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hunspell(4)                                                        hunspell(4)


       hunspell - format of Hunspell dictionaries and affix files


       hunspell(4) Hunspell requires two files to define the way a language is
       being spell checked: a dictionary file containing words and  applicable
       flags,  and  an  affix file that specifies how these flags wil controll
       spell checking.  An optional file is the personal dictionary file.

Dictionary file

       A dictionary file (*.dic) contains a list of words, one per line.   The
       first  line of the dictionaries (except personal dictionaries) contains
       the approximate word count (for optimal hash memory  size).  Each  word
       may  optionally  be  followed  by  a slash ("/") and one or more flags,
       which represents the word attributes, for example affixes.

       Note: Dictionary words can contain also slashes when escaped  like   ""

Personal dictionary file

       Personal  dictionaries  are  simple  word  lists. Asterisk at the first
       character position signs prohibition.  A second  word  separated  by  a
       slash sets the affixation.


       In  this  example, "foo" and "Foo" are personal words, plus Foo will be
       recognized with affixes of Simpson (Foo's etc.) and bar is a  forbidden

Short example

       Dictionary file:


       The flags B and A specify attributes of these words.

       Affix file:

              SET UTF-8
              TRY esianrtolcdugmphbyfvkwzESIANRTOLCDUGMPHBYFVKWZ'

              REP 2
              REP f ph
              REP ph f

              PFX A Y 1
              PFX A 0 re .

              SFX B Y 2
              SFX B 0 ed [^y]
              SFX B y ied y

       In  the  affix  file,  prefix A and suffix B have been defined.  Flag A
       defines a `re-' prefix. Class B defines two  `-ed'  suffixes.  First  B
       suffix  can  be added to a word if the last character of the word isn't
       `y'.  Second suffix can be added to the words terminated with an `y'.

       All accepted words with this  dictionary  and  affix  combination  are:
       "hello", "try", "tried", "work", "worked", "rework", "reworked".


       Hunspell  source distribution contains more than 80 examples for option

       SET encoding
              Set character encoding of words and morphemes in affix and  dic-
              tionary  files.  Possible values: UTF-8, ISO8859-1 - ISO8859-10,
              ISO8859-13  -  ISO8859-15,  KOI8-R,  KOI8-U,   microsoft-cp1251,

              SET UTF-8

       FLAG value
              Set  flag type. Default type is the extended ASCII (8-bit) char-
              acter.  `UTF-8' parameter sets UTF-8 encoded  Unicode  character
              flags.   The `long' value sets the double extended ASCII charac-
              ter flag type, the `num' sets the decimal number flag type. Dec-
              imal flags numbered from 1 to 65000, and in flag fields are sep-
              arated by comma.  BUG: UTF-8 flag type doesn't work on ARM plat-

              FLAG long

              Set  twofold  prefix stripping (but single suffix stripping) eg.
              for morphologically complex languages with right-to-left writing

       LANG langcode
              Set  language  code for language specific functions of Hunspell.
              Use it to activate special casing of Azeri (LANG az) and Turkish
              (LANG tr).

       IGNORE characters
              Sets  characters  to  ignore dictionary words, affixes and input
              words.  Useful for optional characters, as Arabic  (harakat)  or
              Hebrew  (niqqud) diacritical marks (see tests/ignore.* test dic-
              tionary in Hunspell distribution).

       AF number_of_flag_vector_aliases

       AF flag_vector
              Hunspell can substitute affix flag sets with ordinal numbers  in
              affix rules (alias compression, see makealias tool). First exam-
              ple with alias compression:


       AF definitions in the affix file:

              AF 2
              AF A
              AF AB

       It is equivalent of the following dic file:


       See also tests/alias* examples of the source distribution.

       Note I: If affix file contains the FLAG parameter, define it before the
       AF definitions.

       Note II: Use makealias utility in Hunspell distribution to compress aff
       and dic files.

       AM number_of_morphological_aliases

       AM morphological_fields
              Hunspell can substitute also  morphological  data  with  ordinal
              numbers  in  affix  rules (alias compression).  See tests/alias*


       Suggestion parameters  can  optimize  the  default  n-gram  (similarity
       search in the dictionary words based on the common 1, 2, 3, 4-character
       length common character-sequences), character swap and deletion sugges-
       tions  of Hunspell.  REP is suggested to fix the typical and especially
       bad language specific bugs, because the REP suggestions have the  high-
       est  priority  in the suggestion list.  PHONE is for languages with not
       pronunciation based orthography.

