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ocamlc(1)                                                            ocamlc(1)




NAME

       ocamlc - The OCaml bytecode compiler



SYNOPSIS

       ocamlc [ options ] filename ...

       ocamlc.opt [ options ] filename ...



DESCRIPTION

       The  OCaml  bytecode  compiler ocamlc(1) compiles OCaml source files to
       bytecode object files and links these object files  to  produce  stand-
       alone  bytecode  executable files.  These executable files are then run
       by the bytecode interpreter ocamlrun(1).

       The ocamlc(1) command has a command-line interface similar to  the  one
       of  most  C  compilers.  It accepts several types of arguments and pro-
       cesses them sequentially:

       Arguments ending in .mli are taken to be source files  for  compilation
       unit  interfaces.  Interfaces specify the names exported by compilation
       units: they declare value names with their types,  define  public  data
       types, declare abstract data types, and so on. From the file x.mli, the
       ocamlc(1) compiler produces a compiled interface in the file x.cmi.

       Arguments ending in .ml are taken to be source  files  for  compilation
       unit implementations. Implementations provide definitions for the names
       exported by the unit, and also contain expressions to be evaluated  for
       their  side-effects.   From  the file x.ml, the ocamlc(1) compiler pro-
       duces compiled object bytecode in the file x.cmo.

       If the interface file x.mli exists, the implementation x.ml is  checked
       against the corresponding compiled interface x.cmi, which is assumed to
       exist. If no interface x.mli is provided, the compilation of x.ml  pro-
       duces  a  compiled  interface  file  x.cmi  in addition to the compiled
       object code file x.cmo.  The file  x.cmi  produced  corresponds  to  an
       interface that exports everything that is defined in the implementation
       x.ml.

       Arguments ending in .cmo are taken  to  be  compiled  object  bytecode.
       These  files  are linked together, along with the object files obtained
       by compiling .ml arguments (if any), and the OCaml standard library, to
       produce a standalone executable program. The order in which .cmo and.ml
       arguments are presented on the command line  is  relevant:  compilation
       units  are initialized in that order at run-time, and it is a link-time
       error to use a component of a unit before having initialized it. Hence,
       a  given  x.cmo  file must come before all .cmo files that refer to the
       unit x.

       Arguments ending in .cma are taken to be libraries of object  bytecode.
       A  library  of  object  bytecode packs in a single file a set of object
       bytecode files (.cmo files). Libraries are built  with  ocamlc -a  (see
       the  description of the -a option below). The object files contained in
       the library are linked as regular .cmo files (see above), in the  order
       specified  when the .cma file was built. The only difference is that if
       an object file contained in a library is not referenced anywhere in the
       program, then it is not linked in.

       Arguments  ending in .c are passed to the C compiler, which generates a
       .o object file. This object file is linked  with  the  program  if  the
       -custom flag is set (see the description of -custom below).

       Arguments  ending  in  .o  or  .a  are assumed to be C object files and
       libraries. They are passed to the C linker when linking in -custom mode
       (see the description of -custom below).

       Arguments  ending  in  .so are assumed to be C shared libraries (DLLs).
       During linking, they are searched for external C  functions  referenced
       from the OCaml code, and their names are written in the generated byte-
       code executable.  The  run-time  system  ocamlrun(1)  then  loads  them
       dynamically at program start-up time.

       The  output of the linking phase is a file containing compiled bytecode
       that can be executed by the OCaml  bytecode  interpreter:  the  command
       ocamlrun(1).  If caml.out is the name of the file produced by the link-
       ing phase, the command ocamlrun caml.out  arg1  arg2 ... argn  executes
       the  compiled  code  contained in caml.out, passing it as arguments the
       character strings arg1 to argn.  (See ocamlrun(1) for more details.)

       On most systems, the file produced by the  linking  phase  can  be  run
       directly, as in: ./caml.out arg1  arg2 ... argn.  The produced file has
       the executable bit set, and it manages to launch  the  bytecode  inter-
       preter by itself.

       ocamlc.opt  is  the  same  compiler  as  ocamlc,  but compiled with the
       native-code  compiler  ocamlopt(1).   Thus,  it  behaves  exactly  like
       ocamlc,  but  compiles  faster.  ocamlc.opt may not be available in all
       installations of OCaml.



OPTIONS

       The following command-line options are recognized by ocamlc(1).

