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ocamlopt(1)                                                        ocamlopt(1)




NAME

       ocamlopt - The OCaml native-code compiler



SYNOPSIS

       ocamlopt [ options ] filename ...

       ocamlopt.opt (same options)



DESCRIPTION

       The  OCaml  high-performance  native-code compiler ocamlopt(1) compiles
       OCaml source files to native code object files and  link  these  object
       files to produce standalone executables.

       The ocamlopt(1) command has a command-line interface very close to that
       of ocamlc(1).  It accepts the same types  of  arguments  and  processes
       them sequentially:

       Arguments  ending  in .mli are taken to be source files for compilation
       unit interfaces. Interfaces specify the names exported  by  compilation
       units:  they  declare  value names with their types, define public data
       types, declare abstract data types, and so on. From the file x.mli, the
       ocamlopt(1)  compiler  produces a compiled interface in the file x.cmi.
       The interface produced is identical to that produced  by  the  bytecode
       compiler ocamlc(1).

       Arguments  ending  in  .ml are taken to be source files for compilation
       unit implementations. Implementations provide definitions for the names
       exported  by the unit, and also contain expressions to be evaluated for
       their side-effects.  From the file x.ml, the ocamlopt(1) compiler  pro-
       duces  two  files:  x.o, containing native object code, and x.cmx, con-
       taining extra information for linking and optimization of  the  clients
       of  the  unit. The compiled implementation should always be referred to
       under the name x.cmx (when given a .o file, ocamlopt(1) assumes that it
       contains code compiled from C, not from OCaml).

       The  implementation  is checked against the interface file x.mli (if it
       exists) as described in the manual for ocamlc(1).

       Arguments ending in .cmx are taken to be compiled object  code.   These
       files are linked together, along with the object files obtained by com-
       piling .ml arguments (if any), and the OCaml standard library, to  pro-
       duce  a native-code executable program. The order in which .cmx and .ml
       arguments are presented on the command line  is  relevant:  compilation
       units  are initialized in that order at run-time, and it is a link-time
       error to use a component of a unit before having initialized it. Hence,
       a  given  x.cmx  file must come before all .cmx files that refer to the
       unit x.

       Arguments ending in .cmxa are taken to be  libraries  of  object  code.
       Such  a  library  packs in two files lib.cmxa and lib.a a set of object
       files (.cmx/.o files). Libraries are build with ocamlopt  -a  (see  the
       description  of the -a option below). The object files contained in the
       library are linked as regular .cmx files  (see  above),  in  the  order
       specified when the library was built. The only difference is that if an
       object file contained in a library is not referenced  anywhere  in  the
       program, then it is not linked in.

       Arguments  ending in .c are passed to the C compiler, which generates a
       .o object file. This object file is linked with the program.

       Arguments ending in .o or .a are assumed  to  be  C  object  files  and
       libraries. They are linked with the program.

       The  output  of the linking phase is a regular Unix executable file. It
       does not need ocamlrun(1) to run.

       ocamlopt.opt is the same compiler as ocamlopt, but compiled with itself
       instead  of  with  the  bytecode  compiler ocamlc(1).  Thus, it behaves
       exactly like ocamlopt, but compiles faster.  ocamlopt.opt is not avail-
       able in all installations of OCaml.



OPTIONS

       The following command-line options are recognized by ocamlopt(1).

       -a     Build  a  library (.cmxa/.a file) with the object files (.cmx/.o
              files) given on the command line, instead of linking  them  into
              an executable file. The name of the library must be set with the
              -o option.

              If -cclib or -ccopt options are  passed  on  the  command  line,
              these  options are stored in the resulting .cmxa library.  Then,
              linking  with  this  library   automatically   adds   back   the
              -cclib and -ccopt  options  as  if they had been provided on the
              command line, unless the -noautolink option is given.

       -absname
              Show absolute filenames in error messages.

