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)   for  more
                information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they
                affect lsof.

       -b       causes lsof to avoid  kernel  functions  that  might  block  -
                lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2).

                See  the  BLOCKS  AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sec-
                tions for information on using this option.

       -c c     selects the listing of files for processes executing the  com-
                mand  that begins with the characters of c.  Multiple commands
                may be specified, using multiple -c options.  They are  joined
                in a single ORed set before participating in AND option selec-
                tion.

                If c begins with a `^', then the following characters  specify
                a command name whose processes are to be ignored (excluded.)

                If  c  begins  and  ends  with  a  slash ('/'), the characters
                between the slashes are interpreted as a  regular  expression.
                Shell meta-characters in the regular expression must be quoted
                to prevent their interpretation by  the  shell.   The  closing
                slash may be followed by these modifiers:

                     b    the regular expression is a basic one.
                     i    ignore the case of letters.
                     x    the regular expression is an extended one
                          (default).

                See  the  lsof  FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
                more information on basic and extended regular expressions.

                The simple command specification is  tested  first.   If  that
                test fails, the command regular expression is applied.  If the
                simple command test succeeds, the command  regular  expression
                test  isn't  made.   This may result in ``no command found for
                regex:'' messages when lsof's -V option is specified.

       +c w     defines the maximum number of initial characters of the  name,
                supplied  by  the UNIX dialect, of the UNIX command associated
                with a process to be printed in the COMMAND column.  (The lsof
                default is nine.)

                Note  that  many  UNIX dialects do not supply all command name
                characters to lsof in the files and structures from which lsof
                obtains  command  name.   Often  dialects  limit the number of
                characters supplied in  those  sources.   For  example,  Linux
                2.4.27  and  Solaris  9  both  limit command name length to 16
                characters.

                If w is zero ('0'), all command characters supplied to lsof by
                the UNIX dialect will be printed.

                If w is less than the length of the column title, ``COMMAND'',
                it will be raised to that length.

       -C       disables the reporting of any path name  components  from  the
                kernel's  name  cache.   See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for
                more information.

       +d s     causes lsof to search for all open instances  of  directory  s
                and  the  files  and directories it contains at its top level.
                +d does NOT descend the directory tree, rooted at s.  The +D D
                option  may  be  used to request a full-descent directory tree
                search, rooted at directory D.

                Processing of the +d option does  not  follow  symbolic  links
                within s unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor
                does it search for open files on file system mount  points  on
                subdirectories  of  s  unless  the  -x or -x  f option is also
                specified.

                Note: the authority of the user of this option  limits  it  to
                searching  for  files  that the user has permission to examine
                with the system stat(2) function.

       -d s     specifies a list of file descriptors (FDs) to exclude from  or
                include in the output listing.  The file descriptors are spec-
                ified in  the  comma-separated  set  s  -  e.g.,  ``cwd,1,3'',
                ``^6,^2''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                The  list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set begin
                with `^'.  It is an inclusion list if  no  entry  begins  with
                `^'.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

                A  file  descriptor  number range may be in the set as long as
                neither member is empty, both members  are  numbers,  and  the
                ending  member is larger than the starting one - e.g., ``0-7''
                or ``3-10''.  Ranges may be specified for  exclusion  if  they
                have  the  `^'  prefix  -  e.g.,  ``^0-7''  excludes  all file
                descriptors 0 through 7.

                Multiple file descriptor numbers are joined in a  single  ORed
                set before participating in AND option selection.

                When  there  are  exclusion  and inclusion members in the set,
                lsof reports them as errors and exits with a  non-zero  return
                code.

                See  the  description of File Descriptor (FD) output values in
                the OUTPUT section for more  information  on  file  descriptor
                names.

       +D D     causes  lsof  to  search for all open instances of directory D
                and all the files and directories it contains to its  complete
                depth.

                Processing  of  the  +D  option does not follow symbolic links
                within D unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor
                does  it  search for open files on file system mount points on
                subdirectories of D unless the -x or  -x   f  option  is  also
                specified.

                Note:  the  authority  of the user of this option limits it to
                searching for files that the user has  permission  to  examine
                with the system stat(2) function.

                Further  note: lsof may process this option slowly and require
                a large amount of dynamic memory to do it.  This is because it
                must  descend  the entire directory tree, rooted at D, calling
                stat(2) for each file and directory, building a  list  of  all
                the  files  it finds, and searching that list for a match with
                every open file.  When directory D is large, these  steps  can
                take a long time, so use this option prudently.

       -D D     directs  lsof's use of the device cache file.  The use of this
                option is sometimes restricted.  See  the  DEVICE  CACHE  FILE
                section  and  the sections that follow it for more information
                on this option.

                -D must be followed by a function letter; the function  letter
                may  optionally  be  followed by a path name.  Lsof recognizes
                these function letters:

                     ? - report device cache file paths
                     b - build the device cache file
                     i - ignore the device cache file
                     r - read the device cache file
                     u - read and update the device cache file

                The b, r, and u functions, accompanied by  a  path  name,  are
                sometimes  restricted.   When  these functions are restricted,
                they will not appear in the description of the -D option  that
                accompanies  -h  or  -?   option output.  See the DEVICE CACHE
                FILE section and the sections that follow it for more informa-
                tion on these functions and when they're restricted.

                The  ?   function  reports  the read-only and write paths that
                lsof can use for the device cache file, the names of any envi-
                ronment  variables whose values lsof will examine when forming
                the device cache file path, and the format  for  the  personal
                device  cache  file  path.   (Escape the `?' character as your
                shell requires.)

                When available, the b, r, and u functions may be  followed  by
                the  device  cache  file's  path.   The  standard  default  is
                .lsof_hostname in the home directory of the real user ID  that
                executes  lsof, but this could have been changed when lsof was
                configured and  compiled.   (The  output  of  the  -h  and  -?
                options  show  the  current default prefix - e.g., ``.lsof''.)
                The suffix, hostname, is the first  component  of  the  host's
                name returned by gethostname(2).

                When  available,  the  b  function directs lsof to build a new
                device cache file at the default or specified path.

                The i function directs lsof to ignore the default device cache
                file and obtain its information about devices via direct calls
                to the kernel.

                The r function directs lsof to read the device  cache  at  the
                default or specified path, but prevents it from creating a new
                device cache file when none exists  or  the  existing  one  is
                improperly structured.  The r function, when specified without
                a path name, prevents lsof from updating an incorrect or  out-
                dated  device  cache file, or creating a new one in its place.
                The r function is always available when it is specified  with-
                out  a path name argument; it may be restricted by the permis-
                sions of the lsof process.

                When available, the u function directs lsof to read the device
                cache  file at the default or specified path, if possible, and
                to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is the default device cache
                file function when no -D option has been specified.

       +|-e s   exempts  the  file system whose path name is s from being sub-
                jected to kernel function calls  that  might  block.   The  +e
                option  exempts  stat(2), lstat(2) and most readlink(2) kernel
                function calls.   The  -e  option  exempts  only  stat(2)  and
                lstat(2)  kernel function calls.  Multiple file systems may be
                specified with separate +|-e specifications and each may  have
                readlink(2) calls exempted or not.

                This option is currently implemented only for Linux.

                CAUTION:  this  option can easily be mis-applied to other than
                the file system of interest, because it uses path name  rather
                than  the more reliable device and inode numbers.  (Device and
                inode  numbers  are  acquired  via  the  potentially  blocking
                stat(2)  kernel  call  and are thus not available, but see the
                +|-m m option as a possible alternative way to  supply  device
                numbers.)   Use  this option with great care and fully specify
                the path name of the file system to be exempted.

                When open files on exempted file systems are reported, it  may
                not  be  possible to obtain all their information.  Therefore,
                some  information  columns  will  be  blank,  the   characters
                ``UNKN'' preface the values in the TYPE column, and the appli-
                cable exemption option is added in parentheses to the  end  of
                the  NAME  column.   (Some  device number information might be
                made available via the +|-m m option.)

       +|-f [cfgGn]
                f by itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be inter-
                preted.   When followed by c, f, g, G, or n in any combination
                it specifies that the listing of kernel file structure  infor-
                mation is to be enabled (`+') or inhibited (`-').

                Normally  a  path  name  argument is taken to be a file system
                name if it matches a mounted-on  directory  name  reported  by
                mount(8),  or  if  it  represents a block device, named in the
                mount output and associated with  a  mounted  directory  name.
                When +f is specified, all path name arguments will be taken to
                be file system names, and lsof will complain if any  are  not.
                This  can  be  useful,  for example, when the file system name
                (mounted-on device) isn't a block device.   This  happens  for
                some CD-ROM file systems.

                When  -f  is specified by itself, all path name arguments will
                be taken to be simple files.  Thus, for example,  the  ``-f --
                /''  arguments direct lsof to search for open files with a `/'
                path name, not all open files in the `/' (root) file system.

                Be careful to make sure +f and -f are properly terminated  and
                aren't followed by a character (e.g., of the file or file sys-
                tem name) that might be taken as a  parameter.   For  example,
                use ``--'' after +f and -f as in these examples.

                     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
                     $ lsof -f -- /file/name

                The  listing  of  information  from  kernel  file  structures,
                requested with the +f [cfgGn] option form, is normally  inhib-
                ited,  and is not available in whole or part for some dialects
                - e.g., /proc-based Linux kernels below 2.6.22.  When the pre-
                fix  to  f is a plus sign (`+'), these characters request file
                structure information:

                     c    file structure use count (not Linux)
                     f    file structure address (not Linux)
                     g    file flag abbreviations (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     G    file flags in hexadecimal (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     n    file structure node address (not Linux)

                When the prefix is minus (`-') the same characters disable the
                listing of the indicated values.

                File   structure   addresses,  use  counts,  flags,  and  node
                addresses may be used to detect more readily  identical  files
                inherited  by  child  processes  and identical files in use by
                different processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by out-
                put  columns holding the values and listed to identify identi-
                cal file use, or lsof field output can be parsed by an AWK  or
                Perl post-filter script, or by a C program.

       -F f     specifies  a  character list, f, that selects the fields to be
                output for processing by another program,  and  the  character
                that terminates each output field.  Each field to be output is
                specified with a single character in f.  The field  terminator
                defaults to NL, but may be changed to NUL (000).  See the OUT-
                PUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description of the  field
                identification characters and the field output process.

                When the field selection character list is empty, all standard
                fields are selected (except the  raw  device  field,  security
                context  and  zone field for compatibility reasons) and the NL
                field terminator is used.

                When the field selection character list contains only  a  zero
                (`0'),  all  fields  are selected (except the raw device field
                for compatibility reasons) and the NUL terminator character is
                used.

                Other combinations of fields and their associated field termi-
                nator character must be set with explicit  entries  in  f,  as
                described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section.

                When  a field selection character identifies an item lsof does
                not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R -  specifica-
                tion of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
                listing of the item.

                When the field selection character list  contains  the  single
                character  `?',  lsof  will  display  a help list of the field
                identification characters.  (Escape the `?' character as  your
                shell requires.)

       -g [s]   excludes  or  selects  the  listing of files for the processes
                whose optional process group IDentification (PGID) numbers are
                in  the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.
                (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                PGID numbers that begin with `^' (negation)  represent  exclu-
                sions.

