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diskutil(8)               BSD System Manager's Manual              diskutil(8)


NAME

     diskutil -- modify, verify and repair local disks


SYNOPSIS

     diskutil [quiet] verb [options]


DESCRIPTION

     diskutil manipulates the structure of local disks.  It provides informa-
     tion about, and allows the administration of, the partitioning schemes,
     layouts, and formats of disks. This includes hard disks, solid state
     disks, optical discs, APFS volumes, CoreStorage volumes, and AppleRAID
     sets.  It generally manipulates whole volumes instead of individual files
     and directories.


VERBS

     Each verb is listed with its description and individual arguments.

     list [-plist] [internal | external] [physical | virtual] [device]
                List disks, including internal and external disks, whole disks
                and partitions, and various kinds of virtual or offline disks.

                If no argument is given, then all whole disks and their parti-
                tions are listed.

                You can limit the number of disks shown by specifying filter-
                ing arguments such as internal above, and/or a device disk.
                When limiting by a disk, you can specify either a whole disk,
                e.g. disk0, or any of its slices, e.g. disk0s3, but filtering
                is only done at the whole disk level (disk0s3 is a synonym for
                disk0 in this case).

                If -plist is specified, then a property list will be emitted
                instead of the normal user-readable output.

                A script could interpret the results of diskutil list -plist
                and use diskutil info -plist as well as diskutil
                listFilesystems -plist for more detailed information.

                The top-to-bottom appearance of all whole disks is sorted in
                numerical order by unit (whole disk) number.  However, within
                each whole disk's "sublist" of partitions, the ordering indi-
                cates actual on-disk location. The first disk item listed rep-
                resents the partition which is located most near the beginning
                of its encompassing whole disk, and so on.

                When viewed this way, the slice (partition) parts of the BSD
                disk identifiers may, in certain circumstances, not appear in
                numerical order.  This is normal and is likely the result of a
                recent partition map editing operation in which volumes were
                kept mounted.

                Note that both human-readable and plist output are sorted as
                described above.

                See the DEVICES section below for the various forms that the
                device specification may take for this and all of the other
                diskutil verbs.

     info | information [-plist] device | -all
                Get detailed information about a specific whole disk or parti-
                tion.  If -plist is specified, then a property list instead of
                the normal user-readable output will be emitted.  If -all is
                specified, then all disks (whole disks and their partitions)
                are processed.

     activity
                Continuously display system-wide disk manipulation activity as
                reported by the Disk Arbitration framework until interrupted
                with a signal (e.g. by typing Control-C).

                This can be useful to watch system-wide activity of disks com-
                ing on-line or being ejected, volumes on disks being mounted
                or unmounted, volumes being renamed, etc.  However, this out-
                put must never be parsed; programs should become Disk Arbitra-
                tion clients instead.

                For debugging information, such as the monitoring of applica-
                tions dissenting (attempting to deny) activities for disks for
                which they have registered an interest, you must use the log-
                ging features of the diskarbitrationd daemon. Programs needing
                this information must become Disk Arbitration clients.

     listFilesystems [-plist]
                Show the file system personalities available for formatting in
                diskutil when using the erasing and partitioning verbs.  This
                is a subset of the complete set of personalities exported by
                the various file system bundles that may be installed in the
                system.  Also shown are some shortcut aliases for common per-
                sonalities.  See the FORMAT section below for more details.
                If -plist is specified, then a property list instead of the
                normal user-readable output will be emitted.

     unmount | umount [force] device
                Unmount a single volume.  Force will force-unmount the volume
                (less kind to any open files; see also umount (8)).

     unmountDisk | umountDisk [force] device
                Given a disk containing a partition map, unmount all of its
                volumes. That is, unmounts are attempted for the map's parti-
                tions containing file system volumes, as well as for "virtual"
                volumes exported by storage systems which import data from the
                map's partitions.  Storage systems supported include APFS,
                AppleRAID, and CoreStorage.

                Force will force-unmount the volumes (less kind to any open
                files; see also umount (8)).

                You should specify a whole disk, but all volumes of the whole
                disk are attempted to be unmounted even if you specify a par-
                tition.

     eject device
                Eject a disk.  Media will become offline for the purposes of
                being a data store for file systems or being a member of con-
                structs such as software RAID or direct data.  Additionally,
                removable media will become eligible for safe manual removal;
                automatically-removable media will begin its physical (motor-
                ized) eject sequence.

     mount [readOnly] [-mountPoint path] device
                Mount a single volume.  If readOnly is specified, then the
                file system is mounted read-only, even if the volume's under-
                lying file system and/or device and/or media supports writing;
                even the super-user may not write to it; this is the same as
                the rdonly option to mount (8).  If a -mountPoint is speci-
                fied, then that path, rather than the standard path of /Vol-
                umes/VolumeName, will be used as the view into the volume file
                content; a directory at that path must already exist.

     mountDisk device
                Mount all mountable and UI-browsable volumes on the given par-
                tition map; that is, a mount is attempted on the directly-
                mountable volume, if any, on each of the whole disk's parti-
                tions. However, "virtual" volumes, such as those are implied
                by e.g. Core Storage Physical Volumes, AppleRAID Members,
                etc., are not handled.  You should specify a whole disk, but
                all volumes of the whole disk are attempted to be mounted even
                if you specify a partition.

     rename | renameVolume device name
                Rename a volume.  Volume names are subject to file system-spe-
                cific alphabet and length restrictions.

     enableJournal device
                Enable journaling on an HFS+ volume.  This works whether or
                not the volume is currently mounted (the volume is temporarily
                mounted if necessary).  Ownership of the affected disk is
                required.

     disableJournal [force] device
                Disable journaling on an HFS+ volume.  This normally works
                whether or not the volume is currently mounted (the volume is
                temporarily mounted if necessary).  If the force option is
                specified, then journaling is disabled directly on disk; in
                this case, the volume must not be mounted.  Ownership of the
                affected disk is required.

     moveJournal external journalDevice device
                Create a 512MB Apple_Journal partition using the journalDevice
                partition to serve as a journal for the volume device. For
                best results, journalDevice should be a partition on a differ-
                ent whole-disk than the volume itself.

                The journal for device will be moved externally onto the newly
                created Apple_Journal partition.

                Since the journalDevice you specify will invariably be larger
                than 512MB, a new HFS+ partition will be created following the
                Apple_Journal partition to fill the remaining space.

                Moving the journal works whether or not the volume is mounted,
                provided journaling is enabled on that volume. No errors are
                currently supported to flag attempts to move journals on vol-
                umes that do not have journaling enabled.  If you have multi-
                ple volumes for which you want external journals, each must
                have its own external Apple_Journal partition.  Ownership of
                the affected disks is required.

     moveJournal internal device
                Move the journal for device back locally (onto that same
                device).  Ownership of the affected disk is required.

     enableOwnership device
                Enable ownership of a volume.  The on-root-disk Volume Data-
                base at /var/db/volinfo.database is manipulated such that the
                User and Group ID settings of files, directories, and links
                (file system objects, or "FSOs") on the target volume are
                taken into account.

                This setting for a particular volume is persistent across
                ejects and injects of that volume as seen by the current OS,
                even across reboots of that OS, because of the entries in this
                OS's Volume Database.  Note thus that the setting is not kept
                on the target disk, nor is it in-memory.

                For some locations of devices (e.g. internal hard disks), con-
                sideration of ownership settings on FSOs is the default.  For
                others (e.g. plug-in USB disks), it is not.

                When ownership is disabled, Owner and Group ID settings on
                FSOs appear to the user and programs as the current user and
                group instead of their actual on-disk settings, in order to
                make it easy to use a plug-in disk of which the user has phys-
                ical possession.

                When ownership is enabled, the Owner and Group ID settings
                that exist on the disk are taken into account for determining
                access, and exact settings are written to the disk as FSOs are
                created.  A common reason for having to enable ownership is
                when a disk is to contain FSOs whose User and Group ID set-
                tings, and thus permissions behavior overall, is critically
                important, such as when the plug-in disk contains system files
                to be changed or added to.

                See also the vsdbutil(8) command.  Running as root is
                required.

     disableOwnership device
                Disable ownership of a volume.  See enableOwnership above.
                Running as root is required.

     verifyVolume device
                Verify the file system data structures of a volume.  The
                appropriate fsck program is executed and the volume is left
                mounted or unmounted as it was before the command.  Ownership
                of the disk to be verified is required.

     repairVolume device
                Repair the file system data structures of a volume.  The
                appropriate fsck program is executed and the volume is left
                mounted or unmounted as it was before the command.  Ownership
                of the affected disk is required.

     verifyDisk device
                Verify the partition map layout of a whole disk intended for
                booting or data use on a Macintosh.  The checks further
                include, but are not limited to, the integrity of the EFI Sys-
                tem Partition, the integrity of any Core Storage Physical Vol-
                ume partitions, and provisioning of space for boot loaders.
                Ownership of the disk to be verified is required; it must be a
                whole disk and must have a partition map.

     repairDisk device
                Repair the partition map layout of a whole disk intended for
                booting or data use on a Macintosh.  The repairs further
                include, but are not limited to, the repair or creation of an
                EFI System Partition, the integrity of any Core Storage Physi-
                cal Volume partitions, and the provisioning of space for boot
                loaders.  Ownership of the affected disk is required; it must
                be a whole disk and must have a partition map.

     eraseDisk format name [APM[Format] | MBR[Format] | GPT[Format]] device
                Erase an existing disk, removing all volumes and writing out a
                new partitioning scheme containing one new empty file system
                volume.  If the partitioning scheme is not specified, then an
                appropriate one for the current machine is chosen.  Format is
                discussed below in the section for the partitionDisk verb.
                Ownership of the affected disk is required.

     eraseVolume format name device
                Write out a new empty file system volume (erasing any current
                file system volume) on an existing partition.  The partition
                remains but its data is lost.  Format is discussed below in
                the section for the partitionDisk verb.