       -a     Build a library (.cma file) with the object files  (.cmo  files)
              given  on the command line, instead of linking them into an exe-
              cutable file. The name of the library must be set  with  the  -o
              option.

              If  -custom, -cclib or -ccopt  options are passed on the command
              line, these options are stored in the  resulting  .cma  library.
              Then,  linking  with  this  library  automatically adds back the
              -custom, -cclib and -ccopt options as if they had been  provided
              on the command line, unless the -noautolink option is given.

       -absname
              Show absolute filenames in error messages.

       -annot Dump  detailed  information  about the compilation (types, bind-
              ings, tail-calls, etc).  The information for file src.ml is  put
              into  file  src.annot.   In  case  of a type error, dump all the
              information inferred by the type-checker before the  error.  The
              src.annot  file  can  be  used  with the emacs commands given in
              emacs/caml-types.el  to  display  types  and  other  annotations
              interactively.

       -bin-annot
              Dump  detailed  information  about the compilation (types, bind-
              ings, tail-calls, etc) in binary  format.  The  information  for
              file  src.ml is put into file src.cmt.  In case of a type error,
              dump all the information inferred by the type-checker before the
              error.  The annotation files produced by -bin-annot contain more
              information and are much more compact than the files produced by
              -annot.

       -c     Compile  only.  Suppress  the  linking phase of the compilation.
              Source code files are turned into compiled files,  but  no  exe-
              cutable  file is produced. This option is useful to compile mod-
              ules separately.

       -cc ccomp
              Use ccomp as the C linker when linking in "custom runtime"  mode
              (see  the -custom option) and as the C compiler for compiling .c
              source files.

       -cclib -llibname
              Pass the -llibname option to the C linker when linking in  "cus-
              tom  runtime"  mode  (see  the  -custom option). This causes the
              given C library to be linked with the program.

       -ccopt option
              Pass the given option to the C compiler and linker, when linking
              in "custom runtime" mode (see the -custom option). For instance,
              -ccopt -Ldir causes the C linker to search for  C  libraries  in
              directory dir.

       -compat-32
              Check  that  the generated bytecode executable can run on 32-bit
              platforms and signal an error if it cannot. This is useful  when
              compiling bytecode on a 64-bit machine.

       -config
              Print  the version number of ocamlc(1) and a detailed summary of
              its configuration, then exit.

       -custom
              Link in "custom runtime" mode. In the default linking mode,  the
              linker  produces  bytecode  that is intended to be executed with
              the shared runtime system, ocamlrun(1).  In the  custom  runtime
              mode,  the linker produces an output file that contains both the
              runtime system and the bytecode for the program.  The  resulting
              file  is  larger,  but  it can be executed directly, even if the
              ocamlrun(1) command is not installed. Moreover, the "custom run-
              time"  mode enables linking OCaml code with user-defined C func-
              tions.

              Never use  the  strip(1)  command  on  executables  produced  by
              ocamlc -custom,  this would remove the bytecode part of the exe-
              cutable.

       -dllib -llibname
              Arrange for the C shared  library  dlllibname.so  to  be  loaded
              dynamically by the run-time system ocamlrun(1) at program start-
              up time.

       -dllpath dir
              Adds the directory dir to the run-time search path for shared  C
              libraries.   At  link-time, shared libraries are searched in the
              standard search path (the one corresponding to the  -I  option).
              The -dllpath option simply stores dir in the produced executable
              file, where ocamlrun(1) can find it and use it.

       -for-pack ident
              This option is accepted for compatibility with ocamlopt(1) ;  it
              does nothing.

       -g     Add  debugging  information  while  compiling  and linking. This
              option is required in order to be able to debug the program with
              ocamldebug(1)  and  to produce stack backtraces when the program
              terminates on an uncaught exception.

       -i     Cause the compiler  to  print  all  defined  names  (with  their
              inferred types or their definitions) when compiling an implemen-
              tation (.ml file). No compiled files (.cmo and .cmi  files)  are
              produced.  This can be useful to check the types inferred by the
              compiler. Also, since the output follows the  syntax  of  inter-
              faces,  it can help in writing an explicit interface (.mli file)
              for a file: just redirect the standard output of the compiler to
              a  .mli  file,  and edit that file to remove all declarations of
              unexported names.

       -I directory
              Add the given directory to the list of directories searched  for
              compiled  interface  files  (.cmi),  compiled  object code files
              (.cmo),  libraries  (.cma),  and  C  libraries  specified   with
              -cclib -lxxx  .   By  default, the current directory is searched
              first, then the standard library  directory.  Directories  added
              with  -I  are searched after the current directory, in the order
              in which they were given on the command  line,  but  before  the
              standard library directory. See also option -nostdlib.

