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bootpd(8)                 BSD System Manager's Manual                bootpd(8)


     bootpd -- DHCP/BOOTP/NetBoot server


     bootpd [options]


     bootpd implements a DHCP/BOOTP server as defined in RFC951, RFC1542,
     RFC2131, and RFC2132, as well as a BOOTP/DHCP relay agent.  It is also a
     NetBoot server implementing Apple-proprietary NetBoot 1.0 (BOOTP-based)
     and NetBoot 2.0 BSDP (Boot Server Discovery Protocol).  BSDP works along
     with regular DHCP, using DHCP-format packets with a special vendor-class
     identifier and vendor-specific options.

     bootpd understands and handles requests that arrive via a DHCP/BOOTP
     relay agent, allowing the server to be centrally located, and serve many
     remote subnets.

     The server is normally invoked by xinetd(8) when a request arrives, but
     can also be invoked manually.  If it is invoked by xinetd(8), bootpd con-
     tinues to service requests until it is idle for a period of 5 minutes,
     after which it exits to conserve system resources.  If invoked manually,
     bootpd continues to run indefinitely.

     If bootpd receives a SIGHUP (-1) signal, it will re-read its configura-
     tion and client binding files.

     When a request from a client arrives, the server logs an entry to
     /var/log/system.log indicating which client made the request, and logs
     another entry once a reply is sent.  This feature can be turned off using
     the -q option described below.

     bootpd reads its configuration settings from /etc/bootpd.plist.  There
     are also a number of command-line options to change its behavior on the
     fly.  Note in particular that options DmNrS can also be controlled via
     service-control properties.  See Service Controls and Filters below.


     -B      Disable BOOTP service.  BOOTP is now disabled by default, so
             specifying this option has no effect.

     -b      Only respond if the client's bootfile exists: for BOOTP clients

     -D      Enable DHCP service.  By default, DHCP service is disabled.

     -d      Remain in the foreground and produce extra debugging output to

     -I      Disable re-initialization on IP address changes.  By default,
             changes to the server's configured IP addresses cause it to re-

     -i interface
             Enable service on the specified interface.  This flag may appear
             multiple times to enable multiple interfaces.   For example,
                 bootpd -i en0 -i en1
             forces bootpd to respond only to requests received on ethernet
             ports en0 and en1.  By default, all interfaces are enabled.

     -m      Enable NetBoot 1.0 (BOOTP-based) service.

     -N      Enable NetBoot 2.0 (BSDP/DHCP-based) service.

     -o hop_count
             For relay agent operation, the maximum hop count, default is 4

     -q      Be quiet as possible.  Only report serious errors to

     -r server_ip
             Relay packets to the specified server_ip, not exceeding the hop
             count.  This option can be specified multiple times, one for each
             server to relay to.

     -S      Enable BOOTP service.

     -v      Be more verbose in messages logged to /var/log/system.log.


     bootpd reads its configuration from /etc/bootpd.plist, an XML property
     list.  The root of the property list is a dictionary.  The property list
     has three main areas:

     Root dictionary  Service Controls and Filters

     Subnets          Subnet Entries

     NetBoot          NetBoot Server Controls

   Service Controls and Filters
     The root dictionary in /etc/bootpd.plist contains properties to control
     whether bootpd will respond to a particular request,   There are MAC
     address filters, DHCP controls, as well as controls to enable services.

     The MAC address filter properties are:

     allow  (Array of String) Enables servicing a list of MAC addresses.

     deny   (Array of String) Disables servicing a list of MAC addresses.

     When a packet arrives, bootpd checks whether the client's MAC address is
     in the deny list.  If it is, the packet is dropped.  Otherwise, if the
     client's MAC address is in the allow list, the packet continues to be
     processed, otherwise it is dropped.  If neither the allow nor the deny
     property is specified, the packet continues to be processed.

     The service-control properties are:

     bootp_enabled        Enables BOOTP on the specified list of interfaces.

     dhcp_enabled         Enables DHCP on the specified list of interfaces.

     netboot_enabled      Enables NetBoot 2.0 (BSDP/DHCP-based) NetBoot on the
                          specified list of interfaces.

     old_netboot_enabled  Enables NetBoot 1.0 (BOOTP-based) NetBoot on the
                          specified list of interfaces.

     relay_enabled        Enables the relay agent on the specified list of
                          interfaces.  Note that this option also requires the
                          relay_ip_list property to be specified.

