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unzip(1)                                                            unzip(1)




NAME

       unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive


SYNOPSIS

       unzip  [-Z]  [-cflptTuvz[abjnoqsCKLMVWX$/:]]  file[.zip]  [file(s) ...]
       [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]


DESCRIPTION

       unzip will list, test, or extract files from a  ZIP  archive,  commonly
       found  on MS-DOS systems.  The default behavior (with no options) is to
       extract into the current directory (and subdirectories  below  it)  all
       files  from  the  specified ZIP archive.  A companion program, zip(1L),
       creates ZIP archives; both programs are compatible with  archives  cre-
       ated  by  PKWARE's  PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in many cases the
       program options or default behaviors differ.


ARGUMENTS

       file[.zip]
              Path of the ZIP archive(s).  If  the  file  specification  is  a
              wildcard, each matching file is processed in an order determined
              by the operating system (or file system).  Only the filename can
              be a wildcard; the path itself cannot.  Wildcard expressions are
              similar to those supported in commonly  used  Unix  shells  (sh,
              ksh, csh) and may contain:

              *      matches a sequence of 0 or more characters

              ?      matches exactly 1 character

              [...]  matches  any  single character found inside the brackets;
                     ranges are specified by a beginning character, a  hyphen,
                     and  an  ending  character.  If an exclamation point or a
                     caret (`!' or `^') follows the  left  bracket,  then  the
                     range  of  characters within the brackets is complemented
                     (that is,  anything  except  the  characters  inside  the
                     brackets  is  considered a match).  To specify a verbatim
                     left bracket, the three-character sequence ``[[]'' has to
                     be used.

              (Be  sure  to quote any character that might otherwise be inter-
              preted or modified by the operating system,  particularly  under
              Unix  and  VMS.)   If no matches are found, the specification is
              assumed to be a literal filename; and if that  also  fails,  the
              suffix  .zip  is  appended.  Note that self-extracting ZIP files
              are supported, as with any other ZIP archive; just  specify  the
              .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.

       [file(s)]
              An  optional  list of archive members to be processed, separated
              by spaces.  (VMS versions  compiled  with  VMSCLI  defined  must
              delimit  files  with  commas instead.  See -v in OPTIONS below.)
              Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used  to  match  multiple
              members;  see  above.   Again, be sure to quote expressions that
              would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.

       [-x xfile(s)]
              An optional list of archive members to be excluded from process-
              ing.  Since wildcard characters normally match  (`/')  directory
              separators  (for exeptions see the option -W, this option may be
              used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories.  For exam-
              ple,  ``unzip  foo  *.[ch]  -x  */*'' would extract all C source
              files in the main directory, but  none  in  any  subdirectories.
              Without  the  -x  option,  all C source files in all directories
              within the zipfile would be extracted.

       [-d exdir]
              An optional directory to which to extract  files.   By  default,
              all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current direc-
              tory; the -d option allows extraction in an arbitrary  directory
              (always  assuming one has permission to write to the directory).
              This option need not appear at the end of the command  line;  it
              is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the nor-
              mal options), immediately after the  zipfile  specification,  or
              between the file(s) and the -x option.  The option and directory
              may be concatenated without any white space  between  them,  but
              note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed.
              In particular, ``-d ~'' (tilde) is expanded  by  Unix  C  shells
              into  the  name  of  the  user's  home directory, but ``-d~'' is
              treated as a literal subdirectory ``~'' of  the  current  direc-
              tory.


OPTIONS

       Note  that,  in  order  to  support obsolescent hardware, unzip's usage
       screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be  considered
       only  a  reminder  of  the basic unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive
       list of all possible flags.  The exhaustive list follows:

       -Z     zipinfo(1L) mode.  If the first option on the  command  line  is
              -Z,  the  remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1L) options.
              See the appropriate manual  page  for  a  description  of  these
              options.

       -A     [OS/2,  Unix  DLL] print extended help for the DLL's programming
              interface (API).

       -c     extract files to stdout/screen (``CRT'').  This option is  simi-
              lar  to  the  -p  option  except  that  the name of each file is
              printed as it is extracted, the -a option is allowed, and ASCII-
              EBCDIC  conversion  is  automatically  performed if appropriate.
              This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen.

       -f     freshen existing files, i.e.,  extract  only  those  files  that
              already  exist  on disk and that are newer than the disk copies.
              By default unzip queries before overwriting, but the  -o  option
              may be used to suppress the queries.  Note that under many oper-
              ating systems, the TZ (timezone) environment  variable  must  be
              set  correctly  in  order  for -f and -u to work properly (under
              Unix the variable is usually set  automatically).   The  reasons
              for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences
              between DOS-format file times (always local time) and  Unix-for-
              mat  times  (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare the
              two.  A typical TZ value is ``PST8PDT'' (US  Pacific  time  with
              automatic  adjustment  for  Daylight  Savings  Time  or ``summer
              time'').