                If you specify Free Space for format, the partition itself is
                deleted (removed entirely) from the partition map instead of
                merely being erased.  Ownership of the affected disk is
                required.

     reformat device
                Erase an existing volume by writing out a new empty file sys-
                tem of the same personality (type) and with the same volume
                name.  Ownership of the affected disk is required.

     eraseOptical [quick] device
                Erase optical media (CD/RW, DVD/RW, etc.).  Quick specifies
                whether the disc recording system software should do a full
                erase or a quick erase.  Ownership of the affected disk is
                required.

     zeroDisk [force] device
                Erase a device, writing zeros to the media.  The device can be
                a whole-disk or a partition.  In either case, in order to be
                useful again, zeroed whole-disks will need to be (re)parti-
                tioned, or zeroed partitions will need to be (re)formatted
                with a file system, e.g. by using the partitionDisk,
                eraseDisk, or eraseVolume verbs.  If you desire a more sophis-
                ticated erase algorithm or if you need to erase only free
                space not in use for files, use the secureErase verb.  The
                force parameter causes best-effort, non-error-terminating,
                forced unmounts and shared-mode writes to be attempted; how-
                ever, this is still no guarantee against drivers which claim
                the disk exclusively. In such cases, you may have to first
                unmount all overlying logical volumes (e.g. CoreStorage or
                AppleRAID). If a disk is partially damaged in just a certain
                unlucky way, you might even have to un-install a kext or erase
                the disk elsewhere.  Ownership of the affected disk is
                required.

     randomDisk [times] device
                Erase a whole disk, writing random data to the media.  Times
                is the optional (defaults to 1) number of times to write ran-
                dom information.  The device can be a whole-disk or a parti-
                tion.  In either case, in order to be useful again, randomized
                whole-disks will need to be (re)partitioned, or randomized
                partitions will need to be (re)formatted with a file system,
                e.g. by using the partitionDisk, eraseDisk, or eraseVolume
                verbs.  If you desire a more sophisticated erase algorithm or
                if you need to erase only free space not in use for files, use
                the secureErase verb.  Ownership of the affected disk is
                required.

     secureErase [freespace] level device
                Erase, using a "secure" (but see the NOTE below) method,
                either a whole-disk (including all of its partitions if parti-
                tioned), or, only the free space (not in use for files) on a
                currently-mounted volume.  Secure erasing makes it harder to
                recover data using "file recovery" software.

                Erasing a whole-disk will leave it useless until it is parti-
                tioned again.  Erasing freespace on a volume will leave your
                files intact, indeed, from an end-user perspective, it will
                appear unchanged, with the exception that it will have
                attempted to make it impossible to recover deleted files.

                If you need to erase all contents of a partition but not its
                hosting whole-disk, use the zeroDisk or randomDisk verbs.
                Ownership of the affected disk is required.

                Level should be one of the following:

                      o   0 - Single-pass zero-fill erase.

                      o   1 - Single-pass random-fill erase.

                      o   2 - US DoD 7-pass secure erase.

                      o   3 - Gutmann algorithm 35-pass secure erase.

                      o   4 - US DoE algorithm 3-pass secure erase.

                NOTE: This kind of secure erase is no longer considered safe
                because modern devices have wear-leveling, block-sparing, and
                possibly-persistent cache hardware. The modern solution for
                quickly and securely erasing your data is strong encryption,
                with which mere destruction of the key more or less instantly
                renders your data irretrievable in practical terms.

     partitionDisk device [numberOfPartitions] [APM[Format] | MBR[Format] |
                GPT[Format]] [part1Format part1Name part1Size part2Format
                part2Name part2Size part3Format part3Name part3Size ...]

                (re)Partition a disk, removing all volumes.  All volumes on
                this disk will be destroyed.  The device parameter specifies
                which whole disk is to be partitioned.  The optional
                numberOfPartitions parameter specifies the number of parti-
                tions to create; if given then the number of parameter
                triplets (see below) is expected to match; else, the number of
                triplets alone given will determine the number of partitions
                created.

                The optional partitioning scheme parameter forces a particular
                partitioning scheme; if not specified, a suitable default is
                chosen.  They are:

                      o   APM[Format] specifies that an Apple Partition Map
                          scheme should be used.  This is the traditional
                          Apple partitioning scheme used to start up a Pow-
                          erPC-based Macintosh computer, to use the disk as a
                          non-startup disk with any Mac, or to create a multi-
                          platform compatible startup disk.

                      o   MBR[Format] specifies that a Master Boot Record
                          scheme should be used.  This is the DOS/Windows-com-
                          patible partitioning scheme.

                      o   GPT[Format] specifies that a GUID Partitioning Table
                          scheme should be used.  This is the partitioning
                          scheme used to start up an Intel-based Macintosh
                          computer.

                For each partition, a triplet of the desired file system for-
                mat, volume name, and size must be specified.  Several other
                diskutil verbs allow these triplets as well (and for them, the
                numberOfPartitions parameter is also optional).  The triplets
                must be as follows:

                      o   Format names are of the form jhfs+, HFS+, MS-DOS,
                          etc.; a list of formattable file systems (more pre-
                          cisely, specific file system personalities exported
                          by the installed file system bundles) and common
                          aliases is available from the listFilesystems verb.

                          Format guides diskutil both in what partition type
                          to set for the partitions (slices) as well as what
                          file system structures to initialize therein, using
                          the file system bundle's plist's FormatExecutable
                          setting which usually points to the appropriate for-
                          matter program such as newfs_hfs(8).

                          You can specify a format of Free Space to skip an
                          area of the disk.

                          You can specify the partition type manually and
                          directly with a format of %<human-readable partition
                          type>% such as %Apple_HFS% or %<GPT partition type
                          UUID constant>% such as
                          %48465300-0000-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC%; these imply
                          a name of %noformat% (below).  Human-readable types
                          must be known to the system but UUID types (GPT
                          scheme only) can be arbitrary.

                      o   Names are the initial volume names; they must con-
                          form to file system specific restrictions.

                          If a name of %noformat% is specified, then the par-
                          tition is left blank such that the partition space
                          is carved out, the partition type is set according
                          to the file system format name or explicit type, the
                          partition space is partially erased ("wiped"), but a
                          file system structure is not initialized with any
                          file system's formatter program (e.g.  newfs_hfs(8);
                          this is useful for setting up partitions that will
                          contain user-defined (not necessarily file system)
                          data.

                          For a triplet whose format is Free Space or a
                          directly-specified partition type, its name is
                          ignored but a dummy name must nevertheless be
                          present.

                      o   Sizes are floating point numbers followed by a let-
                          ter or percent sign as described in the SIZES sec-
                          tion at the end of this page (e.g. 165536000, 55.3T,
                          678M, 75%, R).

                In addition to explicitly-requested partitions, space (gaps)
                might be allocated to satisfy certain filesystems' position
                and length alignment requirements; space might be allocated
                for possible future booter partition insertion; and indeed,
                actual booter partitions might be implicitly created.

                In particular, there is a rule that unrecognized partitions
                1GiB or larger automatically acquire booters.  Thus, if you
                create an arbitrary partition with e.g.  diskutil
                partitionDisk disk0 gpt %11112222-1111-2222-1111-111122221111%
                %noformat% 3gib jhfs+ Untitled r, then a booter partition will
                also be created. You can always delete that booter with
                diskutil eraseVolume "Free Space" dummy disk0s3.

                The last partition is usually automatically lengthened to the
                end of the partition map (disk).  You can specify an exact
                size for your last partition by specifying it as the penulti-
                mate triplet and specifying an additional (last) triplet as
                Free Space.  Or you can use the R (remainder) size specifier
                for one of your middle partitions while specifying an exact
                size for your last partition.

                Ownership of the affected disk is required.

     resizeVolume device [ limits | mapsize | R | size [numberOfPartitions]
                [part1Format part1Name part1Size part2Format part2Name
                part2Size part3Format part3Name part3Size ...] ]

                Non-destructively resize a volume (partition); you may
                increase or decrease its size. Alternatively, takes no action
                and prints some info.

                A size of limits takes no action, but instead will print the
                range of valid values for the target partition, taking into
                account current file system and partition map conditions such
                as files in use and other (immovable) partitions following the
                target.

                A size of mapsize takes no action, but instead will print the
                size of the encompassing whole-disk device, as well as the
                size of the entire partition map (all partitions less map
                overhead). The whole-disk device might be larger than the par-
                tition map if the whole-disk device has grown since the parti-
                tion map was created. Growing a whole-disk device is possible
                with certain enterprise disk (RAID) systems.

