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readline(3)                                                        readline(3)




NAME

       readline - get a line from a user with editing


SYNOPSIS

       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <readline/readline.h>
       #include <readline/history.h>

       char *
       readline (const char *prompt);


COPYRIGHT

       Readline is Copyright (C) 1989-2011 Free Software Foundation,  Inc.


DESCRIPTION

       readline will read a line from the terminal and return it, using prompt
       as a prompt.  If prompt is NULL or  the  empty  string,  no  prompt  is
       issued.  The line returned is allocated with malloc(3); the caller must
       free it when  finished.   The  line  returned  has  the  final  newline
       removed, so only the text of the line remains.

       readline  offers  editing  capabilities  while the user is entering the
       line.  By default, the line editing commands are similar  to  those  of
       emacs.  A vi-style line editing interface is also available.

       This  manual  page describes only the most basic use of readline.  Much
       more functionality is available; see The GNU Readline Library  and  The
       GNU History Library for additional information.


RETURN VALUE

       readline  returns  the text of the line read.  A blank line returns the
       empty string.  If EOF is encountered while reading a line, and the line
       is  empty,  NULL is returned.  If an EOF is read with a non-empty line,
       it is treated as a newline.


NOTATION

       An Emacs-style notation is used to denote keystrokes.  Control keys are
       denoted  by C-key, e.g., C-n means Control-N.  Similarly, meta keys are
       denoted by M-key, so M-x means Meta-X.  (On keyboards  without  a  meta
       key,  M-x means ESC x, i.e., press the Escape key then the x key.  This
       makes ESC the meta prefix.  The combination M-C-x means  ESC-Control-x,
       or  press the Escape key then hold the Control key while pressing the x
       key.)

       Readline commands may be given numeric arguments, which normally act as
       a  repeat  count.   Sometimes,  however, it is the sign of the argument
       that is significant.  Passing a negative argument  to  a  command  that
       acts  in the forward direction (e.g., kill-line) causes that command to
       act in a backward direction.  Commands whose  behavior  with  arguments
       deviates from this are noted.

       When  a command is described as killing text, the text deleted is saved
       for possible future retrieval (yanking).  The killed text is saved in a
       kill ring.  Consecutive kills cause the text to be accumulated into one
       unit, which can be yanked all at once.  Commands which do not kill text
       separate the chunks of text on the kill ring.


INITIALIZATION FILE

       Readline  is  customized  by putting commands in an initialization file
       (the inputrc file).  The name of this file is taken from the  value  of
       the  INPUTRC  environment  variable.   If  that  variable is unset, the
       default is ~/.inputrc.  If that file  does not exist or cannot be read,
       the  ultimate  default  is /etc/inputrc.  When a program which uses the
       readline library starts up, the init file is read, and the key bindings
       and  variables  are set.  There are only a few basic constructs allowed
       in the readline init file.  Blank lines are ignored.   Lines  beginning
       with  a  # are comments.  Lines beginning with a $ indicate conditional
       constructs.  Other lines denote key  bindings  and  variable  settings.
       Each  program using this library may add its own commands and bindings.

       For example, placing

              M-Control-u: universal-argument
       or
              C-Meta-u: universal-argument

       into the inputrc would make M-C-u execute the readline command  univer-
       sal-argument.

       The  following symbolic character names are recognized while processing
       key bindings: DEL, ESC, ESCAPE,  LFD,  NEWLINE,  RET,  RETURN,  RUBOUT,
       SPACE, SPC, and TAB.

       In  addition  to  command  names, readline allows keys to be bound to a
       string that is inserted when the key is pressed (a macro).


   Key Bindings
       The syntax for controlling key bindings in the inputrc file is  simple.
       All  that is required is the name of the command or the text of a macro
       and a key sequence to which it should be bound. The name may be  speci-
       fied in one of two ways: as a symbolic key name, possibly with Meta- or
       Control- prefixes, or as a key sequence.  The name and key sequence are
       separated  by a colon.  There can be no whitespace between the name and
       the colon.

       When using the form keyname:function-name or macro, keyname is the name
       of a key spelled out in English.  For example:

              Control-u: universal-argument
              Meta-Rubout: backward-kill-word
              Control-o: "> output"

       In  the above example, C-u is bound to the function universal-argument,
       M-DEL is bound to the function backward-kill-word, and C-o is bound  to
       run  the macro expressed on the right hand side (that is, to insert the
       text ``> output'' into the line).

       In the second form, "keyseq":function-name  or  macro,  keyseq  differs
       from  keyname above in that strings denoting an entire key sequence may
       be specified by placing the sequence within double  quotes.   Some  GNU
       Emacs  style  key escapes can be used, as in the following example, but
       the symbolic character names are not recognized.

              "\C-u": universal-argument
              "\C-x\C-r": re-read-init-file
              "\e[11~": "Function Key 1"

       In this example, C-u is again bound to the function universal-argument.
       C-x  C-r is bound to the function re-read-init-file, and ESC [ 1 1 ~ is
       bound to insert the text ``Function Key 1''.