       -l     list archive files (short format).  The names, uncompressed file
              sizes  and  modification  dates and times of the specified files
              are printed, along with totals  for  all  files  specified.   If
              UnZip  was  compiled  with  OS2_EAS  defined, the -l option also
              lists columns for the sizes of stored OS/2  extended  attributes
              (EAs)  and  OS/2  access control lists (ACLs).  In addition, the
              zipfile comment and individual file comments (if any)  are  dis-
              played.   If  a file was archived from a single-case file system
              (for example, the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the -L  option
              was  given,  the  filename is converted to lowercase and is pre-
              fixed with a caret (^).

       -p     extract files to pipe (stdout).  Nothing but the  file  data  is
              sent  to  stdout,  and  the files are always extracted in binary
              format, just as they are stored (no conversions).

       -t     test archive files.  This option extracts each specified file in
              memory  and  compares  the  CRC  (cyclic  redundancy  check,  an
              enhanced checksum) of the expanded file with the original file's
              stored CRC value.

       -T     [most  OSes]  set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the
              newest file in each one.  This corresponds to zip's  -go  option
              except  that  it can be used on wildcard zipfiles (e.g., ``unzip
              -T \*.zip'') and is much faster.

       -u     update existing files and  create  new  ones  if  needed.   This
              option  performs  the same function as the -f option, extracting
              (with query) files that are newer than those with the same  name
              on  disk,  and  in  addition it extracts those files that do not
              already exist on disk.  See -f above for information on  setting
              the timezone properly.

       -v     be  verbose  or  print diagnostic version info.  This option has
              evolved and now behaves as both an option and a modifier.  As an
              option it has two purposes:  when a zipfile is specified with no
              other options, -v lists archive files verbosely, adding  to  the
              basic  -l info the compression method, compressed size, compres-
              sion ratio and 32-bit CRC.  In contrast to most of the competing
              utilities,  unzip  removes  the  12  additional  header bytes of
              encrypted entries from the compressed size numbers.   Therefore,
              compressed size and compression ratio figures are independent of
              the entry's encryption status and show the  correct  compression
              performance.  (The complete size of the encryped compressed data
              stream for zipfile entries is reported by the more verbose  zip-
              info(1L)  reports, see the separate manual.)  When no zipfile is
              specified (that is,  the  complete  command  is  simply  ``unzip
              -v''),  a diagnostic screen is printed.  In addition to the nor-
              mal header with release date and version, unzip lists  the  home
              Info-ZIP ftp site and where to find a list of other ftp and non-
              ftp sites; the target operating system for  which  it  was  com-
              piled,  as  well as (possibly) the hardware on which it was com-
              piled, the compiler and version used, and the compilation  date;
              any  special compilation options that might affect the program's
              operation (see also DECRYPTION below); and any options stored in
              environment  variables  that  might do the same (see ENVIRONMENT
              OPTIONS below).  As a modifier  it  works  in  conjunction  with
              other  options  (e.g.,  -t) to produce more verbose or debugging
              output; this is not yet fully implemented but will be in  future
              releases.

       -z     display only the archive comment.


MODIFIERS

       -a     convert  text files.  Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly
              as they are stored (as ``binary'' files).  The -a option  causes
              files  identified by zip as text files (those with the `t' label
              in zipinfo  listings,  rather  than  `b')  to  be  automatically
              extracted  as such, converting line endings, end-of-file charac-
              ters and the character set itself as necessary.   (For  example,
              Unix  files  use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL) and have
              no end-of-file (EOF) marker; Macintoshes  use  carriage  returns
              (CRs) for EOLs; and most PC operating systems use CR+LF for EOLs
              and control-Z for EOF.  In  addition,  IBM  mainframes  and  the
              Michigan  Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than the more common
              ASCII character set, and NT supports Unicode.)  Note that  zip's
              identification  of  text  files  is  by  no  means perfect; some
              ``text'' files may actually be binary  and  vice  versa.   unzip
              therefore  prints  ``[text]''  or ``[binary]'' as a visual check
              for each file it extracts when using the  -a  option.   The  -aa
              option  forces  all files to be extracted as text, regardless of
              the supposed file type.

       -b     [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions).  This
              is a shortcut for ---a.