                You can grow a volume (partition) (back) to its maximum size
                possible, provided no new partitions have been created that
                are in the way, by specifying R for the new volume size. You
                should use R instead of attempting an absolute value such as
                100% because the latter cannot count partition map overhead.

                When decreasing the size, new partitions may optionally be
                created to fill the newly-freed space.  To do this, specify
                the numberOfPartitions, format, name, and size parameters in
                the same manner as the triplet description for the
                partitionDisk verb.

                Resizing a volume that is currently set as the computer's
                startup disk will invalidate that setting; use the Startup
                Disk System Preferences panel or bless (8) to reset the
                resized volume as the startup disk.

                Device refers to a volume; the volume's file system must be
                journaled HFS+.  Valid sizes are a number followed by a capi-
                tal letter multiplier or percent sign suffix as described in
                the SIZES section at the end of this page (e.g. 1.5T, 128M,
                50%).  Ownership of the affected disk is required.

     splitPartition device [numberOfPartitions] [part1Format part1Name
                part1Size part2Format part2Name part2Size part3Format
                part3Name part3Size ...]

                Destructively split a volume into multiple partitions.  You
                must supply a list of new partitions to create in the space of
                the old partition; specify these with the numberOfPartitions,
                format, name, and size parameters in the same manner as the
                triplet description for the partitionDisk verb.

                For one of your triplets, you can optionally specify the R
                meta-size in lieu of a constant number value for the size
                parameter: the substituted value will be exactly the amount of
                space necessary to complete the re-filling of the original
                partition with all of your triplets.

                Device refers to a volume.  Ownership of the affected disk is
                required.

     mergePartitions [force] format name fromDevice toDevice
                Merge two or more partitions on a disk.  All data on merged
                partitions other than the first will be lost.  Data on the
                first partition will be lost as well if the force argument is
                given.

                If force is not given, and the first partition has a resizable
                file system (e.g. JHFS+), the file system will be preserved
                and grown in a data-preserving manner; your format and name
                parameters are ignored in this case. If force is not given,
                and the first partition is not resizable, you are prompted if
                you want to format.  You will also be prompted to format if
                the first partition has an (HFS) Allocation Block Size which
                is too small to support the required growth of the first par-
                tition; see the -b option for newfs_hfs (8).

                If force is given, the final resulting partition is always
                (re)formatted. You should do this if you wish to (re)format to
                a new file system type.  You will be prompted to confirm.

                Format and name must always be given, but they have an effect
                only when force is given.

                Merged partitions are required to be ordered sequentially on
                disk (see diskutil list for the actual on-disk ordering).  All
                partitions in the range, except for the first one, must be
                unmountable.  Ownership of the affected disk is required.

     APFS | ap apfsVerb [...]
                Apple APFS is a system of virtual volumes.  APFS verbs can be
                used to create, manipulate and destroy APFS Containers and
                their APFS Volumes.  Apple APFS defines these types of
                objects:

                      o   Container - An APFS Container imports one or more
                          APFS Physical Store disks and exports zero or more
                          APFS Volume disks.  Zero or more APFS Containers can
                          exist in (might be attached to) the system at any
                          one time.

                          While attached, the "handle" by which an APFS Con-
                          tainer is identified is by its APFS Container
                          Reference disk (device). You should treat this as an
                          opaque reference token.

                          The Container Reference disk is a synthesized whole-
                          disk which is exported by APFS for identification
                          purposes only; it has no storage. It is associated
                          with the AppleAPFSContainerScheme node in the IO
                          Registry. While APFS Volume device identifiers
                          appear to be of a related form, you should never use
                          the Container Reference as a basis to create device
                          identifiers yourself; use the listing verbs with
                          their plist options instead.

                      o   Physical Store - An APFS Physical Store is a disk
                          which is imported into (that is, which backs, indeed
                          defines) an APFS Container. An APFS Container can
                          import more than one Physical Store, e.g. for
                          Fusion-style Containers.

                          An APFS Physical Store disk is not necessarily a
                          disk from a partition map; it could be e.g. an
                          AppleRAID Set disk. Therefore, you must never assume
                          that an APFS Physical Store's disk identifier is a
                          2-part form such as disk0s2.

                      o   Volume - An APFS Volume is an [un]mountable file
                          system volume which is exported from an APFS Con-
                          tainer.  Zero or more APFS Volumes may be exported
                          out of an APFS Container.

                          APFS Volumes have no specified "size" (capacity).
                          Instead, all APFS Volumes consume capacity out of
                          the remaining free space of their parent APFS Con-
                          tainer, consuming or returning such capacity as user
                          file data is added or deleted. Note that this means
                          that all Volumes within a Container compete for the
                          Container's remaining capacity. However, you can
                          manage Volume allocation with the optional reserve
                          and quota size values.

                          The optional reserve size requests an assured mini-
                          mum capacity for an APFS Volume. If successfully
                          created, the Volume is guaranteed to be able to
                          store at least this many bytes of user file data.
                          Note that beyond this, the Volume might be able to
                          store even more until constrained by reaching zero
                          free space in its parent Container or by reaching a
                          quota, if any. You can use a reserve to prevent run-
                          ning out of capacity due to competition from other
                          Volumes or from a Container shrink attempt.

                          The optional quota size applies a maximum capacity
                          to an APFS Volume, placing a limit on the number of
                          bytes of user file data which can be stored on the
                          Volume. Note that you might not be able to reach
                          this limit if its parent Container becomes full
                          first. You can use a quota to enforce accounting or
                          to manage against "unfair" premature filling-up of
                          the parent Container due solely to this Volume at
                          the expense of sibling Volumes.

                          Efficient file copy cloning (copy-on-write) is sup-
                          ported (see copyfile (3)'s COPYFILE_CLONE).

                          Optional file-level encryption is supported.

                          The format of an APFS Volume's device identifier is
                          that of a slice disk of a special whole-disk; both
                          disks are synthesized by APFS. The "whole" identi-
                          fier number (a positive possibly-multi-digit inte-
                          ger) is arbitrary, and the "slice" numbers (positive
                          possibly-multi-digit integers) count up from 1 with
                          each new Volume. Deleting Volumes may cause gaps in
                          the numbering until the next eject/attach cycle.
                          This form appears the same as a partition (map)
                          scheme and partitions, but it is completely unre-
                          lated.  For example: If "disk3s2" is a Physical
                          Store defining a Container, then "disk5s1",
                          "disk5s2", and "disk5s3" might be the Container's
                          Volumes; "disk5" exists but is never used directly.

                          Although it has a device node, an APFS Volume's data
                          may only be accessed through its files; you cannot
                          open an APFS Volume device node to "directly" access
                          its on-disk bytes.

                      o   Snapshot - An APFS Volume can have zero or more
                          associated APFS Snapshots.  An APFS Snapshot appears
                          as a read-only copy of its parent APFS Volume at a
                          frozen moment in time.  Snapshots are neither listed
                          nor discoverable when their Volume is not mounted.

                APFS itself has no provision for backing up your data.  Back-
                ups should be always be performed on a regular basis and
                before modifying any APFS Container using these commands.

                The following is a list of APFS sub-verbs with their descrip-
                tions and individual arguments.

                list [-plist] [containerReferenceDevice]
                           Display APFS objects as a tree. AFPS Container(s)
                           are shown with their imported Physical Store(s) and
                           exported Volume(s).

                           All currently-attached APFS Containers in the sys-
                           tem are listed unless you specify a
                           containerReferenceDevice, which limits the output
                           to that specific APFS Container family.

                           If -plist is specified, then a property list will
                           be emitted instead of the normal user-readable out-
                           put.

                convert device [-dryrun]
                           Non-destructively convert an HFS volume to an APFS
                           Container with a single APFS Volume. The APFS Con-
                           tainer can then be manipulated (e.g. adding and
                           deleting APFS Volumes) as usual.  The source HFS
                           volume can be located on a partition or on a
                           CoreStorage logical volume (LV); in the latter
                           case, the CoreStorage logical volume group (LVG) is
                           dismantled.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

                create device [device] name
                           Convenience verb which creates an empty APFS Con-
                           tainer and then adds one APFS Volume with the given
                           name.  The APFS Volume will have default attributes
                           such as no encryption, no capacity reserve nor
                           quota, etc.  This is a combination of the diskutil
                           apfs createContainer and diskutil apfs addVolume
                           verbs.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

                createContainer [-main] device [-secondary] [device]
                           Create an empty APFS Container.  The device(s)
                           specified become APFS Physical Stores.

                           If you specify more than one device, a Fusion Con-
                           tainer is created, with the performance roles
                           assigned automatically (preferred) unless you use
                           the -main and -secondary options, in which case,
                           the secondary disk is assumed by APFS's performance
                           algorithms to be on "slower" hardware.  The sec-
                           ondary disk is usually not solid solid state, is
                           usually larger, and is used to store associated
                           "auxiliary" data such as any Windows partition(s)
                           for Boot Camp Assistant.

                           You may then add APFS Volumes with the diskutil
                           apfs addVolume verb.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

                deleteContainer containerReferenceDevice | physicalStoreDevice
                           [name]
                           Destroy an existing APFS Container, including all
                           of its APFS Volumes.  The APFS Volumes are
                           unmounted first; this process may not succeed if
                           one or more is busy. If this happens, the operation
                           is aborted and everything is left intact.  Other-
                           wise, all APFS Volumes are deleted as well as its
                           APFS Container, and the APFS Container's former
                           Physical Store disks will be reformatted as HFS;
                           data on all APFS Volumes will be lost.