       KEY characters_separated_by_vertical_line_optionally
              Hunspell searches and suggests words with one different  charac-
              ter  replaced  by a neighbor KEY character. Not neighbor charac-
              ters in KEY string separated by vertical line characters.   Sug-
              gested KEY parameters for QWERTY and Dvorak keyboard layouts:

              KEY qwertyuiop|asdfghjkl|zxcvbnm
              KEY pyfgcrl|aeouidhtns|qjkxbmwvz

       Using  the first QWERTY layout, Hunspell suggests "nude" and "node" for
       "*nide". A character may have more neighbors, too:

              KEY qwertzuop|yxcvbnm|qaw|say|wse|dsx|sy|edr|fdc|dx|rft|gfv|fc|tgz|hgb|gv|zhu|jhn|hb|uji|kjm|jn|iko|lkm

       TRY characters
              Hunspell can suggest right word forms, when they differ from the
              bad  input  word  by  one TRY character. The parameter of TRY is
              case sensitive.

       NOSUGGEST flag
              Words signed with NOSUGGEST flag are not  suggested  (but  still
              accepted  when  typed  correctly).  Proposed flag for vulgar and
              obscene words (see also SUBSTANDARD).

       MAXCPDSUGS num
              Set max. number of suggested compound words  generated  by  com-
              pound  rules.  The number of the suggested compound words may be
              greater from the same 1-character distance type.

              Set max. number of n-gram suggestions. Value 0 switches off  the
              n-gram suggestions (see also MAXDIFF).

       MAXDIFF [0-10]
              Set  the similarity factor for the n-gram based suggestions (5 =
              default value; 0 = fewer n-gram suggestions, but min.  1;  10  =
              MAXNGRAMSUGS n-gram suggestions).

              Remove  all  bad n-gram suggestions (default mode keeps one, see

              Disable word suggestions with spaces.

              Add dot(s) to suggestions, if input word terminates  in  dot(s).
              (Not for dictionaries, because has
              an automatic dot expansion mechanism.)

       REP number_of_replacement_definitions

       REP what replacement
              This table specifies modifications to try first.  First  REP  is
              the  header of this table and one or more REP data line are fol-
              lowing it.  With this table,  Hunspell  can  suggest  the  right
              forms  for the typical spelling mistakes when the incorrect form
              differs by more than 1 letter from the right form.   The  search
              string supports the regex boundary signs (^ and $).  For example
              a possible English replacement table definition to  handle  mis-
              spelled consonants:

              REP 5
              REP f ph
              REP ph f
              REP tion$ shun
              REP ^cooccurr co-occurr
              REP ^alot$ a_lot

       Note  I:  It's  very useful to define replacements for the most typical
       one-character mistakes, too: with REP you can add higher priority to  a
       subset of the TRY suggestions (suggestion list begins with the REP sug-

       Note II: Suggesting separated words, specify spaces with underlines:

              REP 1
              REP onetwothree one_two_three

       Note III: Replacement table can be used for a  stricter  compound  word
       checking with the option CHECKCOMPOUNDREP.

       MAP number_of_map_definitions

       MAP string_of_related_chars_or_parenthesized_character_sequences
              We  can  define language-dependent information on characters and
              character sequences that  should  be  considered  related  (i.e.
              nearer than other chars not in the set) in the affix file (.aff)
              by a map table.  With this table, Hunspell can suggest the right
              forms  for  words,  which incorrectly choose the wrong letter or
              letter groups from a related set more than once in a  word  (see

              For  example a possible mapping could be for the German umlauted
              A1/4 versus the  regular  u;  the  word  FrA1/4hstA1/4ck  really
              should be written with umlauted u's and not regular ones

              MAP 1
              MAP uA1/4

       Use parenthesized groups for character sequences (eg. for composed Uni-
       code characters):

              MAP 3
              MAP A(ss)  (character sequence)
              MAP i~(fi)  ("fi" compatibility characters for Unicode fi ligature)
              MAP (A3IL)o   (composed Unicode character: A3 with bottom dot)

       PHONE number_of_phone_definitions

       PHONE what replacement
              PHONE uses a table-driven phonetic transcription algorithm  bor-
              rowed from Aspell. It is useful for languages with not pronunci-
              ation based orthography. You can add a full alphabet  conversion
              and  other rules for conversion of special letter sequences. For
              detailed documentation see
              Code.html.   Note:  Multibyte  UTF-8  characters have not worked
              with bracket expression yet. Dash expression  has  signed  bytes
              and not UTF-8 characters yet.

