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7.4.1 Certificates

Server certificate authentication

When using certificates the server is required to have at least one certificate and private key pair. Clients may not hold such a pair, but a server could require it. In this section we discuss general issues applying to both client and server certificates. The next section will elaborate on issues arising from client authentication only.

After the credentials structures are initialized, the certificate and key pair must be loaded. This occurs before any TLS session is initialized, and the same structures are reused for multiple sessions. Depending on the certificate type different loading functions are available, as shown below. For X.509 certificates, the functions will accept and use a certificate chain that leads to a trusted authority. The certificate chain must be ordered in such way that every certificate certifies the one before it. The trusted authority’s certificate need not to be included since the peer should possess it already.

If multiple certificates are used with the functions above each client’s request will be served with the certificate that matches the requested name (see Server name indication).

As an alternative to loading from files or buffers, a callback may be used for the server or the client to specify the certificate and the key at the handshake time. In that case a certificate should be selected according the peer’s signature algorithm preferences. To get those preferences use gnutls_sign_algorithm_get_requested. Both functions are shown below.

The functions above do not handle the requested server name automatically. A server would need to check the name requested by the client using gnutls_server_name_get, and serve the appropriate certificate.

In a handshake, the negotiated cipher suite depends on the certificate’s parameters, so some key exchange methods might not be available with all certificates. GnuTLS will disable ciphersuites that are not compatible with the key, or the enabled authentication methods. For example keys marked as sign-only, will not be able to access the plain RSA ciphersuites, that require decryption. It is not recommended to use RSA keys for both signing and encryption. If possible use a different key for the DHE-RSA which uses signing and RSA that requires decryption. All the key exchange methods shown in Table 4.1 are available in certificate authentication.

Client certificate authentication

If a certificate is to be requested from the client during the handshake, the server will send a certificate request message. This behavior is controlled gnutls_certificate_server_set_request. The request contains a list of the acceptable by the server certificate signers. This list is constructed using the trusted certificate authorities of the server. In cases where the server supports a large number of certificate authorities it makes sense not to advertise all of the names to save bandwidth. That can be controlled using the function gnutls_certificate_send_x509_rdn_sequence. This however will have the side-effect of not restricting the client to certificates signed by server’s acceptable signers.

Client or server certificate verification

Certificate verification is possible by loading the trusted authorities into the credentials structure by using the following functions, applicable to X.509 and OpenPGP certificates.

The peer’s certificate is not automatically verified and one should call gnutls_certificate_verify_peers2 after a successful handshake to verify the certificate’s signature. Alternative the verification can occur during the handshake by using gnutls_certificate_set_verify_function.

In order to report a detailed verification output, an alternative way has to be used. For that, one should call gnutls_certificate_get_peers to obtain the raw certificate of the peer and verify it using the functions discussed in X.509 certificates.

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