     For each of the properties dhcp_enabled, bootp_enabled, old_net-
     boot_enabled, netboot_enabled, and relay_enabled, the corresponding ser-
     vice can be enabled or disabled for all interfaces, or enabled for just a
     specific set of interfaces.  To enable or disable globally, use a boolean
     value true or false respectively.  To enable just for a specific set of
     interfaces, use either a string, for a single interface, or an array of
     strings, one element for each interface.

     For example, to enable DHCP on interfaces en0 and en1, disable BOOTP on
     all interfaces, enable NetBoot on en1, and enable relay agent on inter-
     face en1, /etc/bootpd.plist could contain:
     <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
     <!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple Computer//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "">
     <plist version="1.0">

     Some additional properties are:

     relay_ip_list             (Array of String) If relay agent functionality
                               is enabled (see relay_enabled above), this
                               property contains the list of IP addresses to
                               relay the packet to.

     detect_other_dhcp_server  (Boolean) If this property is set to true,
                               bootpd calls exit() if it detects that another
                               DHCP server is present on one of the interfaces
                               that DHCP is enabled on.  The default value is

     reply_threshold_seconds   (Integer) bootpd won't respond to the request
                               until the bp_secs field is at least
                               reply_theshold_seconds.  The default value is 0

     use_open_directory        (Boolean) If this property is set to true,
                               bootpd will look for static IP address to eth-
                               ernet address bindings in Open Directory.  The
                               default value is true.

                               (Boolean) If this property is set to true, the
                               DHCP server tries to ignore the DHCP client
                               identifier option (code 61) in the client's
                               DHCP packet.   Instead, the DHCP server tries
                               to use the hardware address fields (bp_htype,
                               bp_hlen, bp_chaddr) of the DHCP packet to iden-
                               tify the client.  The default value of this
                               property is false.

                               (Boolean) If this property is set to true, the
                               DHCP server tries to use its own configuration
                               to supply the subnet mask, router, DNS server
                               addresses, DNS domain, and DNS domain search
                               options, if those options are missing from the
                               subnet description.  If the property is false,
                               the server only uses the information in the
                               subnet description to supply these DHCP
                               options.  The default value of this property is

   Subnet Entries
     The "Subnets" property in /etc/bootpd.plist contains an array of dictio-
     naries, each dictionary corresponds to a single subnet entry.

     A subnet entry describes a range of IP addresses, and associated informa-
     tion, such as the subnet mask, router, DNS servers, and other option
     data.  A subnet entry also indicates whether the range is an address pool
     from which to allocate vs. simply an informational range in order to ful-
     fill requests for option information.  The informational range is used
     when the client's IP address binding is static, or the client knows its
     own IP address and simply wants relevant option information.

     A subnet entry is required to supply the DHCP service with pool(s) of IP
     address(es), and to inform the server of subnet-specific options and
     parameters.  A subnet entry can also be used to convey network topology
     information via the supernet property described below.

     Subnet entries may not overlap in the IP ranges the describe, nor specify
     values that are inconsistent. Specifically, applying the net_mask value
     to each of the values in the net_range must yield the net_address value.

     Errors in configuration are logged to /var/log/system.log.  There may be
     multiple entries for a given subnet, allowing different configuration
     values to be specified for a given sub-range of IP addresses within the
     subnet.  For example, part of the range might be used for statically
     bound clients, and another for a dynamic address pool.

     Each subnet entry is encoded as a dictionary with the following proper-

     name          (String) A descriptive name for the subnet, e.g.

     net_mask      (String) The network mask, e.g. "".  This
                   property is required.

     net_address   (String) The network address, e.g. "".  This
                   property is required.

     net_range     (Array of String) The network address range stored as two
                   values: the first IP address and the last IP address.  For
                   This property is required.

     allocate      (Boolean) Indicates whether the DHCP service should allo-
                   cate IP addresses from the range specified by net_range.  A
                   true value means allocate IP addresses, otherwise, the sub-
                   net entry is informational only.

     lease_min     (Integer) The minimum allowable lease time (in seconds).
                   This property is ignored unless allocate specifies true.
                   Default value is 3600 (one hour).

     lease_max     (Integer) The maximum allowable lease time (in seconds).
                   This property is ignored unless allocate specifies true.
                   Default value is 3600 (one hour).

     supernet      (String) This property indicates that the subnet is on the
                   same physical broadcast domain as other subnets with the
                   same supernet value.