                           You can optionally specify a new name, or else
                           "Untitled" will be chosen.  If there were multiple
                           Physical Stores, a space and a number suffix is
                           added for each.

                           Specifying an APFS Physical Store activates an
                           alternate last-resort mode which tries to reclaim
                           your disk(s) even though they may be unusable due
                           to being damaged yet un-deletable due to being
                           busy.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

                resizeContainer containerReferenceDevice | physicalStoreDevice
                           size [part1Format part1Name part1Size part2Format
                           part2Name part2Size part3Format part3Name part3Size
                           ...]
                           Resize an existing APFS Container by specifying
                           either an APFS Container Reference (preferred) or
                           an APFS Physical Store partition, and a proposed
                           new size. The operation is live, non-destructive,
                           and does not mount or unmount any APFS Volumes.

                           If you specify a Container Reference and that Con-
                           tainer imports more than one Physical Store (e.g.
                           Fusion), the appropriate Physical Store will be
                           chosen automatically.

                           Shrinks are constrained by the amount of data usage
                           by all APFS Volumes on the APFS Container.  Grows
                           are constrained by the amount of partition map free
                           space trailing the targeted Physical Store parti-
                           tion.

                           When shrinking, new partitions may optionally be
                           created to fill the newly-freed space.  To do this,
                           specify the format, name, and size parameters in
                           the same manner as the triplet description for the
                           partitionDisk verb.

                           You can specify a size of zero (0) to grow the tar-
                           geted APFS Physical Store such that all remaining
                           space is filled to the next partition or the end of
                           the partition map.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

                addVolume  containerReferenceDevice filesystem name
                           [-passprompt] | [-passphrase passphrase] |
                           [-stdinpassphrase] [-passphraseHint passphraseHint]
                           [-reserve reserve] [-quota quota] [-role roles]
                           [-nomount] [-mountpoint mountpoint]
                           Add a new APFS Volume to an existing APFS Con-
                           tainer. Files can then be stored on this newly-cre-
                           ated APFS Volume.

                           The filesystem parameter sets the permanent APFS
                           personality for this new APFS Volume; you should
                           specify APFS or Case-sensitive APFS.

                           The new APFS Volume will be unencrypted unless you
                           specify one of the passphrase options, in which
                           case the volume will be encrypted from the begin-
                           ning of its existence (as opposed to having encryp-
                           tion applied later); the user which is added will
                           be the "Disk User".  The optional passphraseHint is
                           a user-defined string that can be displayed even
                           while an encrypted APFS Volume is locked.

                           APFS Volumes have no fixed size; they allocate
                           backing store on an as-needed basis.  You can spec-
                           ify the reserve parameter to guarantee a minimum
                           amount of space for your volume; at least that many
                           bytes will be available for file data.  You can
                           also specify the quota parameter to limit your vol-
                           ume's file usage to a maximum amount; no more than
                           that many bytes will be available for file data,
                           even if there is otherwise enough space in the par-
                           ent APFS Container.  You can specify both reserve
                           and quota simultaneously; however, the reserve is
                           not allowed to be larger than the quota.

                           APFS Volumes can carry certain metadata hint flags;
                           you can supply the role parameter with any combina-
                           tion of one or more of the characters BRV, or 0 as
                           a no-op for scripting convenience.

                           The new APFS Volume is explicitly mounted after
                           creation; you can specify -nomount to leave it
                           unmounted or supply a mountpoint for a "custom"
                           mountpoint path, in which case the directory must
                           already exist and you must delete the directory
                           yourself when you unmount.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

                deleteVolume volumeDevice
                           Remove the given APFS Volume from its APFS Con-
                           tainer. All of the Volume's data will be lost.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

                eraseVolume volumeDevice -name newName [-passprompt] |
                           [-passphrase passphrase] | [-stdinpassphrase]
                           [-passphraseHint passphraseHint]
                           Erase the contents of an existing APFS Volume; all
                           of its data will be lost.  Unlike diskutil apfs
                           deleteVolume, the APFS Volume is not removed from
                           its APFS Container.

                           The "new" APFS Volume will inherit the APFS file
                           system type (Case-sensitive or not) but will not
                           inherit attributes such as name, reserve, quota, or
                           encryption status.

                           The "new" APFS Volume be unencrypted, unless you
                           supply passphrase options in the same manner as
                           diskutil apfs addVolume in which case it will be
                           encrypted and initially accessible by the "Disk
                           User".

                           If you need more control, you should delete and
                           (re-)add the Volume instead.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

                changeVolumeRole | chrole volumeDevice roles
                           Change the role metadata flag bits of an existing
                           APFS Volume.

                           The roles should be any combination of one or more
                           of the characters brvBRV in much the same manner as
                           diskutil apfs addVolume above, in which unspecified
                           flags are left alone, use of lower-case causes
                           flags to be cleared, and use of upper-case causes
                           flags to be set.  Alternatively, clear will remove
                           all flags, or 0 can be used as a no-op for script-
                           ing convenience.  You should not make any assump-
                           tions about the usage or legal combinations of role
                           bits.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

                unlockVolume | unlock volumeDevice [-user disk | -user
                           cryptoUserUUID | -recoverykeychain file]
                           [-passphrase passphrase] | [-stdinpassphrase]
                           [-nomount | -mountpoint mountpoint] [-verify]
                           Unlock and mount an encrypted and locked APFS Vol-
                           ume or verify a passphrase.

                           If you do not supply the -user option, then all
                           cryptographic users on that APFS Volume are
                           searched for a match; if you supply -user disk then
                           the Disk UUID (which equals the APFS Volume UUID)
                           user is assumed; if you supply -user with a UUID
                           then that specific user is assumed; if you instead
                           supply -recoverykeychain then the Institutional
                           Recovery user (see below) is assumed.

                           You will be prompted interactively for a passphrase
                           unless you specify a passphrase parameter with
                           -passphrase or pipe your passphrase into stdin and
                           use -stdinpassphrase.

                           As an alternative to a passphrase, you can specify
                           -recoverykeychain with a full path to a keychain
                           file if an Institutional Recovery Key has been pre-
                           viously set up on the APFS Volume. The keychain
                           must be unlocked; see security(1) and fdesetup(8)
                           for more information.

                           You can skip the explicit mounting step or specify
                           a "custom" mountpoint with the -nomount or
                           -mountpoint options. If you specify your own mount-
                           point path, it must exist and you must have write
                           privileges on it.

                           Specifying -verify will test passphrase correctness
                           without affecting the locked or unlocked state.

                           To re-lock the volume, unmount it, e.g. with
                           diskutil unmount or diskutil apfs lockVolume.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

                lockVolume | lock volumeDevice
                           Unmount and lock an encrypted unlocked APFS Volume.
                           This is mostly a synonym for diskutil unmount.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

                listCryptoUsers | listUsers [-plist] volumeDevice
                           Show all cryptographic users (by their Crypto-
                           graphic User UUID) that are associated with the
                           given APFS Volume.

                           If -plist is specified, then a property list will
                           be emitted instead of the normal user-readable out-
                           put.

                changePassphrase | changeCryptoUserPassphrase | passwd
                           volumeDevice -user disk | cryptoUserUUID
                           [-oldPassphrase oldPassphrase |
                           -oldStdinpassphrase] [-newPassphrase newPassphrase
                           | -newStdinpassphrase]
                           Change the passphrase of the given cryptographic
                           user associated with the given APFS Volume.

                           The old and new passphrases are specified in the
                           same manner as diskutil apfs addVolume.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

                setPassphraseHint | setCryptoUserPassphraseHint | hint
                           volumeDevice -user disk | cryptoUserUUID -hint
                           hintMessage | -clear
                           Set or clear an arbitrary hint string to aid recall
                           of a passphrase for the given cryptographic user
                           associated with the given APFS Volume.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

                encryptVolume volumeDevice -user disk | existingCryptoUserUUID
                           [-passphrase existingOrNewPassphrase |
                           -stdinpassphrase]
                           Start "background" encryption of a currently-unen-
                           crypted APFS Volume.

                           You can supply an existing cryptographic user UUID,
                           in which case you must supply its corresponding
                           passphrase, or you can supply disk (or the
                           Disk/Volume UUID) and the corresponding passphrase
                           of the "Disk User", provided the "Disk User"
                           already exists.

                           Alternatively, if no users exist yet on this APFS
                           Volume, you can still supply disk (or the Disk/Vol-
                           ume UUID), and a "Disk User" will be created with a
                           new passphrase which you supply.

                           The passphrase, interactive or not, is specified in
                           the same manner as diskutil apfs addVolume.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

                decryptVolume volumeDevice
                           Start "background" decryption of a currently-
                           encrypted APFS Volume.  No crypto credentials are
                           required, but the APFS Volume must be unlocked.