       -b     [Tandem]  force  the creation files with filecode type 180 ('C')
              when extracting Zip entries marked as "text". (On Tandem, -a  is
              enabled by default, see above).

       -b     [VMS]  auto-convert binary files (see -a above) to fixed-length,
              512-byte record format.  Doubling the option  (-bb)  forces  all
              files  to  be extracted in this format. When extracting to stan-
              dard output (-c or -p option in effect), the default  conversion
              of  text record delimiters is disabled for binary (-b) resp. all
              (-bb) files.

       -B     [Unix only, and only if compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a
              backup  copy  of  each  overwritten  file  with a tilde appended
              (e.g., the old copy of ``foo'' is renamed to ``foo~'').  This is
              similar to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many locations.

       -C     use  case-insensitive  matching  for  the  selection  of archive
              entries from the command-line list  of  extract  selection  pat-
              terns.  unzip's philosophy is ``you get what you ask for'' (this
              is also responsible for  the  -L/-U  change;  see  the  relevant
              options below).  Because some file systems are fully case-sensi-
              tive (notably those under the Unix operating system) and because
              both  ZIP  archives  and  unzip itself are portable across plat-
              forms, unzip's default behavior is to match  both  wildcard  and
              literal filenames case-sensitively.  That is, specifying ``make-
              file'' on the command line will only match ``makefile''  in  the
              archive,  not  ``Makefile''  or  ``MAKEFILE'' (and similarly for
              wildcard specifications).  Since this does not correspond to the
              behavior of many other operating/file systems (for example, OS/2
              HPFS, which preserves mixed case but is not  sensitive  to  it),
              the  -C  option  may be used to force all filename matches to be
              case-insensitive.  In the example above, all three  files  would
              then  match  ``makefile''  (or  ``make*'',  or similar).  The -C
              option affects file specs in both the normal file list  and  the
              excluded-file list (xlist).

              Please  note  that  the -L option does neither affect the search
              for the zipfile(s) nor the matching of archive entries to exist-
              ing files on the extraction path.  On a case-sensitive file sys-
              tem, unzip will never try  to  overwrite  a  file  ``FOO''  when
              extracting an entry ``foo''!

       -E     [MacOS  only]  display  contents  of  MacOS  extra  field during
              restore operation.

       -F     [Acorn only] suppress removal of  NFS  filetype  extension  from
              stored filenames.

       -F     [non-Acorn  systems supporting long filenames with embedded com-
              mas, and only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS  defined]  trans-
              late  filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field blocks
              into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names of  the
              extracted  files.   (When the stored filename appears to already
              have an appended NFS filetype extension, it is replaced  by  the
              info from the extra field.)

       -i     [MacOS  only]  ignore  filenames  stored  in MacOS extra fields.
              Instead, the most compatible filename stored in the generic part
              of the entry's header is used.

       -j     junk paths.  The archive's directory structure is not recreated;
              all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default,
              the current one).

       -J     [BeOS   only]  junk  file  attributes.   The  file's  BeOS  file
              attributes are not restored, just the file's data.

       -J     [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields.  All Macintosh  specific
              info  is  skipped.  Data-fork  and resource-fork are restored as
              separate files.

       -K     [AtheOS,  BeOS,   Unix   only]   retain   SUID/SGID/Tacky   file
              attributes.  Without this flag, these attribute bits are cleared
              for security reasons.

       -L     convert to lowercase any filename originating on  an  uppercase-
              only operating system or file system.  (This was unzip's default
              behavior in releases prior to 5.11; the new default behavior  is
              identical  to  the old behavior with the -U option, which is now
              obsolete and will be removed in a future release.)  Depending on
              the  archiver,  files  archived  under  single-case file systems
              (VMS, old MS-DOS FAT,  etc.)  may  be  stored  as  all-uppercase
              names;  this  can  be  ugly or inconvenient when extracting to a
              case-preserving file system such as OS/2 HPFS or  a  case-sensi-
              tive  one  such  as  under  Unix.   By  default  unzip lists and
              extracts such filenames exactly  as  they're  stored  (excepting
              truncation,  conversion  of  unsupported characters, etc.); this
              option causes the names of all files from certain systems to  be
              converted  to  lowercase.   The  -LL option forces conversion of
              every filename to lowercase, regardless of the originating  file
              system.