     The server can also supply clients with the following DHCP option infor-

     dhcp_router   The IP address of the default router (DHCP option code 3).
                   If this property is not present, the server will attempt to
                   provide its own default route for this option, if it is

                   The IP address(es) of the DNS server(s) (option code 6).
                   If this property is not present, the server will supply its
                   own DNS server configuration (if available).

                   The default DNS domain name (option code 15).  If this
                   property is not present, the server will supply its own
                   default domain name (if available).

                   The domain search list (option code 119).  If this property
                   is not present, the server will supply its domain search
                   list (if available).

                   The default LDAP URL (option code 95).

                   The NetInfo parent server IP address(es) (option code 112).

                   The NetInfo parent domain tag (option code 113).

     dhcp_url      The default URL to present in a web browser (option code

                   The time offset from GMT in seconds (option code 2).

                   The network time protocol (NTP) server IP address(es)
                   (option code 42).

                   The NetBIOS over TCP/IP name server IP address(es) (option
                   code 44).

                   The NetBIOS over TCP/IP datagram distribution server IP
                   address(es) (option code 45).

                   The NetBIOS over TCP/IP node type (option code 46).

                   The NetBIOS over TCP/IP scope string (option code 47).

                   The Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) server IP
                   address(es) (option code 69).

                   The Post Office Protocol (POP3) server IP address(es)
                   (option code 70).

                   The Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) server IP
                   address(es) (option code 71).

                   The default Web Proxy Auto Discovery URL (option code 252).

     DHCP options may also be specified using the naming convention:
     replacing option_code with a numeric value in the range of 1 through 254.
     For example, to specify option code 128, specify a property named

     bootpd has a built-in type conversion table for many more options, mostly
     those specified in RFC 2132, and will try to convert from whatever type
     the option appears in the property list to the binary, packet format.
     For example, if bootpd knows that the type of the option is an IP address
     or list of IP addresses, it converts from the string form of the IP
     address to the binary, network byte order numeric value.

     If the type of the option is a numeric value, it converts from string,
     integer, or boolean, to the proper sized, network byte-order numeric

     Regardless of whether bootpd knows the type of the option or not, you can
     always specify the DHCP option using the data property list type  e.g.:

   NetBoot Server Controls
     The "NetBoot" property in /etc/bootpd.plist is encoded as a dictionary,
     and may contain a number of properties that alter the NetBoot server's
     default behavior.  The properties are:

     afp_uid_start        (Integer) The starting uid used when creating AFP
                          machine users. The default is uid 100.

     afp_users_max        (Integer) The number of AFP machine users to auto-
                          maticaly create.  The default is 50.  Note: the
                          server will never remove a user once it is created,
                          so decreasing this value once the server has read it
                          will have no effect.

     age_time_seconds     (Integer) The number of seconds since the client
                          last netbooted before before the client is consid-
                          ered "aged".  A client that has aged becomes
                           available for resource reclamation.  The server
                          will only reclaim aged client bindings when it runs
                          out of free resources.

     machine_name_format  (String) This property is used to generate a unique
                          name to each NetBoot client. The default value is
                          "NetBoot%03d" (without the double quotes).  The for-
                          mat string must be a printf(3) compatible format
                          string that takes a single integer value as an argu-
                          ment.  The server ensures that the string is valid
                          by testing the string before using it.  The only
                          conversion specifiers that should be used are

     shadow_size_meg      (Integer) The size (in megabytes) to allocate for
                          the client shadow file.  The default is 48
                          (megabytes).  See Diskless Resources below.


     Static IP address to ethernet address bindings are stored in the
     /etc/bootptab file and in Open Directory.  Bindings specified in the
     /etc/bootptab file take precedence over those in Open Directory.

     See bootptab(5) for more information about the /etc/bootptab file.

     For Open Directory, bootpd looks at the /Computers records for the fol-
     lowing properties:

     ENetAddress              (String) The ethernet MAC address(es) of the
                              computer.  Each address must be of the form
                              xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx using only the characters
                              0123456789abcdef.  Leading zeros must be speci-

     IPAddress                (String) The IP address(es) of the computer.