       WARN flag
              This  flag  is for rare words, wich are also often spelling mis-
              takes, see option -r of command line Hunspell and FORBIDWARN.

              Words with flag WARN aren't accepted by the spell checker  using
              this parameter.


       BREAK number_of_break_definitions

       BREAK character_or_character_sequence
              Define  new  break  points  for breaking words and checking word
              parts separately. Use ^ and $ to delete characters  at  end  and
              start  of the word. Rationale: useful for compounding with join-
              ing character or strings (for example,  hyphen  in  English  and
              German  or hyphen and n-dash in Hungarian). Dashes are often bad
              break points for tokenization, because compounds with dashes may
              contain  not  valid parts, too.)  With BREAK, Hunspell can check
              both side of these compounds, breaking the words at  dashes  and

              BREAK 2
              BREAK -
              BREAK --    # n-dash

       Breaking  are recursive, so foo-bar, bar-foo and foo-foo--bar-bar would
       be valid compounds.  Note: The default word break of Hunspell is equiv-
       alent of the following BREAK definition:

              BREAK 3
              BREAK -
              BREAK ^-
              BREAK -$

       Hunspell  doesn't  accept  the  "-word" and "word-" forms by this BREAK

              BREAK 1
              BREAK -

       Switching off the default values:

              BREAK 0

       Note II: COMPOUNDRULE is better for handling dashes and other  compound
       joining  characters  or  character  strings.  Use BREAK, if you want to
       check words with dashes or other joining characters  and  there  is  no
       time  or  possibility  to  describe  precise  compound  rules with COM-
       POUNDRULE (COMPOUNDRULE handles only the suffixation of the  last  word
       part of a compound word).

       Note  III:  For command line spell checking of words with extra charac-
       ters, set WORDCHARS parameters: WORDCHARS --- (see tests/break.*) exam-

       COMPOUNDRULE number_of_compound_definitions

       COMPOUNDRULE compound_pattern
              Define  custom  compound patterns with a regex-like syntax.  The
              first COMPOUNDRULE is a header with the number of the  following
              COMPOUNDRULE  definitions.  Compound  patterns  consist compound
              flags, parentheses, star and question mark  meta  characters.  A
              flag  followed  by  a  `*'  matches a word sequence of 0 or more
              matches of words signed with this compound flag.   A  flag  fol-
              lowed  by  a  `?' matches a word sequence of 0 or 1 matches of a
              word signed with  this  compound  flag.   See  tests/compound*.*

              Note:  en_US  dictionary of uses COMPOUNDRULE for
              ordinal number recognition (1st, 2nd, 11th, 12th,  22nd,  112th,
              1000122nd etc.).

              Note  II:  In the case of long and numerical flag types use only
              parenthesized flags: (1500)*(2000)?

              Note III: COMPOUNDRULE flags work completely separately from the
              compounding  mechanisme  using COMPOUNDFLAG, COMPOUNDBEGIN, etc.
              compound flags. (Use  these  flags  on  different  enhtries  for

       COMPOUNDMIN num
              Minimum  length of words used for compounding.  Default value is
              3 letters.

       COMPOUNDFLAG flag
              Words signed with COMPOUNDFLAG may be in compound words  (except
              when  word  shorter than COMPOUNDMIN). Affixes with COMPOUNDFLAG
              also permits compounding of affixed words.

              Words signed with COMPOUNDBEGIN (or with a signed affix) may  be
              first elements in compound words.

       COMPOUNDLAST flag
              Words  signed  with COMPOUNDLAST (or with a signed affix) may be
              last elements in compound words.

              Words signed with COMPOUNDMIDDLE (or with a signed affix) may be
              middle elements in compound words.

              Suffixes  signed  with ONLYINCOMPOUND flag may be only inside of
              compounds (Fuge-elements in German, fogemorphemes  in  Swedish).
              ONLYINCOMPOUND  flag works also with words (see tests/onlyincom-
              pound.*).  Note: also valuable to flag compounding  parts  which
              are not correct as a word by itself.