                           Ownership of the affected disks is required.

     appleRAID | ar raidVerb [...]
                AppleRAID verbs can be used to create, manipulate and destroy
                AppleRAID volumes (Software RAID).  AppleRAID supports three
                basic types of RAID sets:

                      o   "stripe" - Striped Volume (RAID 0)

                      o   "mirror" - Mirrored Volume (RAID 1)

                      o   "concat" - Concatenated Volume (Spanning)

                Of these three basic types, only the "mirror" type increases
                fault-tolerance.  Mirrors may have more than two disks to fur-
                ther increase their fault-tolerance.  Striped and concaten-
                tated volumes are, in fact, more vulnerable to faults than
                single disk volumes.

                From these basic types, "stacked" or "nested" RAID volumes can
                be created.  Stacked RAID sets that make use of mirrored RAID
                sets are fault-tolerant.  For example, these are some of the
                more common combinations of stacked RAID sets:

                      o   RAID 50 - A striped RAID set of hardware RAID 5
                          disks.

                      o   RAID 10 - A striped RAID set of mirrored RAID sets.

                      o   RAID 0+1 - A mirrored RAID set of striped RAID sets.

                      o   Concatenated Mirror - A concatenation of mirrored
                          RAID sets.

                When creating new RAID sets or adding disks, if possible, it
                is better to specify the entire disk instead of a partition on
                that disk.  This allows the software to reformat the entire
                disk using the most current partition layouts.  When using
                whole disks, the type of partitioning used is selected based
                on the platform type (PPC = APMFormat, Intel = GPTFormat).
                GPT and APM partition formats cannot be mixed in the same RAID
                set.

                In addition to whole disk and partition device names,
                AppleRAID uses UUIDs to refer to existing RAID sets and their
                members.  Existing RAID sets may also be specified by mount
                point (e.g.  /Volume/raidset). In many cases, using the UUID
                for the device argument is preferred because disk device names
                may change over time when disks are added, disks are removed
                or when the system is rebooted.  If RAID members have been
                physically disconnected from the system or are no longer
                responding, you must use the member's UUID as the command
                argument.  Messages in the system log will refer to RAID sets
                and their member disks by UUID.  For more information on spec-
                ifying device arguments, see the DEVICES section below.

                AppleRAID is not a replacement for backing up your data.
                Backups should be always be performed on a regular basis and
                before modifying any RAID set using these commands.

                The following is a list of appleRAID sub-verbs with their
                descriptions and individual arguments.

                list [-plist | UUID]
                           Display AppleRAID volumes with current status and
                           associated member disks.  If UUID is specified,
                           only list the RAID set with that AppleRAID Set
                           UUID.  If -plist is specified, then a property list
                           will be emitted instead of user-formatted output.
                           The -plist and UUID arguments may not both be spec-
                           ified.  diskutil listRAID and diskutil checkRAID
                           are deprecated synonyms for diskutil appleRAID
                           list.

                create mirror | stripe | concat setName format devices ...
                           Create a new RAID set consisting of multiple disks
                           and/or RAID sets.  setName is used for both the
                           name of the created RAID volume and the RAID set
                           itself (as displayed in list). e.g. 'diskutil cre-
                           ateRAID stripe MyArray JHFS+ disk1 disk2 disk3
                           disk4'.  Ownership of the affected disks is
                           required.  diskutil createRAID is a deprecated syn-
                           onym for diskutil appleRAID create.

                delete raidVolume
                           Destroy an existing RAID set.  If the RAID set is a
                           mirror with a resizable file system, delete will
                           attempt to convert each of the member partitions
                           back into a non-RAID volume while retaining the
                           contained file system.  For concatenated RAID sets
                           with a resizable file system, delete will attempt
                           to shrink the file system to fit on the first mem-
                           ber partition and convert that to a non-RAID vol-
                           ume.  Ownership of the affected disks is required.
                           diskutil destroyRAID is a deprecated synonym for
                           diskutil appleRAID delete.

                repairMirror raidVolume newDevice
                           Repair a degraded mirror by adding a "new" disk
                           given as newDevice to the RAID mirror set whose
                           exported disk device or set UUID is given as
                           raidVolume. The new disk must be the same size or
                           larger than the existing disks in the RAID set.
                           After running this command, you should manually
                           remove the old (orphaned, failed) member(s) with
                           diskutil appleRAID remove. Ownership of the
                           affected disk is required.  diskutil repairMirror
                           is a deprecated synonym for diskutil appleRAID
                           repairMirror.

                add type newDevice raidVolume
                           Add a new member or hot spare to an existing RAID
                           set.  Type can be either member or spare.  New
                           disks are added live, the RAID volume does not need
                           to be unmounted.  Mirrored volumes support adding
                           both members and hot spares, concatenated volumes
                           only support adding members.  When adding to a mir-
                           rored RAID set, the new disk must be the same size
                           or larger than the existing disks in the RAID set.
                           Adding a hot spare to a mirror will enable autore-
                           building for that mirror.  Adding a new member to a
                           concatenated RAID set appends the member and
                           expands the RAID volume.  Ownership of the affected
                           disk is required.  diskutil addToRAID is a depre-
                           cated synonym for diskutil appleRAID add.

                remove oldDevice raidVolume
                           Remove a member or spare from an existing RAID set.
                           Old disks are removed live; the RAID volume does
                           not need to be unmounted.  For missing devices,
                           oldDevice must be the device's UUID.  Online mirror
                           members with a resizable file system will be con-
                           verted to non-RAID volumes, spare and offline mem-
                           bers will be marked free.  For concatenated RAID
                           sets, only the last member can be removed.  For
                           resizable file systems remove will first attempt to
                           shrink the concatenated RAID set so that the file
                           system fits on the remaining disks.  Ownership of
                           the affected disk is required.  diskutil
                           removeFromRAID is a deprecated synonym for diskutil
                           appleRAID remove.

                enable mirror | concat device
                           Convert a non-RAID disk partition containing a
                           resizable file system (such as JHFS+) into an
                           unpaired mirror or single disk concatenated RAID
                           set.  Disks that were originally partitioned on Mac
                           OS X 10.2 Jaguar or earlier or were partitioned to
                           be Mac OS 9 compatible may not be resizable.  Own-
                           ership of the affected disk is required.  diskutil
                           enableRAID is a deprecated synonym for diskutil
                           appleRAID enable.

                update key value raidVolume
                           Update the key value parameters of an existing RAID
                           set.  Valid keys are:

                                 o   AutoRebuild - If true, the system
                                     attempts to rebuild degraded mirrored
                                     volumes automatically.  When looking for
                                     devices for rebuild, AppleRAID first
                                     looks for hot spares and then degraded
                                     members.  Use a value of "1" for true and
                                     "0" for false.

                                 o   SetTimeout - Controls how long the system
                                     waits (in seconds) for a missing device
                                     before degrading a mirrored raid set.
                                     Also controls the amount of time you have
                                     to disconnect all devices from an
                                     unmounted mirror without degrading it.

                           Ownership of the affected disk is required.
                           diskutil updateRAID is a deprecated synonym for
                           diskutil appleRAID update.

     coreStorage | cs coreStorageVerb [...]
                CoreStorage verbs can be used to create, manipulate and
                destroy CoreStorage volumes.

                CoreStorage maintains a world of virtual disks, somewhat like
                RAID, in which one can easily add or remove imported backing
                store disks, as well as exported usable volumes, to or from a
                pool (or several pools). This provides the user with flexibil-
                ity in allocating their hardware; user or operating system
                data can span multiple physical disks seamlessly, for example.

                Apple CoreStorage defines four types of objects, instances of
                which are uniquely represented by a UUID:

                      o   Logical Volume Group (LVG)

                      o   Physical Volume (PV)

                      o   Logical Volume Family (LVF)

                      o   Logical Volume (LV)

                The Logical Volume Group (LVG) is the top or "pool" level;
                zero or more may exist during any OS boot time session.

                An LVG imports one or more Physical Volumes (PVs). A PV repre-
                sents a device that feeds the LVG storage space; a PV is nor-
                mally real media but it can be a disk image or even an
                AppleRAID Set. A disk offered to be a PV must be a partition
                and the encompassing scheme must be GPT.

                An LVG exports zero or more Logical Volume Families (LVFs). An
                LVF contains properties which govern and bind together all of
                its descendant Logical Volumes (LVs). These properties provide
                settings for Full Disk Encryption (FDE) (such as whether the
                LVG is encrypted, which users have access, etc) and other ser-
                vices.  However, at the present time, for new LVF creation,
                only zero or one LVF per LVG is supported.

                A Logical Volume Family (LVF) exports one or more Logical Vol-
                umes (LVs).  However, at the present time, only and exactly
                one LV per LVF is supported.

                A Logical Volume (LV) exports a dev node, upon which a file
                system (such as Journaled HFS+) resides.

                For more information on specifying device arguments, see the
                DEVICES section below.

                CoreStorage is not a replacement for backing up your data.
                Backups should be always be performed on a regular basis and
                before modifying any CoreStorage volumes using these commands.