     IPAddressAndENetAddress  (String) Pairs of IP and Ethernet MAC addresses
                              of the computer.  Each address pair consists of
                              an single IP and MAC address separated by a
                              slash character, e.g.
                              "".  This attribute
                              should be provided when multiple addresses are
                              provided because not all directories return
                              attribute values in a guaranteed order.

     BootFile                 (String) The bootfile to use for this computer.


     If DHCP service is enabled for a client, the server processes the
     client's packet.  The packet may be a request for an IP address and
     option information (DHCP Discover, DHCP Request) or for just option
     information (DHCP Inform).  The packet might also tell the server that
     the address is in use by some other host (DHCP Decline), or that the
     client is done with the IP address (DHCP Release).

     The server uses the DHCP client identifier (option 61) if it is present
     as the unique client identifier, otherwise it uses the htype/hlen/chaddr
     fields in the DHCP packet.

   IP Allocation
     The DHCP server first tries to find a static binding for the client (see
     section BOOTP/DHCP STATIC BINDINGS above).  If one exists, it uses it.
     If not, it tries to find an existing dynamic binding from its lease data-
     base, stored in /var/db/dhcpd_leases.  If one exists and it is applicable
     to the subnet, the server uses it, otherwise, it tries to allocate an
     address from one of its address pools.  If an address is available, the
     server uses it, otherwise the packet is discarded.

     After a suitable IP address is found for the client, the server attempts
     to insert as many of the requested DHCP options from the client's request
     as it can into the reply.

     When the server allocates an address dynamically, it automatically
     excludes addresses that appear in static host entries.  For example, if
     the address range goes from through, but there is a
     static entry that specifies, that address is automatically
     excluded from the pool.

     The server tries to give the same address back to a client by remembering
     the binding even after it has expired.  The server removes an expired
     lease entry only when it runs out of addresses, and needs to reclaim an
     address in order to fulfill a new request.

     When the server receives a DHCP Release packet, it sets the expiration
     for that lease to now, so that it can immediately reclaim the address if

     When the server receives a DHCP Decline packet, it removes the client
     binding from the IP address, and sets the expiration on the "unbound"
     lease to 10 minutes from now.  That allows the address to return to the
     address pool again without manual intervention and avoids handing out the
     same in-use IP address over and over.


     The NetBoot server enables a client to perform a network boot, that is,
     access its operating system image over the network instead of from its
     local drive.

     The sequence of events that occur when a NetBoot client is powered are:

     1.    firmware gets IP address and image information (using BOOTP, or

     2.    firmware saves relevant packet(s) in memory to be used by client
           operating system (see step 4 below)

     3.    firmware TFTP's the bootfile image, and begins executing it

     3.1.  (Mac OS X only) secondary loader TFTP's kernel and drivers, and
           begins executing the kernel

     4.    client operating system initializes its network stack and accesses
           its "root" disk using information in packets saved at step 2, uses
           AFP, NFS, or HTTP to access the image

     Apple NetBoot uses a technique called "shadowing", whereby an otherwise
     read-only disk image appears to the client as a read/write image by "map-
     ping" writes to the original image file to an auxilliary "shadow" file.
     Subsequent reads from portions that have been written also come from the
     "shadow" file.  The disk image driver in the client operating system man-
     ages the shadow mapping and provides the illusion of a writable disk.

     The term diskless NetBoot implies that the client receives all of its
     necessary booting resources from the network, so that a local disk drive
     is not required, though may still be present.

     The NetBoot server supplies a NetBoot client with the resources and
     information it needs to boot.  Two versions of NetBoot are supported:
     NetBoot 1.0 (BOOTP-based) and NetBoot 2.0 (BSDP/DHCP-based).  Service for
     these two types of NetBoot are controlled individually using command-line
     options m and N, or using the service configuration properties old_net-
     boot_enabled and netboot_enabled (described above).

     The NetBoot 1.0 server supplies the client with its IP address in addi-
     tion to its boot resources.  The server must be able to find a static
     binding for the client (see BOOTP/DHCP STATIC BINDINGS above), or the
     server must have an applicable dynamic pool of IP addresses, just as with
     DHCP.  If the server does not also have DHCP service enabled, the pools
     are only used for NetBoot 1.0 clients.  In this case, the server also
     acts as a DHCP server but only services those clients for which it has an
     existing binding.

     There can only be one NetBoot 1.0 server per subnet because the protocol
     uses BOOTP, and BOOTP does not support multiple servers.  However, the
     NetBoot 1.0 server will co-exist with an existing DHCP server, assuming
     it only serves DHCP.