                Multiple  PGID  numbers are joined in a single ORed set before
                participating in AND option selection.  However,  PGID  exclu-
                sions  are  applied  without  ORing  or ANDing and take effect
                before other selection criteria are applied.

                The -g option also enables the output display of PGID numbers.
                When specified without a PGID set that's all it does.

       -i [i]   selects  the  listing  of  files any of whose Internet address
                matches the address specified in i.  If no address  is  speci-
                fied, this option selects the listing of all Internet and x.25
                (HP-UX) network files.

                If -i4 or -i6 is specified with  no  following  address,  only
                files  of  the  indicated  IP  version, IPv4 or IPv6, are dis-
                played.  (An IPv6  specification  may  be  used  only  if  the
                dialects   supports   IPv6,   as  indicated  by  ``[46]''  and
                ``IPv[46]'' in lsof's -h or -?  output.)  Sequentially  speci-
                fying  -i4,  followed by -i6 is the same as specifying -i, and
                vice-versa.  Specifying -i4, or -i6 after -i is  the  same  as
                specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

                Multiple  addresses  (up  to  a limit of 100) may be specified
                with multiple -i options.  (A  port  number  or  service  name
                range is counted as one address.)  They are joined in a single
                ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                An Internet address is specified in the form (Items in  square
                brackets are optional.):

                [46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

                where:
                     46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
                          that applies to the following address.
                          '6' may be be specified only if the UNIX
                          dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
                          '6' is specified, the following address
                          applies to all IP versions.
                     protocol is a protocol name - TCP, UDP
                     hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
                          specific IP version is specified, open
                          network files associated with host names
                          of all versions will be selected.
                     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
                          dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
                          colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
                          UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
                          version is selected, only its numeric
                          addresses may be specified.
                     service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
                          or a list of them.
                     port is a port number, or a list of them.

                IPv6  options  may  be  used only if the UNIX dialect supports
                IPv6.  To see if the dialect supports IPv6, run lsof and spec-
                ify the -h or -?  (help) option.  If the displayed description
                of the -i option contains ``[46]'' and  ``IPv[46]'',  IPv6  is
                supported.

                IPv4  host names and addresses may not be specified if network
                file selection is limited to IPv6 with -i 6.  IPv6 host  names
                and  addresses  may not be specified if network file selection
                is limited to IPv4 with -i  4.   When  an  open  IPv4  network
                file's  address  is mapped in an IPv6 address, the open file's
                type will be IPv6, not IPv4, and its display will be  selected
                by '6', not '4'.

                At  least  one  address  component - 4, 6, protocol, hostname,
                hostaddr, or service - must be supplied.  The  `@'  character,
                leading  the host specification, is always required; as is the
                `:', leading the port specification.  Specify either  hostname
                or  hostaddr.  Specify either service name list or port number
                list.  If a service name list is specified, the  protocol  may
                also  need  to  be  specified if the TCP, UDP and UDPLITE port
                numbers for the service name are different.  Use  any  case  -
                lower or upper - for protocol.

                Service names and port numbers may be combined in a list whose
                entries are  separated  by  commas  and  whose  numeric  range
                entries  are separated by minus signs.  There may be no embed-
                ded spaces, and all service names must belong to the specified
                protocol.   Since  service  names  may  contain embedded minus
                signs, the starting entry of a range can't be a service  name;
                it can be a port number, however.

                Here are some sample addresses:

                     -i6 - IPv6 only
                     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
                     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
                     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
                          3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
                     UDP:who - UDP who service port
                     TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
                     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
                          service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
                     tcp@bar:1-smtp - TCP, ports 1 through smtp, host bar
                     :time - either TCP, UDP or UDPLITE time service port

       -K       selects  the  listing  of  tasks  (threads)  of  processes, on
                dialects where task (thread) reporting is supported.  (If help
                output  -  i.e.,  the  output of the -h or -?  options - shows
                this option, then task (thread) reporting is supported by  the
                dialect.)

                When -K and -a are both specified on Linux, and the tasks of a
                main process are selected by other options, the  main  process
                will  also  be  listed as though it were a task, but without a
                task ID.  (See the description of the TID column in the OUTPUT
                section.)

                Where  the  FreeBSD version supports threads, all threads will
                be listed with their IDs.

       -k k     specifies a kernel name list file, k,  in  place  of  /vmunix,
                /mach,  etc.   -k  is  not  available  under  AIX  on  the IBM
                RISC/System 6000.

       -l       inhibits the conversion of user ID numbers to login names.  It
                is also useful when login name lookup is working improperly or
                slowly.

       +|-L [l] enables (`+') or disables  (`-')  the  listing  of  file  link
                counts, where they are available - e.g., they aren't available
                for sockets, or most FIFOs and pipes.

                When +L is specified without  a  following  number,  all  link
                counts will be listed.  When -L is specified (the default), no
                link counts will be listed.

                When +L is followed by a number,  only  files  having  a  link
                count  less  than  that number will be listed.  (No number may
                follow -L.)  A specification of the form ``+L1''  will  select
                open  files  that  have been unlinked.  A specification of the
                form ``+aL1 <file_system>'' will select unlinked open files on
                the specified file system.

                For  other link count comparisons, use field output (-F) and a
                post-processing script or program.

       +|-m m   specifies an alternate kernel memory file or  activates  mount
                table supplement processing.

                The  option  form  -m  m specifies a kernel memory file, m, in
                place of /dev/kmem or /dev/mem - e.g., a crash dump file.

                The option form +m requests that a mount  supplement  file  be
                written  to  the  standard output file.  All other options are
                silently ignored.

                There will be a line in the mount  supplement  file  for  each
                mounted file system, containing the mounted file system direc-
                tory, followed by a single space, followed by the device  num-
                ber in hexadecimal "0x" format - e.g.,

                     / 0x801

                Lsof  can  use the mount supplement file to get device numbers
                for file systems  when  it  can't  get  them  via  stat(2)  or
                lstat(2).

                The  option form +m m identifies m as a mount supplement file.

                Note: the +m and +m m options are not available for  all  sup-
                ported dialects.  Check the output of lsof's -h or -?  options
                to see if the +m and +m m options are available.

       +|-M     Enables (+) or disables (-) the reporting of portmapper regis-
                trations for local TCP, UDP and UDPLITE ports, where port map-
                ping is supported.  (See the last  paragraph  of  this  option
                description  for  information about where portmapper registra-
                tion reporting is suported.)

                The default reporting mode is set by the lsof builder with the
                HASPMAPENABLED #define in the dialect's machine.h header file;
                lsof is distributed with the  HASPMAPENABLED  #define  deacti-
                vated, so portmapper reporting is disabled by default and must
                be requested with +M.  Specifying lsof's -h or -?  option will
                report  the  default  mode.  Disabling portmapper registration
                when it is  already  disabled  or  enabling  it  when  already
                enabled is acceptable.  When portmapper registration reporting
                is enabled, lsof displays the portmapper registration (if any)
                for local TCP, UDP or UDPLITE ports in square brackets immedi-
                ately following the port numbers  or  service  names  -  e.g.,
                ``:1234[name]'' or ``:name[100083]''.  The registration infor-
                mation may be a name or number, depending on what  the  regis-
                tering  program  supplied to the portmapper when it registered
                the port.

                When portmapper registration reporting is  enabled,  lsof  may
                run a little more slowly or even become blocked when access to
                the portmapper becomes  congested  or  stopped.   Reverse  the
                reporting mode to determine if portmapper registration report-
                ing is slowing or blocking lsof.

                For purposes of portmapper registration reporting lsof consid-
                ers  a  TCP,  UDP or UDPLITE port local if: it is found in the
                local part of its containing kernel structure;  or  if  it  is
                located in the foreign part of its containing kernel structure
                and the local and foreign Internet addresses are the same;  or
                if  it is located in the foreign part of its containing kernel
                structure and the foreign Internet address is  INADDR_LOOPBACK
                (127.0.0.1).   This  rule  may  make  lsof ignore some foreign
                ports on machines with multiple interfaces  when  the  foreign
                Internet  address  is  on a different interface from the local
                one.

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  location.)   for
                further   discussion   of  portmapper  registration  reporting
                issues.

                Portmapper  registration  reporting  is  supported   only   on
                dialects  that  have  RPC header files.  (Some Linux distribu-
                tions with GlibC 2.14 do not have them.)  When portmapper reg-
                istration  reporting  is  supported, the -h or -?  help output
                will show the +|-M option.

       -n       inhibits the conversion of network numbers to host  names  for
                network  files.   Inhibiting  conversion  may  make  lsof  run
                faster.  It is also useful when host name lookup is not  work-
                ing properly.

       -N       selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o       directs  lsof  to display file offset at all times.  It causes
                the SIZE/OFF output column title  to  be  changed  to  OFFSET.
                Note: on some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or con-
                sistent file offset information from its kernel data  sources,
                sometimes  just  for  particular  kinds of files (e.g., socket
                files.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its loca-
                tion.)  for more information.

                The  -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't both
                be specified.  When neither is specified, lsof displays  what-
                ever value - size or offset - is appropriate and available for
                the type of the file.

       -o o     defines the number of decimal digits (o) to be  printed  after
                the  ``0t''  for  a file offset before the form is switched to
                ``0x...''.  An o value of zero (unlimited) directs lsof to use
                the ``0t'' form for all offset output.

                This  option  does  NOT  direct  lsof to display offset at all
                times; specify -o (without a trailing number) to do that.   -o
                o  only  specifies the number of digits after ``0t'' in either
                mixed size and offset or offset-only output.  Thus, for  exam-
                ple, to direct lsof to display offset at all times with a dec-
                imal digit count of 10, use:

                     -o -o 10
                or
                     -oo10

                The default number of digits allowed after ``0t'' is  normally
                8, but may have been changed by the lsof builder.  Consult the
                description of the -o o option in the output of the -h  or  -?
                option to determine the default that is in effect.

       -O       directs  lsof  to  bypass  the strategy it uses to avoid being
                blocked by some kernel operations - i.e., doing them in forked
                child  processes.   See  the  BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING
                KERNEL BLOCKS sections for more information on  kernel  opera-
                tions that may block lsof.

                While use of this option will reduce lsof startup overhead, it
                may also cause lsof to hang when the kernel doesn't respond to
                a function.  Use this option cautiously.

       -p s     excludes  or  selects  the  listing of files for the processes
                whose optional process IDentification (PID) numbers are in the
                comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.  (There
                should be no spaces in the set.)

                PID numbers that begin with `^'  (negation)  represent  exclu-
                sions.

                Multiple  process  ID  numbers are joined in a single ORed set
                before participating in AND option  selection.   However,  PID
                exclusions are applied without ORing or ANDing and take effect
                before other selection criteria are applied.

       -P       inhibits the conversion of port numbers to port names for net-
                work  files.   Inhibiting  the  conversion may make lsof run a
                little faster.  It is also useful when port name lookup is not
                working properly.

       +|-r [t[m<fmt>]]
                puts  lsof  in  repeat  mode.   There lsof lists open files as
                selected by other options, delays t seconds (default fifteen),
                then  repeats  the  listing, delaying and listing repetitively
                until stopped by a condition defined  by  the  prefix  to  the
                option.