                The following is a list of coreStorage sub-verbs with their
                descriptions and individual arguments.

                list [-plist | UUID]
                           Display a tree view of the CoreStorage world for
                           all current logical volume groups (LVGs) with mem-
                           ber disks (PVs) and exported volumes (LVFs and
                           LVs), with properties and status for each level.
                           If -plist is specified then a property list will be
                           emitted instead of the formatted tree output; the
                           UUIDs can be used with the diskutil coreStorage
                           information verb to get properties for the object
                           represented by that UUID.  If UUID is specified
                           then an attempt is made to list only that UUID
                           (whatever type of CoreStorage object it may repre-
                           sent).  The -plist and UUID arguments may not both
                           be specified.

                info | information [-plist] UUID | device
                           Display properties of the CoreStorage object (LVG,
                           PV, LVF, or LV) associated with the given CoreStor-
                           age UUID or disk.

                convert device [-stdinpassphrase | -passphrase [passphrase]]
                           Convert a regular Journaled HFS+ or Case-sensitive
                           Journaled HFS+ volume (must be on a partition and
                           within a GPT partitioning scheme) into a CoreStor-
                           age logical volume.

                           If -passphrase is specified, the on-disk bytes will
                           be encrypted. You will be prompted for a new
                           passphrase interactively, or you can specify the
                           passphrase on the command line. Alternatively, if
                           you specify -stdinpassphrase the standard input is
                           read for the passphrase so that a program could
                           execute diskutil and send the passphrase through a
                           pipe without having to expose it as a command-line
                           parameter.

                           The volume is encrypted with an FDE "Disk"
                           passphrase, which is distinct from the "User" ID
                           and passphrase combination which FileVault asso-
                           ciates with a volume.  Therefore, if you want to
                           encrypt a macOS "OS-bearing" volume (with its user
                           accounts), you must use FileVault in Security Pref-
                           erences or the contextual menu in the Finder.

                           The volume must be resizable (the above types are)
                           and also mounted. Conversion is done live and in-
                           place; targeting the boot volume is supported; as
                           much of the conversion as possible is done before
                           an eject or reboot is necessary.

                           After slightly shrinking the source volume to make
                           room for CoreStorage data structures at the end,
                           its partition type is changed to Apple_CoreStorage
                           and it becomes a CoreStorage Physical Volume.  A
                           new CoreStorage Logical Volume Group is then cre-
                           ated with this Physical Volume as the backing
                           store, followed by the creation of a Logical Volume
                           Family and Logical Volume pair.

                           At this point, the new CoreStorage PV/LVG/LVF/LV
                           stack is ready for use, although the "old" mount-
                           point must first be unmounted; yet it might not be
                           unmountable. This will occur if the target (now the
                           PV) is the current boot volume.

                           Just before exiting, diskutil coreStorage convert
                           will try to unmount the target disk (which is now
                           the "old" mount point and the new PV). If success-
                           ful (target is not the boot disk), the volume now
                           becomes mounted from the LV. If unsuccessful (tar-
                           get is the boot disk), a reboot is necessary.

                           At this point, if no encryption was specified, all
                           is done. Otherwise, the bytes-on-disk will begin to
                           be encrypted in-place by CoreStorage automatically
                           "in the background" while the PV/LVG/LVF/LV stack
                           continues to be usable. Encryption progress may be
                           monitored with diskutil coreStorage list.

                           When encryption is finished, a Disk passphrase will
                           be required the next time the LV is ejected and re-
                           attached.  If the LV is hosting the boot volume,
                           this passphrase requirement will thus occur at the
                           next reboot.

                           Note that all on-disk data is not secured immedi-
                           ately; it is a deliberate process of encrypting all
                           on-disk bytes while the CoreStorage driver keeps
                           publishing the (usable) LVG/LV.

                           Ownership of the affected disk is required.

                revert device | lvUUID [-stdinpassphrase] | [-passphrase
                           passphrase] | [-recoverykeychain file]
                           Convert a CoreStorage logical volume back to its
                           native type.  The volume must have been created by
                           means of conversion, e.g. with diskutil coreStorage
                           convert.

                           If the volume was not created with a passphrase,
                           then simple ownership of the affected disk is
                           required; otherwise, a Disk passphrase must be sup-
                           plied, either interactively or via one of the
                           parameters or a keychain file in the same manner as
                           diskutil coreStorage unlockVolume.

                create | createLVG lvgName devices ...
                           Create a CoreStorage logical volume group. The
                           disks specified will become the (initial) set of
                           physical volumes; more than one may be specified.
                           You can specify partitions (which will be re-typed
                           to be Apple_CoreStorage) or whole-disks (which will
                           be partitioned as GPT and will contain an
                           Apple_CoreStorage partition).  The resulting LVG
                           UUID can then be used with createVolume below.  All
                           existing data on the drive(s) will be lost.  Owner-
                           ship of the affected disk is required.

                delete | deleteLVG lvgUUID | lvgName
                           Delete a CoreStorage logical volume group. All log-
                           ical volume families with their logical volumes are
                           removed, the logical volume group is destroyed, and
                           the now-orphaned physical volumes are erased and
                           partition-typed as Journaled HFS+.

                rename | renameLVG lvgUUID | lvgName newName
                           Rename a CoreStorage logical volume group. Do not
                           confuse this name with the LV name or the volume
                           name of the file system volume on the LV.

                createVolume | createLV lvgUUID | lvgName type name size
                           [-stdinpassphrase | -passphrase [passphrase]]
                           Export a new logical volume family, with a new log-
                           ical volume under it, out of a CoreStorage logical
                           volume group.  Type is the file system personality
                           to initialize on the new logical volume. Valid
                           types are Journaled HFS+ or Case-sensitive Jour-
                           naled HFS+ or their aliases.  Size is the amount of
                           space to allocate from the parent LVG. It is given
                           in the same manner as the triplet description for
                           the partitionDisk verb, and you can also specify
                           with % a percentage of the currently remaining
                           unallocated space in the LVG.

                           If -passphrase or -stdinpassphrase is specified, in
                           the same manner as with diskutil coreStorage
                           convert above, on-disk data will be stored in an
                           encrypted form as the Logical Volume is filled;
                           otherwise, the data will remain plain.

                deleteVolume | deleteLV lvUUID | device
                           Remove an exported logical volume (and its logical
                           volume family as appropriate) from a CoreStorage
                           logical volume group. Any data on that logical vol-
                           ume will be lost.  This operation will thus result
                           in an increase in free space in the logical volume
                           group.

                           It is assumed that the logical volume is used as a
                           backing store for a file system; therefore, an
                           unmount attempt is made which must succeed before
                           the removal of the logical volume is done.

                encryptVolume | encryptLV lvUUID | device [-stdinpassphrase] |
                           [-passphrase passphrase]
                           Begin a live background process of encrypting the
                           on-disk backing bytes of an existing plain
                           CoreStorage logical volume (LV).

                           That is, the on-disk bytes that are backing the
                           user data are all visited, read, and re-written in
                           an encrypted form; this process can take a long
                           time (minutes to hours). This process continues
                           seamlessly across reboots. The logical volume
                           remains usable at all times.  When this command
                           returns, the operation will be ongoing; you can
                           check progress with diskutil coreStorage list.

                           The entire logical volume family (LVF) is affected
                           since all LVs in an LVF share the same encryption
                           settings.

                           Any new user data written while this background
                           operation is in progress will be in encrypted form.

                           Specifying -passphrase or -stdinpassphrase or
                           interactively entering a passphrase is mandatory;
                           you do so in the same manner as with diskutil
                           coreStorage convert above.

                           The volume is encrypted with an FDE "Disk"
                           passphrase, which is distinct from the "User" ID
                           and passphrase combination which FileVault asso-
                           ciates with a volume.  Therefore, if you want to
                           encrypt a macOS "OS-bearing" volume (with its user
                           accounts), you must use FileVault in Security Pref-
                           erences or the contextual menu in the Finder.

                decryptVolume | decryptLV lvUUID | device [-stdinpassphrase] |
                           [-passphrase passphrase]
                           Begin a live background process of decrypting the
                           on-disk backing bytes of an existing encrypted
                           CoreStorage logical volume (LV). Bytes are read,
                           decrypted, and written back to disk in plain form.
                           The LV must be unlocked before beginning this oper-
                           ation.

                           Like as in diskutil coreStorage encryptVolume
                           above, all on-disk bytes are visited and converted,
                           the process is seamless across reboots, the logical
                           volume remains usable at all times, the entire log-
                           ical volume family (LVF) is affected, any new user
                           data written will be in plain form, and the opera-
                           tion will be ongoing when this command returns.

                           Credentials must be supplied; you can use
                           -passphrase or -stdinpassphrase to supply a Disk
                           passphrase, or you can specify that a recovery key-
                           chain file be used, in the same manner as diskutil
                           coreStorage unlockVolume.

                unlockVolume | unlockLV [-nomount] lvUUID [-stdinpassphrase] |
                           [-passphrase passphrase] | [-recoverykeychain file]
                           Unlock a logical volume and file system, causing it
                           to be attached and mounted.

                           Data is then accessible in plain form to the file
                           system and applications, while the on-physical-disk
                           backing bytes remain in encrypted form.

                           The locked state means that the CoreStorage driver
                           has not been given authentication information (a
                           passphrase) to interpret the encrypted bytes on
                           disk and thus export a dev node.  This verb unlocks
                           a logical volume family (LVF) and its logical vol-
                           umes (LVs) by providing that authentication; as the
                           LVs thus appear as dev nodes, any file systems upon
                           them are automatically mounted unless the -nomount
                           option is given.