              If  the  given  directory starts with +, it is taken relative to
              the standard library directory. For  instance,  -I +camlp4  adds
              the  subdirectory  camlp4  of the standard library to the search
              path.

       -impl filename
              Compile the file filename as an implementation file, even if its
              extension is not .ml.

       -intf filename
              Compile  the  file  filename  as  an interface file, even if its
              extension is not .mli.

       -intf-suffix string
              Recognize file names  ending  with  string  as  interface  files
              (instead of the default .mli).

       -keep-locs
              Keep locations in generated .cmi files.

       -labels
              Labels  are not ignored in types, labels may be used in applica-
              tions, and labelled parameters can be given in any order.   This
              is the default.

       -linkall
              Force  all  modules  contained  in libraries to be linked in. If
              this flag is not given, unreferenced modules are not linked  in.
              When building a library (option -a), setting the -linkall option
              forces all subsequent links of programs involving  that  library
              to link all the modules contained in the library.

       -make-runtime
              Build  a  custom runtime system (in the file specified by option
              -o) incorporating the C object files and libraries given on  the
              command  line.   This custom runtime system can be used later to
              execute  bytecode   executables   produced   with   the   option
              ocamlc -use-runtime runtime-name.

       -no-alias-deps
              Do not record dependencies for module aliases.

       -no-app-funct
              Deactivates  the  applicative  behaviour  of functors. With this
              option, each functor application  generates  new  types  in  its
              result  and applying the same functor twice to the same argument
              yields two incompatible structures.

       -noassert
              Do not compile assertion checks.  Note  that  the  special  form
              assert false  is  always compiled because it is typed specially.
              This flag has no effect when linking already-compiled files.

       -noautolink
              When linking .cma libraries,  ignore  -custom, -cclib and -ccopt
              options potentially contained in the libraries (if these options
              were given when building the libraries).  This can be useful  if
              a  library contains incorrect specifications of C libraries or C
              options; in this case, during linking, set -noautolink and  pass
              the correct C libraries and options on the command line.

       -nolabels
              Ignore  non-optional  labels  in types. Labels cannot be used in
              applications, and parameter order becomes strict.

       -nostdlib
              Do not automatically add the standard library directory  to  the
              list  of  directories  searched  for  compiled  interface  files
              (.cmi), compiled object code files (.cmo), libraries (.cma), and
              C libraries specified with -cclib -lxxx .  See also option -I.

       -o exec-file
              Specify  the name of the output file produced by the linker. The
              default output name is a.out, in keeping with  the  Unix  tradi-
              tion. If the -a option is given, specify the name of the library
              produced.  If the -pack option is given, specify the name of the
              packed  object  file  produced.   If  the  -output-obj option is
              given, specify the name of the output file produced.   This  can
              also be used when compiling an interface or implementation file,
              without linking, in which case it sets the name of  the  cmi  or
              cmo  file,  and also sets the module name to the file name up to
              the first dot.

       -open module
              Opens the given module before processing the interface or imple-
              mentation  files.  If  several -open options are given, they are
              processed in order, just as if the  statements  open!  module1;;
              ... open! moduleN;; were added at the top of each file.

       -output-obj
              Cause  the  linker to produce a C object file instead of a byte-
              code executable file. This is useful to wrap OCaml code as  a  C
              library,  callable  from  any  C program. The name of the output
              object file must be set with the -o option. This option can also
              be  used to produce a C source file (.c extension) or a compiled
              shared/dynamic library (.so extension).

       -pack  Build a bytecode object file (.cmo file) and its associated com-
              piled  interface  (.cmi) that combines the object files given on
              the command line, making them appear as sub-modules of the  out-
              put  .cmo  file.  The name of the output .cmo file must be given
              with       the       -o       option.        For       instance,
              ocamlc -pack -o p.cmo a.cmo b.cmo c.cmo generates compiled files
              p.cmo and p.cmi describing a compilation unit having three  sub-
              modules  A, B and C, corresponding to the contents of the object
              files a.cmo, b.cmo and c.cmo.  These contents can be  referenced
              as P.A, P.B and P.C in the remainder of the program.