                If  the prefix is a `-', repeat mode is endless.  Lsof must be
                terminated with an interrupt or quit signal.

                If the prefix is `+', repeat mode will end the first cycle  no
                open  files  are  listed  - and of course when lsof is stopped
                with an interrupt or  quit  signal.   When  repeat  mode  ends
                because  no  files  are  listed, the process exit code will be
                zero if any open files were ever listed;  one,  if  none  were
                ever listed.

                Lsof  marks  the  end  of  each listing: if field output is in
                progress (the -F, option  has  been  specified),  the  default
                marker  is  `m'; otherwise the default marker is ``========''.
                The marker is followed by a NL character.

                The optional "m<fmt>" argument  specifies  a  format  for  the
                marker  line.   The  <fmt> characters following `m' are inter-
                preted as a format specification to the strftime(3)  function,
                when  both  it  and the localtime(3) function are available in
                the dialect's C library.  Consult the  strftime(3)  documenta-
                tion  for  what  may appear in its format specification.  Note
                that when field output is requested with the -F option,  <fmt>
                cannot  contain  the  NL  format, ``%n''.  Note also that when
                <fmt> contains spaces or  other  characters  that  affect  the
                shell's  interpretation  of  arguments,  <fmt>  must be quoted
                appropriately.

                Repeat mode reduces lsof startup overhead, so it is more effi-
                cient  to  use this mode than to call lsof repetitively from a
                shell script, for example.

                To use repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r with spec-
                ification  of  other  lsof selection options, so the amount of
                kernel memory access lsof does will  be  kept  to  a  minimum.
                Options  that  filter at the process level - e.g., -c, -g, -p,
                -u - are the most efficient selectors.

                Repeat mode is useful when coupled with field output (see  the
                -F,  option description) and a supervising awk or Perl script,
                or a C program.

       -R       directs lsof to list the Parent Process IDentification  number
                in the PPID column.

       -s [p:s] s  alone  directs  lsof to display file size at all times.  It
                causes the SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to SIZE.
                If the file does not have a size, nothing is displayed.

                When  followed  by  a  protocol name (p), either TCP or UDP, a
                colon (`:') and a comma-separated protocol  state  name  list,
                the  option  causes  open  TCP and UDP files to be excluded if
                their state name(s) are in the list (s) preceded by a `^';  or
                included if their name(s) are not preceded by a `^'.

                When  an  inclusion  list  is defined, only network files with
                state names in the list will be present in  the  lsof  output.
                Thus,  specifying one state name means that only network files
                with that lone state name will be listed.

                Case is unimportant in the protocol or state names, but  there
                may  be  no spaces and the colon (`:') separating the protocol
                name (p) and the state name list (s) is required.

                If only TCP and UDP files are to be listed, as  controlled  by
                the specified exclusions and inclusions, the -i option must be
                specified, too.  If only a single protocol's files are  to  be
                listed, add its name as an argument to the -i option.

                For example, to list only network files with TCP state LISTEN,
                use:

                     -iTCP -sTCP:LISTEN

                Or, for example, to list network files  with  all  UDP  states
                except Idle, use:

                     -iUDP -sUDP:Idle

                State  names  vary with UNIX dialects, so it's not possible to
                provide a complete list.  Some common  TCP  state  names  are:
                CLOSED,  IDLE, BOUND, LISTEN, ESTABLISHED, SYN_SENT, SYN_RCDV,
                ESTABLISHED,   CLOSE_WAIT,   FIN_WAIT1,   CLOSING,   LAST_ACK,
                FIN_WAIT_2,  and  TIME_WAIT.   Two  common UDP state names are
                Unbound and Idle.

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  location.)   for
                more  information  on  how to use protocol state exclusion and
                inclusion, including examples.

                The -o (without a following decimal digit count) and -s option
                (without  a  following protocol and state name list) are mutu-
                ally exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When neither is
                specified,  lsof displays whatever value - size or offset - is
                appropriate and available for the type of file.

                Since some types of files don't have  true  sizes  -  sockets,
                FIFOs, pipes, etc. - lsof displays for their sizes the content
                amounts in their associated kernel buffers, if possible.

       -S [t]   specifies an optional time-out seconds value for kernel  func-
                tions - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2) - that might other-
                wise deadlock.  The minimum for t is two;  the  default,  fif-
                teen; when no value is specified, the default is used.

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]   controls  the  reporting  of  some  TCP/TPI  information, also
                reported by netstat(1), following the network  addresses.   In
                normal  output  the  information  appears in parentheses, each
                item except TCP or TPI state name  identified  by  a  keyword,
                followed by `=', separated from others by a single space:

                     <TCP or TPI state name>
                     QR=<read queue length>
                     QS=<send queue length>
                     SO=<socket options and values>
                     SS=<socket states>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values>
                     WR=<window read length>
                     WW=<window write length>

                Not all values are reported for all UNIX dialects.  Items val-
                ues (when available) are reported after the item name and '='.

                When  the field output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR OTHER
                PROGRAMS.)  each item appears as a field with  a  `T'  leading
                character.

                -T  with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI informa-
                tion reporting.

                -T with following characters selects the reporting of specific
                TCP/TPI information:

                     f    selects reporting of socket options,
                          states and values, and TCP flags and
                          values.
                     q    selects queue length reporting.
                     s    selects connection state reporting.
                     w    selects window size reporting.

                Not  all selections are enabled for some UNIX dialects.  State
                may be selected for all dialects and is reported  by  default.
                The  -h  or  -?   help output for the -T option will show what
                selections may be used with the UNIX dialect.

                When -T is used to select information - i.e., it  is  followed
                by  one or more selection characters - the displaying of state
                is disabled by default, and it  must  be  explicitly  selected
                again  in  the characters following -T.  (In effect, then, the
                default is equivalent to -Ts.)  For example, if queue  lengths
                and state are desired, use -Tqs.

                Socket  options,  socket states, some socket values, TCP flags
                and one TCP value may be reported (when available in the  UNIX
                dialect)  in  the form of the names that commonly appear after
                SO_, so_, SS_, TCP_  and TF_ in the dialect's header  files  -
                most     often     <sys/socket.h>,    <sys/socketvar.h>    and
                <netinet/tcp_var.h>.  Consult those header files for the mean-
                ing of the flags, options, states and values.

                ``SO=''  precedes  socket  options and values; ``SS='', socket
                states; and ``TF='', TCP flags and values.

                If a flag or option has a value, the value will follow an  '='
                and   the   name   --  e.g.,  ``SO=LINGER=5'',  ``SO=QLIM=5'',
                ``TF=MSS=512''.  The following seven values may be reported:

                     Name
                     Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

                     KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
                     LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
                     MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)
                     PQLEN     partial listen queue connections
                     QLEN      established listen queue connections
                     QLIM      established listen queue limit
                     RCVBUF    receive buffer length (SO_RCVBUF)
                     SNDBUF    send buffer length (SO_SNDBUF)

                Details on what socket options and values, socket states,  and
                TCP  flags  and  values  may  be displayed for particular UNIX
                dialects may be found in the answer to the ``Why doesn't  lsof
                report socket options, socket states, and TCP flags and values
                for my dialect?'' and ``Why doesn't lsof  report  the  partial
                listen  queue connection count for my dialect?''  questions in
                the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

       -t       specifies that lsof should produce terse output  with  process
                identifiers  only and no header - e.g., so that the output may
                be piped to kill(1).  -t selects the -w option.

       -u s     selects the listing of files for the user whose login names or
                user  ID  numbers  are  in  the  comma-separated set s - e.g.,
                ``abe'', or ``548,root''.  (There should be no spaces  in  the
                set.)

                Multiple login names or user ID numbers are joined in a single
                ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                If a login name or user ID is preceded by a `^', it becomes  a
                negation - i.e., files of processes owned by the login name or
                user ID will never be listed.  A negated login name or user ID
                selection  is neither ANDed nor ORed with other selections; it
                is applied before all other selections and absolutely excludes
                the  listing  of  the  files  of the process.  For example, to
                direct lsof to exclude the listing of files belonging to  root
                processes, specify ``-u^root'' or ``-u^0''.

       -U       selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v       selects  the  listing  of lsof version information, including:
                revision number; when the lsof  binary  was  constructed;  who
                constructed  the  binary  and  where; the name of the compiler
                used to construct the lsof binary; the version number  of  the
                compiler when readily available; the compiler and loader flags
                used to construct the lsof  binary;  and  system  information,
                typically the output of uname's -a option.

       -V       directs  lsof  to  indicate the items it was asked to list and
                failed to find - command names, file names, Internet addresses
                or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, and UIDs.

                When  other  options  are  ANDed  to  search  options, or com-
                pile-time options restrict the listing of some files, lsof may
                not  report that it failed to find a search item when an ANDed
                option or compile-time option prevents the listing of the open
                file containing the located search item.

                For example, ``lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999'' may not report
                a failure to locate open files at ``TCP@foobar'' and  may  not
                list  any,  if  none  have a file descriptor number of 999.  A
                similar situation arises when HASSECURITY  and  HASNOSOCKSECU-
                RITY  are defined at compile time and they prevent the listing
                of open files.

       +|-w     Enables (+) or disables (-) the suppression  of  warning  mes-
                sages.

                The  lsof builder may choose to have warning messages disabled
                or enabled by default.  The default warning message  state  is
                indicated  in  the  output of the -h or -?  option.  Disabling
                warning messages when they are already  disabled  or  enabling
                them when already enabled is acceptable.

                The -t option selects the -w option.

       -x [fl]  may accompany the +d and +D options to direct their processing
                to cross over symbolic links and|or file system  mount  points
                encountered when scanning the directory (+d) or directory tree
                (+D).

                If -x is specified by itself without  a  following  parameter,
                cross-over  processing  of both symbolic links and file system
                mount points is enabled.  Note that when -x is specified with-
                out a parameter, the next argument must begin with '-' or '+'.

                The optional 'f' parameter enables  file  system  mount  point
                cross-over  processing; 'l', symbolic link cross-over process-
                ing.

                The -x option may not be supplied without also supplying a  +d
                or +D option.

       -X       This is a dialect-specific option.

           AIX:
                This IBM AIX RISC/System 6000 option requests the reporting of
                executed text file and shared library references.

                WARNING: because this option uses the kernel readx() function,
                its  use  on  a  busy  AIX  system  might cause an application
                process to hang so completely that it can  neither  be  killed
                nor stopped.  I have never seen this happen or had a report of
                its happening, but I think there is a  remote  possibility  it
                could happen.

                By  default  use  of readx() is disabled.  On AIX 5L and above
                lsof may need setuid-root permission to  perform  the  actions
                this option requests.

                The  lsof builder may specify that the -X option be restricted
                to processes whose real UID is root.  If that has  been  done,
                the  -X  option  will  not appear in the -h or -?  help output
                unless the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The  default
                lsof  distribution allows any UID to specify -X, so by default
                it will appear in the help output.