     The NetBoot 2.0 server only supplies the client with boot resources.
     Unlike NetBoot 1.0, there is no limit on the number of NetBoot servers
     per subnet.

     The NetBoot server stores a list of NetBoot client records in the file
     /var/db/bsdpd_clients.  Each client record contains the client name and
     number assigned by the server, the boot image ID selected by the client,
     and the client's last boot time.

   NetBoot Image Location
     When the NetBoot server initializes, it looks for NetBoot images at well-
     known locations in the file system.  A "NetBoot image" is a directory
     that ends in the .nbi extension, and contains a valid set of files
     (described below).  If no images are found, NetBoot is temporarily dis-
     abled.  If it receives a SIGHUP signal, the server again attempts to ini-
     tialize itself.

     The NetBoot server looks for a symbolic link named:


     at the root of each local volume.  If the symlink is valid, and points to
     a directory, it assumes that the directory contains NetBoot images and
     that the contents are accessible via TFTP, AFP, NFS, and HTTP.  By con-
     vention, the directory is named:


     where x is a unique number starting at zero (0).

   NetBoot Image (.nbi)
     A NetBoot Image is stored in a directory whose name ends with .nbi, and
     contains a set of files.  The directory must contain an NBImageInfo.plist
     file, one or more bootfiles, and may contain one or more image files.
     The NBImageInfo.plist file is encoded as an XML property list, and con-
     tains information about the image.

     The properties defined in the NBImageInfo.plist file and their meanings

     Name              (String) The name of the image that appears in the
                       Startup Disk UI.

     BootFile          (String) The path of the first bootfile, relative to
                       either the .nbi directory (for architecture "ppc"
                       only), or a sub-directory of the .nbi directory.  The
                       sub-directory names correspond to the Architectures
                       that the NetBoot Image supports.  See also the Archi-
                       tectures property below.

     IsEnabled         (Boolean) A flag to mark the image as enabled or not.
                       An image that is disabled will not be offered as a
                       selection by the NetBoot server. Optional, default
                       value is true.

     IsDefault         (Boolean) A flag to mark the image as a default image.
                       Setting this key to true for more than one image can be
                       useful if the EnabledSystemIdentifiers property is also
                       defined (see below).  Optional, default value is false.

     IsInstall         (Boolean) A flag to indicate that the image describes
                       an installation image.  Optional, default value is

     Type              (String) The expected image contents and the mechanism
                       used to supply images to the client.  The defined val-
                       ues are:

                       Classic       After downloading the boot file via TFTP,
                                     the client OS accesses its images via
                                     AFP.  The SharedImage and PrivateImage
                                     properties (defined below) specify the
                                     images to use.

                       NFS           After downloading the boot files via
                                     TFTP, the client OS accesses its "root"
                                     filesystem via NFS.  The RootPath prop-
                                     erty (detailed below) specifies the path.

                       HTTP          After downloading the boot files via
                                     TFTP, the client accesses its "root"
                                     filesystem via HTTP.  The RootPath prop-
                                     erty (detailed below) specifies the path.

                       BootFileOnly  The client downloads the boot file(s),
                                     and does not require any additional boot
                                     image information.

     Kind              (Integer) The defined image kind values are:
                       0 =  Mac OS 9
                       1 =  Mac OS X
                       2 =  Mac OS X Server
                       3 =  Hardware Diagnostics

                       The default Kind is determined from the Type:

                       Type          Default Kind
                       Classic       0 - Mac OS 9
                       NFS           1 - Mac OS X
                       HTTP          1 - Mac OS X
                       BootFileOnly  none

                       The Kind must be specified if the Type is BootFileOnly.

     Index             (Integer) The index of the image.  This is a 16-bit
                       value used to differentiate between multiple NetBoot
                       images supplied by a server.  There are two value
                       1 .. 4095      Image is local to this server.
                       4096 .. 65535  Image is global and may appear on multi-
                                      ple servers, used for load-balancing.

                       The Index forms the lower 16-bits of the unique 32-bit
                       Image ID.  IsInstall and Kind make up the remaining
                       bits (with 8 bits reserved).

