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named(8)                             BIND9                            named(8)


       named - Internet domain name server


       named [-4] [-6] [-c config-file] [-d debug-level] [-E engine-name] [-f]
             [-g] [-m flag] [-n #cpus] [-p port] [-s] [-S #max-socks]
             [-t directory] [-U #listeners] [-u user] [-v] [-V]
             [-x cache-file]


       named is a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part of the BIND 9
       distribution from ISC. For more information on the DNS, see RFCs 1033,
       1034, and 1035.

       When invoked without arguments, named will read the default
       configuration file /etc/named.conf, read any initial data, and listen
       for queries.


           Use IPv4 only even if the host machine is capable of IPv6.  -4 and
           -6 are mutually exclusive.

           Use IPv6 only even if the host machine is capable of IPv4.  -4 and
           -6 are mutually exclusive.

       -c config-file
           Use config-file as the configuration file instead of the default,
           /etc/named.conf. To ensure that reloading the configuration file
           continues to work after the server has changed its working
           directory due to to a possible directory option in the
           configuration file, config-file should be an absolute pathname.

       -d debug-level
           Set the daemon's debug level to debug-level. Debugging traces from
           named become more verbose as the debug level increases.

       -E engine-name
           Use a crypto hardware (OpenSSL engine) for the crypto operations it
           supports, for instance re-signing with private keys from a secure
           key store. When compiled with PKCS#11 support engine-name defaults
           to pkcs11, the empty name resets it to no engine.

           Run the server in the foreground (i.e. do not daemonize).

           Run the server in the foreground and force all logging to stderr.

       -m flag
           Turn on memory usage debugging flags. Possible flags are usage,
           trace, record, size, and mctx. These correspond to the
           ISC_MEM_DEBUGXXXX flags described in <isc/mem.h>.

       -n #cpus
           Create #cpus worker threads to take advantage of multiple CPUs. If
           not specified, named will try to determine the number of CPUs
           present and create one thread per CPU. If it is unable to determine
           the number of CPUs, a single worker thread will be created.

       -p port
           Listen for queries on port port. If not specified, the default is
           port 53.

           Write memory usage statistics to stdout on exit.
                  Note: This option is mainly of interest to BIND 9 developers
                  and may be removed or changed in a future release.

       -S #max-socks
           Allow named to use up to #max-socks sockets.
                  Warning: This option should be unnecessary for the vast
                  majority of users. The use of this option could even be
                  harmful because the specified value may exceed the
                  limitation of the underlying system API. It is therefore set
                  only when the default configuration causes exhaustion of
                  file descriptors and the operational environment is known to
                  support the specified number of sockets. Note also that the
                  actual maximum number is normally a little fewer than the
                  specified value because named reserves some file descriptors
                  for its internal use.

       -t directory
           Chroot to directory after processing the command line arguments,
           but before reading the configuration file.
                  Warning: This option should be used in conjunction with the
                  -u option, as chrooting a process running as root doesn't
                  enhance security on most systems; the way chroot(2) is
                  defined allows a process with root privileges to escape a
                  chroot jail.

       -U #listeners
           Use #listeners worker threads to listen for incoming UDP packets on
           each address. If not specified, named will use the number of
           detected CPUs. If -n has been set to a higher value than the number
           of CPUs, then -U may be increased as high as that value, but no

       -u user
           Setuid to user after completing privileged operations, such as
           creating sockets that listen on privileged ports.
                  Note: On Linux, named uses the kernel's capability mechanism
                  to drop all root privileges except the ability to bind(2) to
                  a privileged port and set process resource limits.
                  Unfortunately, this means that the -u option only works when
                  named is run on kernel 2.2.18 or later, or kernel
                  2.3.99-pre3 or later, since previous kernels did not allow
                  privileges to be retained after setuid(2).

           Report the version number and exit.

           Report the version number and build options, and exit.

       -x cache-file
           Load data from cache-file into the cache of the default view.
                  Warning: This option must not be used. It is only of
                  interest to BIND 9 developers and may be removed or changed
                  in a future release.


       In routine operation, signals should not be used to control the
       nameserver; rndc should be used instead.

           Force a reload of the server.

           Shut down the server.

       The result of sending any other signals to the server is undefined.


       The named configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here.
       A complete description is provided in the BIND 9 Administrator
       Reference Manual.

       named inherits the umask (file creation mode mask) from the parent
       process. If files created by named, such as journal files, need to have
       custom permissions, the umask should be set explicitly in the script
       used to start the named process.


           The default configuration file.

           The default process-id file.


       RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035, named-checkconf(8), named-checkzone(8),
       rndc(8), lwresd(8), named.conf(5), BIND 9 Administrator Reference


       Internet Systems Consortium


       Copyright (C) 2004-2009, 2011, 2013 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc.
       Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2003 Internet Software Consortium.

BIND9                            May 21, 2009                         named(8)

bind 9.9.3 - Generated Sun Jun 2 10:46:00 CDT 2013
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