       -pp command
              Cause  the  compiler to call the given command as a preprocessor
              for each source file. The output of command is redirected to  an
              intermediate  file,  which is compiled. If there are no compila-
              tion errors, the intermediate file is  deleted  afterwards.  The
              name  of this file is built from the basename of the source file
              with the extension .ppi for an interface (.mli)  file  and  .ppo
              for an implementation (.ml) file.

       -ppx command
              After  parsing,  pipe  the abstract syntax tree through the pre-
              processor command.   The  module  Ast_mapper(3)  implements  the
              external interface of a preprocessor.

       -principal
              Check  information  path during type-checking, to make sure that
              all types are derived in a principal way.  When  using  labelled
              arguments  and/or  polymorphic methods, this flag is required to
              ensure future versions of the compiler will  be  able  to  infer
              types  correctly,  even if internal algorithms change.  All pro-
              grams accepted in -principal  mode  are  also  accepted  in  the
              default  mode with equivalent types, but different binary signa-
              tures, and this may slow down type checking; yet it  is  a  good
              idea to use it once before publishing source code.

       -rectypes
              Allow   arbitrary  recursive  types  during  type-checking.   By
              default, only recursive types where the recursion  goes  through
              an object type are supported. Note that once you have created an
              interface using this flag, you must use it again for all  depen-
              dencies.

       -runtime-variant suffix
              Add  suffix to the name of the runtime library that will be used
              by  the  program.   If  OCaml   was   configured   with   option
              -with-debug-runtime,  then the d suffix is supported and gives a
              debug version of the runtime.

       -safe-string
              Enforce the separation between types  string and bytes,  thereby
              making  strings  read-only.  This  will  become the default in a
              future version of OCaml.

       -short-paths
              When a type is  visible  under  several  module-paths,  use  the
              shortest  one  when  printing the type's name in inferred inter-
              faces and error and warning messages.

       -strict-sequence
              Force the left-hand part of each sequence to have type unit.

       -thread
              Compile or link multithreaded programs, in combination with  the
              system "threads" library described in The OCaml user's manual.

       -unsafe
              Turn  bound  checking  off  for  array  and string accesses (the
              v.(i)ands.[i] constructs). Programs compiled  with  -unsafe  are
              therefore  slightly  faster,  but unsafe: anything can happen if
              the program accesses an array or string outside of its bounds.

       -unsafe-string
              Identify the  types  string and bytes,  thereby  making  strings
              writable.  For  reasons  of  backward compatibility, this is the
              default setting for the moment, but this will change in a future
              version of OCaml.

       -use-runtime runtime-name
              Generate  a bytecode executable file that can be executed on the
              custom  runtime  system   runtime-name,   built   earlier   with
              ocamlc -make-runtime runtime-name.

       -v     Print the version number of the compiler and the location of the
              standard library directory, then exit.

       -verbose
              Print all external commands before they are executed, in partic-
              ular  invocations  of the C compiler and linker in -custom mode.
              Useful to debug C library problems.

       -vmthread
              Compile or link multithreaded programs, in combination with  the
              VM-level threads library described in The OCaml user's manual.

       -vnum or -version
              Print  the  version  number  of the compiler in short form (e.g.
              "3.11.0"), then exit.

       -w warning-list
              Enable, disable, or mark as fatal the warnings specified by  the
              argument warning-list.

              Each warning can be enabled or disabled, and each warning can be
              fatalor non-fatal.  If a warning is disabled, it isn't displayed
              and doesn't affect compilation in any way (even if it is fatal).
              If a warning is enabled, it is displayed normally  by  the  com-
              piler  whenever  the  source code triggers it.  If it is enabled
              and fatal, the compiler will also stop with an error after  dis-
              playing it.

              The  warning-list  argument is a sequence of warning specifiers,
              with no separators between them.  A warning specifier is one  of
              the following:

              +num   Enable warning number num.

              -num   Disable warning number num.

              @num   Enable and mark as fatal warning number num.

              +num1..num2    Enable all warnings between num1 and num2 (inclu-
              sive).

              -num1..num2   Disable all warnings between num1 and num2 (inclu-
              sive).

              @num1..num2   Enable and mark as fatal all warnings between num1
              and num2 (inclusive).

              +letter   Enable the set of warnings  corresponding  to  letter.
              The letter may be uppercase or lowercase.

              -letter    Disable  the set of warnings corresponding to letter.
              The letter may be uppercase or lowercase.