       -M     pipe  all  output  through an internal pager similar to the Unix
              more(1) command.  At the end of a  screenful  of  output,  unzip
              pauses  with  a  ``--More--''  prompt; the next screenful may be
              viewed by pressing the Enter (Return)  key  or  the  space  bar.
              unzip  can  be terminated by pressing the ``q'' key and, on some
              systems, the Enter/Return key.  Unlike Unix more(1), there is no
              forward-searching  or  editing  capability.  Also, unzip doesn't
              notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen, effectively
              resulting  in  the printing of two or more lines and the likeli-
              hood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before
              being  viewed.  On some systems the number of available lines on
              the screen is not detected, in  which  case  unzip  assumes  the
              height is 24 lines.

       -n     never  overwrite existing files.  If a file already exists, skip
              the extraction of that file without prompting.  By default unzip
              queries before extracting any file that already exists; the user
              may choose to overwrite only the  current  file,  overwrite  all
              files,  skip  extraction of the current file, skip extraction of
              all existing files, or rename the current file.

       -N     [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.  File comments
              are created with the -c option of zip(1L), or with the -N option
              of the Amiga port of zip(1L), which  stores  filenotes  as  com-
              ments.

       -o     overwrite existing files without prompting.  This is a dangerous
              option, so use it with care.  (It is often used  with  -f,  how-
              ever,  and  is  the  only  way  to overwrite directory EAs under
              OS/2.)

       -P password
              use password to decrypt  encrypted  zipfile  entries  (if  any).
              THIS  IS  INSECURE!   Many  multi-user operating systems provide
              ways for any user to see the current command line of  any  other
              user;  even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of
              over-the-shoulder peeking.  Storing the  plaintext  password  as
              part  of  a  command  line in an automated script is even worse.
              Whenever possible, use the non-echoing,  interactive  prompt  to
              enter  passwords.   (And  where security is truly important, use
              strong encryption such as Pretty Good  Privacy  instead  of  the
              relatively  weak  encryption provided by standard zipfile utili-
              ties.)

       -q     perform operations quietly (-qq  =  even  quieter).   Ordinarily
              unzip  prints the names of the files it's extracting or testing,
              the extraction methods, any file or zipfile comments that may be
              stored in the archive, and possibly a summary when finished with
              each archive.  The -q[q] options suppress the printing  of  some
              or all of these messages.

       -s     [OS/2,  NT,  MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores.
              Since all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames,  unzip
              by   default   extracts  filenames  with  spaces  intact  (e.g.,
              ``EA DATA. SF'').  This can be awkward, however, since MS-DOS in
              particular  does  not  gracefully  support  spaces in filenames.
              Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate  the  awkward-
              ness in some cases.

       -U     (obsolete;  to  be  removed in a future release) leave filenames
              uppercase if created under MS-DOS, VMS, etc.  See -L above.

       -V     retain (VMS) file version numbers.  VMS files can be stored with
              a  version  number,  in  the format file.ext;##.  By default the
              ``;##'' version numbers are stripped,  but  this  option  allows
              them  to  be retained.  (On file systems that limit filenames to
              particularly short lengths, the version numbers may be truncated
              or stripped regardless of this option.)

       -W     [only  when  WILD_STOP_AT_DIR compile-time option enabled] modi-
              fies the pattern matching routine so that both `?'  (single-char
              wildcard)  and `*' (multi-char wildcard) do not match the direc-
              tory  separator  character  `/'.   (The  two-character  sequence
              ``**'' acts as a multi-char wildcard that includes the directory
              separator in its matched characters.)  Examples:

               "*.c" matches "foo.c" but not "mydir/foo.c"
               "**.c" matches both "foo.c" and "mydir/foo.c"
               "*/*.c" matches "bar/foo.c" but not "baz/bar/foo.c"
               "??*/*" matches "ab/foo" and "abc/foo"
                       but not "a/foo" or "a/b/foo"

              This modified behaviour is equivalent to  the  pattern  matching
              style used by the shells of some of UnZip's supported target OSs
              (one example is Acorn RISC OS).  This option may not  be  avail-
              able  on systems where the Zip archive's interal directory sepa-
              rator character `/' is allowed as regular  character  in  native
              operating  system  filenames.   (Currently,  UnZip uses the same
              pattern matching rules for both wildcard zipfile  specifications
              and  zip  entry  selection  patterns in most ports.  For systems
              allowing `/' as regular filename character, the -W option  would
              not work as expected on a wildcard zipfile specification.)