              Prefixes are allowed at the beginning of compounds, suffixes are
              allowed at the end of compounds by default.  Affixes  with  COM-
              POUNDPERMITFLAG may be inside of compounds.

              Suffixes  with this flag forbid compounding of the affixed word.

       COMPOUNDROOT flag
              COMPOUNDROOT flag signs the compounds in the dictionary (Now  it
              is used only in the Hungarian language specific code).

              Set  maximum  word  count in a compound word. (Default is unlim-

              Forbid word duplication in compounds (e.g. foofoo).

              Forbid compounding, if the (usually bad) compound word may be  a
              non  compound  word  with a REP fault. Useful for languages with
              `compound friendly' orthography.

              Forbid upper case characters at word boundaries in compounds.

              Forbid compounding, if compound word contains  triple  repeating
              letters (e.g. foo|ox or xo|oof). Bug: missing multi-byte charac-
              ter support in UTF-8 encoding (works only for 7-bit ASCII  char-

              Allow  simplified  2-letter  forms of the compounds forbidden by
              CHECKCOMPOUNDTRIPLE.  It's useful for Swedish and Norwegian (and
              for the old German orthography: Schiff|fahrt -> Schiffahrt).

       CHECKCOMPOUNDPATTERN number_of_checkcompoundpattern_definitions

       CHECKCOMPOUNDPATTERN endchars[/flag] beginchars[/flag] [replacement]
              Forbid  compounding, if the first word in the compound ends with
              endchars, and next word begins with beginchars and  (optionally)
              they have the requested flags.  The optional replacement parame-
              ter allows simplified compound form.

              The special "endchars" pattern 0 (zero) limits the rule  to  the
              unmodified stems (stems and stems with zero affixes):

              CHECKCOMPOUNDPATTERN 0/x /y

       Note:  COMPOUNDMIN doesn't work correctly with the compound word alter-
       nation, so it may need to set COMPOUNDMIN to lower value.

       FORCEUCASE flag
              Last word part of a compound with flag FORCEUCASE  forces  capi-
              talization  of  the whole compound word. Eg. Dutch word "straat"
              (street) with FORCEUCASE flags will allowed only in  capitalized
              compound forms, according to the Dutch spelling rules for proper

       COMPOUNDSYLLABLE max_syllable vowels
              Need for special compounding rules in Hungarian.  First  parame-
              ter  is  the maximum syllable number, that may be in a compound,
              if words in compounds are  more  than  COMPOUNDWORDMAX.   Second
              parameter is the list of vowels (for calculating syllables).

       SYLLABLENUM flags
              Need for special compounding rules in Hungarian.


       PFX flag cross_product number

       PFX flag stripping prefix [condition [morphological_fields...]]

       SFX flag cross_product number

       SFX flag stripping suffix [condition [morphological_fields...]]
              An  affix  is either a prefix or a suffix attached to root words
              to make other words. We can define affix classes with  arbitrary
              number  affix rules.  Affix classes are signed with affix flags.
              The first line of an affix class definition is the  header.  The
              fields of an affix class header:

              (0) Option name (PFX or SFX)

              (1) Flag (name of the affix class)

              (2) Cross product (permission to combine prefixes and suffixes).
              Possible values: Y (yes) or N (no)

              (3) Line count of the following rules.

              Fields of an affix rules:

              (0) Option name

              (1) Flag

              (2) stripping characters from beginning (at prefix rules) or end
              (at suffix rules) of the word

              (3)  affix (optionally with flags of continuation classes, sepa-
              rated by a slash)

              (4) condition.

              Zero stripping or affix are indicated by zero. Zero condition is
              indicated  by  dot.   Condition is a simplified, regular expres-
              sion-like pattern, which must be met before  the  affix  can  be
              applied. (Dot signs an arbitrary character. Characters in braces
              sign an arbitrary character  from  the  character  subset.  Dash
              hasn't  got  special  meaning, but circumflex (^) next the first
              brace sets the complementer character set.)

              (5) Optional morphological fields separated by spaces or tabula-


       CIRCUMFIX flag
              Affixes  signed  with  CIRCUMFIX flag may be on a word when this
              word also has a prefix with CIRCUMFIX flag and vice  versa  (see
              circumfix.* test files in the source distribution).