                When AIX readx() use is disabled, lsof  may  not  be  able  to
                report  information  for  all text and loader file references,
                but it may also avoid exacerbating  an  AIX  kernel  directory
                search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

                The  readx()  function,  used  by lsof or any other program to
                access some sections of kernel virtual memory, can trigger the
                Stale  Segment ID bug.  It can cause the kernel's dir_search()
                function to believe erroneously that part of an in-memory copy
                of  a file system directory has been zeroed.  Another applica-
                tion process, distinct from lsof, asking the kernel to  search
                the   directory   -   e.g.,  by  using  open(2)  -  can  cause
                dir_search() to loop forever,  thus  hanging  the  application
                process.

                Consult  the  lsof  FAQ  (The FAQ section gives its location.)
                and the 00README file of the lsof distribution for a more com-
                plete  description  of the Stale Segment ID bug, its APAR, and
                methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

           Linux:
                This Linux option requests that lsof  skip  the  reporting  of
                information  on  all  open  TCP, UDP and UDPLITE IPv4 and IPv6
                files.

                This Linux option is  most  useful  when  the  system  has  an
                extremely large number of open TCP, UDP and UDPLITE files, the
                processing of whose  information  in  the  /proc/net/tcp*  and
                /proc/net/udp*  files  would  take lsof a long time, and whose
                reporting is not of interest.

                Use this option with care and only when you are sure that  the
                information  you  want  lsof  to display isn't associated with
                open TCP, UDP or UDPLITE socket files.

           Solaris 10 and above:
                This Solaris 10 and above option  requests  the  reporting  of
                cached  paths for files that have been deleted - i.e., removed
                with rm(1) or unlink(2).

                The cached path is followed by the  string  `` (deleted)''  to
                indicate  that  the path by which the file was opened has been
                deleted.

                Because intervening changes made to the path -  i.e.,  renames
                with mv(1) or rename(2) - are not recorded in the cached path,
                what lsof reports is only the  path  by  which  the  file  was
                opened, not its possibly different final path.

       -z [z]   specifies  how Solaris 10 and higher zone information is to be
                handled.

                Without a following argument - e.g., NO z - the option  speci-
                fies  that zone names are to be listed in the ZONE output col-
                umn.

                The -z option may be followed by a zone name, z.  That  causes
                lsof to list only open files for processes in that zone.  Mul-
                tiple -z z option and argument pairs may be specified to  form
                a list of named zones.  Any open file of any process in any of
                the zones will be listed, subject to other  conditions  speci-
                fied by other options and arguments.

       -Z [Z]   specifies how SELinux security contexts are to be handled.  It
                and 'Z' field output  character  support  are  inhibited  when
                SELinux  is  disabled in the running Linux kernel.  See OUTPUT
                FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for more information on the 'Z' field  out-
                put character.

                Without  a following argument - e.g., NO Z - the option speci-
                fies that security contexts are to  be  listed  in  the  SECU-
                RITY-CONTEXT output column.

                The  -Z  option may be followed by a wildcard security context
                name, Z.  That causes lsof to list only open  files  for  pro-
                cesses  in  that  security  context.  Multiple -Z Z option and
                argument pairs may be specified to form  a  list  of  security
                contexts.  Any open file of any process in any of the security
                contexts will be listed, subject to other conditions specified
                by  other  options and arguments.  Note that Z can be A:B:C or
                *:B:C or A:B:* or *:*:C to match against the A:B:C context.

       --       The double minus sign option is a marker that signals the  end
                of  the  keyed options.  It may be used, for example, when the
                first file name begins with a minus sign.  It may also be used
                when  the absence of a value for the last keyed option must be
                signified by the presence of a minus  sign  in  the  following
                option and before the start of the file names.

       names    These  are  path  names  of  specific files to list.  Symbolic
                links are resolved before use.  The first name  may  be  sepa-
                rated from the preceding options with the ``--'' option.

                If  a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or the
                device of the file system, lsof will list all the  files  open
                on  the file system.  To be considered a file system, the name
                must match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8) output,  or
                match  the name of a block device associated with a mounted-on
                directory name.  The +|-f option may be used to force lsof  to
                consider a name a file system identifier (+f) or a simple file
                (-f).

                If name is a path to a directory that is  not  the  mounted-on
                directory name of a file system, it is treated just as a regu-
                lar file is treated - i.e., its listing is restricted to  pro-
                cesses  that  have  it open as a file or as a process-specific
                directory, such as the root or current working directory.   To
                request that lsof look for open files inside a directory name,
                use the +d s and +D D options.

                If a name is the base name of a family of multiplexed files  -
                e.  g,  AIX's  /dev/pt[cs] - lsof will list all the associated
                multiplexed  files  on  the  device  that  are  open  -  e.g.,
                /dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

                If  a  name  is  a  UNIX domain socket name, lsof will usually
                search for it by the characters of the name alone - exactly as
                it  is  specified  and is recorded in the kernel socket struc-
                ture.  (See the next paragraph for an exception to  that  rule
                for  Linux.)   Specifying  a relative path - e.g., ./file - in
                place of the file's absolute path - e.g.,  /tmp/file  -  won't
                work  because  lsof must match the characters you specify with
                what it finds in the kernel UNIX domain socket structures.

                If a name is a Linux UNIX domain socket name, in one case lsof
                is  able  to  search  for  it  by its device and inode number,
                allowing name to be a relative path.  The case  requires  that
                the absolute path -- i.e., one beginning with a slash ('/') be
                used by the process that created  the  socket,  and  hence  be
                stored  in  the /proc/net/unix file; and it requires that lsof
                be able to obtain the device and  node  numbers  of  both  the
                absolute  path  in  /proc/net/unix  and  name  via  successful
                stat(2) system calls.  When those  conditions  are  met,  lsof
                will  be  able  to search for the UNIX domain socket when some
                path to it is is specified in name.  Thus, for example, if the
                path  is  /dev/log,  and  an lsof search is initiated when the
                working directory is /dev, then name could be ./log.

                If a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open  files
                whose  device and inode match that of the specified path name.

                If you have also specified the -b option, the only  names  you
                may safely specify are file systems for which your mount table
                supplies alternate device numbers.  See  the  AVOIDING  KERNEL
                BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more informa-
                tion.

                Multiple file names are joined in a  single  ORed  set  before
                participating in AND option selection.


AFS

       Lsof  supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and AFS
       versions):

            AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
            HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
            Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
            Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

       It may recognize AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but has
       not  been  tested there.  Depending on how AFS is implemented, lsof may
       recognize AFS files in other dialects, or may have difficulties  recog-
       nizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in supported
       dialects when AFS kernel support is  implemented  via  dynamic  modules
       whose  addresses  do not appear in the kernel's variable name list.  In
       that case, lsof may have to guess at the identity  of  AFS  files,  and
       might  not be able to obtain volume information from the kernel that is
       needed for calculating AFS volume node numbers.  When lsof  can't  com-
       pute volume node numbers, it reports blank in the NODE column.

       The  -A  A  option is available in some dialect implementations of lsof
       for specifying the name list file where dynamic module kernel addresses
       may  be found.  When this option is available, it will be listed in the
       lsof help output, presented in response to the -h or -?

       See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more infor-
       mation  about  dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they affect lsof
       options.

       Because AFS path lookups don't seem to participate in the kernel's name
       cache  operations,  lsof  can't  identify  path name components for AFS
       files.


SECURITY

       Lsof has three features that may cause security concerns.   First,  its
       default  compilation mode allows anyone to list all open files with it.
       Second, by default it creates a user-readable and user-writable  device
       cache  file  in  the  home  directory of the real user ID that executes
       lsof.  (The list-all-open-files and device cache features may  be  dis-
       abled when lsof is compiled.)  Third, its -k and -m options name alter-
       nate kernel name list or memory files.

       Restricting the listing of all open files is  controlled  by  the  com-
       pile-time  HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options.  When HASSECURITY
       is defined, lsof will allow only the root user to list all open  files.
       The  non-root  user may list only open files of processes with the same
       user IDentification number as the real  user  ID  number  of  the  lsof
       process (the one that its user logged on with).

       However,  if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are both defined, anyone
       may list open socket files, provided they  are  selected  with  the  -i
       option.

       When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help  output,  presented in response to the -h or -?  option, gives the
       status of the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See the Security section of the 00README file of the lsof  distribution
       for  information on building lsof with the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSE-
       CURITY options enabled.

       Creation and use of a user-readable and user-writable device cache file
       is  controlled  by  the  compile-time HASDCACHE option.  See the DEVICE
       CACHE FILE section and the sections that follow it for details  on  how
       its  path  is  formed.   For security considerations it is important to
       note that in the default lsof distribution, if the real user  ID  under
       which  lsof  is executed is root, the device cache file will be written
       in root's home directory - e.g., / or /root.   When  HASDCACHE  is  not
       defined, lsof does not write or attempt to read a device cache file.

       When  HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output, presented in response
       to the -h, -D?, or -?  options, will provide device cache file handling
       information.   When HASDCACHE is not defined, the -h or -?  output will
       have no -D option description.

       Before you decide to disable the device cache file feature  -  enabling
       it improves the performance of lsof by reducing the startup overhead of
       examining all the nodes in /dev (or /devices) - read the discussion  of
       it  in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution and the lsof FAQ (The
       FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE  CACHE
       FILE WITH THE -Di OPTION.

       When lsof user declares alternate kernel name list or memory files with
       the -k and -m options, lsof checks the user's authority  to  read  them
       with  access(2).   This  is  intended to prevent whatever special power
       lsof's modes might confer on it from letting it read files not normally
       accessible via the authority of the real user ID.


OUTPUT

       This  section  describes the information lsof lists for each open file.
       See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for additional information on
       output that can be processed by another program.

       Lsof  only  outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3)) 8 bit charac-
       ters.  Non-printable characters are printed in one of three forms:  the
       C  ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control character `^' form (e.g., ``^@''); or
       hexadecimal leading ``\x'' form (e.g., ``\xab'').  Space is  non-print-
       able in the COMMAND column (``\x20'') and printable elsewhere.

       For  some  dialects  -  if  HASSETLOCALE  is  defined  in the dialect's
       machine.h header file - lsof will print the extended 8  bit  characters
       of  a  language  locale.   The lsof process must be supplied a language
       locale environment variable (e.g., LANG) whose value represents a known
       language  locale in which the extended characters are considered print-
       able by isprint(3).  Otherwise lsof considers the  extended  characters
       non-printable  and prints them according to its rules for non-printable
       characters, stated above.  Consult your dialect's setlocale(3) man page
       for  the names of other environment variables that may be used in place
       of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

       Lsof's language locale support for a dialect also covers  wide  charac-
       ters  -  e.g., UTF-8 - when HASSETLOCALE and HASWIDECHAR are defined in
       the dialect's machine.h header  file,  and  when  a  suitable  language
       locale has been defined in the appropriate environment variable for the
       lsof process.  Wide characters are printable under those conditions  if
       iswprint(3)  reports  them  to  be.  If HASSETLOCALE, HASWIDECHAR and a
       suitable language locale aren't defined, or if iswprint(3) reports wide
       characters  that  aren't  printable, lsof considers the wide characters
       non-printable and prints each of their 8 bits according  to  its  rules
       for non-printable characters, stated above.

       Consult  the  answers to the "Language locale support" questions in the
       lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for more information.

       Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs, guarantee-
       ing  that  each column is a minimum size.  It also guarantees that each
       column is separated from its predecessor by at least one space.

       COMMAND    contains the first nine characters of the name of  the  UNIX
                  command  associated with the process.  If a non-zero w value
                  is specified to the +c w option,  the  column  contains  the
                  first  w  characters of the name of the UNIX command associ-
                  ated with the process up to the limit of characters supplied
                  to lsof by the UNIX dialect.  (See the description of the +c
                  w command or the lsof FAQ for  more  information.   The  FAQ
                  section gives its location.)

                  If  w  is  less  than the length of the column title, ``COM-
                  MAND'', it will be raised to that length.

                  If a zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the  col-
                  umn contains all the characters of the name of the UNIX com-
                  mand associated with the process.

                  All command name characters maintained by the kernel in  its
                  structures  are  displayed  in field output when the command
                  name descriptor (`c') is  specified.   See  the  OUTPUT  FOR
                  OTHER  COMMANDS  section  for information on selecting field
                  output and the associated command name descriptor.

       PID        is the Process IDentification number of the process.

       TID        is the task (thread) IDentification number, if task (thread)
                  reporting is supported by the dialect and a task (thread) is
                  being listed.  (If help output - i.e., the output of the  -h
                  or  -?   options  -  shows  this  option, then task (thread)
                  reporting is supported by the dialect.)

                  A blank TID column in Linux indicates a process  -  i.e.,  a
                  non-task.

       ZONE       is the Solaris 10 and higher zone name.  This column must be
                  selected with the -z option.

       SECURITY-CONTEXT
                  is the  SELinux  security  context.   This  column  must  be
                  selected  with  the  -Z  option.  Note that the -Z option is
                  inhibited when SELinux is disabled in the running Linux ker-
                  nel.

       PPID       is  the Parent Process IDentification number of the process.
                  It is only displayed when the -R option has been  specified.

       PGID       is  the  process group IDentification number associated with
                  the process.  It is only displayed when the  -g  option  has
                  been specified.

       USER       is  the user ID number or login name of the user to whom the
                  process belongs, usually the  same  as  reported  by  ps(1).
                  However,  on  Linux USER is the user ID number or login that
                  owns the directory in /proc  where  lsof  finds  information
                  about  the process.  Usually that is the same value reported
                  by ps(1), but may differ when the process  has  changed  its
                  effective  user  ID.   (See  the  -l  option description for
                  information on when a user ID number or login name  is  dis-
                  played.)

       FD         is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

                       cwd  current working directory;
                       Lnn  library references (AIX);
                       err  FD information error (see NAME column);
                       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
                       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
                       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
                       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
                       mem  memory-mapped file;
                       mmap memory-mapped device;
                       pd   parent directory;
                       rtd  root directory;
                       tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
                       txt  program text (code and data);
                       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

                  FD  is  followed  by one of these characters, describing the
                  mode under which the file is open:

                       r for read access;
                       w for write access;
                       u for read and write access;
                       space if mode unknown and no lock
                            character follows;
                       `-' if mode unknown and lock
                            character follows.

                  The mode character is followed by one of these lock  charac-
                  ters, describing the type of lock applied to the file:

                       N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
                       r for read lock on part of the file;
                       R for a read lock on the entire file;
                       w for a write lock on part of the file;
                       W for a write lock on the entire file;
                       u for a read and write lock of any length;
                       U for a lock of unknown type;
                       x  for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of the
                  file;
                       X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on  the       entire
                  file;
                       space if there is no lock.

                  See  the  LOCKS  section  for  more  information on the lock
                  information character.

                  The FD column contents constitutes a single field for  pars-
                  ing in post-processing scripts.

       TYPE       is  the  type  of  the node associated with the file - e.g.,
                  GDIR, GREG, VDIR, VREG, etc.

                  or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

                  or ``IPv6'' for an open IPv6 network  file  -  even  if  its
                  address is IPv4, mapped in an IPv6 address;

                  or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

                  or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

                  or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

                  or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

                  or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

                  or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

                  or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

                  or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

                  or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

                  or ``DIR'' for a directory;

                  or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

                  or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

                  or ``KQUEUE'' for a BSD style kernel event queue file;

                  or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

                  or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

                  or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

                  or  ``NOFD'' for a Linux /proc/<PID>/fd directory that can't
                  be opened -- the directory path appears in the NAME  column,
                  followed by an error message;

                  or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

                  or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

                  or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

                  or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

                  or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

                  or ``PCWD'' for a /proc current working directory;

                  or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

                  or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

                  or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

                  or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

                  or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

                  or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

                  or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

                  or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

                  or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

                  or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

                  or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

                  or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

                  or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

                  or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

                  or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

                  or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

                  or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

                  or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs file'

                  or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

                  or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

                  or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

                  or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

                  or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

                  or  ``POLP''  for  an  old format /proc light weight process
                  file;

                  or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

                  or ``POPG'' for an old format /proc page data file;

                  or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

                  or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

                  or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

                  or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

                  or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

                  or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

                  or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

                  or ``PSXSEM'' for a POSIX semaphore file;

                  or ``PSXSHM'' for a POSIX shared memory file;

                  or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

                  or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;

                  or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

                  or ``REG'' for a regular file;

                  or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

                  or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

                  or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

                  or ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special file of  unknown
                  type;

                  or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

                  or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file;

                  or  the  four  type  number octets if the corresponding name
                  isn't known.

       FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f  has  been
                  specified to +f;

       FCT        contains  the  file  reference  count  from  the kernel file
                  structure when c has been specified to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when g or G has been specified to +f,  this  field  contains
                  the  contents  of  the  f_flag[s]  member of the kernel file
                  structure and the kernel's per-process open file  flags  (if
                  available);  `G' causes them to be displayed in hexadecimal;
                  `g', as short-hand names; two lists may  be  displayed  with
                  entries  separated by commas, the lists separated by a semi-
                  colon (`;'); the first list may contain short-hand names for
                  f_flag[s] values from the following table:

                       AIO       asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
                       AP        append
                       ASYN      asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
                       BAS       block, test, and set in use
                       BKIU      block if in use
                       BL        use block offsets
                       BSK       block seek
                       CA        copy avoid
                       CIO       concurrent I/O
                       CLON      clone
                       CLRD      CL read
                       CR        create
                       DF        defer
                       DFI       defer IND
                       DFLU      data flush
                       DIR       direct
                       DLY       delay
                       DOCL      do clone
                       DSYN      data-only integrity
                       DTY       must be a directory
                       EVO       event only
                       EX        open for exec
                       EXCL      exclusive open
                       FSYN      synchronous writes
                       GCDF      defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GCMK      mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GTTY      accessed via /dev/tty
                       HUP       HUP in progress
                       KERN      kernel
                       KIOC      kernel-issued ioctl
                       LCK       has lock
                       LG        large file
                       MBLK      stream message block
                       MK        mark
                       MNT       mount
                       MSYN      multiplex synchronization
                       NATM      don't update atime
                       NB        non-blocking I/O
                       NBDR      no BDRM check
                       NBIO      SYSV non-blocking I/O
                       NBF       n-buffering in effect
                       NC        no cache
                       ND        no delay
                       NDSY      no data synchronization
                       NET       network
                       NFLK      don't follow links
                       NMFS      NM file system
                       NOTO      disable background stop
                       NSH       no share
                       NTTY      no controlling TTY
                       OLRM      OLR mirror
                       PAIO      POSIX asynchronous I/O
                       PP        POSIX pipe
                       R         read
                       RC        file and record locking cache
                       REV       revoked
                       RSH       shared read
                       RSYN      read synchronization
                       RW        read and write access
                       SL        shared lock
                       SNAP      cooked snapshot
                       SOCK      socket
                       SQSH      Sequent shared set on open
                       SQSV      Sequent SVM set on open
                       SQR       Sequent set repair on open
                       SQS1      Sequent full shared open
                       SQS2      Sequent partial shared open
                       STPI      stop I/O
                       SWR       synchronous read
                       SYN       file integrity while writing
                       TCPM      avoid TCP collision
                       TR        truncate
                       W         write
                       WKUP      parallel I/O synchronization
                       WTG       parallel I/O synchronization
                       VH        vhangup pending
                       VTXT      virtual text
                       XL        exclusive lock

                  this  list of names was derived from F* #define's in dialect
                  header  files   <fcntl.h>,   <linux</fs.h>,   <sys/fcntl.c>,
                  <sys/fcntlcom.h>,  and  <sys/file.h>;  see the lsof.h header
                  file for a list showing the correspondence between the above
                  short-hand names and the header file definitions;

                  the second list (after the semicolon) may contain short-hand
                  names for kernel per-process open file flags from  this  ta-
                  ble:

                       ALLC      allocated
                       BR        the file has been read
                       BHUP      activity stopped by SIGHUP
                       BW        the file has been written
                       CLSG      closing
                       CX        close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
                       LCK       lock was applied
                       MP        memory-mapped
                       OPIP      open pending - in progress
                       RSVW      reserved wait
                       SHMT      UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
                       USE       in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID    (or  INODE-ADDR for some dialects) contains a unique identi-
                  fier for the file node (usually the kernel  vnode  or  inode
                  address, but also occasionally a concatenation of device and
                  node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE     contains the device numbers,  separated  by  commas,  for  a
                  character  special, block special, regular, directory or NFS
                  file;

                  or ``memory'' for a memory  file  system  node  under  Tru64
                  UNIX;

                  or  the address of the private data area of a Solaris socket
                  stream;

                  or a kernel reference address that identifies the file  (The
                  kernel  reference  address may be used for FIFO's, for exam-
                  ple.);

                  or the base address or device name of a Linux  AX.25  socket
                  device.

                  Usually  only the lower thirty two bits of Tru64 UNIX kernel
                  addresses are displayed.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
                  is the size of the file or the  file  offset  in  bytes.   A
                  value  is  displayed in this column only if it is available.
                  Lsof displays whatever value - size or offset - is appropri-
                  ate for the type of the file and the version of lsof.

                  On  some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or consis-
                  tent file offset information from its kernel  data  sources,
                  sometimes  just  for particular kinds of files (e.g., socket
                  files.)  In other cases, files don't have true sizes - e.g.,
                  sockets, FIFOs, pipes - so lsof displays for their sizes the
                  content amounts it finds in their kernel buffer  descriptors
                  (e.g.,  socket  buffer  size counts or TCP/IP window sizes.)
                  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  location.)
                  for more information.

                  The  file  size  is displayed in decimal; the offset is nor-
                  mally displayed in decimal with a leading ``0t'' if it  con-
                  tains 8 digits or less; in hexadecimal with a leading ``0x''
                  if it is longer than 8 digits.  (Consult  the  -o  o  option
                  description  for information on when 8 might default to some
                  other value.)

                  Thus the leading ``0t'' and ``0x'' identify an  offset  when
                  the  column may contain both a size and an offset (i.e., its
                  title is SIZE/OFF).

                  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file
                  offset (or nothing if no offset is available) and labels the
                  column OFFSET.  The offset  always  begins  with  ``0t''  or
                  ``0x'' as described above.