       The full set of GNU Emacs style escape sequences available when  speci-
       fying key sequences is
              \C-    control prefix
              \M-    meta prefix
              \e     an escape character
              \\     backslash
              \"     literal ", a double quote
              \'     literal ', a single quote

       In  addition  to  the GNU Emacs style escape sequences, a second set of
       backslash escapes is available:
              \a     alert (bell)
              \b     backspace
              \d     delete
              \f     form feed
              \n     newline
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \nnn   the eight-bit character whose value is  the  octal  value
                     nnn (one to three digits)
              \xHH   the  eight-bit  character  whose value is the hexadecimal
                     value HH (one or two hex digits)

       When entering the text of a macro, single or double  quotes  should  be
       used  to indicate a macro definition.  Unquoted text is assumed to be a
       function name.  In the macro  body,  the  backslash  escapes  described
       above  are  expanded.   Backslash will quote any other character in the
       macro text, including " and '.

       Bash allows the current readline key bindings to be displayed or  modi-
       fied  with  the bind builtin command.  The editing mode may be switched
       during interactive use by using the -o option to the set  builtin  com-
       mand.   Other  programs  using this library provide similar mechanisms.
       The inputrc file may be edited and re-read if a program does  not  pro-
       vide any other means to incorporate new bindings.

   Variables
       Readline has variables that can be used to further customize its behav-
       ior.  A variable may be set in the inputrc file with a statement of the
       form

              set variable-name value

       Except  where  noted,  readline variables can take the values On or Off
       (without regard to case).  Unrecognized  variable  names  are  ignored.
       When  a variable value is read, empty or null values, "on" (case-insen-
       sitive), and "1" are equivalent to On.  All other values are equivalent
       to Off.  The variables and their default values are:

       bell-style (audible)
              Controls  what  happens when readline wants to ring the terminal
              bell.  If set to none, readline never rings the bell.  If set to
              visible,  readline  uses a visible bell if one is available.  If
              set to audible, readline attempts to ring the terminal's bell.
       bind-tty-special-chars (On)
              If set to On, readline attempts to bind the  control  characters
              treated specially by the kernel's terminal driver to their read-
              line equivalents.
       colored-stats (Off)
              If set to On, readline displays possible completions using  dif-
              ferent  colors  to  indicate their file type.  The color defini-
              tions are taken from the  value  of  the  LS_COLORS  environment
              variable.
       comment-begin (``#'')
              The  string  that is inserted in vi mode when the insert-comment
              command is executed.  This command is bound to M-# in emacs mode
              and to # in vi command mode.
       completion-display-width (-1)
              The  number  of  screen columns used to display possible matches
              when performing completion.  The value is ignored if it is  less
              than  0 or greater than the terminal screen width.  A value of 0
              will cause matches to be displayed one per  line.   The  default
              value is -1.
       completion-ignore-case (Off)
              If set to On, readline performs filename matching and completion
              in a case-insensitive fashion.
       completion-map-case (Off)
              If set to On, and completion-ignore-case  is  enabled,  readline
              treats  hyphens  (-) and underscores (_) as equivalent when per-
              forming case-insensitive filename matching and completion.
       completion-prefix-display-length (0)
              The length in characters of the common prefix of a list of  pos-
              sible  completions that is displayed without modification.  When
              set to a value greater than zero, common  prefixes  longer  than
              this  value are replaced with an ellipsis when displaying possi-
              ble completions.
       completion-query-items (100)
              This determines when the user is queried about viewing the  num-
              ber  of  possible  completions generated by the possible-comple-
              tions command.  It may be set to any integer value greater  than
              or  equal  to  zero.   If  the number of possible completions is
              greater than or equal to the value of this variable, the user is
              asked  whether or not he wishes to view them; otherwise they are
              simply listed on the terminal.  A negative value causes readline
              to never ask.
       convert-meta (On)
              If  set  to On, readline will convert characters with the eighth
              bit set to an ASCII key sequence by stripping the eighth bit and
              prefixing  it  with an escape character (in effect, using escape
              as the meta prefix).
       disable-completion (Off)
              If set to On, readline will inhibit word completion.  Completion
              characters  will  be  inserted into the line as if they had been
              mapped to self-insert.
       editing-mode (emacs)
              Controls whether readline begins with a set of key bindings sim-
              ilar to Emacs or vi.  editing-mode can be set to either emacs or
              vi.
       echo-control-characters (On)
              When set to On, on operating systems that indicate they  support
              it, readline echoes a character corresponding to a signal gener-
              ated from the keyboard.
       enable-keypad (Off)
              When set to On, readline will try to enable the application key-
              pad  when  it  is  called.  Some systems need this to enable the
              arrow keys.
       enable-meta-key (On)
              When set to On, readline will try to enable  any  meta  modifier
              key  the  terminal claims to support when it is called.  On many
              terminals, the meta key is used to send eight-bit characters.
       expand-tilde (Off)
              If set  to  On,  tilde  expansion  is  performed  when  readline
              attempts word completion.
       history-preserve-point (Off)
              If  set  to  On, the history code attempts to place point at the
              same location on each history line retrieved with  previous-his-
              tory or next-history.
       history-size (0)
              Set  the  maximum number of history entries saved in the history
              list.  If set to zero, any existing history entries are  deleted
              and no new entries are saved.  If set to a value less than zero,
              the number of history entries is not limited.  By  default,  the
              number of history entries is not limited.
       horizontal-scroll-mode (Off)
              When  set  to  On, makes readline use a single line for display,
              scrolling the input horizontally on a single screen line when it
              becomes  longer  than the screen width rather than wrapping to a
              new line.
       input-meta (Off)
              If set to On, readline will enable eight-bit input (that is,  it
              will  not  clear  the  eighth  bit  in the characters it reads),
              regardless of what the terminal claims it can support.  The name
              meta-flag is a synonym for this variable.
       isearch-terminators (``C-[ C-J'')
              The  string  of  characters that should terminate an incremental
              search without subsequently executing the character  as  a  com-
              mand.   If this variable has not been given a value, the charac-
              ters ESC and C-J will terminate an incremental search.
       keymap (emacs)
              Set the current readline keymap.  The set of legal keymap  names
              is  emacs,  emacs-standard, emacs-meta, emacs-ctlx, vi, vi-move,
              vi-command, and vi-insert.   vi  is  equivalent  to  vi-command;
              emacs  is  equivalent  to  emacs-standard.  The default value is
              emacs.  The value  of  editing-mode  also  affects  the  default
              keymap.
       keyseq-timeout (500)
              Specifies  the  duration readline will wait for a character when
              reading an ambiguous key sequence (one that can form a  complete
              key sequence using the input read so far, or can take additional
              input to complete a  longer  key  sequence).   If  no  input  is
              received  within  the timeout, readline will use the shorter but
              complete key sequence.  The value is specified in  milliseconds,
              so  a value of 1000 means that readline will wait one second for
              additional input.  If this variable is set to a value less  than
              or  equal to zero, or to a non-numeric value, readline will wait
              until another key is pressed to decide  which  key  sequence  to
              complete.
       mark-directories (On)
              If set to On, completed directory names have a slash appended.
       mark-modified-lines (Off)
              If  set  to  On,  history lines that have been modified are dis-
              played with a preceding asterisk (*).
       mark-symlinked-directories (Off)
              If set to On, completed names which are symbolic links to direc-
              tories   have   a  slash  appended  (subject  to  the  value  of
              mark-directories).
       match-hidden-files (On)
              This variable, when set to On, causes readline  to  match  files
              whose  names  begin  with  a  `.' (hidden files) when performing
              filename completion.  If set to Off, the  leading  `.'  must  be
              supplied by the user in the filename to be completed.
       menu-complete-display-prefix (Off)
              If  set to On, menu completion displays the common prefix of the
              list of possible completions (which may be empty) before cycling
              through the list.
       output-meta (Off)
              If  set  to On, readline will display characters with the eighth
              bit set directly rather than as a meta-prefixed escape sequence.
       page-completions (On)
              If  set to On, readline uses an internal more-like pager to dis-
              play a screenful of possible completions at a time.
       print-completions-horizontally (Off)
              If set to On, readline will  display  completions  with  matches
              sorted  horizontally in alphabetical order, rather than down the
              screen.
       revert-all-at-newline (Off)
              If set to On, readline will undo all changes  to  history  lines
              before returning when accept-line is executed.  By default, his-
              tory lines may be modified  and  retain  individual  undo  lists
              across calls to readline.
       show-all-if-ambiguous (Off)
              This  alters  the  default behavior of the completion functions.
              If set to On, words which have more than one possible completion
              cause  the  matches  to be listed immediately instead of ringing
              the bell.
       show-all-if-unmodified (Off)
              This alters the default behavior of the completion functions  in
              a fashion similar to show-all-if-ambiguous.  If set to On, words
              which have more than one possible completion without any  possi-
              ble  partial  completion (the possible completions don't share a
              common prefix)  cause  the  matches  to  be  listed  immediately
              instead of ringing the bell.
       show-mode-in-prompt (Off)
              If  set  to  On,  add a character to the beginning of the prompt
              indicating the editing mode: emacs (@), vi  command  (:)  or  vi
              insertion (+).
       skip-completed-text (Off)
              If  set  to On, this alters the default completion behavior when
              inserting a single match into the line.  It's only  active  when
              performing  completion  in  the  middle  of a word.  If enabled,
              readline does not insert characters  from  the  completion  that
              match  characters  after  point  in the word being completed, so
              portions of the word following the cursor are not duplicated.
       visible-stats (Off)
              If set to On, a character denoting a file's type as reported  by
              stat(2)  is  appended to the filename when listing possible com-
              pletions.

   Conditional Constructs
       Readline implements a facility similar in  spirit  to  the  conditional
       compilation  features  of  the C preprocessor which allows key bindings
       and variable settings to be performed as the result  of  tests.   There
       are four parser directives used.