              This  flag  signs forbidden word form. Because affixed forms are
              also forbidden, we  can  subtract  a  subset  from  set  of  the
              accepted  affixed  and  compound words.  Note: usefull to forbid
              erroneous words, generated by the compounding mechanism.

              With FULLSTRIP, affix rules can strip full words, not  only  one
              less characters, before adding the affixes, see fullstrip.* test
              files in the source distribution).  Note: conditions may be word
              length without FULLSTRIP, too.

       KEEPCASE flag
              Forbid  uppercased  and  capitalized  forms of words signed with
              KEEPCASE flags. Useful for special  orthographies  (measurements
              and  currency  often  keep  their  case in uppercased texts) and
              writing systems (e.g. keeping lower  case  of  IPA  characters).
              Also valuable for words erroneously written in the wrong case.

              Note: With CHECKSHARPS declaration, words with sharp s and KEEP-
              CASE flag may be  capitalized  and  uppercased,  but  uppercased
              forms  of these words may not contain sharp s, only SS. See ger-
              mancompounding example in the tests directory  of  the  Hunspell

       ICONV number_of_ICONV_definitions

       ICONV pattern pattern2
              Define input conversion table.  Note: useful to convert one type
              of quote to another one, or change ligature.

       OCONV number_of_OCONV_definitions

       OCONV pattern pattern2
              Define output conversion table.

       LEMMA_PRESENT flag
              Deprecated. Use "st:" field instead of LEMMA_PRESENT.

       NEEDAFFIX flag
              This flag signs virtual stems  in  the  dictionary,  words  only
              valid  when  affixed.   Except,  if  the  dictionary  word has a
              homonym or a zero affix.  NEEDAFFIX works also with prefixes and
              prefix + suffix combinations (see tests/pseudoroot5.*).

       PSEUDOROOT flag
              Deprecated. (Former name of the NEEDAFFIX option.)

       SUBSTANDARD flag
              SUBSTANDARD  flag  signs affix rules and dictionary words (allo-
              morphs) not used in morphological generation (and in  suggestion
              in the future versions). See also NOSUGGEST.

       WORDCHARS characters
              WORDCHARS  extends  tokenizer of Hunspell command line interface
              with additional word character. For example, dot, dash,  n-dash,
              numbers, percent sign are word character in Hungarian.

              SS  letter  pair  in uppercased (German) words may be upper case
              sharp s (A).  Hunspell can handle this special casing  with  the
              CHECKSHARPS  declaration  (see also KEEPCASE flag and tests/ger-
              mancompounding example) in both spelling and suggestion.

Morphological analysis

       Hunspell's dictionary items and affix rules may have optional space  or
       tabulator  separated  morphological  description  fields,  started with
       3-character (two letters and a colon) field IDs:

               word/flags po:noun is:nom

       Example: We define a simple resource with morphological informations, a
       derivative suffix (ds:) and a part of speech category (po:):

       Affix file:

               SFX X Y 1
               SFX X 0 able . ds:able

       Dictionary file:

               drink/X po:verb

       Test file:



               $ analyze test.aff test.dic test.txt
               > drink
               analyze(drink) = po:verb
               stem(drink) = po:verb
               > drinkable
               analyze(drinkable) = po:verb ds:able
               stem(drinkable) = drinkable

       You  can see in the example, that the analyzer concatenates the morpho-
       logical fields in item and arrangement style.

Optional data fields

       Default morphological and other IDs (used in suggestion,  stemming  and
       morphological generation):

       ph:    Alternative  transliteration for better suggestion.  It's useful
              for words with foreign pronunciation. (Dictionary based phonetic
              suggestion.)  For example:

              Marseille ph:maarsayl

       st:    Stem.  Optional:  default stem is the dictionary item in morpho-
              logical analysis. Stem field is useful for virtual  stems  (dic-
              tionary  words with NEEDAFFIX flag) and morphological exceptions
              instead of new, single used morphological rules.

              feet  st:foot  is:plural
              mice  st:mouse is:plural
              teeth st:tooth is:plural

       Word forms with multiple stems need multiple dictionary items:

              lay po:verb st:lie is:past_2
              lay po:verb is:present
              lay po:noun

       al:    Allomorph(s). A dictionary item is the stem of  its  allomorphs.
              Morphological generation needs stem, allomorph and affix fields.

              sing al:sang al:sung
              sang st:sing
              sung st:sing

       po:    Part of speech category.

       ds:    Derivational suffix(es).  Stemming doesn't  remove  derivational
              suffixes.   Morphological generation depends on the order of the
              suffix fields.