       -X     [VMS, Unix, OS/2, NT] restore owner/protection info (UICs) under
              VMS, or user and group info (UID/GID) under Unix, or access con-
              trol lists (ACLs) under certain network-enabled versions of OS/2
              (Warp Server with IBM LAN Server/Requester 3.0 to 5.0; Warp Con-
              nect  with IBM Peer 1.0), or security ACLs under Windows NT.  In
              most cases this will require special system privileges, and dou-
              bling  the  option  (-XX) under NT instructs unzip to use privi-
              leges for extraction; but under Unix, for example,  a  user  who
              belongs  to  several  groups  can  restore files owned by any of
              those groups, as long as the user IDs  match  his  or  her  own.
              Note  that  ordinary  file  attributes are always restored--this
              option applies only to optional, extra ownership info  available
              on  some  operating  systems.  [NT's access control lists do not
              appear to be especially compatible with OS/2's, so no attempt is
              made  at cross-platform portability of access privileges.  It is
              not clear under what conditions this would ever be  useful  any-
              way.]

       -$     [MS-DOS,  OS/2,  NT]  restore the volume label if the extraction
              medium is removable (e.g., a  diskette).   Doubling  the  option
              (-$$)  allows  fixed  media (hard disks) to be labelled as well.
              By default, volume labels are ignored.

       -/ extensions
              [Acorn only] overrides the extension list supplied by  Unzip$Ext
              environment  variable.  During  extraction,  filename extensions
              that match one of the items in this extension list  are  swapped
              in front of the base name of the extracted file.

       -:     [all  but  Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to extract archive
              members into locations outside of the current `` extraction root
              folder''.  For security reasons, unzip normally removes ``parent
              dir'' path components (``../'')  from  the  names  of  extracted
              file.  This safety feature (new for version 5.50) prevents unzip
              from accidentally writing files to ``sensitive''  areas  outside
              the  active  extraction  folder  tree  head.  The -: option lets
              unzip switch back to its previous, more  liberal  behaviour,  to
              allow  exact  extraction  of  (older) archives that used ``../''
              components to create multiple directory trees at  the  level  of
              the  current  extraction  folder.   This  option does not enable
              writing explicitly to the root directory  (``/'').   To  achieve
              this,  it  is  necessary  to set the extraction target folder to
              root (e.g. -d / ).  However, when the -: option is specified, it
              is  still  possible to implicitly write to the root directory by
              specifiying enough ``../'' path components within  the  zip  ar-
              chive.  Use this option with extreme caution.


ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS

       unzip's default behavior may be modified via options placed in an envi-
       ronment variable.  This can be done with any option, but it is probably
       most  useful  with the -a, -L, -C, -q, -o, or -n modifiers:  make unzip
       auto-convert text files by default,  make  it  convert  filenames  from
       uppercase systems to lowercase, make it match names case-insensitively,
       make it quieter, or make it always overwrite or never  overwrite  files
       as it extracts them.  For example, to make unzip act as quietly as pos-
       sible, only reporting errors, one would use one of the  following  com-
       mands:

         Unix Bourne shell:
              UNZIP=-qq; export UNZIP

         Unix C shell:
              setenv UNZIP -qq

         OS/2 or MS-DOS:
              set UNZIP=-qq

         VMS (quotes for lowercase):
              define UNZIP_OPTS ""-qq""

       Environment  options  are,  in  effect,  considered to be just like any
       other command-line options, except that they are effectively the  first
       options  on  the  command line.  To override an environment option, one
       may use the ``minus operator'' to remove it.  For instance, to override
       one of the quiet-flags in the example above, use the command

           unzip --q[other options] zipfile

       The  first  hyphen  is the normal switch character, and the second is a
       minus sign, acting on the q option.  Thus the effect here is to  cancel
       one  quantum  of  quietness.  To cancel both quiet flags, two (or more)
       minuses may be used:

           unzip -t--q zipfile
           unzip ---qt zipfile

       (the two are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or confusing,  but  it
       is  reasonably  intuitive:   just  ignore  the first hyphen and go from
       there.  It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1).

       As suggested by the examples above,  the  default  variable  names  are
       UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign
       command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable), and
       UNZIP for all other operating systems.  For compatibility with zip(1L),
       UNZIPOPT is also accepted (don't ask).  If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT  are
       defined,  however,  UNZIP  takes precedence.  unzip's diagnostic option
       (-v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of  all  four
       possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables.

       The  timezone  variable (TZ) should be set according to the local time-
       zone in order for the -f and -u to operate correctly.  See the descrip-
       tion  of  -f above for details.  This variable may also be necessary to
       get timestamps of extracted files  to  be  set  correctly.   The  WIN32
       (Win9x/ME/NT4/2K/XP/2K3)  port of unzip gets the timezone configuration
       from the registry, assuming it is correctly set in the  Control  Panel.
       The TZ variable is ignored for this port.