       $if    The  $if construct allows bindings to be made based on the edit-
              ing mode, the terminal being  used,  or  the  application  using
              readline.   The text of the test extends to the end of the line;
              no characters are required to isolate it.

              mode   The mode= form of the  $if  directive  is  used  to  test
                     whether  readline  is  in  emacs or vi mode.  This may be
                     used in conjunction with  the  set  keymap  command,  for
                     instance,  to  set  bindings  in  the  emacs-standard and
                     emacs-ctlx keymaps only if readline is  starting  out  in
                     emacs mode.

              term   The  term=  form may be used to include terminal-specific
                     key bindings, perhaps to bind the key sequences output by
                     the terminal's function keys.  The word on the right side
                     of the = is tested against the full name of the  terminal
                     and  the portion of the terminal name before the first -.
                     This allows sun  to  match  both  sun  and  sun-cmd,  for
                     instance.

              application
                     The application construct is used to include application-
                     specific  settings.   Each  program  using  the  readline
                     library  sets the application name, and an initialization
                     file can test for a particular value.  This could be used
                     to  bind key sequences to functions useful for a specific
                     program.  For instance, the following command adds a  key
                     sequence  that  quotes  the  current  or previous word in
                     bash:

                     $if Bash
                     # Quote the current or previous word
                     "\C-xq": "\eb\"\ef\""
                     $endif

       $endif This command, as seen in the previous example, terminates an $if
              command.

       $else  Commands in this branch of the $if directive are executed if the
              test fails.

       $include
              This directive takes a single filename as an argument and  reads
              commands  and bindings from that file.  For example, the follow-
              ing directive would read /etc/inputrc:

              $include  /etc/inputrc


SEARCHING

       Readline provides commands for searching through  the  command  history
       for  lines  containing a specified string.  There are two search modes:
       incremental and non-incremental.

       Incremental searches begin before the  user  has  finished  typing  the
       search  string.  As each character of the search string is typed, read-
       line displays the next entry from the history matching the string typed
       so  far.   An  incremental  search  requires only as many characters as
       needed to find the desired history entry.  To search  backward  in  the
       history for a particular string, type C-r.  Typing C-s searches forward
       through the history.  The  characters  present  in  the  value  of  the
       isearch-terminators  variable  are  used  to  terminate  an incremental
       search.  If that variable has not been assigned a value the Escape  and
       C-J characters will terminate an incremental search.  C-G will abort an
       incremental search and restore the original line.  When the  search  is
       terminated,  the history entry containing the search string becomes the
       current line.

       To find other matching entries in the history list, type C-s or C-r  as
       appropriate.   This  will search backward or forward in the history for
       the next line matching the search string typed so far.  Any  other  key
       sequence bound to a readline command will terminate the search and exe-
       cute that command.  For instance, a newline will terminate  the  search
       and  accept  the  line,  thereby executing the command from the history
       list.  A movement command will terminate the search, make the last line
       found the current line, and begin editing.

       Non-incremental  searches read the entire search string before starting
       to search for matching history lines.  The search string may  be  typed
       by the user or be part of the contents of the current line.


EDITING COMMANDS

       The  following  is  a list of the names of the commands and the default
       key sequences to which they are bound.  Command names without an accom-
       panying key sequence are unbound by default.

       In the following descriptions, point refers to the current cursor posi-
       tion, and mark refers to a cursor position saved by the  set-mark  com-
       mand.   The  text  between  the  point  and  mark is referred to as the
       region.

   Commands for Moving
       beginning-of-line (C-a)
              Move to the start of the current line.
       end-of-line (C-e)
              Move to the end of the line.
       forward-char (C-f)
              Move forward a character.
       backward-char (C-b)
              Move back a character.
       forward-word (M-f)
              Move forward to the end of the next word.  Words are composed of
              alphanumeric characters (letters and digits).
       backward-word (M-b)
              Move  back  to the start of the current or previous word.  Words
              are composed of alphanumeric characters (letters and digits).
       clear-screen (C-l)
              Clear the screen leaving the current line  at  the  top  of  the
              screen.   With  an  argument,  refresh  the current line without
              clearing the screen.
       redraw-current-line
              Refresh the current line.

