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calc(1)                                                                calc(1)


       calc - arbitrary precision calculator


       calc [-c] [-C] [-d]
            [-D calc_debug[:resource_debug[:user_debug]]]
            [-e] [-h] [-i] [-m mode] [-O]
            [-p] [-q] [-s] [-u] [-v] [[--] calc_cmd ...]

       #!/usr/local/bin/calc [other_flags ...] -f



       -c     Continue reading command lines even after a scan/parse error has
              caused the abandonment of a line.  Note that  this  option  only
              deals  with  scanning and parsing of the calc language.  It does
              not deal with execution or run-time errors.

              For example:

                   calc read

              will cause calc to abort on the first syntax error, whereas:

                   calc -c read

              will cause calc to try to process each line being  read  despite
              the scan/parse errors that it encounters.

              By  default, calc startup resource files are silently ignored if
              not found.  This flag will report missing startup resource files
              unless -d is also given.

       -C     Permit  the execution of custom builtin functions.  Without this
              flag, calling the custom() builtin function will simply generate
              an error.

              Use  of  this  flag may cause calc to execute functions that are
              non-standard and that are not portable.   Custom  builtin  func-
              tions are disabled by default for this reason.

       -d     Disable  the  printing  of  the  opening title.  The printing of
              resource file debug and informational messages is also  disabled
              as if config("resource_debug", 0) had been executed.

              For example:

                   calc "read qtime; qtime(2)"

              will output something like:

                   qtime(utc_hr_offset) defined
                   It's nearly ten past six.


                   calc -d "read qtime; qtime(2)"

              will just say:

                   It's nearly ten past six.

              This  flag  disables  the  reporting  of  missing  calc  startup
              resource files.

       -D calc_debug[:resource_debug[:user_debug]]
              Force  the   initial   value   of   config("calc_debug"),   con-
              fig("resource_debug") and config("user_debug").

              The  :  separated strings are interpreted as signed 32 bit inte-
              gers.  After an optional leading sign a leading  zero  indicates
              octal  conversion,  and  a  leading ``0x'' or ``0X'' hexadecimal
              conversion.  Otherwise, decimal conversion is assumed.

              By default, calc_debug is 0, resource_debug is 3 and  user_debug
              is 0.

              For more information use the following calc command:

                   help config

       -e     Ignore  any  environment  variables  on  startup.   The getenv()
              builtin will still return values, however.

       -f     This flag is required when using calc in shell script mode.   It
              must be at the end of the initial #!  line of the script.

              This  flag  is  normally only at the end of a calc shell script.
              If the first line of an executable file begins #!   followed  by
              the absolute pathname of the calc program and the flag -f as in:

                   #!/usr/local/bin/calc [other_flags ...] -f

              the rest of the file will be processed  in  shell  script  mode.
              See  SHELL  SCRIPT  MODE  section  of  this  man  page below for

              The actual form of this flag is:

                   -f filename

              On systems that treat an executable that begins with  #!   as  a
              script,  the path of the executable is appended by the kernel as
              the final argument to the exec() system call.  This is  why  the
              -f flag at the very end of the #!  line.

              It is possible use -f filename on the command line:

                   calc [other_flags ...] -f filename

              This  will  cause  calc  to  process  lines in filename in shell
              script mode.

              Use of -f implies -s.  In addition, -d and -p are implied if  -i
              is not given.

       -h     Print  a help message.  This option implies -q.  This is equiva-
              lent to the calc command help help.  The help facility  is  dis-
              abled unless the mode is 5 or 7.  See -m.

       -i     Become  interactive  if  possible.  This flag will cause calc to
              drop into interactive mode after the calc_cmd arguments  on  the
              command  line  are evaluated.  Without this flag, calc will exit
              after they are evaluated.

              For example:

                   calc 2+5

              will print the value 7 and exit whereas:

                   calc -i 2+5

              will print the value 7 and prompt the user for  more  calc  com-

       -m mode
              This  flag  sets  the  permission mode of calc.  It controls the
              ability for calc to open files and execute programs.   Mode  may
              be a number from 0 to 7.

              The  mode  value  is interpreted in a way similar to that of the
              chmod(1) octal mode:

                   0  do not open any file, do not execute progs
                   1  do not open any file
                   2  do not open files for reading, do not execute progs
                   3  do not open files for reading
                   4  do not open files for writing, do not execute progs
                   5  do not open files for writing
                   6  do not execute any program
                   7  allow everything (default mode)

              If one wished to run calc from a privileged user, one might want
              to use -m 0 in an effort to make calc somewhat more secure.