                  The  lsof  user can control the switch from ``0t'' to ``0x''
                  with the -o o option.   Consult  its  description  for  more
                  information.

                  If the -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file
                  size (or nothing if no size is  available)  and  labels  the
                  column  SIZE.  The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive;
                  they can't both be specified.

                  For files that don't have a fixed size - e.g., don't  reside
                  on a disk device - lsof will display appropriate information
                  about the current size or position of  the  file  if  it  is
                  available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NLINK      contains the file link count when +L has been specified;

       NODE       is the node number of a local file;

                  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

                  or the Internet protocol type - e. g, ``TCP'';

                  or ``STR'' for a stream;

                  or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

       NAME       is  the name of the mount point and file system on which the
                  file resides;

                  or the name of a file specified in the names  option  (after
                  any symbolic links have been resolved);

                  or the name of a character special or block special device;

                  or  the  local  and  remote  Internet addresses of a network
                  file; the local host name or IP  number  is  followed  by  a
                  colon  (':'),  the  port,  ``->'',  and  the two-part remote
                  address; IP addresses may be reported as numbers  or  names,
                  depending  on  the +|-M, -n, and -P options; colon-separated
                  IPv6  numbers  are  enclosed  in   square   brackets;   IPv4
                  INADDR_ANY  and  IPv6 IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED addresses, and
                  zero port numbers are represented by an  asterisk  ('*');  a
                  UDP  destination  address  may  be followed by the amount of
                  time elapsed since the last packet was sent to the  destina-
                  tion;  TCP, UDP and UDPLITE remote addresses may be followed
                  by  TCP/TPI  information  in  parentheses  -  state   (e.g.,
                  ``(ESTABLISHED)'',  ``(Unbound)''),  queue sizes, and window
                  sizes (not all dialects) - in a fashion similar to what net-
                  stat(1)  reports;  see  the  -T  option  description  or the
                  description of the TCP/TPI field in OUTPUT  FOR  OTHER  PRO-
                  GRAMS  for more information on state, queue size, and window
                  size;

                  or the address or name of a  UNIX  domain  socket,  possibly
                  including a stream clone device name, a file system object's
                  path name, local and foreign kernel addresses,  socket  pair
                  information, and a bound vnode address;

                  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

                  or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

                  or  a  stream  character device name, followed by ``->'' and
                  the stream name or a list of stream module names,  separated
                  by ``->'';

                  or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device and
                  module names, separated by ``->'';

                  or system directory name, `` -- '', and as  many  components
                  of the path name as lsof can find in the kernel's name cache
                  for selected dialects (See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for
                  more information.);

                  or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination
                  address;

                  or ``COMMON:'', followed by  the  vnode  device  information
                  structure's device name, for a Solaris common vnode;

                  or  the  address family, followed by a slash (`/'), followed
                  by fourteen comma-separated  bytes  of  a  non-Internet  raw
                  socket address;

                  or  the  HP-UX  x.25  local address, followed by the virtual
                  connection number (if any), followed by the  remote  address
                  (if any);

                  or ``(dead)'' for disassociated Tru64 UNIX files - typically
                  terminal files that have been  flagged  with  the  TIOCNOTTY
                  ioctl and closed by daemons;

                  or ``rd=<offset>'' and ``wr=<offset>'' for the values of the
                  read and write offsets of a FIFO;

                  or ``clone n:/dev/event'' for SCO OpenServer file clones  of
                  the /dev/event device, where n is the minor device number of
                  the file;

                  or ``(socketpair: n)'' for a Solaris 2.6, 8, 9  or  10  UNIX
                  domain  socket,  created by the socketpair(3N) network func-
                  tion;

                  or ``no PCB'' for socket files that do not have  a  protocol
                  block  associated  with  them,  optionally  followed  by ``,
                  CANTSENDMORE'' if sending on the socket has  been  disabled,
                  or  ``,  CANTRCVMORE''  if  receiving on the socket has been
                  disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

                  or the local and remote addresses of a Linux IPX socket file
                  in  the  form <net>:[<node>:]<port>, followed in parentheses
                  by the transmit and receive queue sizes, and the  connection
                  state;

                  or  ``dgram''  or ``stream'' for the type UnixWare 7.1.1 and
                  above in-kernel UNIX domain sockets,  followed  by  a  colon
                  (':')  and  the  local path name when available, followed by
                  ``->'' and the remote path name or kernel socket address  in
                  hexadecimal when available;

                  or the association value, association index, endpoint value,
                  local address, local port, remote address  and  remote  port
                  for Linux SCTP sockets.

       For  dialects  that support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing one file
       to  be  attached  to  another   with   fattach(3C),   lsof   will   add
       ``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)''    to    the    NAME   column.
       <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.  <direction>
       will  be  ``<-''  if <address2> has been fattach'ed to this vnode whose
       address is <address1>; and ``->'' if <address1>, the vnode  address  of
       this vnode, has been fattach'ed to <address2>.  <address1> may be omit-
       ted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

       Lsof may add two parenthetical  notes  to  the  NAME  column  for  open
       Solaris  10 files: ``(?)'' if lsof considers the path name of question-
       able accuracy; and ``(deleted)'' if the -X option  has  been  specified
       and  lsof  detects the open file's path name has been deleted.  Consult
       the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for  more  informa-
       tion on these NAME column additions.


LOCKS

       Lsof  can't  adequately  report  the  wide variety of UNIX dialect file
       locks in a single character.  What it reports in a single character  is
       a  compromise  between  the  information it finds in the kernel and the
       limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof
       only  reports  the  status of the first lock it encounters.  If it is a
       byte level lock, then the lock character will be reported in lower case
       -  i.e.,  `r',  `w',  or  `x'  -  rather than the upper case equivalent
       reported for a full file lock.

       Generally lsof can only report on locks  held  by  local  processes  on
       local  files.   When  a local process sets a lock on a remotely mounted
       (e.g., NFS) file, the remote  server  host  usually  records  the  lock
       state.   One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3, and in
       all versions above 2.4,  the  Solaris  kernel  records  information  on
       remote locks in local structures.

       Lsof  has  trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.  Consult the
       BUGS section of this manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
       its location.)  for more information.


OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS

       When  the -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is suitable
       for processing by another program - e.g, an awk or Perl script, or a  C
       program.

       Each unit of information is output in a field that is identified with a
       leading character and terminated by a NL (012) (or a NUL (000) if the 0
       (zero) field identifier character is specified.)  The data of the field
       follows  immediately  after  the  field  identification  character  and
       extends to the field terminator.

       It  is  possible  to think of field output as process and file sets.  A
       process set begins with a field whose identifier is  `p'  (for  process
       IDentifier  (PID)).   It extends to the beginning of the next PID field
       or the beginning of the first file set of the process, whichever  comes
       first.   Included  in the process set are fields that identify the com-
       mand, the process group IDentification (PGID) number, the task (thread)
       ID (TID), and the user ID (UID) number or login name.

       A  file  set  begins  with  a  field  whose identifier is `f' (for file
       descriptor).  It is followed by lines that describe the  file's  access
       mode, lock state, type, device, size, offset, inode, protocol, name and
       stream module names.  It extends to the beginning of the next  file  or
       process set, whichever comes first.

       When the NUL (000) field terminator has been selected with the 0 (zero)
       field identifier character, lsof ends each process and file set with  a
       NL (012) character.

       Lsof  always produces one field, the PID (`p') field.  All other fields
       may be declared optionally in the field identifier character list  that
       follows  the -F option.  When a field selection character identifies an
       item lsof does not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R - spec-
       ification  of  the  field  character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
       listing of the item.

       It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be
       parsed - e.g., if the field descriptor field is not selected, it may be
       difficult to identify file sets.  To help you  avoid  this  difficulty,
       lsof  supports  the -F option; it selects the output of all fields with
       NL terminators (the -F0 option pair selects the output  of  all  fields
       with  NUL  terminators).   For compatibility reasons neither -F nor -F0
       select the raw device field.

       These are the fields that lsof  will  produce.   The  single  character
       listed first is the field identifier.

            a    file access mode
            c    process command name (all characters from proc or
                 user structure)
            C    file structure share count
            d    file's device character code
            D    file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            f    file descriptor
            F    file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
            G    file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
            g    process group ID
            i    file's inode number
            K    tasK ID
            k    link count
            l    file's lock status
            L    process login name
            m    marker between repeated output
            n    file name, comment, Internet address
            N    node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
            o    file's offset (decimal)
            p    process ID (always selected)
            P    protocol name
            r    raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            R    parent process ID
            s    file's size (decimal)
            S    file's stream identification
            t    file's type
            T    TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
                 `=' is part of the prefix):
                     QR=<read queue size>
                     QS=<send queue size>
                     SO=<socket options and values> (not all dialects)
                     SS=<socket states> (not all dialects)
                     ST=<connection state>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values> (not all dialects)
                     WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
                     WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
                 (TCP/TPI information isn't reported for all supported
                   UNIX dialects. The -h or -? help output for the
                   -T option will show what TCP/TPI reporting can be
                   requested.)
            u    process user ID
            z    Solaris 10 and higher zone name
            Z    SELinux security context (inhibited when SELinux is disabled)
            0    use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
            1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
                 of -F? identifies the information to be found
                 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You  can  get  on-line  help  information on these characters and their
       descriptions by specifying the -F?  option pair.  (Escape the `?' char-
       acter as your shell requires.)  Additional information on field content
       can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As an example, ``-F pcfn'' will select the process  ID  (`p'),  command
       name (`c'), file descriptor (`f') and file name (`n') fields with an NL
       field terminator character; ``-F pcfn0'' selects the same output with a
       NUL (000) field terminator character.

       Lsof  doesn't  produce  all  fields for every process or file set, only
       those that are available.  Some fields  are  mutually  exclusive:  file
       device  characters and file major/minor device numbers; file inode num-
       ber and protocol name; file name and stream identification;  file  size
       and  offset.   One or the other member of these mutually exclusive sets
       will appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally lsof ends each field with a NL (012) character.  The 0  (zero)
       field  identifier character may be specified to change the field termi-
       nator character to a NUL (000).  A NUL  terminator  may  be  easier  to
       process  with  xargs  (1),  for example, or with programs whose quoting
       mechanisms may not easily cope with the  range  of  characters  in  the
       field  output.  When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof ends each
       process and file set with a NL (012).

       Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field output are
       included  in  the  lsof  distribution.   The  first is a C header file,
       lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for the field identification char-
       acters,  indexes  for  storing them in a table, and explanation strings
       that may be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

       The second aid is a set of sample scripts that  process  field  output,
       written  in  awk,  Perl  4, and Perl 5.  They're located in the scripts
       subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The  test
       suite  is  written  in  C and uses field output to validate the correct
       operation of lsof.  The library can be found in the tests/LTlib.c  file
       of  the  lsof  distribution.   The  library  uses  the  first  aid, the
       lsof_fields.h header file.


BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS

       Lsof can be blocked by some kernel functions that it uses  -  lstat(2),
       readlink(2),  and  stat(2).  These functions are stalled in the kernel,
       for example, when the hosts  where  mounted  NFS  file  systems  reside
       become inaccessible.