DECRYPTION

       Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software, but due to
       United States export restrictions, de-/encryption support might be dis-
       abled  in  your compiled binary.  However, since spring 2000, US export
       restrictions have been  liberated,  and  our  source  archives  do  now
       include  full  crypt  code.  In case you need binary distributions with
       crypt support enabled, see the file ``WHERE'' in any Info-ZIP source or
       binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US.

       Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption.  To check a
       version for crypt  support,  either  attempt  to  test  or  extract  an
       encrypted  archive, or else check unzip's diagnostic screen (see the -v
       option above) for ``[decryption]'' as one of  the  special  compilation
       options.

       As  noted  above, the -P option may be used to supply a password on the
       command line, but at a cost  in  security.   The  preferred  decryption
       method is simply to extract normally; if a zipfile member is encrypted,
       unzip will prompt for the  password  without  echoing  what  is  typed.
       unzip  continues  to  use the same password as long as it appears to be
       valid, by testing a 12-byte header on each file.  The correct  password
       will  always  check  out  against  the  header, but there is a 1-in-256
       chance that an incorrect password will as well.  (This  is  a  security
       feature  of  the  PKWARE  zipfile  format; it helps prevent brute-force
       attacks that might otherwise gain a large speed  advantage  by  testing
       only  the header.)  In the case that an incorrect password is given but
       it passes the header test anyway, either an incorrect CRC will be  gen-
       erated  for  the  extracted  data  or  else  unzip will fail during the
       extraction because the ``decrypted'' bytes do not  constitute  a  valid
       compressed data stream.

       If  the  first password fails the header check on some file, unzip will
       prompt for another password, and so on until all files  are  extracted.
       If  a  password is not known, entering a null password (that is, just a
       carriage return or ``Enter'') is taken as a signal to skip all  further
       prompting.  Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be
       extracted.  (In fact, that's not quite true; older versions of  zip(1L)
       and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords, so unzip checks each encrypted
       file to see if the null password works.  This  may  result  in  ``false
       positives'' and extraction errors, as noted above.)

       Archives  encrypted  with  8-bit passwords (for example, passwords with
       accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or
       other  archivers.  This problem stems from the use of multiple encoding
       methods for such characters, including Latin-1  (ISO  8859-1)  and  OEM
       code  page  850.  DOS PKZIP 2.04g uses the OEM code page; Windows PKZIP
       2.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP); Info-
       ZIP  uses  the  OEM code page on DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x ports but Latin-1
       everywhere else; and Nico Mak's WinZip 6.x does not allow  8-bit  pass-
       words at all.  UnZip 5.3 (or newer) attempts to use the default charac-
       ter set first (e.g., Latin-1), followed by the alternate one (e.g., OEM
       code  page)  to  test  passwords.   On EBCDIC systems, if both of these
       fail, EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort.  (EBCDIC is  not
       tested on non-EBCDIC systems, because there are no known archivers that
       encrypt using EBCDIC encoding.)  ISO  character  encodings  other  than
       Latin-1 are not supported.


EXAMPLES

       To use unzip to extract all members of the archive letters.zip into the
       current directory and subdirectories below it, creating any subdirecto-
       ries as necessary:

           unzip letters

       To extract all members of letters.zip into the current directory only:

           unzip -j letters

       To test letters.zip, printing only a summary message indicating whether
       the archive is OK or not:

           unzip -tq letters

       To test all zipfiles in the current directory, printing only  the  sum-
       maries:

           unzip -tq \*.zip

       (The  backslash  before  the  asterisk  is  only  required if the shell
       expands wildcards, as in Unix;  double  quotes  could  have  been  used
       instead, as in the source examples below.)  To extract to standard out-
       put all members of letters.zip whose names end in .tex, auto-converting
       to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output into more(1):

           unzip -ca letters \*.tex | more

       To extract the binary file paper1.dvi to standard output and pipe it to
       a printing program:

           unzip -p articles paper1.dvi | dvips

       To  extract  all  FORTRAN  and C source files--*.f, *.c, *.h, and Make-
       file--into the /tmp directory:

           unzip source.zip "*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp

       (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if  globbing  is
       turned  on).   To extract all FORTRAN and C source files, regardless of
       case (e.g., both *.c and *.C, and any makefile, Makefile,  MAKEFILE  or
       similar):

           unzip -C source.zip "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names
       to lowercase and convert the line-endings of all of the  files  to  the
       local  standard  (without  respect  to  any  files that might be marked
       ``binary''):

           unzip -aaCL source.zip "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract only newer versions of the  files  already  in  the  current
       directory,  without  querying  (NOTE:   be  careful of unzipping in one
       timezone a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives  other  than  those
       created  by  Zip  2.1  or  later contain no timezone information, and a
       ``newer'' file from an eastern timezone may, in fact, be older):