              In affix rules:

              SFX Y Y 1
              SFX Y 0 ly . ds:ly_adj

       In the dictionary:

              ably st:able ds:ly_adj
              able al:ably

       is:    Inflectional suffix(es).  All inflectional suffixes are  removed
              by  stemming.   Morphological generation depends on the order of
              the suffix fields.

              feet st:foot is:plural

       ts:    Terminal suffix(es).  Terminal suffix  fields  are  inflectional
              suffix fields "removed" by additional (not terminal) suffixes.

              Useful  for  zero  morphemes  and  affixes  removed by splitting

              work/D ts:present

              SFX D Y 2
              SFX D   0 ed . is:past_1
              SFX D   0 ed . is:past_2

       Typical example of the terminal suffix is the zero morpheme of the nom-
       inative case.

       sp:    Surface  prefix.  Temporary  solution for adding prefixes to the
              stems and generated word forms. See tests/morph.* example.

       pa:    Parts of the compound  words.  Output  fields  of  morphological
              analysis for stemming.

       dp:    Planned: derivational prefix.

       ip:    Planned: inflectional prefix.

       tp:    Planned: terminal prefix.

Twofold suffix stripping

       Ispell's  original algorithm strips only one suffix. Hunspell can strip
       another one yet (or a plus prefix in COMPLEXPREFIXES mode).

       The twofold suffix stripping is a significant improvement  in  handling
       of  immense  number  of  suffixes, that characterize agglutinative lan-

       A second `s' suffix (affix class Y) will be the continuation  class  of
       the suffix `able' in the following example:

               SFX Y Y 1
               SFX Y 0 s .

               SFX X Y 1
               SFX X 0 able/Y .

       Dictionary file:


       Test file:



               $ hunspell -m -d test <test.txt
               drink st:drink
               drinkable st:drink fl:X
               drinkables st:drink fl:X fl:Y

       Theoretically  with  the twofold suffix stripping needs only the square
       root of the number of suffix rules, compared with a Hunspell  implemen-
       tation. In our practice, we could have elaborated the Hungarian inflec-
       tional morphology with twofold suffix stripping.

Extended affix classes

       Hunspell can handle more than 65000 affix classes.  There are three new
       syntax for giving flags in affix and dictionary files.

       FLAG long command sets 2-character flags:

                FLAG long
                SFX Y1 Y 1
                SFX Y1 0 s 1

       Dictionary record with the Y1, Z3, F? flags:


       FLAG num command sets numerical flags separated by comma:

                FLAG num
                SFX 65000 Y 1
                SFX 65000 0 s 1

       Dictionary example:


       The third one is the Unicode character flags.


       Hunspell's dictionary can contain repeating elements that are homonyms:

               work/A    po:verb
               work/B    po:noun

       An affix file:

               SFX A Y 1
               SFX A 0 s . sf:sg3

               SFX B Y 1
               SFX B 0 s . is:plur

       Test file:



               $ hunspell -d test -m <testwords
               work st:work po:verb is:sg3
               work st:work po:noun is:plur

       This feature also gives a way to forbid illegal prefix/suffix  combina-

Prefix--suffix dependencies

       An  interesting side-effect of multi-step stripping is, that the appro-
       priate treatment of circumfixes now comes for free.  For  instance,  in
       Hungarian,  superlatives are formed by simultaneous prefixation of leg-
       and suffixation of -bb to the adjective base.  A problem with the  one-
       level  architecture is that there is no way to render lexical licensing
       of particular  prefixes  and  suffixes  interdependent,  and  therefore
       incorrect forms are recognized as valid, i.e. *legv~<i>A(C)n = leg + v~<i>A(C)n
       `old'. Until the introduction of clusters, a special treatment  of  the
       superlative  had to be hardwired in the earlier HunSpell code. This may
       have been legitimate for a single  case,  but  in  fact  prefix--suffix
       dependences  are  ubiquitous in category-changing derivational patterns
       (cf. English payable, non-payable but *non-pay or  drinkable,  undrink-
       able but *undrink). In simple words, here, the prefix un- is legitimate
       only if the base drink is suffixed with -able. If  both  these  patters
       are  handled by on-line affix rules and affix rules are checked against
       the base only, there is no way to express this dependency and the  sys-
       tem will necessarily over- or undergenerate.