   Commands for Manipulating the History
       accept-line (Newline, Return)
              Accept the line regardless of where the cursor is.  If this line
              is  non-empty,  it  may  be added to the history list for future
              recall with add_history().  If the line is  a  modified  history
              line, the history line is restored to its original state.
       previous-history (C-p)
              Fetch the previous command from the history list, moving back in
              the list.
       next-history (C-n)
              Fetch the next command from the history list, moving forward  in
              the list.
       beginning-of-history (M-<)
              Move to the first line in the history.
       end-of-history (M->)
              Move  to  the end of the input history, i.e., the line currently
              being entered.
       reverse-search-history (C-r)
              Search backward starting at the current  line  and  moving  `up'
              through  the  history  as  necessary.   This  is  an incremental
              search.
       forward-search-history (C-s)
              Search forward starting at the current line  and  moving  `down'
              through  the  history  as  necessary.   This  is  an incremental
              search.
       non-incremental-reverse-search-history (M-p)
              Search backward through the history starting at the current line
              using  a  non-incremental  search  for  a string supplied by the
              user.
       non-incremental-forward-search-history (M-n)
              Search forward  through  the  history  using  a  non-incremental
              search for a string supplied by the user.
       history-search-backward
              Search backward through the history for the string of characters
              between the start of the current line  and  the  current  cursor
              position  (the  point).   The  search  string  must match at the
              beginning of a history line.  This is a non-incremental  search.
       history-search-forward
              Search  forward through the history for the string of characters
              between the start of the current line and the point.  The search
              string must match at the beginning of a history line.  This is a
              non-incremental search.
       history-substring-search-backward
              Search backward through the history for the string of characters
              between  the  start  of  the current line and the current cursor
              position (the point).  The search string may match anywhere in a
              history line.  This is a non-incremental search.
       history-substring-search-forward
              Search  forward through the history for the string of characters
              between the start of the current line and the point.  The search
              string  may  match  anywhere  in a history line.  This is a non-
              incremental search.
       yank-nth-arg (M-C-y)
              Insert the first argument to the previous command  (usually  the
              second word on the previous line) at point.  With an argument n,
              insert the nth word from the previous command (the words in  the
              previous  command  begin  with  word  0).   A  negative argument
              inserts the nth word from the end of the previous command.  Once
              the  argument n is computed, the argument is extracted as if the
              "!n" history expansion had been specified.
       yank-last-arg (M-., M-_)
              Insert the last argument to the previous command (the last  word
              of the previous history entry).  With a numeric argument, behave
              exactly like yank-nth-arg.  Successive  calls  to  yank-last-arg
              move  back through the history list, inserting the last word (or
              the word specified by the argument to the first  call)  of  each
              line in turn.  Any numeric argument supplied to these successive
              calls determines the direction to move through the  history.   A
              negative  argument  switches  the  direction through the history
              (back or forward).  The history expansion facilities are used to
              extract  the last argument, as if the "!$" history expansion had
              been specified.

   Commands for Changing Text
       end-of-file (usually C-d)
              The character indicating end-of-file as  set,  for  example,  by
              ``stty''.   If  this character is read when there are no charac-
              ters on the line, and point is at the  beginning  of  the  line,
              Readline interprets it as the end of input and returns EOF.
       delete-char (C-d)
              Delete the character at point.  If this function is bound to the
              same character as the tty EOF character, as C-d commonly is, see
              above for the effects.
       backward-delete-char (Rubout)
              Delete  the  character  behind the cursor.  When given a numeric
              argument, save the deleted text on the kill ring.
       forward-backward-delete-char
              Delete the character under the cursor, unless the cursor  is  at
              the end of the line, in which case the character behind the cur-
              sor is deleted.
       quoted-insert (C-q, C-v)
              Add the next character that you type to the line verbatim.  This
              is how to insert characters like C-q, for example.
       tab-insert (M-TAB)
              Insert a tab character.
       self-insert (a, b, A, 1, !, ...)
              Insert the character typed.
       transpose-chars (C-t)
              Drag  the  character  before point forward over the character at
              point, moving point forward as well.  If point is at the end  of
              the  line, then this transposes the two characters before point.
              Negative arguments have no effect.
       transpose-words (M-t)
              Drag the word before point past the  word  after  point,  moving
              point  over  that  word  as well.  If point is at the end of the
              line, this transposes the last two words on the line.
       upcase-word (M-u)
              Uppercase the current (or  following)  word.   With  a  negative
              argument, uppercase the previous word, but do not move point.
       downcase-word (M-l)
              Lowercase  the  current  (or  following)  word.  With a negative
              argument, lowercase the previous word, but do not move point.
       capitalize-word (M-c)
              Capitalize the current (or following)  word.   With  a  negative
              argument, capitalize the previous word, but do not move point.
       overwrite-mode
              Toggle  overwrite mode.  With an explicit positive numeric argu-
              ment, switches to overwrite mode.  With an explicit non-positive
              numeric argument, switches to insert mode.  This command affects
              only emacs mode; vi mode does overwrite differently.  Each  call
              to readline() starts in insert mode.  In overwrite mode, charac-
              ters bound to self-insert replace the text at point rather  than
              pushing  the  text  to  the  right.   Characters  bound to back-
              ward-delete-char replace  the  character  before  point  with  a
              space.  By default, this command is unbound.