       -annot Dump detailed information about the  compilation  (types,  bind-
              ings,  tail-calls, etc).  The information for file src.ml is put
              into file src.annot.  In case of a  type  error,  dump  all  the
              information  inferred  by the type-checker before the error. The
              src.annot file can be used with  the  emacs  commands  given  in
              emacs/caml-types.el  to  display  types  and  other  annotations
              interactively.

       -bin-annot
              Dump detailed information about the  compilation  (types,  bind-
              ings,  tail-calls,  etc)  in  binary format. The information for
              file src.ml is put into file src.cmt.  In case of a type  error,
              dump all the information inferred by the type-checker before the
              error.  The annotation files produced by -bin-annot contain more
              information and are much more compact than the files produced by
              -annot.

       -c     Compile only. Suppress the linking  phase  of  the  compilation.
              Source  code  files  are turned into compiled files, but no exe-
              cutable file is produced. This option is useful to compile  mod-
              ules separately.

       -cc ccomp
              Use  ccomp  as the C linker called to build the final executable
              and as the C compiler for compiling .c source files.

       -cclib -llibname
              Pass the -llibname option to the linker. This causes the given C
              library to be linked with the program.

       -ccopt option
              Pass  the  given  option  to  the  C  compiler  and  linker. For
              instance, -ccopt -Ldir causes the  C  linker  to  search  for  C
              libraries in directory dir.

       -compact
              Optimize  the produced code for space rather than for time. This
              results in smaller but slightly slower programs. The default  is
              to optimize for speed.

       -config
              Print  the  version number of ocamlopt(1) and a detailed summary
              of its configuration, then exit.

       -for-pack module-path
              Generate an object file (.cmx and .o files) that  can  later  be
              included  as a sub-module (with the given access path) of a com-
              pilation unit  constructed  with  -pack.   For  instance,  ocam-
              lopt -for-pack P -c A.ml  will generate a.cmx and a.o files that
              can later be used with ocamlopt -pack -o P.cmx a.cmx.

       -g     Add debugging information  while  compiling  and  linking.  This
              option is required in order to produce stack backtraces when the
              program terminates on an uncaught exception (see ocamlrun(1)).

       -i     Cause the compiler  to  print  all  defined  names  (with  their
              inferred types or their definitions) when compiling an implemen-
              tation (.ml file). No compiled files (.cmo and .cmi  files)  are
              produced.  This can be useful to check the types inferred by the
              compiler. Also, since the output follows the  syntax  of  inter-
              faces,  it can help in writing an explicit interface (.mli file)
              for a file: just redirect the standard output of the compiler to
              a  .mli  file,  and edit that file to remove all declarations of
              unexported names.

       -I directory
              Add the given directory to the list of directories searched  for
              compiled  interface  files  (.cmi),  compiled  object code files
              (.cmx), and libraries (.cmxa). By default, the current directory
              is searched first, then the standard library directory. Directo-
              ries added with -I are searched after the current directory,  in
              the  order  in  which  they  were given on the command line, but
              before the standard library directory. See  also  option  -nost-
              dlib.

              If  the  given  directory starts with +, it is taken relative to
              the standard library directory. For  instance,  -I +camlp4  adds
              the  subdirectory  camlp4  of the standard library to the search
              path.

       -impl filename
              Compile the file filename as an implementation file, even if its
              extension is not .ml.

       -inline n
              Set aggressiveness of inlining to n, where n is a positive inte-
              ger. Specifying -inline 0  prevents  all  functions  from  being
              inlined,  except those whose body is smaller than the call site.
              Thus, inlining causes no expansion in  code  size.  The  default
              aggressiveness,  -inline 1,  allows slightly larger functions to
              be inlined, resulting in a slight expansion in code size. Higher
              values  for the -inline option cause larger and larger functions
              to become candidate for inlining, but can result  in  a  serious
              increase in code size.