       In  next example, suffix class R have got a prefix `continuation' class
       (class P).

              PFX P Y 1
              PFX P   0 un . [prefix_un]+

              SFX S Y 1
              SFX S   0 s . +PL

              SFX Q Y 1
              SFX Q   0 s . +3SGV

              SFX R Y 1
              SFX R   0 able/PS . +DER_V_ADJ_ABLE


              drink/RQ  [verb]
              drink/S   [noun]

       Morphological analysis:

              > drink
              > drinks
              > drinkable
              > drinkables
              > undrinkable
              > undrinkables
              > undrink
              Unknown word.
              > undrinks
              Unknown word.


       Conditional affixes implemented by a continuation class are not  enough
       for  circumfixes,  because  a  circumfix is one affix in morphology. We
       also need CIRCUMFIX option for correct morphological analysis.

              # circumfixes: ~ obligate prefix/suffix combinations
              # superlative in Hungarian: leg- (prefix) AND -bb (suffix)
              # nagy, nagyobb, legnagyobb, legeslegnagyobb
              # (great, greater, greatest, most greatest)

              CIRCUMFIX X

              PFX A Y 1
              PFX A 0 leg/X .

              PFX B Y 1
              PFX B 0 legesleg/X .

              SFX C Y 3
              SFX C 0 obb . +COMPARATIVE
              SFX C 0 obb/AX . +SUPERLATIVE
              SFX C 0 obb/BX . +SUPERSUPERLATIVE


              nagy/C    [MN]


              > nagy
              > nagyobb
              > legnagyobb
              > legeslegnagyobb


       Allowing free compounding yields decrease in precision of  recognition,
       not  to  mention stemming and morphological analysis.  Although lexical
       switches are introduced to license compounding of bases by Ispell, this
       proves not to be restrictive enough. For example:

              # affix file
              COMPOUNDFLAG X


       With this resource, foobar and barfoo also are accepted words.

       This  has  been improved upon with the introduction of direction-sensi-
       tive compounding, i.e., lexical features can specify separately whether
       a  base  can  occur  as leftmost or rightmost constituent in compounds.
       This, however, is still insufficient to handle the  intricate  patterns
       of  compounding,  not  to mention idiosyncratic (and language specific)
       norms of hyphenation.

       The Hunspell algorithm currently allows  any  affixed  form  of  words,
       which  are lexically marked as potential members of compounds. Hunspell
       improved this, and its recursive compound checking rules makes it  pos-
       sible to implement the intricate spelling conventions of Hungarian com-
       ROOT,  SYLLABLENUM  options  can  be set the noteworthy Hungarian `6-3'
       rule.  Further example in Hungarian,  derivate  suffixes  often  modify
       compounding  properties.  Hunspell  allows the compounding flags on the
       affixes, and there are two special flags (COMPOUNDPERMITFLAG and  (COM-
       POUNDFORBIDFLAG)  to permit or prohibit compounding of the derivations.

       Suffixes with this flag forbid compounding of the affixed word.

       We also need several Hunspell features for handling German compounding:

              # German compounding

              # set language to handle special casing of German sharp s

              LANG de_DE

              # compound flags

              COMPOUNDBEGIN U
              COMPOUNDMIDDLE V
              COMPOUNDEND W

              # Prefixes are allowed at the beginning of compounds,
              # suffixes are allowed at the end of compounds by default:
              # (prefix)?(root)+(affix)?
              # Affixes with COMPOUNDPERMITFLAG may be inside of compounds.

              # for German fogemorphemes (Fuge-element)
              # Hint: ONLYINCOMPOUND is not required everywhere, but the
              # checking will be a little faster with it.

              ONLYINCOMPOUND X

              # forbid uppercase characters at compound word bounds

              # for handling Fuge-elements with dashes (Arbeits-)
              # dash will be a special word

              COMPOUNDMIN 1
              WORDCHARS -

              # compound settings and fogemorpheme for `Arbeit'

              SFX A Y 3
              SFX A 0 s/UPX .
              SFX A 0 s/VPDX .
              SFX A 0 0/WXD .