   Killing and Yanking
       kill-line (C-k)
              Kill the text from point to the end of the line.
       backward-kill-line (C-x Rubout)
              Kill backward to the beginning of the line.
       unix-line-discard (C-u)
              Kill  backward  from  point  to  the beginning of the line.  The
              killed text is saved on the kill-ring.
       kill-whole-line
              Kill all characters on the current line, no matter  where  point
              is.
       kill-word (M-d)
              Kill  from  point  the  end  of  the current word, or if between
              words, to the end of the next word.   Word  boundaries  are  the
              same as those used by forward-word.
       backward-kill-word (M-Rubout)
              Kill  the  word  behind  point.  Word boundaries are the same as
              those used by backward-word.
       unix-word-rubout (C-w)
              Kill the word behind point, using white space as a  word  bound-
              ary.  The killed text is saved on the kill-ring.
       unix-filename-rubout
              Kill  the  word  behind  point,  using white space and the slash
              character as the word boundaries.  The killed text is  saved  on
              the kill-ring.
       delete-horizontal-space (M-\)
              Delete all spaces and tabs around point.
       kill-region
              Kill  the  text  between  the point and mark (saved cursor posi-
              tion).  This text is referred to as the region.
       copy-region-as-kill
              Copy the text in the region to the kill buffer.
       copy-backward-word
              Copy the word before point to the kill buffer.  The word  bound-
              aries are the same as backward-word.
       copy-forward-word
              Copy  the  word  following  point  to the kill buffer.  The word
              boundaries are the same as forward-word.
       yank (C-y)
              Yank the top of the kill ring into the buffer at point.
       yank-pop (M-y)
              Rotate the kill ring, and yank the new top.  Only works  follow-
              ing yank or yank-pop.

   Numeric Arguments
       digit-argument (M-0, M-1, ..., M--)
              Add  this digit to the argument already accumulating, or start a
              new argument.  M-- starts a negative argument.
       universal-argument
              This is another way to specify an argument.  If this command  is
              followed  by one or more digits, optionally with a leading minus
              sign, those digits define the argument.  If the command is  fol-
              lowed  by  digits,  executing  universal-argument again ends the
              numeric argument, but is otherwise ignored.  As a special  case,
              if  this  command is immediately followed by a character that is
              neither a digit or minus sign, the argument count for  the  next
              command  is multiplied by four.  The argument count is initially
              one, so executing this function the first time makes  the  argu-
              ment count four, a second time makes the argument count sixteen,
              and so on.

   Completing
       complete (TAB)
              Attempt to perform completion on the  text  before  point.   The
              actual  completion performed is application-specific.  Bash, for
              instance, attempts completion treating the text  as  a  variable
              (if  the  text begins with $), username (if the text begins with
              ~), hostname (if the text begins with @), or command  (including
              aliases  and  functions)  in  turn.  If none of these produces a
              match, filename completion is  attempted.   Gdb,  on  the  other
              hand,  allows completion of program functions and variables, and
              only attempts filename completion under certain circumstances.
       possible-completions (M-?)
              List the possible completions of the text  before  point.   When
              displaying completions, readline sets the number of columns used
              for display to the value of completion-display-width, the  value
              of  the  environment  variable  COLUMNS, or the screen width, in
              that order.
       insert-completions (M-*)
              Insert all completions of the text before point that would  have
              been generated by possible-completions.
       menu-complete
              Similar  to complete, but replaces the word to be completed with
              a single match from the list of possible completions.   Repeated
              execution  of  menu-complete  steps through the list of possible
              completions, inserting each match in turn.  At the  end  of  the
              list of completions, the bell is rung (subject to the setting of
              bell-style) and the original text is restored.  An argument of n
              moves  n  positions  forward  in the list of matches; a negative
              argument may be used to move backward through  the  list.   This
              command  is  intended  to  be  bound  to  TAB, but is unbound by
              default.
       menu-complete-backward
              Identical to menu-complete, but moves backward through the  list
              of  possible  completions,  as if menu-complete had been given a
              negative argument.  This command is unbound by default.
       delete-char-or-list
              Deletes the character under the cursor if not at  the  beginning
              or  end  of  the  line (like delete-char).  If at the end of the
              line, behaves identically to possible-completions.

   Keyboard Macros
       start-kbd-macro (C-x ()
              Begin saving the characters  typed  into  the  current  keyboard
              macro.
       end-kbd-macro (C-x ))
              Stop saving the characters typed into the current keyboard macro
              and store the definition.
       call-last-kbd-macro (C-x e)
              Re-execute the last keyboard macro defined, by making the  char-
              acters  in  the  macro  appear  as  if  typed  at  the keyboard.
              print-last-kbd-macro () Print the last keyboard macro defined in
              a format suitable for the inputrc file.