                           To re-lock the volume, make it offline again by
                           ejecting it, e.g. with diskutil eject.

                           Credentials must be supplied. You must either sup-
                           ply a Disk passphrase interactively, with one of
                           the -passphrase or -stdinpassphrase parameters in
                           the same manner as with diskutil coreStorage
                           convert above, or you must specify that a recovery
                           keychain file be used.

                           You can specify -recoverykeychain with a path to a
                           keychain file.  The keychain must be unlocked; see
                           security(1) for more information.

                changeVolumePassphrase | passwd lvUUID [-recoverykeychain
                           file] [-oldpassphrase oldpassphrase]
                           [-newpassphrase newpassphrase] [-stdinpassphrase]
                           Change the Disk passphrase of an existing encrypted
                           volume. It need not be unlocked nor mounted. The
                           parameters, while variously optional, must be given
                           in the above order.

                           You must authenticate either via the -oldpassphrase
                           parameter, via the -stdinpassphrase parameter (with
                           newline or eof-terminated data given to stdin), or
                           via an interactive prompt (if no parameters are
                           given), in the same manner as diskutil coreStorage
                           convert above.  Alternatively, you can authenticate
                           by specifying -recoverykeychain with a path to a
                           keychain file.

                           A new passphrase must then be supplied, again via
                           one of the three methods above (interactive,
                           -newpassphrase, or -stdinpassphrase).

                           If you are supplying both the old and new
                           passphrases via stdin, they must be separated with
                           a newline character.

                           Only the Disk passphrase is supported; you cannot
                           change credentials for various users that were set
                           up with FileVault or the Finder; to edit creden-
                           tials for such users, you should use fdesetup (8).

                resizeVolume | resizeLV lvUUID | device size
                           Resize a logical volume (LV). If you shrink an LV,
                           more space becomes available in its logical volume
                           group (LVG); if you grow an LV, less space becomes
                           available. You can check the free space with
                           diskutil coreStorage list. The file system volume
                           which resides inside the LV is grown or shrunk as
                           needed.

                           You can specify a size of zero (0) to fill up all
                           remaining space in the parent LVG with the given
                           LV.

                resizeDisk | resizePV pvUUID size [part1Format part1Name
                           part1Size part2Format part2Name part2Size
                           part3Format part3Name part3Size ...]
                           Resize a physical volume (PV). If you shrink a PV,
                           less space becomes available in its logical volume
                           group (LVG); if you grow a PV, more space becomes
                           available. The partition in which the PV resides is
                           changed to accommodate, and the associated booter
                           partition, if present, is automatically moved.

                           Note that you cannot ordinarily grow a PV unless
                           there is free space in the partition map beyond it;
                           note also that you cannot ordinarily shrink a PV
                           unless the LVG has some free space in it (e.g. by
                           shrinking an overlying LV first).

                           When decreasing the size (shrinking), new parti-
                           tions may optionally be created to fill the newly-
                           freed space.  To do this, specify the format, name,
                           and size parameters in the same manner as the
                           triplet description for the partitionDisk verb.

                           You can specify a size of zero (0) to fill up all
                           remaining space to the next partition or the end of
                           the partition map, if possible.

                resizeStack lvUUID | device [pvUUID] size [part1Format
                           part1Name part1Size part2Format part2Name part2Size
                           part3Format part3Name part3Size ...]
                           Combine the actions of diskutil coreStorage
                           resizePV and diskutil coreStorage resizeLV in the
                           correct sequence in order to effect a shrink or a
                           grow in an entire LVG setup.

                           This is done by making a change to the size of a
                           logical volume (LV), after or before which (one of
                           its) physical volume(s) (PV) also changes its size
                           accordingly.  The (HFS) file system "on top of" the
                           LV and the disk partition "below" the PV, as well
                           as the location of the PV's associated booter par-
                           tition, are automatically adjusted.

                           When decreasing the size (shrinking), new parti-
                           tions may optionally be created to fill the newly-
                           freed space.  To do this, specify the format, name,
                           and size parameters in the same manner as the
                           triplet description for the partitionDisk verb.

                           Since an LVG might have one (e.g. Full Disk Encryp-
                           tion (FDE), aka FileVault), two (e.g. Fusion), or
                           even three (certain Boot Camp configurations) PVs,
                           a specific PV must be chosen. You can have this
                           command choose one for you, or you can specify the
                           PV UUID directly. If you do not specify a PV, the
                           one which has previously been marked for this pur-
                           pose is used; if no mark, a policy algorithm is
                           applied.

                           If your new LV size represents a grow of the exist-
                           ing LV size, then the PV size will take up more
                           space on disk, thus creating a larger LVG for the
                           larger LV to live in.  If your new LV size repre-
                           sents a shrink, then the PV size will take up less
                           space on disk, thus creating a smaller LVG, which
                           is enough for the smaller LV to live in. The magni-
                           tude of the size change you specify (which is for
                           the LV) causes an exact size change in the PV if
                           you conform to partition rounding (alignment)
                           restrictions; the corresponding LV change may be
                           greater because it is under additional alignment
                           restrictions imposed by CoreStorage and HFS.

                           The "spilling over" of size change effects from one
                           PV onto another is not supported; only and exactly
                           one PV is affected by this operation. Grows or
                           shrinks whose effects don't "fit" the designated PV
                           will result in an error message and no effect.  For
                           example, you can't do a shrink on a multi-PV setup
                           such that the designated PV should shrink to zero
                           size and so effectively should disappear.  Nor can
                           you do a grow which would necessitate the growth of
                           some other PV or the addition of new PVs.

                           As in diskutil coreStorage resizePV, note that you
                           cannot grow unless there is free space in the par-
                           tition map beyond the designated PV, which is not
                           normally the case because you usually don't leave
                           gaps of free space on your disk.

                           You can specify a size of zero (0) to fill up all
                           remaining space to the partition following the des-
                           ignated PV's booter or to the end of the partition
                           map, if possible.


DEVICES

     A device parameter for any of the above commands (except where explicitly
     required otherwise) can usually be any of the following:

           o   The disk identifier (see below).  Any entry of the form of
               disk*, e.g.  disk1s9.

           o   The device node entry containing the disk identifier.  Any
               entry of the form of /dev/[r]disk*, e.g.  /dev/disk2.

           o   The volume mount point.  Any entry of the form of /Volumes/*,
               e.g.  /Volumes/Untitled.  In most cases, a "custom" mount point
               e.g.  /your/custom/mountpoint/here is also accepted.

           o   The URL form of any of the volume mount point forms described
               above.  E.g.  file:///Volumes/Untitled or file:///.

           o   A UUID.  Any entry of the form of e.g.
               11111111-2222-3333-4444-555555555555.  The UUID can be a
               "media" UUID which IOKit places in an IOMedia node as derived
               from e.g. a GPT map's partition UUID, or it can be an AppleRAID
               (or CoreStorage) set (LV) or member (PV) UUID.

           o   A volume name, e.g.  Untitled.  This match is only attempted if
               the given device is not of the form [/dev/][r]disk*, nor
               [/Volumes/]*.  The match attempt is against the intrinsic vol-
               ume label, not against the terminal component, if mounted, of
               its mount point.


DISK IDENTIFIER

     The (BSD) disk identifier string variously identifies a physical or logi-
     cal device unit, a session (if any) upon that device, a partition (slice)
     upon that session (if any), or a virtual logical volume.  It may take the
     form of diskU, diskUsS, diskUsQ, or diskUsV, where U, S, Q and V are pos-
     itive decimal integers (possibly multi-digit), and where:

           o   U is the device unit.  It may refer to hardware (e.g. a hard
               drive, optical drive, or memory card) or a virtual "drive" con-
               structed by software (e.g. an AppleRAID Set, disk image,
               CoreStorage LV, etc).

           o   Q is the session and is only included for optical media; it
               refers to the number of times recording has taken place on the
               currently-inserted medium (disc).

           o   S is the "slice"; it refers to a partition.  Upon this parti-
               tion, the raw data that underlies a user-visible file system is
               usually present, but it may also contain specialized data for
               certain 3rd-party database programs, or data required for the
               system software (e.g. EFI partitions, booter partitions, APM
               partition map data, etc), or, notably, it might contain back-
               ing-store physical volumes for AppleRAID, CoreStorage, APFS, or
               3rd-party Storage Systems.

           o   V is an APFS "Volume"; it refers to a virtual logical volume
               that is shared out of an APFS Container.  For example, if an
               Apple_APFS-typed partition is on disk5s2, then disk5s2 is
               termed the APFS Physical Store which is imported into an APFS
               Container. The APFS Container might then export e.g. disk8s1,
               which is termed an APFS Volume, which is mountable as a file
               system. Multiple APFS Volumes can be exported from a single
               APFS Container.

     Some units (e.g. floppy disks, RAID sets) contain file system data upon
     their "whole" device instead of containing a partitioning scheme with
     partitions.

     Note that some of the forms appear the same and must be distinguished by
     context.  For example, diskUsQ, diskUsS, and diskUsV are all 2-part forms
     that can mean different things: For non-optical media, it identifies a
     partition (on a partition map) upon which (file system) data is stored;
     for optical media, it identifies a session upon which an entire partition
     map (with its partitions with file systems) is stored; for an APFS setup,
     it identifies an APFS Volume. As another example, in "stacked" cases
     (CoreStorage on AppleRAID or APFS on AppleRAID), the 1-part diskU form
     becomes a CoreStorage PV or APFS PhysicalStore, in contrast with the
     more-common 2-part form.