              SFX B Y 2
              SFX B 0 0/UPX .
              SFX B 0 0/VWXDP .

              # a suffix for `Computer'

              SFX C Y 1
              SFX C 0 n/WD .

              # for forbid exceptions (*Arbeitsnehmer)

              FORBIDDENWORD Z

              # dash prefix for compounds with dash (Arbeits-Computer)

              PFX - Y 1
              PFX - 0 -/P .

              # decapitalizing prefix
              # circumfix for positioning in compounds

              PFX D Y 29
              PFX D A a/PX A
              PFX D A Ax/PX A
              PFX D Y y/PX Y
              PFX D Z z/PX Z

       Example dictionary:


       Accepted compound compound words with the previous resource:


       Not accepted compoundings:


       This  solution  is  still not ideal, however, and will be replaced by a
       pattern-based compound-checking algorithm which is  closely  integrated
       with input buffer tokenization. Patterns describing compounds come as a
       separate input resource that can refer to high-level properties of con-
       stituent parts (e.g. the number of syllables, affix flags, and contain-
       ment of hyphens). The patterns are matched against potential  segmenta-
       tions of compounds to assess wellformedness.

Unicode character encoding

       Both  Ispell and Myspell use 8-bit ASCII character encoding, which is a
       major deficiency when it comes to  scalability.   Although  a  language
       like  Hungarian  has  a  standard  ASCII character set (ISO 8859-2), it
       fails to allow a full implementation of Hungarian orthographic  conven-
       tions.   For  instance,  the  '--' symbol (n-dash) is missing from this
       character set contrary to the fact that it is  not  only  the  official
       symbol to delimit parenthetic clauses in the language, but it can be in
       compound words as a special 'big' hyphen.

       MySpell has got some 8-bit encoding tables,  but  there  are  languages
       without  standard  8-bit  encoding,  too. For example, a lot of African
       languages have non-latin or extended latin characters.

       Similarly, using the original spelling of certain  foreign  names  like
       ~<i>Angstr~<i>A9|m  or  Moli~<i>A"re  is encouraged by the Hungarian spelling norm,
       and, since characters 'A' and 'A"' are not  part  of  ISO 8859-2,  when
       they  combine with inflections containing characters only in ISO 8859-2
       (like elative -bo<i>Al, allative -to<i>Al or delative -ro<i>Al with double  acute),
       these  result  in  words (like ~<i>Angstr~<i>A9|mro<i>Al or Moli~<i>A"re-to<i>Al.) that can
       not be encoded using any single ASCII encoding scheme.

       The problems raised in relation to 8-bit ASCII encoding have long  been
       recognized  by  proponents  of  Unicode. It is clear that trading effi-
       ciency for encoding-independence has its advantages  when  it  comes  a
       truly multi-lingual application. There is implemented a memory and time
       efficient Unicode handling in Hunspell. In non-UTF-8  character  encod-
       ings Hunspell works with the original 8-bit strings. In UTF-8 encoding,
       affixes and words are stored in UTF-8, during the analysis are  handled
       in  mostly UTF-8, under condition checking and suggestion are converted
       to UTF-16. Unicode text analysis and  spell  checking  have  a  minimal
       (0-20%) time overhead and minimal or reasonable memory overhead depends
       from the language (its UTF-8 encoding and affixation).

Conversion of aspell dictionaries

       Aspell dictionaries can be easily converted into  hunspell.  Conversion

       dictionary (xx.cwl -> xx.wl):

       preunzip xx.cwl
       wc -l < xx.wl > xx.dic
       cat xx.wl >> xx.dic

       affix file

       If the affix file exists, copy it:
       cp xx_affix.dat xx.aff
       If not, create it with the suitable character encoding (see xx.dat)
       echo "SET ISO8859-x" > xx.aff
       echo "SET UTF-8" > xx.aff

       It's  useful  to add a TRY option with the characters of the dictionary
       with frequency order to set edit distance suggestions:
       echo "TRY qwertzuiopasdfghjklyxcvbnmQWERTZUIOPASDFGHJKLYXCVBNM" >>xx.aff


       hunspell(1), ispell(1), ispell(4)

                                  2011-02-16                       hunspell(4)

hunspell 1.3.2 - Generated Fri Nov 11 06:28:22 CST 2011
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