       Lsof  attempts  to  break these blocks with timers and child processes,
       but the techniques are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does  manage  to
       break  a  block,  it  will report the break with an error message.  The
       messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The default timeout value may be displayed with the -h or  -?   option,
       and it may be changed with the -S [t] option.  The minimum for t is two
       seconds, but you should avoid small values, since slow  system  respon-
       siveness  can  cause  short timeouts to expire unexpectedly and perhaps
       stop lsof before it can produce any output.

       When lsof has to break a block during its access of mounted file system
       information,  it  normally  continues,  although  with less information
       available to display about open files.

       Lsof can also be directed to avoid the protection of timers  and  child
       processes  when using the kernel functions that might block by specify-
       ing the -O option.  While this will allow lsof to start  up  with  less
       overhead,  it  exposes  lsof  completely  to the kernel situations that
       might block it.  Use this option cautiously.


AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS

       You can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel  functions
       that would block.  Some cautions apply.

       First,  using  this  option  usually  requires  that your system supply
       alternate device numbers in place of the device numbers that lsof would
       normally  obtain  with  the lstat(2) and stat(2) kernel functions.  See
       the ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for more information on  alternate
       device numbers.

       Second,  you can't specify names for lsof to locate unless they're file
       system names.  This is because lsof needs to know the device and  inode
       numbers  of  files  listed  with  names in the lsof options, and the -b
       option prevents lsof from obtaining them.  Moreover,  since  lsof  only
       has device numbers for the file systems that have alternates, its abil-
       ity to locate files on file systems depends completely  on  the  avail-
       ability  and  accuracy  of the alternates.  If no alternates are avail-
       able, or if they're incorrect, lsof won't be able to  locate  files  on
       the named file systems.

       Third,  if  the names of your file system directories that lsof obtains
       from your system's mount table are symbolic links, lsof won't  be  able
       to  resolve  the  links.   This is because the -b option causes lsof to
       avoid the kernel readlink(2)  function  it  uses  to  resolve  symbolic
       links.

       Finally, using the -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages when
       it needs to use the kernel functions that the -b option directs  it  to
       avoid.   You  can  suppress these messages by specifying the -w option,
       but if you do, you won't see the alternate device numbers  reported  in
       the warning messages.


ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS

       On  some  dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it can't get
       information about a mounted file system via the  lstat(2)  and  stat(2)
       kernel  functions,  or  because  you  specified the -b option, lsof can
       obtain some of the information it needs - the device number and  possi-
       bly  the  file system type - from the system mount table.  When that is
       possible, lsof will report the device number  it  obtained.   (You  can
       suppress the report by specifying the -w option.)

       You  can  assist  this process if your mount table is supported with an
       /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file that contains an options field by  adding
       a  ``dev=xxxx''  field  for  mount points that do not have one in their
       options strings.  Note: you must be able to edit the file - i.e.,  some
       mount  tables like recent Solaris /etc/mnttab or Linux /proc/mounts are
       read-only and can't be modified.

       You may also be able to supply device numbers using the  +m  and  +m  m
       options, provided they are supported by your dialect.  Check the output
       of lsof's -h or -?  options to see if the  +m  and  +m  m  options  are
       available.

       The  ``xxxx'' portion of the field is the hexadecimal value of the file
       system's device number.  (Consult the st_dev field of the output of the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the appropriate values for your file
       systems.)  Here's an example from a Sun Solaris 2.6 /etc/mnttab  for  a
       file system remotely mounted via NFS:

            nfs  ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There's an advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount table
       file, especially for file systems that  are  mounted  from  remote  NFS
       servers.   When  a  remote  server crashes and you want to identify its
       users by running lsof on one of its clients,  lsof  probably  won't  be
       able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the file
       system.  If it can obtain the file  system's  device  number  from  the
       mount  table,  it will be able to display the files open on the crashed
       NFS server.

       Some dialects that do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab  or  /etc/mnttab  file
       for  the  mount table may still provide an alternative device number in
       their internal mount tables.  This includes AIX, Apple Darwin, FreeBSD,
       NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Tru64 UNIX.  Lsof knows how to obtain the alterna-
       tive device number for these dialects and uses it when its  attempt  to
       lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

       If  you're  not sure your dialect supplies alternate device numbers for
       file systems from its mount table, use this lsof incantation to see  if
       it reports any alternate device numbers:


              lsof -b

       Look  for  standard  error  file warning messages that begin ``assuming
       "dev=xxxx" from ...''.


KERNEL NAME CACHE

       Lsof is able to examine the kernel's name cache  or  use  other  kernel
       facilities  (e.g.,  the  ADVFS  4.x  tag_to_path() function under Tru64
       UNIX) on some dialects for most file system types, excluding  AFS,  and
       extract  recently  used path name components from it.  (AFS file system
       path lookups don't use the kernel's name cache; some Solaris VxFS  file
       system operations apparently don't use it, either.)

       Lsof  reports  the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.  If lsof
       can't report all components in a path, it reports in  the  NAME  column
       the  file system name, followed by a space, two `-' characters, another
       space, and the name components it has located,  separated  by  the  `/'
       character.

       When  lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified -
       the extent to which it can report path name  components  for  the  same
       file  may  vary from cycle to cycle.  That's because other running pro-
       cesses can cause the kernel to remove entries from its name  cache  and
       replace them with others.

       Lsof's  use of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files can
       lead it to report incorrect components under some circumstances.   This
       can  happen when the kernel name cache uses device and node number as a
       key (e.g., SCO OpenServer) and a key on a rapidly changing file  system
       is  reused.   If the UNIX dialect's kernel doesn't purge the name cache
       entry for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may find a reference to  the
       wrong  entry  in  the  cache.   The lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its
       location.)  has more information on this situation.

       Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

            FreeBSD
            HP-UX
            Linux
            NetBSD
            NEXTSTEP
            OpenBSD
            OPENSTEP
            SCO OpenServer
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare
            Solaris
            Tru64 UNIX

       Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

            AIX

       If you want to know why lsof can't report path name components for some
       dialects, see the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)


DEVICE CACHE FILE

       Examining  all members of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with stat(2)
       functions can be time consuming.  What's  more,  the  information  that
       lsof needs - device number, inode number, and path - rarely changes.

       Consequently, lsof normally maintains an ASCII text file of cached /dev
       (or /devices) information (exception: the /proc-based Linux lsof  where
       it's  not  needed.)  The local system administrator who builds lsof can
       control the way the device cache file path is  formed,  selecting  from
       these options:

            Path from the -D option;
            Path from an environment variable;
            System-wide path;
            Personal path (the default);
            Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the current
       state of device cache support.   The  help  output  lists  the  default
       read-mode  device  cache  file  path  that is in effect for the current
       invocation of lsof.  The -D?  option output  lists  the  read-only  and
       write  device cache file paths, the names of any applicable environment
       variables, and the personal device cache path format.

       Lsof can detect that the current device cache file  has  been  acciden-
       tally or maliciously modified by integrity checks, including the compu-
       tation and verification of a sixteen bit Cyclic Redundancy Check  (CRC)
       sum  on the file's contents.  When lsof senses something wrong with the
       file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the current cache file
       and  create a new copy, but only to a path that the process can legiti-
       mately write.

       The path from which a lsof process may attempt to read a  device  cache
       file  may  not  be  the  same  as the path to which it can legitimately
       write.  Thus when lsof senses that it needs to update the device  cache
       file,  it may choose a different path for writing it from the path from
       which it read an incorrect or outdated version.

       If available, the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of a  new  device
       cache  file.  (It's always available when specified without a path name
       argument.)

       When a new device is added to the system, the  device  cache  file  may
       need  to  be  recreated.   Since  lsof compares the mtime of the device
       cache file with the mtime and ctime of the /dev  (or  /devices)  direc-
       tory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in that case
       lsof issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the device  cache
       file.

       Whenever  lsof writes a device cache file, it sets its ownership to the
       real UID of the executing process, and its permission  modes  to  0600,
       this restricting its reading and writing to the file's owner.


LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS

       Two  permissions  of  the  lsof executable affect its ability to access
       device cache files.  The permissions are set by the local system admin-
       istrator when lsof is installed.

       The  first  and  rarer permission is setuid-root.  It comes into effect
       when lsof is executed; its effective UID is then root, while  its  real
       (i.e.,  that  of the logged-on user) UID is not.  The lsof distribution
       recommends that versions for these dialects run setuid-root.

            HP-UX 11.11 and 11.23
            Linux

       The second and more common permission is setgid.  It comes into  effect
       when  the  effective  group  IDentification  number  (GID)  of the lsof
       process is set to one that can access kernel  memory  devices  -  e.g.,
       ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

       An  lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the per-
       mission after it has accessed the kernel memory devices.  When it  does
       that,  lsof  can  allow more liberal device cache path formations.  The
       lsof distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run  set-
       gid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

            AIX 5.[12] and 5.3-ML1
            Apple Darwin 7.x Power Macintosh systems
            FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [6789].x for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 5.x and [6789].x for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64-based
                systems
            HP-UX 11.00
            NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x and 3.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based
                systems
            NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
            OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0-9] for x86-based systems
            OPENSTEP 4.x
            SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
            Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
            Tru64 UNIX 5.1

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its -X
       option is used.)

       Lsof for these dialects does not support a device cache, so the permis-
       sions given to the executable don't apply to the device cache file.

            Linux


DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION

       The  -D  option  provides limited means for specifying the device cache
       file path.  Its ?  function will report the read-only and write  device
       cache file paths that lsof will use.

       When  the  -D  b, r, and u functions are available, you can use them to
       request that the cache file be built in a specific location  (b[path]);
       read  but not rebuilt (r[path]); or read and rebuilt (u[path]).  The b,
       r, and u functions are restricted  under  some  conditions.   They  are
       restricted  when  the  lsof process is setuid-root.  The path specified
       with the r function is always read-only, even when it is available.

       The b, r, and u functions are also restricted  when  the  lsof  process
       runs setgid and lsof doesn't surrender the setgid permission.  (See the
       LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE  ACCESS  section  for  a
       list of implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid per-
       mission.)

       A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

       When available, the b function tells lsof to  read  device  information
       from the kernel with the stat(2) function and build a device cache file
       at the indicated path.

       When available, the r function tells lsof  to  read  the  device  cache
       file,  but  not  update  it.   When a path argument accompanies -Dr, it
       names the device cache file path.  The r function is  always  available
       when it is specified without a path name argument.  If lsof is not run-
       ning setuid-root and surrenders its  setgid  permission,  a  path  name
       argument may accompany the r function.

       When  available,  the  u function tells lsof to attempt to read and use
       the device cache file.  If it can't read the file, or if it  finds  the
       contents  of  the  file incorrect or outdated, it will read information
       from the kernel, and attempt to write an updated version of the  device
       cache  file,  but  only  to a path it considers legitimate for the lsof
       process effective and real UIDs.


DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE

       Lsof's second choice for the device cache file is the contents  of  the
       LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable.  It avoids this choice if the lsof
       process is setuid-root, or the real UID of the process is root.