              Mode  bits for reading and writing apply only on an open.  Files
              already open are not effected.  Thus if one wanted to use the -m
              0  in  an  effort  to  make calc somewhat more secure, but still
              wanted to read and write a specific file, one might want  to  do
              in sh(1), ksh(1), bash(1)-like shells:

                   calc -m 0 3<a.file

              Files  presented  to  calc  in this way are opened in an unknown
              mode.  Calc will attempt to read or write them if directed.

              If the mode disables opening of  files  for  reading,  then  the
              startup  resource  files  are  disabled as if -q was given.  The
              reading of key bindings is also disabled when the mode  disables
              opening of files for reading.

       -O     Use  the  old classic defaults instead of the default configura-
              tion.  This flag as the same effect as  executing  config("all",
              "oldcfg") at startup time.

              NOTE: Older versions of calc used -n to setup a modified form of
              the default calc configuration.   The  -n  flag  currently  does
              nothing.   Use  of the -n flag is now deprecated and may be used
              for something else in the future.

       -p     Pipe processing is enabled by use of -p.  For example:

                   calc -p "2^21701-1" | fizzbin

              In pipe mode, calc does not prompt, does not print leading  tabs
              and  does  not  print the initial header.  The -p flag overrides

       -q     Disable the reading of the startup scripts.

       -s     By default, all calc_cmd args are evaluated and executed.   This
              flag  will disable their evaluation and instead make them avail-
              able as strings for the argv() builtin function.

       -u     Disable buffering of stdin and stdout.

       -v     Print the calc version number and exit.

       --     The double dash indicates to calc that no  more  option  follow.
              Thus  calc will ignore a later argument on the command line even
              if it starts with a dash.  This is useful when entering negative
              values on the command line as in:

                   calc -p -- -1 - -7


       With  no  calc_cmd  arguments,  calc operates interactively.  If one or
       more arguments are given on the command line and -s is NOT given,  then
       calc  will  read  and execute them and either attempt to go interactive
       according as the -i flag was present or absent.

       If -s is given, calc will  not  evaluate  any  calc_cmd  arguments  but
       instead  make them available as strings to the argv() builtin function.

       Sufficiently simple commands with no no  characters  like  parentheses,
       brackets,  semicolons,  '*', which have special interpretations in UNIX
       shells may be entered, possibly with spaces, until the terminating new-
       line.  For example:

            calc 23 + 47

       will print 70.  However, command lines will have problems:

            calc 23 * 47

            calc -23 + 47

       The first example above fails because the shell interprets the '*' as a
       file glob.  The second example fails because '-23' is viewed as a  calc
       option (which it is not) and do calc objects to that it thinks of as an
       unknown option.  These cases can usually be made to work as expected by
       enclosing the command between quotes:

            calc '23 * 47'

            calc "print sqrt(2), exp(1)"

       or in parentheses and quotes to avoid leading -'s as in:

            calc '(-23 + 47)'

       One  may  also use a double dash to denote that calc options have ended
       as in:

            calc -- -23 + 47

            calc -q -- -23 + 47

       If '!' is to be used to indicate the  factorial  function,  for  shells
       like csh(1) for which '!' followed by a non-space character is used for
       history substitution, it may be necessary to include a space or  use  a
       backslash  to escape the special meaning of '!'.  For example, the com-

            print 27!^2

       may have to be replaced by:

            print 27! ^2   or   print 27^2


       Normally on startup, if the environment variable $CALCRC  is  undefined
       and  calc  is invoked without the -q flag, or if $CALCRC is defined and
       calc is invoked with -e, calc looks for a file "startup"  in  the  calc
       resource  directory .calcrc in the user's home directory, and .calcinit
       in the current directory.  If one or more of these are found, they  are
       read  in  succession as calc scripts and their commands executed.  When
       defined, $CALCRC is to contain a ':' separated list of names of  files,
       and  if  calc  is then invoked without either the -q or -e flags, these
       files are read in succession and their  commands  executed.   No  error
       condition is produced if a listed file is not found.

       If the mode specified by -m disables opening of files for reading, then
       the reading of startup files is also disabled as if -q was given.