           unzip -fo sources

       To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory
       and  to  create  any  files  not already there (same caveat as previous
       example):

           unzip -uo sources

       To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo  options
       are  stored  in  environment  variables, whether decryption support was
       compiled in, the compiler with which unzip was compiled, etc.:

           unzip -v

       In the last five examples, assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS  is  set  to
       -q.  To do a singly quiet listing:

           unzip -l file.zip

       To do a doubly quiet listing:

           unzip -ql file.zip

       (Note  that the ``.zip'' is generally not necessary.)  To do a standard
       listing:

           unzip --ql file.zip
       or
           unzip -l-q file.zip
       or
           unzip -l--q file.zip
       (Extra minuses in options don't hurt.)


TIPS

       The current maintainer, being a lazy sort,  finds  it  very  useful  to
       define a pair of aliases:  tt for ``unzip -tq'' and ii for ``unzip -Z''
       (or ``zipinfo'').  One may then simply type ``tt zipfile'' to  test  an
       archive,  something  that  is worth making a habit of doing.  With luck
       unzip will report ``No errors  detected  in  compressed  data  of  zip-
       file.zip,'' after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.

       The  maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment vari-
       able to ``-aL'' and is tempted to add  ``-C''  as  well.   His  ZIPINFO
       variable is set to ``-z''.


DIAGNOSTICS

       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              1      one or more warning errors were encountered, but process-
                     ing  completed  successfully  anyway.  This includes zip-
                     files where one or more files was skipped due  to  unsup-
                     ported  compression  method or encryption with an unknown
                     password.

              2      a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
                     cessing may have completed successfully anyway; some bro-
                     ken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-
                     arounds.

              3      a  severe error in the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
                     cessing probably failed immediately.

              4      unzip was unable to  allocate  memory  for  one  or  more
                     buffers during program initialization.

              5      unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a
                     tty to read the decryption password(s).

              6      unzip was unable to allocate memory during  decompression
                     to disk.

              7      unzip  was  unable  to  allocate  memory during in-memory
                     decompression.

              8      [currently not used]

              9      the specified zipfiles were not found.

              10     invalid options were specified on the command line.

              11     no matching files were found.

              50     the disk is (or was) full during extraction.

              51     the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely.

              80     the user aborted unzip  prematurely  with  control-C  (or
                     similar)

              81     testing  or extraction of one or more files failed due to
                     unsupported compression methods  or  unsupported  decryp-
                     tion.

              82     no  files  were  found due to bad decryption password(s).
                     (If even one file is successfully processed, however, the
                     exit status is 1.)

       VMS  interprets  standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-
       looking things, so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.
       The  current  mapping  is  as  follows:    1 (success) for normal exit,
       0x7fff0001   for   warning   errors,   and   (0x7fff000?   +    16*nor-
       mal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors, where the `?' is 2 (error)
       for unzip values 2, 9-11 and 80-82, and 4 (fatal error) for the remain-
       ing  ones (3-8, 50, 51).  In addition, there is a compilation option to
       expand upon this behavior:  defining RETURN_CODES results in  a  human-
       readable explanation of what the error status means.


BUGS

       Multi-part  archives  are not yet supported, except in conjunction with
       zip.  (All parts must be concatenated together in order, and then ``zip
       -F''  must be performed on the concatenated archive in order to ``fix''
       it.)  This will definitely be corrected in the next major release.

       Archives read from standard input are not yet  supported,  except  with
       funzip  (and  then  only  the  first  member  of  the  archive  can  be
       extracted).

       Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e.g., passwords with  accented
       European  characters)  may  not be portable across systems and/or other
       archivers.  See the discussion in DECRYPTION above.

       unzip's -M (``more'') option tries to take into account automatic wrap-
       ping  of  long  lines. However, the code may fail to detect the correct
       wrapping  locations.  First,  TAB  characters  (and   similar   control
       sequences)  are  not  taken  into account, they are handled as ordinary
       printable characters.  Second, depending on  the  actual  system  /  OS
       port,  unzip may not detect the true screen geometry but rather rely on
       "commonly used" default dimensions.  The correct handling of tabs would
       require the implementation of a query for the actual tabulator setup on
       the output console.

       Dates, times and permissions of stored  directories  are  not  restored
       except  under  Unix.  (On Windows NT and successors, timestamps are now
       restored.)