     It is important for software to avoid relying on numerical ordering of
     any of the parts.  Activities including but not limited to partition
     deletions and insertions, partition resizing, virtual volume deletions
     and additions, device ejects and attachments due to media insertion
     cycles, plug cycles, authentication lock cycles or reboots, can all cause
     (temporary) gaps and non-increments in the numerical ordering of any of
     the parts. You must rely on more persistent means of identification, such
     as the various UUIDs.


SIZES

     Wherever a size is emitted as an output, it is presented as a base-ten
     approximation to the precision of one fractional decimal digit and a
     base-ten SI multiplier, often accompanied by a precise count in bytes.
     Scripts should refrain from parsing this human-readable output and use
     the -plist option instead.

     Wherever a size is to be supplied by you as an input, you can provide
     values in several different ways, some absolute and some context-sensi-
     tive.  All suffixes described below are interpreted in a case-insensitive
     manner. The B is optional.

     The most common way is to specify absolute values as a decimal number,
     possibly followed by a period and a decimal fraction, followed without
     whitespace with a suffix as follows:

           o   B is bytes (not blocks) where the multiplier is 1.  This suffix
               may be omitted.

           o   K[B] is power of ten kilobytes where the multiplier is 1000 (1
               x 10^3).

           o   M[B] is power of ten megabytes where the multiplier is 1000000
               (1 x 10^6).

           o   G[B] is power of ten gigabytes where the multiplier is
               1000000000 (1 x 10^9).

           o   T[B] is power of ten terabytes where the multiplier is
               1000000000000 (1 x 10^12).

           o   P[B] is power of ten petabytes where the multiplier is
               1000000000000000 (1 x 10^15).

           o   E[B] is power of ten exabytes where the multiplier is
               1000000000000000000 (1 x 10^18).

     You can also use the following suffixes:

           o   S | UAM ("sectors") is 512-byte units (device-independent)
               where the multiplier is always 512.

           o   DBS ("device block size") is the device-dependent native block
               size of the encompassing whole disk, if applicable, where the
               multiplier is often 512, but not always; indeed it might not be
               a power of two.

           o   Ki[B] is power of two kibibytes where the multiplier is 1024 (1
               x 2^10).

           o   Mi[B] is power of two mebibytes where the multiplier is 1048576
               (1 x 2^20).

           o   Gi[B] is power of two gibibytes where the multiplier is
               1073741824 (1 x 2^30).

           o   Ti[B] is power of two tebibytes where the multiplier is
               1099511627776 (1 x 2^40).

           o   Pi[B] is power of two pebibytes where the multiplier is
               1125899906842624 (1 x 2^50).

           o   Ei[B] is power of two exbibytes where the multiplier is
               1152921504606846976 (1 x 2^60).

     In certain contexts (e.g. when specifying partition triplets) you can
     provide a relative value as follows:

           o   % (with a preceding number) is a percentage of the whole-disk
               size, the partition map size, or other allocatable size, as
               appropriate by context.  Use of % is not supported in all situ-
               ations.

           o   R (with no preceding number) specifies the remainder of the
               whole-disk size or other allocatable size after all other
               triplets in the group are taken into account.  It need not be
               in the last triplet.  It must only appear in at most one
               triplet among all triplets.  Use of R is not supported in all
               situations.

     You can provide an operating system-defined constant value as follows:

           o   %recovery% (with no preceding number) is the customary size of
               macOS Recovery Partitions.

     Note again that B refers to bytes and S and UAM refer to a constant mul-
     tiplier of 512; the latter are useful when working with tools such as gpt
     (8) or df (1).  Note also that this multiplier is not a "block" size as
     actually implemented by the underlying device driver and/or hardware, nor
     is it an "allocation block", which is a file system's minimum unit of
     backing store usage, often formatting-option-dependent.

     Examples: 10G (10 gigabytes), 4.23tb (4.23 terabytes), 5M (5 megabytes),
     4GiB (exactly 2^32 bytes), 126000 (exactly 126000 bytes), 25.4% (25.4
     percent of whole disk size).


FORMAT

     The format parameter for the erasing and partitioning verbs is the file
     system personality name.  You can determine this name by looking in a
     file system bundle's
     /System/Library/Filesystems/<fs>.fs/Contents/Info.plist and looking at
     the keys for the FSPersonalities dictionary, or by using the
     listFilesystems verb, which also lists shortcut aliases for common per-
     sonalities (these shortcuts are defined by diskutil for use with it
     only).

     Common examples include JHFS+, JHFSX, MS-DOS, etc, as nicknames for the
     canonical forms from the file system bundles such as "Case-sensitive
     HFS+".


EXAMPLES

     Erase a disk
     diskutil eraseDisk JHFS+ Untitled disk3

     Erase a volume
     diskutil eraseVolume HFS+ UntitledHFS /Volumes/SomeDisk

     Partition a disk with three partitions
     diskutil partitionDisk disk3 3 HFSX Name1 10G JHFS+ Name2 10G MS-DOS
     NAME3 10G

     Partition a disk with the APM partitioning scheme
     diskutil partitionDisk disk3 APM HFS+ vol1 25% Journaled\ HFS+ vol2 25%
     Journaled\ HFS+ vol3 50% Free\ Space volX 0%

     Partition a disk with the GPT partitioning scheme
     diskutil partitionDisk disk3 GPT HFS+ vol1 25% MS-DOS VOL2 25% HFS+ vol3
     50% Free\ Space volX 0%

     Resize a volume and create a volume after it, using all remaining space
     diskutil resizeVolume /Volumes/SomeDisk 50g MS-DOS DOS 0b

     Resize a volume and leave all remaining space as unused
     diskutil resizeVolume /Volumes/SomeDisk 12g

     Convert a disk to Core Storage and encrypt it
     diskutil coreStorage convert disk3s2 -passphrase

     Shrink your Core Storage PV in order to make space for a Boot Camp volume
     subtract desired Windows size from LV size, to be new LV size, i.e. 150g
     diskutil coreStorage list
     diskutil coreStorage resizeStack LVUUID PVUUID 150g ms-dos BOOTCAMP 0

     Revert a disk from Core Storage back to plain HFS, possibly decrypting
     diskutil coreStorage revert disk5

     Create a Core Storage setup "manually"
     diskutil coreStorage createLVG LVG1 disk0s2 disk1s2
     diskutil cs list
     diskutil cs createLV LVGUUID jhfs+ LVG1-Vol1 100%

     Remove a partition
     diskutil eraseVolume Free\ Space not disk0s4

     Merge two partitions into a new partition
     diskutil mergePartitions JHFS+ not disk1s3 disk1s5

     Split a partition into three new ones
     diskutil splitPartition /Volumes/SomeDisk JHFS+ vol1 12g MS-DOS VOL2 8g
     JHFS+ vol3 0b

     Create a RAID
     diskutil createRAID mirror MirroredVolume JHFS+ disk1 disk2

     Destroy a RAID
     diskutil destroyRAID /Volumes/MirroredVolume

     Repair a damaged RAID
     diskutil repairMirror /Volumes/MirroredVolume disk3

     Convert volume into RAID volume
     diskutil enableRAID mirror /Volumes/ExistingVolume

     Erase a partition and shrink to add an associated Recovery Partition
     diskutil splitPartition disk8s2 JHFS+ MacHD R %Apple_Boot% %noformat%
     %recovery%


SEE ALSO

     hdiutil(1), mount(8), umount(8), diskmanagementd(8),
     diskmanagementstartup(8), diskarbitrationd(8), corestoraged(8),
     fdesetup(8), ioreg(8), newfs_hfs(8), fsck_hfs(8), authopen(1),
     hfs.util(8), msdos.util(8), ufs.util(8), drutil(1), vsdbutil(8)


ERRORS

     diskutil will exit with status 0 if successful or 1 if it cannot complete
     the requested operation; this includes cases in which usage text is
     printed.  Before diskutil returns with status 1, it prints a message
     which might include an explanation local to diskutil, an error string
     from the DiskManagement or MediaKit frameworks, an underlying POSIX
     error, or some combination.


HISTORY

     The eraseDisk and partitionDisk verbs had an option to add Mac OS 9 driv-
     ers (in partitions designated for that purpose); there was also a
     repairOS9Permissions verb.  These have been removed.

     Starting with Mac OS X 10.11, the verify- and repairPermissions verbs
     have been removed.

     Starting with Mac OS X 10.6, the input and output notation of disk and
     partition sizes use power-of-10 suffixes.  In the past this has been
     power-of-2, regardless of the suffix (e.g. G, Gi, GiB) used for display
     or accepted as input.  Starting with Mac OS X 10.11, the B suffix is
     optional even for "bare" numeric values.

     Starting with macOS 10.12, the plist output of partitions from diskutil
     list -plist is presented in on-disk (not BSD slice) order, as the human-
     readable output always has been. This mimics the order of outputs from
     programs such as gpt (1).

macOS                           5 October 2017                           macOS

Mac OS X 10.13.1 - Generated Thu Nov 9 19:42:28 CST 2017
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