   Miscellaneous
       re-read-init-file (C-x C-r)
              Read  in  the  contents of the inputrc file, and incorporate any
              bindings or variable assignments found there.
       abort (C-g)
              Abort the current editing command and ring the  terminal's  bell
              (subject to the setting of bell-style).
       do-uppercase-version (M-a, M-b, M-x, ...)
              If  the  metafied character x is lowercase, run the command that
              is bound to the corresponding uppercase character.
       prefix-meta (ESC)
              Metafy the next character typed.  ESC f is equivalent to Meta-f.
       undo (C-_, C-x C-u)
              Incremental undo, separately remembered for each line.
       revert-line (M-r)
              Undo  all changes made to this line.  This is like executing the
              undo command enough times to return  the  line  to  its  initial
              state.
       tilde-expand (M-&)
              Perform tilde expansion on the current word.
       set-mark (C-@, M-<space>)
              Set  the  mark to the point.  If a numeric argument is supplied,
              the mark is set to that position.
       exchange-point-and-mark (C-x C-x)
              Swap the point with the mark.  The current  cursor  position  is
              set  to the saved position, and the old cursor position is saved
              as the mark.
       character-search (C-])
              A character is read and point is moved to the next occurrence of
              that  character.   A negative count searches for previous occur-
              rences.
       character-search-backward (M-C-])
              A character is read and point is moved to  the  previous  occur-
              rence  of  that character.  A negative count searches for subse-
              quent occurrences.
       skip-csi-sequence
              Read enough characters to consume a multi-key sequence  such  as
              those  defined for keys like Home and End.  Such sequences begin
              with a Control Sequence Indicator (CSI), usually ESC-[.  If this
              sequence  is  bound  to "\[", keys producing such sequences will
              have no effect unless explicitly bound to  a  readline  command,
              instead  of  inserting stray characters into the editing buffer.
              This is unbound by default, but usually bound to ESC-[.
       insert-comment (M-#)
              Without a numeric argument,  the  value  of  the  readline  com-
              ment-begin  variable is inserted at the beginning of the current
              line.  If a numeric argument is supplied, this command acts as a
              toggle:   if  the characters at the beginning of the line do not
              match the value of comment-begin, the value is inserted,  other-
              wise the characters in comment-begin are deleted from the begin-
              ning of the line.  In either case, the line is accepted as if  a
              newline  had  been  typed.   The  default value of comment-begin
              makes the current line a shell comment.  If a  numeric  argument
              causes  the  comment  character  to be removed, the line will be
              executed by the shell.
       dump-functions
              Print all of the functions and their key bindings to  the  read-
              line output stream.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the out-
              put is formatted in such a way that it can be made  part  of  an
              inputrc file.
       dump-variables
              Print  all  of  the  settable  variables and their values to the
              readline output stream.  If a numeric argument is supplied,  the
              output is formatted in such a way that it can be made part of an
              inputrc file.
       dump-macros
              Print all of the readline key sequences bound to macros and  the
              strings  they  output.   If  a numeric argument is supplied, the
              output is formatted in such a way that it can be made part of an
              inputrc file.
       emacs-editing-mode (C-e)
              When  in  vi command mode, this causes a switch to emacs editing
              mode.
       vi-editing-mode (M-C-j)
              When in emacs editing mode, this causes a switch to  vi  editing
              mode.


DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS

       The  following is a list of the default emacs and vi bindings.  Charac-
       ters with the eighth bit set are  written  as  M-<character>,  and  are
       referred to as metafied characters.  The printable ASCII characters not
       mentioned in the list of emacs  standard  bindings  are  bound  to  the
       self-insert  function,  which just inserts the given character into the
       input line.  In vi insertion mode, all characters not specifically men-
       tioned are bound to self-insert.  Characters assigned to signal genera-
       tion by stty(1) or the terminal driver, such as C-Z or C-C, retain that
       function.   Upper  and  lower case metafied characters are bound to the
       same function in the emacs mode meta keymap.  The remaining  characters
       are  unbound,  which  causes  readline to ring the bell (subject to the
       setting of the bell-style variable).

   Emacs Mode
             Emacs Standard bindings

             "C-@"  set-mark
             "C-A"  beginning-of-line
             "C-B"  backward-char
             "C-D"  delete-char
             "C-E"  end-of-line
             "C-F"  forward-char
             "C-G"  abort
             "C-H"  backward-delete-char
             "C-I"  complete
             "C-J"  accept-line
             "C-K"  kill-line
             "C-L"  clear-screen
             "C-M"  accept-line
             "C-N"  next-history
             "C-P"  previous-history
             "C-Q"  quoted-insert
             "C-R"  reverse-search-history
             "C-S"  forward-search-history
             "C-T"  transpose-chars
             "C-U"  unix-line-discard
             "C-V"  quoted-insert
             "C-W"  unix-word-rubout
             "C-Y"  yank
             "C-]"  character-search
             "C-_"  undo
             " " to "/"  self-insert
             "0"  to "9"  self-insert
             ":"  to "~"  self-insert
             "C-?"  backward-delete-char

             Emacs Meta bindings

             "M-C-G"  abort
             "M-C-H"  backward-kill-word
             "M-C-I"  tab-insert
             "M-C-J"  vi-editing-mode
             "M-C-M"  vi-editing-mode
             "M-C-R"  revert-line
             "M-C-Y"  yank-nth-arg
             "M-C-["  complete
             "M-C-]"  character-search-backward
             "M-space"  set-mark
             "M-#"  insert-comment
             "M-&"  tilde-expand
             "M-*"  insert-completions
             "M--"  digit-argument
             "M-."  yank-last-arg
             "M-0"  digit-argument
             "M-1"  digit-argument
             "M-2"  digit-argument
             "M-3"  digit-argument
             "M-4"  digit-argument
             "M-5"  digit-argument
             "M-6"  digit-argument
             "M-7"  digit-argument
             "M-8"  digit-argument
             "M-9"  digit-argument
             "M-<"  beginning-of-history
             "M-="  possible-completions
             "M->"  end-of-history
             "M-?"  possible-completions
             "M-B"  backward-word
             "M-C"  capitalize-word
             "M-D"  kill-word
             "M-F"  forward-word
             "M-L"  downcase-word
             "M-N"  non-incremental-forward-search-history
             "M-P"  non-incremental-reverse-search-history
             "M-R"  revert-line
             "M-T"  transpose-words
             "M-U"  upcase-word
             "M-Y"  yank-pop
             "M-\"  delete-horizontal-space
             "M-~"  tilde-expand
             "M-C-?"  backward-kill-word
             "M-_"  yank-last-arg