              @letter   Enable and mark as fatal the set  of  warnings  corre-
              sponding to letter.  The letter may be uppercase or lowercase.

              uppercase-letter    Enable  the set of warnings corresponding to
              uppercase-letter.

              lowercase-letter   Disable the set of warnings corresponding  to
              lowercase-letter.

              The warning numbers are as follows.

              1    Suspicious-looking start-of-comment mark.

              2    Suspicious-looking end-of-comment mark.

              3    Deprecated feature.

              4     Fragile  pattern  matching: matching that will remain com-
              plete even if additional constructors are added to  one  of  the
              variant types matched.

              5     Partially  applied  function:  expression whose result has
              function type and is ignored.

              6    Label omitted in function application.

              7    Method overridden without using the "method!" keyword

              8    Partial match: missing cases in pattern-matching.

              9    Missing fields in a record pattern.

              10   Expression on the left-hand side of a sequence that doesn't
              have  type  unit (and that is not a function, see warning number
              5).

              11   Redundant case in a pattern matching (unused match case).

              12   Redundant sub-pattern in a pattern-matching.

              13   Override of an instance variable.

              14   Illegal backslash escape in a string constant.

              15   Private method made public implicitly.

              16   Unerasable optional argument.

              17   Undeclared virtual method.

              18   Non-principal type.

              19   Type without principality.

              20   Unused function argument.

              21   Non-returning statement.

              22   Camlp4 warning.

              23   Useless record with clause.

              24   Bad module name: the source file name is not a valid  OCaml
              module name.

              25   Pattern-matching with all clauses guarded.

              26    Suspicious  unused variable: unused variable that is bound
              with let or as, and doesn't start with an underscore (_) charac-
              ter.

              27    Innocuous  unused  variable:  unused  variable that is not
              bound with let nor as, and doesn't start with an underscore  (_)
              character.

              28    A  pattern  contains a constant constructor applied to the
              underscore (_) pattern.

              29   A non-escaped end-of-line was found in a  string  constant.
              This may cause portability problems between Unix and Windows.

              30    Two labels or constructors of the same name are defined in
              two mutually recursive types.

              31   A module is linked twice in the same executable.

              32   Unused value declaration.

              33   Unused open statement.

              34   Unused type declaration.

              35   Unused for-loop index.

              36   Unused ancestor variable.

              37   Unused constructor.

              38   Unused extension constructor.

              39   Unused rec flag.

              40   Constructor or label name used out of scope.

              41   Ambiguous constructor or label name.

              42   Disambiguated constructor or label name.

              43   Nonoptional label applied as optional.

              44   Open statement shadows an already defined identifier.

              45   Open statement shadows an already  defined  label  or  con-
              structor.

              The  letters stand for the following sets of warnings.  Any let-
              ter not mentioned here corresponds to the empty set.

              A  all warnings

              C  1, 2

              D  3

              E  4

              F  5

              K  32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39

              L  6

              M  7

              P  8

              R  9

              S  10

              U  11, 12

              V  13

              X  14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 30

              Y  26

              Z  27


              The default setting is  -w +a-4-6-7-9-27-29-32..39-41..42-44-45.
              Note  that warnings 5 and 10 are not always triggered, depending
              on the internals of the type checker.

       -warn-error warning-list
              Mark as errors the warnings  specified  in  the  argument  warn-
              ing-list.   The  compiler  will  stop  with an error when one of
              these warnings is emitted.  The warning-list has the same  mean-
              ing  as  for  the  -w  option: a + sign (or an uppercase letter)
              marks the corresponding warnings as fatal, a - sign (or a lower-
              case  letter)  turns  them back into non-fatal warnings, and a @
              sign both enables and marks as fatal the corresponding warnings.

              Note:  it  is  not  recommended to use the -warn-error option in
              production code, because it will almost certainly  prevent  com-
              piling  your  program with later versions of OCaml when they add
              new warnings or modify existing warnings.

              The default setting is -warn-error -a  (all  warnings  are  non-
              fatal).

       -warn-help
              Show the description of all available warning numbers.

       -where Print the location of the standard library, then exit.

       - file Process  file  as a file name, even if it starts with a dash (-)
              character.

       -help or --help
              Display a short usage summary and exit.



SEE ALSO

       ocamlopt(1), ocamlrun(1), ocaml(1).
       The OCaml user's manual, chapter "Batch compilation".



                                                                     ocamlc(1)

ocaml 4.02.1 - Generated Tue Oct 21 07:55:48 CDT 2014
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