       [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive on  a  defec-
       tive  floppy  diskette,  if  the  ``Fail''  option is chosen from DOS's
       ``Abort, Retry, Fail?'' message, older versions of unzip may  hang  the
       system, requiring a reboot.  This problem appears to be fixed, but con-
       trol-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip.

       Under DEC Ultrix, unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC,
       not always reproducible).  This was apparently due either to a hardware
       bug (cache memory) or an operating system  bug  (improper  handling  of
       page  faults?).   Since  Ultrix  has been abandoned in favor of Digital
       Unix (OSF/1), this may not be an issue anymore.

       [Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO  buffers  (named  pipes),  block
       devices and character devices are not restored even if they are somehow
       represented in the zipfile, nor are hard-linked files relinked.   Basi-
       cally the only file types restored by unzip are regular files, directo-
       ries and symbolic (soft) links.

       [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if
       the  -o  (``overwrite  all'') option is given.  This is a limitation of
       the operating system; because directories only  have  a  creation  time
       associated  with them, unzip has no way to determine whether the stored
       attributes are newer or older than those on disk.  In practice this may
       mean  a  two-pass  approach is required:  first unpack the archive nor-
       mally (with or without freshening/updating existing files), then  over-
       write just the directory entries (e.g., ``unzip -o foo */'').

       [VMS]  When  extracting to another directory, only the [.foo] syntax is
       accepted for the -d option; the simple  Unix  foo  syntax  is  silently
       ignored (as is the less common VMS foo.dir syntax).

       [VMS]  When the file being extracted already exists, unzip's query only
       allows skipping, overwriting or renaming; there should additionally  be
       a  choice for creating a new version of the file.  In fact, the ``over-
       write'' choice does create a new version; the old version is not  over-
       written or deleted.


SEE ALSO

       funzip(1L),   zip(1L),  zipcloak(1L),  zipgrep(1L),  zipinfo(1L),  zip-
       note(1L), zipsplit(1L)


URL

       The Info-ZIP home page is currently at
           http://www.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/
       or
           ftp://ftp.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/ .


AUTHORS

       The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of  the  Zip-
       Bugs workgroup) are:  Ed Gordon (Zip, general maintenance, shared code,
       Zip64, Win32, Unix); Christian Spieler (UnZip maintenance coordination,
       VMS,  MS-DOS, Win32, shared code, general Zip and UnZip integration and
       optimization); Onno van der Linden (Zip); Mike  White  (Win32,  Windows
       GUI,  Windows  DLLs);  Kai  Uwe Rommel (OS/2, Win32); Steven M. Schweda
       (VMS, support of new features); Paul Kienitz (Amiga, Win32); Chris Her-
       borth  (BeOS,  QNX,  Atari);  Jonathan Hudson (SMS/QDOS); Sergio Monesi
       (Acorn RISC OS);  Harald  Denker  (Atari,  MVS);  John  Bush  (Solaris,
       Amiga);  Hunter  Goatley (VMS, Info-ZIP Site maintenance); Steve Salis-
       bury (Win32); Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI), Johnny Lee (MS-DOS, Win32,
       Zip64); and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK).

       The  following  people  were former members of the Info-ZIP development
       group and provided major contributions to  key  parts  of  the  current
       code: Greg ``Cave Newt'' Roelofs (UnZip, unshrink decompression); Jean-
       loup Gailly (deflate compression); Mark Adler  (inflate  decompression,
       fUnZip).

       The  author  of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP's was based
       is Samuel H. Smith; Carl Mascott did the first Unix port; and David  P.
       Kirschbaum  organized  and  led  Info-ZIP  in its early days with Keith
       Petersen hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20.  The  full
       list  of  contributors  to UnZip has grown quite large; please refer to
       the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source  distribution  for  a  relatively
       complete version.


VERSIONS

       v1.2   15 Mar 89   Samuel H. Smith
       v2.0    9 Sep 89   Samuel H. Smith
       v2.x   fall 1989   many Usenet contributors
       v3.0    1 May 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v3.1   15 Aug 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v4.0    1 Dec 90   Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
       v4.1   12 May 91   Info-ZIP
       v4.2   20 Mar 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.0   21 Aug 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.01  15 Jan 93   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.1    7 Feb 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.11   2 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.12  28 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.2   30 Apr 96   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.3   22 Apr 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.31  31 May 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.32   3 Nov 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.4   28 Nov 98   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.41  16 Apr 00   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.42  14 Jan 01   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.5   17 Feb 02   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.51  22 May 04   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.52  28 Feb 05   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)



Info-ZIP                   28 February 2005 (v5.52)                  unzip(1)

Mac OS X 10.6 - Generated Thu Sep 17 20:09:27 CDT 2009