             Emacs Control-X bindings

             "C-XC-G"  abort
             "C-XC-R"  re-read-init-file
             "C-XC-U"  undo
             "C-XC-X"  exchange-point-and-mark
             "C-X("  start-kbd-macro
             "C-X)"  end-kbd-macro
             "C-XE"  call-last-kbd-macro
             "C-XC-?"  backward-kill-line


   VI Mode bindings
             VI Insert Mode functions

             "C-D"  vi-eof-maybe
             "C-H"  backward-delete-char
             "C-I"  complete
             "C-J"  accept-line
             "C-M"  accept-line
             "C-R"  reverse-search-history
             "C-S"  forward-search-history
             "C-T"  transpose-chars
             "C-U"  unix-line-discard
             "C-V"  quoted-insert
             "C-W"  unix-word-rubout
             "C-Y"  yank
             "C-["  vi-movement-mode
             "C-_"  undo
             " " to "~"  self-insert
             "C-?"  backward-delete-char

             VI Command Mode functions

             "C-D"  vi-eof-maybe
             "C-E"  emacs-editing-mode
             "C-G"  abort
             "C-H"  backward-char
             "C-J"  accept-line
             "C-K"  kill-line
             "C-L"  clear-screen
             "C-M"  accept-line
             "C-N"  next-history
             "C-P"  previous-history
             "C-Q"  quoted-insert
             "C-R"  reverse-search-history
             "C-S"  forward-search-history
             "C-T"  transpose-chars
             "C-U"  unix-line-discard
             "C-V"  quoted-insert
             "C-W"  unix-word-rubout
             "C-Y"  yank
             "C-_"  vi-undo
             " "  forward-char
             "#"  insert-comment
             "$"  end-of-line
             "%"  vi-match
             "&"  vi-tilde-expand
             "*"  vi-complete
             "+"  next-history
             ","  vi-char-search
             "-"  previous-history
             "."  vi-redo
             "/"  vi-search
             "0"  beginning-of-line
             "1" to "9"  vi-arg-digit
             ";"  vi-char-search
             "="  vi-complete
             "?"  vi-search
             "A"  vi-append-eol
             "B"  vi-prev-word
             "C"  vi-change-to
             "D"  vi-delete-to
             "E"  vi-end-word
             "F"  vi-char-search
             "G"  vi-fetch-history
             "I"  vi-insert-beg
             "N"  vi-search-again
             "P"  vi-put
             "R"  vi-replace
             "S"  vi-subst
             "T"  vi-char-search
             "U"  revert-line
             "W"  vi-next-word
             "X"  backward-delete-char
             "Y"  vi-yank-to
             "\"  vi-complete
             "^"  vi-first-print
             "_"  vi-yank-arg
             "`"  vi-goto-mark
             "a"  vi-append-mode
             "b"  vi-prev-word
             "c"  vi-change-to
             "d"  vi-delete-to
             "e"  vi-end-word
             "f"  vi-char-search
             "h"  backward-char
             "i"  vi-insertion-mode
             "j"  next-history
             "k"  prev-history
             "l"  forward-char
             "m"  vi-set-mark
             "n"  vi-search-again
             "p"  vi-put
             "r"  vi-change-char
             "s"  vi-subst
             "t"  vi-char-search
             "u"  vi-undo
             "w"  vi-next-word
             "x"  vi-delete
             "y"  vi-yank-to
             "|"  vi-column
             "~"  vi-change-case


SEE ALSO

       The Gnu Readline Library, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       The Gnu History Library, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       bash(1)


FILES

       ~/.inputrc
              Individual readline initialization file


AUTHORS

       Brian Fox, Free Software Foundation
       bfox@gnu.org

       Chet Ramey, Case Western Reserve University
       chet.ramey@case.edu


BUG REPORTS

       If you find a bug in readline, you should report it.   But  first,  you
       should  make  sure  that it really is a bug, and that it appears in the
       latest version of the readline library that you have.

       Once you have determined that a bug actually exists, mail a bug  report
       to  bug-readline@gnu.org.   If  you have a fix, you are welcome to mail
       that as well!  Suggestions  and  `philosophical'  bug  reports  may  be
       mailed  to  bug-readline@gnu.org  or  posted  to  the  Usenet newsgroup
       gnu.bash.bug.

       Comments and bug reports concerning this manual page should be directed
       to chet.ramey@case.edu.


BUGS

       It's too big and too slow.



GNU Readline 6.3                2014 January 6                     readline(3)

readline 6.2 - Generated Fri Feb 28 14:51:39 CST 2014
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