       -intf filename
              Compile  the  file  filename  as  an interface file, even if its
              extension is not .mli.

       -intf-suffix string
              Recognize file names  ending  with  string  as  interface  files
              (instead of the default .mli).

       -keep-locs
              Keep locations in generated .cmi files.

       -labels
              Labels  are not ignored in types, labels may be used in applica-
              tions, and labelled parameters can be given in any order.   This
              is the default.

       -linkall
              Force  all  modules  contained  in libraries to be linked in. If
              this flag is not given, unreferenced modules are not linked  in.
              When  building  a  library  (-a flag), setting the -linkall flag
              forces all subsequent links of programs involving  that  library
              to link all the modules contained in the library.

       -no-alias-deps
              Do not record dependencies for module aliases.

       -no-app-funct
              Deactivates  the  applicative  behaviour  of functors. With this
              option, each functor application  generates  new  types  in  its
              result  and applying the same functor twice to the same argument
              yields two incompatible structures.

       -noassert
              Do not compile assertion checks.  Note  that  the  special  form
              assert false  is  always compiled because it is typed specially.
              This flag has no effect when linking already-compiled files.

       -noautolink
              When linking .cmxa libraries, ignore  -cclib and -ccopt  options
              potentially  contained  in  the libraries (if these options were
              given when building the libraries).  This can  be  useful  if  a
              library  contains  incorrect  specifications of C libraries or C
              options; in this case, during linking, set -noautolink and  pass
              the correct C libraries and options on the command line.

       -nodynlink
              Allow the compiler to use some optimizations that are valid only
              for code that is never dynlinked.

       -nostdlib
              Do not automatically add the standard library directory the list
              of  directories  searched  for  compiled interface files (.cmi),
              compiled object code files (.cmx), and  libraries  (.cmxa).  See
              also option -I.

       -nolabels
              Ignore  non-optional  labels  in types. Labels cannot be used in
              applications, and parameter order becomes strict.

       -o exec-file
              Specify the name of the output file produced by the linker.  The
              default  output  name  is a.out, in keeping with the Unix tradi-
              tion. If the -a option is given, specify the name of the library
              produced.  If the -pack option is given, specify the name of the
              packed object file  produced.   If  the  -output-obj  option  is
              given,  specify  the  name  of  the output file produced. If the
              -shared option is given, specify the name of  plugin  file  pro-
              duced.   This  can  also  be used when compiling an interface or
              implementation file, without linking, in which case it sets  the
              name  of  the  cmi or cmo file, and also sets the module name to
              the file name up to the first dot.

       -open module
              Opens the given module before processing the interface or imple-
              mentation  files.  If  several -open options are given, they are
              processed in order, just as if the  statements  open!  module1;;
              ... open! moduleN;; were added at the top of each file.

       -output-obj
              Cause  the  linker to produce a C object file instead of an exe-
              cutable file. This is useful to wrap OCaml code as a C  library,
              callable  from any C program. The name of the output object file
              must be set with the -o option.  This option can also be used to
              produce a compiled shared/dynamic library (.so extension).

       -p     Generate  extra  code to write profile information when the pro-
              gram is executed.  The profile information can then be  examined
              with the analysis program gprof(1).  The -p option must be given
              both at compile-time and at link-time.  Linking object files not
              compiled  with  -p is possible, but results in less precise pro-
              filing.

              See the gprof(1) man page for more information  about  the  pro-
              files.

              Full  support  for  gprof(1) is only available for certain plat-
              forms (currently: Intel x86/Linux and Alpha/Digital  Unix).   On
              other  platforms,  the  -p  option will result in a less precise
              profile (no call graph information, only a time profile).