     RootPath          (String) If Type is "NFS", this is the path of the
                       "root" disk image relative to the .nbi directory.  The
                       NetBoot server assumes that the path up to and includ-
                       ing the NetBootSPx directory is exported via NFS.
                       Indirect NFS paths are also supported using the syntax:

                           <path> = <host>:<mount_path>[:<image_path>]
                           <host> = <IP address> | <host_name>

                       For example, in the path:


                       the image is on a server named "myserver" with NFS
                       export "/NetBoot" and the image file appears relative
                       to the mount point as "Images/Jaguar.dmg".

                       If Type is "HTTP", this is the path of the "root" disk
                       image relative to the .nbi directory.  The NetBoot
                       server assumes that the .nbi directory under NetBootSPx
                       is exported via HTTP using the convention:


                       Indirect HTTP paths are also supported using the HTTP
                       URL syntax:

                           <path> = http://[<user>@]<host>[:<port>]/<image_path>
                           <user> = <user_name>:<password>
                           <host> = <IP address> | <host_name>



     SharedImage       (String) If Type is "Classic", this is the path of the
                       read/write system disk image used for Mac OS 9.

     PrivateImage      (String) If Type is "Classic", this is the path of the
                       read-only private disk image used to store additional
                       applications for Mac OS 9.  Optional.

     SupportsDiskless  (Boolean) A flag that indicates that the image supports
                       diskless clients, and tells the server to allocate
                       resources.  If the Type is "Classic", the value of this
                       property is ignored since the server always allocates
                       resources required for diskless clients.  See Diskless
                       Resources below.

                       (Array of String) The list of system identifiers that
                       are enabled for this image.  The system identifier for
                       Apple hardware is the model property from the Open
                       Firmware device-tree.  Some example model properties
                       are "PowerMac3,3" and "PowerBook3,1".

                       If this property is not specified, or the list is
                       empty, the image is enabled for all clients (the

                       If the server has no images that apply to the client,
                       it will not respond.

                       Due to limitations in the NetBoot 1.0 protocol, there
                       is no way for the NetBoot server to differentiate
                       between older clients such as the original bondi-blue
                       iMac or B&W G3 (Yosemite).  To enable an image for all
                       NetBoot 1.0 clients, include the pseudo system identi-
                       fier "/NetBoot1".

     Architectures     (Array of String) The list of architectures that this
                       image supports.  Optional, implicit value is an array
                       with a single value "ppc".

                       The NetBoot server uses the following logic in conjunc-
                       tion with the (explicit or implicit) value of the
                       Architectures property and the BootFile property:

                       bootfile = plist.BootFile.string
                       for i = 0; i < plist.Architectures.array.count; i++
                           arch = plist.Architectures.array.value[i].string
                           if $arch/$bootfile exists
                               use $arch/$bootfile
                           else if $arch == "ppc" and $bootfile exists
                               use $bootfile
                               reject this image

                       That is, for each architecture in the Architectures
                       list look for a sub-directory of the .nbi directory
                       named architecture.  If the BootFile exists within that
                       directory, continue with the next architecture.  Other-
                       wise, if the architecture is "ppc", and the BootFile
                       exists directly within the .nbi directory, continue
                       with the next architecture.  Otherwise, reject the
                       image.  If all Architectures have a valid BootFile,
                       accept the image.

                       This logic allows a single-architecture, "ppc"-only
                       NetBoot Image to work as before.  The directory struc-
                       ture ensures that a NetBoot Image that only supports
                       non-"ppc" architectures will be rejected by a NetBoot
                       server that doesn't understand the Architectures prop-
                       erty.  This is important because older NetBoot servers
                       only serve "ppc" images, and they must not mistakenly
                       serve a non-"ppc" image to a "ppc" client.

                       (Array of String) The exclusive list of MAC addresses
                       for which this image is enabled.  A client whose MAC
                       address is on this list may be offered this image, sub-
                       ject to any other filtering that might be in effect,
                       e.g. the Architectures and EnabledSystemIdentifiers
                       properties.  If this property is not specified, image
                       MAC address filtering is subject only to the Disabled-
                       MACAddresses property, if specified.  If this property
                       is defined but the array is empty, the image is dis-

                       (Array of String) The list of MAC addresses for which
                       this image is disabled.  A client whose MAC address is
                       on this list will not be offered this image.  Defining
                       both this property and the EnabledMACAddresses property
                       at the same time is not generally useful, but this
                       property takes precedence.  That is, if a client's MAC
                       address appears in both lists, it is disabled.