       A further restriction applies to a device cache file  path  taken  from
       the  LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable:  lsof will not write a device
       cache file to the path if the lsof process doesn't surrender its setgid
       permission.   (See  the  LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE
       ACCESS section for information on implementations that don't  surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       The  local system administrator can disable the use of the LSOFDEVCACHE
       environment variable or change its name when  building  lsof.   Consult
       the output of -D?  for the environment variable's name.


SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH

       The  local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide device
       cache file when building lsof.  That file will generally be constructed
       by  a special system administration procedure when the system is booted
       or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.  If defined,  it  is
       lsof's third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your
       local installation by examining the lsof help option output - i.e., the
       output from the -h or -?  option.

       Lsof  will  never  write  to  the system-wide device cache file path by
       default.  It  must  be  explicitly  named  with  a  -D  function  in  a
       root-owned  procedure.   Once  the file has been written, the procedure
       must change its permission modes to 0644 (owner-read  and  owner-write,
       group-read, and other-read).


PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)

       The  default  device  cache  file  path of the lsof distribution is one
       recorded in the home directory of the  real  UID  that  executes  lsof.
       Added  to  the  home  directory  is a second path component of the form
       .lsof_hostname.

       This is lsof's fourth device cache file path choice, and is usually the
       default.  If a system-wide device cache file path was defined when lsof
       was built, this fourth choice will be applied when lsof can't find  the
       system-wide  device  cache  file.   This is the only time lsof uses two
       paths when reading the device cache file.

       The hostname part of the second component is the base name of the  exe-
       cuting  host,  as returned by gethostname(2).  The base name is defined
       to be the characters preceding the first  `.'   in  the  gethostname(2)
       output, or all the gethostname(2) output if it contains no `.'.

       The  device  cache  file  belongs  to  the  user ID and is readable and
       writable by the user ID alone - i.e., its modes are  0600.   Each  dis-
       tinct  real  user  ID on a given host that executes lsof has a distinct
       device cache file.  The hostname part of the path distinguishes  device
       cache  files  in  an NFS-mounted home directory into which device cache
       files are written from several different hosts.

       The personal device cache file path formed by this method represents  a
       device  cache  file that lsof will attempt to read, and will attempt to
       write should it not exist or should its contents be incorrect  or  out-
       dated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing of
       a new device cache file.

       The -D?  option will list the format specification for constructing the
       personal  device cache file.  The conversions used in the format speci-
       fication are described in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution.


MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH

       If this option is defined by the local system administrator  when  lsof
       is  built, the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable contents may be used
       to add a component of the personal device cache file path.

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH variable contents are inserted in the  path  at  the
       place  marked by the local system administrator with the ``%p'' conver-
       sion in the HASPERSDC format specification of the  dialect's  machine.h
       header  file.   (It's  placed  right  after  the  home directory in the
       default lsof distribution.)

       Thus, for example, if LSOFPERSDCPATH contains ``LSOF'', the home direc-
       tory  is ``/Homes/abe'', the host name is ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'', and
       the HASPERSDC format is the default (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''),  the  modified
       personal device cache file path is:

            /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The  LSOFPERSDCPATH  environment  variable  is  ignored  when  the lsof
       process is setuid-root or when the real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof will not write to a modified personal device cache  file  path  if
       the  lsof  process  doesn't surrender setgid permission.  (See the LSOF
       PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a list  of
       implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid permission.)

       If, for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal  device
       cache  file  paths  by using the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable to
       name it, and lsof doesn't surrender its  setgid  permission,  you  will
       have  to  allow  lsof to create device cache files at the standard per-
       sonal path and move them to your subdirectory with shell commands.

       The local system administrator may: disable this option  when  lsof  is
       built;  change the name of the environment variable from LSOFPERSDCPATH
       to something else; change the HASPERSDC format to include the  personal
       path component in another place; or exclude the personal path component
       entirely.  Consult the output of the -D?  option  for  the  environment
       variable's name and the HASPERSDC format specification.


DIAGNOSTICS

       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof returns a one (1) if any error was detected, including the failure
       to locate command names, file names, Internet addresses or files, login
       names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, or UIDs it was asked to list.  If the -V
       option is specified, lsof will indicate the search items it  failed  to
       list.

       It  returns a zero (0) if no errors were detected and if it was able to
       list some information about all the specified search arguments.


       When lsof cannot open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its subdi-
       rectories, or get information on a file in them with stat(2), it issues
       a warning message and continues.  That lsof will issue warning messages
       about inaccessible files in /dev (or /devices) is indicated in its help
       output - requested with the -h or >B -?  options -  with the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The warning message may be suppressed with the -w option.  It may  also
       have been suppressed by the system administrator when lsof was compiled
       by the setting of the WARNDEVACCESS definition.  In this case, the out-
       put from the help options will include the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible  device  warning messages usually disappear after lsof has
       created a working device cache file.


EXAMPLES

       For a more extensive set of examples, documented more  fully,  see  the
       00QUICKSTART file of the lsof distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

              lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

              lsof -i -U

       To  list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID is
       1234, use:

              lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming the UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open  IPv6  net-
       work files, use:

              lsof -i 6

       To  list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of host
       wonderland.cc.purdue.edu, use:

              lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To list all files using any protocol on any port of  mace.cc.purdue.edu
       (cc.purdue.edu is the default domain), use:

              lsof -i @mace

       To  list  all  open  files  for login name ``abe'', or user ID 1234, or
       process 456, or process 123, or process 789, use:

              lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

              lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

              lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

              kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

       To find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file,  with
       the name /dev/log, use:

              lsof /dev/log

       To  find  processes  with  open  files  on  the  NFS  file system named
       /nfs/mount/point whose server is inaccessible, and presuming your mount
       table supplies the device number for /nfs/mount/point, use:

              lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

              lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

              lsof -Di

       To  obtain  PID  and  command  name field output for each process, file
       descriptor, file device number, and file inode number for each file  of
       each process, use:

              lsof -FpcfDi

       To  list  the files at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process running the
       lsof command for login ID ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

              lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To list the current working directory of processes  running  a  command
       that is exactly four characters long and has an 'o' or 'O' in character
       three, use this regular expression form of the -c c option:

              lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       To find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric  dot-form
       address, use:

              lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To  find  an  IP  version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports
       IPv6) by its associated numeric colon-form address, use:

              lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when  the  UNIX  dialect  supports
       IPv6)  by  an  associated  numeric colon-form address that has a run of
       zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address - use:

              lsof -i@[::1]

       To obtain a repeat mode marker line that  contains  the  current  time,
       use:

              lsof -rm====%T====

       To add spaces to the previous marker line, use:

              lsof -r "m==== %T ===="


BUGS

       Since  lsof  reads  kernel  memory  in its search for open files, rapid
       changes in kernel memory may produce unpredictable results.

       When a file has multiple record locks, the lock status character  (fol-
       lowing  the  file  descriptor) is derived from a test of the first lock
       structure, not from any combination of the individual record locks that
       might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof can't search for files with restrictive access permissions by name
       unless it is installed with root set-UID permission.  Otherwise  it  is
       limited  to  searching for files to which its user or its set-GID group
       (if any) has access permission.

       The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for ping)
       depends on the UNIX operating system.  Some dialects store the destina-
       tion address in the raw socket's protocol control block, some do not.

       Lsof can't always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that
       ls(1)  does.   For example, the major and minor device numbers that the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report for the directory on which CD-ROM
       files  are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as the ones that
       it reports for the device on which CD-ROM files are mounted  (typically
       /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

       The  support for /proc file systems is available only for BSD and Tru64
       UNIX dialects, Linux,  and  dialects  derived  from  SYSV  R4  -  e.g.,
       FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, UnixWare.

       Some  /proc  file  items - device number, inode number, and file size -
       are unavailable in some dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc  file
       system may require that the full path name be specified.

       No  text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.  All
       entries for files other than the current working  directory,  the  root
       directory,  and numerical file descriptors are labeled mem descriptors.

       Lsof can't search for Tru64 UNIX named pipes  by  name,  because  their
       kernel implementation of lstat(2) returns an improper device number for
       a named pipe.

       Lsof can't report fully or correctly on HP-UX 9.01,  10.20,  and  11.00
       locks  because  of  insufficient access to kernel data or errors in the
       kernel data.  See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section  gives  its  location.)
       for details.

       The  AIX  SMT file type is a fabrication.  It's made up for file struc-
       tures whose type (15) isn't defined in the AIX  /usr/include/sys/file.h
       header  file.   One  way  to  create  such  file structures is to run X
       clients with the DISPLAY variable set to ``:0.0''.

       The +|-f[cfgGn] option is not supported under /proc-based  Linux  lsof,
       because it doesn't read kernel structures from kernel memory.


ENVIRONMENT

       Lsof may access these environment variables.

       LANG              defines  a language locale.  See setlocale(3) for the
                         names of other variables that can be used in place of
                         LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_TYPE, etc.

       LSOFDEVCACHE      defines  the  path  to  a device cache file.  See the
                         DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLE  sec-
                         tion for more information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH    defines  the  middle component of a modified personal
                         device cache file path.  See  the  MODIFIED  PERSONAL
                         DEVICE CACHE PATH section for more information.


FAQ

       Frequently-asked  questions and their answers (an FAQ) are available in
       the 00FAQ file of the lsof distribution.

       That file is also available via anonymous ftp from lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       at pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.  The URL is:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ


FILES

       /dev/kmem         kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem          physical memory device

       /dev/swap         system paging device

       .lsof_hostname    lsof's  device  cache  file (The suffix, hostname, is
                         the first component of the host's  name  returned  by
                         gethostname(2).)


AUTHORS

       Lsof  was written by Victor A. Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of Purdue Univer-
       sity.  Many others have contributed to lsof.   They're  listed  in  the
       00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.


DISTRIBUTION

       The latest distribution of lsof is available via anonymous ftp from the
       host lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  You'll find the lsof  distribution  in  the
       pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

       You can also use this URL:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof  is also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       and change to its pub/tools/unix/lsof directory, you'll be given a list
       of  some mirror sites.  The pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also contains
       a more complete list in its mirrors file.  Use mirrors with  caution  -
       not all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

       Some  pre-compiled  Lsof  executables  are  available on lsof.itap.pur-
       due.edu, but their use is discouraged - it's better that you build your
       own  from  the  sources.   If you feel you must use a pre-compiled exe-
       cutable, please read the cautions that appear in the  README  files  of
       the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries subdirectories and in the 00* files of
       the distribution.

       More  information  on  the  lsof  distribution  can  be  found  in  its
       README.lsof_<version> file.  If you intend to get the lsof distribution
       and build it, please read README.lsof_<version> and the other 00* files
       of the distribution before sending questions to the author.


SEE ALSO

       Not  all  the following manual pages may exist in every UNIX dialect to
       which lsof has been ported.

       access(2), awk(1), crash(1), fattach(3C),  ff(1),  fstat(8),  fuser(1),
       gethostname(2),   isprint(3),  kill(1),  localtime(3),  lstat(2),  mod-
       load(8), mount(8), netstat(1), ofiles(8L), perl(1), ps(1), readlink(2),
       setlocale(3), stat(2), strftime(3), time(2), uname(1).



                                 Revision-4.87                         lsof(8)

Mac OS X 10.9 - Generated Fri Oct 18 06:07:41 CDT 2013