       -pack  Build an object file (.cmx and .o files) and its associated com-
              piled interface (.cmi) that combines the .cmx object files given
              on the command line, making them appear as  sub-modules  of  the
              output  .cmx  file.   The  name  of the output .cmx file must be
              given   with   the   -o    option.     For    instance,    ocam-
              lopt -pack -o P.cmx A.cmx B.cmx C.cmx  generates  compiled files
              P.cmx, P.o and P.cmi describing a compilation unit having  three
              sub-modules  A,  B  and  C, corresponding to the contents of the
              object files A.cmx, B.cmx and C.cmx.  These contents can be ref-
              erenced as P.A, P.B and P.C in the remainder of the program.

              The  .cmx  object  files  being combined must have been compiled
              with the appropriate -for-pack option.  In  the  example  above,
              A.cmx,  B.cmx  and  C.cmx  must  have  been  compiled with ocam-
              lopt -for-pack P.

              Multiple levels of packing can be achieved  by  combining  -pack
              with  -for-pack.   See The OCaml user's manual, chapter "Native-
              code compilation" for more details.

       -pp command
              Cause the compiler to call the given command as  a  preprocessor
              for  each source file. The output of command is redirected to an
              intermediate file, which is compiled. If there are  no  compila-
              tion errors, the intermediate file is deleted afterwards.

       -ppx command
              After  parsing,  pipe  the abstract syntax tree through the pre-
              processor command.   The  module  Ast_mapper(3)  implements  the
              external interface of a preprocessor.

       -principal
              Check  information  path during type-checking, to make sure that
              all types are derived in a principal way. All programs  accepted
              in -principal mode are also accepted in default mode with equiv-
              alent types, but different binary signatures.

       -rectypes
              Allow  arbitrary  recursive  types  during  type-checking.    By
              default,  only  recursive types where the recursion goes through
              an object type are supported. Note that once you have created an
              interface  using this flag, you must use it again for all depen-
              dencies.

       -runtime-variant suffix
              Add suffix to the name of the runtime library that will be  used
              by   the   program.    If   OCaml  was  configured  with  option
              -with-debug-runtime, then the d suffix is supported and gives  a
              debug version of the runtime.

       -S     Keep  the  assembly  code  produced  during the compilation. The
              assembly code for the source file x.ml is saved in the file x.s.

       -safe-string
              Enforce  the  separation between types string and bytes, thereby
              making strings read-only. This will  become  the  default  in  a
              future version of OCaml.

       -shared
              Build  a  plugin  (usually .cmxs) that can be dynamically loaded
              with the Dynlink module. The name of the plugin must be set with
              the  -o  option.  A plugin can include a number of OCaml modules
              and libraries, and extra native objects (.o, .a files).   Build-
              ing  native plugins is only supported for some operating system.
              Under some systems (currently, only Linux AMD 64), all the OCaml
              code  linked  in  a  plugin  must have been compiled without the
              -nodynlink flag. Some constraints might also apply  to  the  way
              the extra native objects have been compiled (under Linux AMD 64,
              they must contain only position-independent code).

       -short-paths
              When a type is  visible  under  several  module-paths,  use  the
              shortest  one  when  printing the type's name in inferred inter-
              faces and error and warning messages.

       -strict-sequence
              The left-hand part of a sequence must have type unit.

       -thread
              Compile or link multithreaded programs, in combination with  the
              system threads library described in The OCaml user's manual.

       -unsafe
              Turn  bound  checking  off  for  array  and string accesses (the
              v.(i)ands.[i] constructs). Programs compiled  with  -unsafe  are
              therefore faster, but unsafe: anything can happen if the program
              accesses an array or string outside of its bounds. Additionally,
              turn off the check for zero divisor in integer division and mod-
              ulus operations.  With -unsafe, an integer division (or modulus)
              by  zero  can  halt  the program or continue with an unspecified
              result instead of raising a Division_by_zero exception.

       -unsafe-string
              Identify the  types  string and bytes,  thereby  making  strings
              writable.  For  reasons  of  backward compatibility, this is the
              default setting for the moment, but this will change in a future
              version of OCaml.

       -v     Print the version number of the compiler and the location of the
              standard library directory, then exit.