   NetBoot Image Example: Mac OS 9
     The path to the image directory in this example is:
         /Library/NetBoot/NetBootSP0/Mac OS 9.nbi

     This directory contains the following files:
         Mac OS ROM
         NetBoot HD.img
         Applications HD.img

     The NBImageInfo.plist contains:
     <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
     <!DOCTYPE plist SYSTEM "file://localhost/System/Library/DTDs/PropertyList.dtd">
     <plist version="0.9">
             <string>Mac OS ROM</string>
             <string>Mac OS 9.2</string>
             <string>NetBoot HD.img</string>
             <string>Applications HD.img</string>

     The Type is Classic, which means this is a Mac OS 9 NetBoot image, so the
     implied Kind value is 0 (Mac OS 9).  The BootFile property points to "Mac
     OS ROM".  The system image is "NetBoot HD.img".  The read-only applica-
     tions image is "Applications HD.img".  The Name of the image is "Mac OS
     9.2".  IsEnabled is supplied and set to true, so the image is active.
     The Index is 4, which means the image is local to this server, and will
     always appear as a unique choice in the client image selection UI.

   NetBoot Image Example: Mac OS X
     The path to this example is:

     This directory contains:

     The NBImageInfo.plist contains:
     <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
     <!DOCTYPE plist SYSTEM "file://localhost/System/Library/DTDs/PropertyList.dtd">
     <plist version="0.9">
             <string>Mac OS X (Jaguar)</string>

     The Type is NFS, and no Kind is specified, so the server assumes this is
     a Mac OS X image with Kind 1.  The BootFile property points to "booter".
     Mac OS X uses three separate bootfiles, so the remaining files which must
     exist, but are not currently verified to exist by the server, are
     "mach.macosx" and "mach.macosx.mkext".  Those names are non-negotiable,
     since the booter hard-codes those names.  The RootPath property indicates
     that the image file is "Jaguar.dmg".  The Index is 4096, so this is a
     global image, that may appear on multiple NetBoot servers.  If another
     server serves an image of the same Kind, IsInstall, and Index, this image
     may appear as a single choice in client image selection UI.

   NetBoot Image Example: Mac OS X with Multiple Architectures
     The path to this example is:

     This directory contains:

     The NBImageInfo.plist contains:
     <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
     <!DOCTYPE plist SYSTEM "file://localhost/System/Library/DTDs/PropertyList.dtd">
     <plist version="0.9">
             <string>Mac OS X (Tiger)</string>

     This example shows how a NetBoot Image that supports multiple architec-
     tures is configured.  The bootfiles for "ppc" reside directly within the
     .nbi directory, whereas the bootfiles for "i386" reside within a sub-
     directory of the .nbi directory named "i386".  This image is a Mac OS X
     installation image that is served over NFS.

   Diskless Resources
     The NetBoot server creates and manages per-client AFP user logins as well
     as per-client directories to give each client its own protected
     resources.  The AFP users are created on the local system with the
     attribute _creator set to bsdpd.

     When the server initializes, it ensures there are at least afp_users_max
     users with this property.  If there are not, it allocates new user
     entries to make up the difference.

     Along with the per-client AFP login, the server creates per-client direc-
     tories to store the "shadow" files.  The server creates these directories
     on each local volume that contains a symbolic link named:


     at the root of the volume.  If the symlink is valid, and points to a
     directory, it assumes that the directory should be used for client files.
     It also assumes that the directory is a valid AFP sharepoint of the same
     name.  By convention, the directory is named:


     where Y is a unique number starting at zero (0).

     The server "round-robins" client files across each such directory to dis-
     tribute load amongst multiple disk drives to improve overall performance.

     When the server responds to the client's NetBoot request, it ensures that
     the "shadow" file is preallocated to shadow_size_meg megabytes.  Setting
     that property high enough avoids having every client fail if the server
     runs out of disk space.   The only clients that fail if the server runs
     out of disk space are those that run of of space in their own pre-allo-
     cated "shadow" files.

     Note: the server allocates shadow files for Mac OS 9 NetBoot clients only
     on local HFS volumes.


     bootptab(5), xinetd(8), tftpd(8), exports(5)

Mac OS X                       February 8, 2007                       Mac OS X

Mac OS X 10.7 - Generated Tue Aug 30 14:25:06 CDT 2011
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