       If the environment variable $CALCPATH is undefined, or if it is defined
       and  calc  is  invoked with the -e flag, when a file name not beginning
       with /, ~ or ./, is specified as in:

            calc read myfile

       calc searches in succession:


       If the file is found, the search stops and the commands in the file are
       executed.   It  is an error if no readable file with the specified name
       is found.  An alternative search path  can  be  specified  by  defining
       $CALCPATH  in  the same way as PATH is defined, as a ':' separated list
       of directories, and then invoking calc without the -e flag.

       Calc treats all open files, other than  stdin,  stdout  and  stderr  as
       files  available for reading and writing.  One may present calc with an
       already open file using sh(1), ksh(1), bash(1)-like shells is to:

            calc 3<open_file 4<open_file2

       For more information use the following calc commands:

            help help
            help overview
            help usage
            help environment
            help config


       If the first line of an executable file  begins  #!   followed  by  the
       absolute pathname of the calc program and the flag -f as in:

            #!/usr/local/bin/calc [other_flags ...] -f

       the rest of the file will be processed in shell script mode.  Note that
       -f must at the end of the initial  ``#!''  line.   Any  other  optional
       other_flags must come before the -f.

       In  shell script mode the contents of the file are read and executed as
       if they were in a file being processed by a read command, except that a
       "command"  beginning  with '#' followed by whitespace and ending at the
       next newline is treated as a comment.  Any optional other_flags will be
       parsed first followed by the later lines within the script itself.

       In shell script mode, -s is always assumed.  In addition, -d and -p are
       automatically set if -i is not given.

       For example, if the file /tmp/mersenne:

            #!/usr/local/bin/calc -q -f
            # mersenne - an example of a calc shell script file

            /* parse args */
            if (argv() != 1) {
                fprintf(files(2), "usage: %s exp\n", config("program"));
                abort "must give one exponent arg";

            /* print the mersenne number */
            print "2^": argv(0) : "-1 =", 2^eval(argv(0))-1;

       is made an executable file by:

            chmod +x /tmp/mersenne

       then the command line:

            /tmp/mersenne 127

       will print:

            2^127-1 = 170141183460469231731687303715884105727

       Note that because -s is assumed in shell  script  mode  and  non-dashed
       args  are  made  available  as strings via the argv() builtin function.


       will print the decimal value of 2^n-1 but


       will not.


       Fundamental builtin data types include integers, real numbers, rational
       numbers, complex numbers and strings.

       By  use of an object, one may define an arbitrarily complex data types.
       One may define how such objects behave a wide range of operations  such
       as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, negation, squaring,
       modulus, rounding, exponentiation, equality, comparison,  printing  and
       so on.

       For more information use the following calc commands:

          help types
          help obj
          show objfuncs


       Variables  in  calc are typeless.  In other words, the fundamental type
       of a variable is determined by  its  content.   Before  a  variable  is
       assigned a value it has the value of zero.

       The  scope  of a variable may be global, local to a file, or local to a
       procedure.  Values may be grouped together in a matrix,  or  into  a  a
       list that permits stack and queue style operations.

       For more information use the following calc commands:

          help variable
          help mat
          help list
          show globals


       A  leading ``0x'' implies a hexadecimal value, a leading ``0b'' implies
       a binary value, and a ``0'' followed by a digit implies an octal value.
       Complex  numbers are indicated by a trailing ``i'' such as in ``3+4i''.
       Strings may be delimited by either a pair of single or  double  quotes.
       By  default, calc prints values as if they were floating point numbers.
       One may change the default to print values in a number of modes includ-
       ing fractions, integers and exponentials.

       A number of stdio-like file I/O operations are provided.  One may open,
       read, write, seek and close files.  Filenames  are  subject  to  ``  ''
       expansion  to  home directories in a way similar to that of the Korn or

       For example:


       For more information use the following calc command:

          help file


       The calc language is a C-like language.  The language includes commands
       such  as variable declarations, expressions, tests, labels, loops, file
       operations, function calls.  These commands are very similar  to  their
       counterparts in C.

       The  language  also  include  a  number  of commands particular to calc
       itself.  These include commands  such  as  function  definition,  help,
       reading  in  resource  files, dump files to a file, error notification,
       configuration control and status.