       -verbose
              Print all external commands before they are executed, in partic-
              ular invocations of the assembler, C compiler, and linker.

       -version or -vnum
              Print  the  version  number  of the compiler in short form (e.g.
              "3.11.0"), then exit.

       -w warning-list
              Enable, disable, or mark as fatal the warnings specified by  the
              argument warning-list.  See ocamlc(1) for the syntax of warning-
              list.

       -warn-error warning-list
              Mark as fatal the  warnings  specified  in  the  argument  warn-
              ing-list.   The  compiler  will  stop  with an error when one of
              these warnings is emitted.  The warning-list has the same  mean-
              ing  as  for  the  -w  option: a + sign (or an uppercase letter)
              marks the corresponding warnings as fatal, a - sign (or a lower-
              case  letter)  turns  them back into non-fatal warnings, and a @
              sign both enables and marks as fatal the corresponding warnings.

              Note:  it  is  not  recommended to use the -warn-error option in
              production code, because it will almost certainly  prevent  com-
              piling  your  program with later versions of OCaml when they add
              new warnings or modify existing warnings.

              The default setting is -warn-error -a  (all  warnings  are  non-
              fatal).

       -warn-help
              Show the description of all available warning numbers.

       -where Print the location of the standard library, then exit.

       - file Process  file  as a file name, even if it starts with a dash (-)
              character.

       -help or --help
              Display a short usage summary and exit.



OPTIONS FOR THE IA32 ARCHITECTURE

       The IA32 code generator (Intel Pentium, AMD Athlon) supports  the  fol-
       lowing additional option:

       -ffast-math
              Use  the IA32 instructions to compute trigonometric and exponen-
              tial functions, instead of  calling  the  corresponding  library
              routines.   The  functions  affected are: atan, atan2, cos, log,
              log10, sin, sqrt and tan.  The resulting code runs  faster,  but
              the range of supported arguments and the precision of the result
              can be reduced.  In particular,  trigonometric  operations  cos,
              sin, tan have their range reduced to [-2^64, 2^64].



OPTIONS FOR THE AMD64 ARCHITECTURE

       The  AMD64  code  generator  (64-bit  versions of Intel Pentium and AMD
       Athlon) supports the following additional options:

       -fPIC  Generate  position-independent  machine  code.   This   is   the
              default.

       -fno-PIC
              Generate position-dependent machine code.



OPTIONS FOR THE SPARC ARCHITECTURE

       The Sparc code generator supports the following additional options:

       -march=v8
              Generate SPARC version 8 code.

       -march=v9
              Generate SPARC version 9 code.

       The  default is to generate code for SPARC version 7, which runs on all
       SPARC processors.



OPTIONS FOR THE ARM ARCHITECTURE

       The ARM code generator supports the following additional options:

       -farch=armv4|armv5|armv5te|armv6|armv6t2|armv7
              Select the ARM target architecture

       -ffpu=soft|vfpv2|vfpv3-d16|vfpv3
              Select the floating-point hardware

       -fPIC  Generate position-independent machine code.

       -fno-PIC
              Generate position-dependent machine code.  This is the  default.

       -fthumb
              Enable Thumb/Thumb-2 code generation

       -fno-thumb
              Disable Thumb/Thumb-2 code generation

       The default values for target architecture, floating-point hardware and
       thumb usage were selected  at  configure-time  when  building  ocamlopt
       itself.  This  configuration  can  be inspected using ocamlopt -config.
       Target architecture depends on the  "model"  setting,  while  floating-
       point hardware and thumb support are determined from the ABI setting in
       "system" ( linux_eabiorlinux_eabihf).



SEE ALSO

       ocamlc(1).
       The OCaml user's manual, chapter "Native-code compilation".



                                                                   ocamlopt(1)

ocaml 4.02.1 - Generated Tue Oct 21 20:17:27 CDT 2014
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