       For more information use the following calc command:

          help command
          help statement
          help expression
          help operator
          help config


            calc binary

            calc shell scripts

            calc standard resource files

            help files

            non-GNU-readline command line editor bindings

            include files for C interface use

            calc binary link library

            custom binary link library

            custom resource files

            custom help files


            A :-separated list of directories used to search for calc resource
            filenames that do not begin with /, ./ or ~.

            Default value: .:./cal:~/.cal:/usr/share/calc:/usr/share/calc/cus-

            On startup (unless -h or -q was given on the command  line),  calc
            searches for files along this :-separated environment variable.

            Default value: /usr/share/calc/startup:~/.calcrc:./.calcinit

            On  startup  (unless -h or -q was given on the command line, or -m
            disallows opening files for reading), calc reads key bindings from
            the  filename  specified  by  this  environment variable.  The key
            binding file is searched for along the $CALCPATH list of  directo-

            Default value: binding

            This  variable  is not used if calc was compiled with GNU-readline
            support.  In that case,  the  standard  readline  mechanisms  (see
            readline(3)) are used.


       The main chunk of calc was written by David I. Bell.

       The calc primary mirror, calc mailing list and calc bug report process-
       ing is performed by Landon Curt Noll.

       Landon Curt  Noll  maintains  the  master  reference  source,  performs
       release  control functions as well as other calc maintenance functions.

       Thanks for suggestions and encouragement from Peter Miller,  Neil  Jus-
       tusson, and Landon Noll.

       Thanks  to  Stephen Rothwell for writing the original version of hist.c
       which is used to do the command line editing.

       Thanks to Ernest W. Bowen for supplying many improvements  in  accuracy
       and  generality  for some numeric functions.  Much of this was in terms
       of actual code which I gratefully accepted.  Ernest also  supplied  the
       original text for many of the help files.

       Portions  of  this  program  are  derived from an earlier set of public
       domain arbitrarily precision routines  which  was  posted  to  the  net
       around  1984.   By  now, there is almost no recognizable code left from
       that original source.


       Calc is open software, and is covered under  version  2.1  of  the  GNU
       Lesser  General  Public  License.   You are welcome to change it and/or
       distribute copies of it under certain conditions.  The calc commands:

            help copyright
            help copying
            help copying-lgpl

       should display the contents of  the  COPYING  and  COPYING-LGPL  files.
       Those  files  contain  information  about the calc's GNU Lesser General
       Public License, and in particular the conditions under  which  you  are
       allowed to change it and/or distribute copies of it.

       You  should  have  received a copy of the version 2.1 of the GNU Lesser
       General Public License.  If you do not have these files, write to:

            Free Software Foundation, Inc.
            51 Franklin Street
            Fifth Floor
            Boston, MA  02110-1301

       Calc is copyrighted in several different ways.  These ways include:

            Copyright (C) year  David I. Bell
            Copyright (C) year  David I. Bell and Landon Curt Noll
            Copyright (C) year  David I. Bell and Ernest Bowen
            Copyright (C) year  David I. Bell, Landon Curt Noll and Ernest Bowen
            Copyright (C) year  Landon Curt Noll
            Copyright (C) year  Ernest Bowen and Landon Curt Noll
            Copyright (C) year  Ernest Bowen

       This man page is:

            Copyright (C) 1999  Landon Curt Noll

       and is covered under version 2.1 GNU Lesser General Public License.


       To contribute comments, suggestions, enhancements and interesting  calc
       resource files, and shell scripts please join the low volume calc mail-
       ing list.

       To join the low volume calc mailing list, send EMail to:

            calc-tester-request at asthe dot com

       Your subject must contain the words:

            calc mailing list subscription

       You may have additional words in your subject line.

       Your message body must contain:

            subscribe calc-tester address
            name your_full_name

       where address s your EMail address  and  your_full_name  is  your  full
       name.   Feel free to follow the name line with additional EMail text as


       Send bug reports and bug fixes to:

            calc-bugs at asthe dot com

            [[ NOTE: Replace 'at' with @, 'dot' is with . and remove the spaces ]]
            [[ NOTE: The EMail address uses 'asthe' and the web site URL uses 'isthe' ]]

       Your subject must contain the words:

            calc bug report

       You may have additional words in your subject line.

       See the BUGS source file or use the calc command:

            help bugs

       for more information about bug reporting.


       Landon Noll maintains the the calc web site is located at:


       Share and Enjoy! :-)

2007-02-06                           ^..^                              calc(1)

calc - Generated Thu Jun 26 12:59:00 CDT 2008
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