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dnssec-keygen(8)                     BIND9                    dnssec-keygen(8)


       dnssec-keygen - DNSSEC key generation tool


       dnssec-keygen [-a algorithm] [-b keysize] [-n nametype] [-3]
                     [-A date/offset] [-C] [-c class] [-D date/offset]
                     [-E engine] [-f flag] [-G] [-g generator] [-h]
                     [-I date/offset] [-i interval] [-K directory] [-L ttl]
                     [-k] [-P date/offset] [-p protocol] [-q] [-R date/offset]
                     [-r randomdev] [-S key] [-s strength] [-t type]
                     [-v level] [-z] {name}


       dnssec-keygen generates keys for DNSSEC (Secure DNS), as defined in RFC
       2535 and RFC 4034. It can also generate keys for use with TSIG
       (Transaction Signatures) as defined in RFC 2845, or TKEY (Transaction
       Key) as defined in RFC 2930.

       The name of the key is specified on the command line. For DNSSEC keys,
       this must match the name of the zone for which the key is being


       -a algorithm
           Selects the cryptographic algorithm. For DNSSEC keys, the value of
           algorithm must be one of RSAMD5, RSASHA1, DSA, NSEC3RSASHA1,
           NSEC3DSA, RSASHA256, RSASHA512, ECCGOST, ECDSAP256SHA256 or
           ECDSAP384SHA384. For TSIG/TKEY, the value must be DH (Diffie
           Hellman), HMAC-MD5, HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-SHA224, HMAC-SHA256,
           HMAC-SHA384, or HMAC-SHA512. These values are case insensitive.

           If no algorithm is specified, then RSASHA1 will be used by default,
           unless the -3 option is specified, in which case NSEC3RSASHA1 will
           be used instead. (If -3 is used and an algorithm is specified, that
           algorithm will be checked for compatibility with NSEC3.)

           Note 1: that for DNSSEC, RSASHA1 is a mandatory to implement
           algorithm, and DSA is recommended. For TSIG, HMAC-MD5 is mandatory.

           Note 2: DH, HMAC-MD5, and HMAC-SHA1 through HMAC-SHA512
           automatically set the -T KEY option.

       -b keysize
           Specifies the number of bits in the key. The choice of key size
           depends on the algorithm used. RSA keys must be between 512 and
           2048 bits. Diffie Hellman keys must be between 128 and 4096 bits.
           DSA keys must be between 512 and 1024 bits and an exact multiple of
           64. HMAC keys must be between 1 and 512 bits. Elliptic curve
           algorithms don't need this parameter.

           The key size does not need to be specified if using a default
           algorithm. The default key size is 1024 bits for zone signing keys
           (ZSK's) and 2048 bits for key signing keys (KSK's, generated with
           -f KSK). However, if an algorithm is explicitly specified with the
           -a, then there is no default key size, and the -b must be used.

       -n nametype
           Specifies the owner type of the key. The value of nametype must
           either be ZONE (for a DNSSEC zone key (KEY/DNSKEY)), HOST or ENTITY
           (for a key associated with a host (KEY)), USER (for a key
           associated with a user(KEY)) or OTHER (DNSKEY). These values are
           case insensitive. Defaults to ZONE for DNSKEY generation.

           Use an NSEC3-capable algorithm to generate a DNSSEC key. If this
           option is used and no algorithm is explicitly set on the command
           line, NSEC3RSASHA1 will be used by default. Note that RSASHA256,
           RSASHA512, ECCGOST, ECDSAP256SHA256 and ECDSAP384SHA384 algorithms
           are NSEC3-capable.

           Compatibility mode: generates an old-style key, without any
           metadata. By default, dnssec-keygen will include the key's creation
           date in the metadata stored with the private key, and other dates
           may be set there as well (publication date, activation date, etc).
           Keys that include this data may be incompatible with older versions
           of BIND; the -C option suppresses them.

       -c class
           Indicates that the DNS record containing the key should have the
           specified class. If not specified, class IN is used.

       -E engine
           Uses a crypto hardware (OpenSSL engine) for random number and, when
           supported, key generation. When compiled with PKCS#11 support it
           defaults to pkcs11; the empty name resets it to no engine.

       -f flag
           Set the specified flag in the flag field of the KEY/DNSKEY record.
           The only recognized flags are KSK (Key Signing Key) and REVOKE.

           Generate a key, but do not publish it or sign with it. This option
           is incompatible with -P and -A.

       -g generator
           If generating a Diffie Hellman key, use this generator. Allowed
           values are 2 and 5. If no generator is specified, a known prime
           from RFC 2539 will be used if possible; otherwise the default is 2.

           Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to

       -K directory
           Sets the directory in which the key files are to be written.

           Deprecated in favor of -T KEY.

       -L ttl
           Sets the default TTL to use for this key when it is converted into
           a DNSKEY RR. If the key is imported into a zone, this is the TTL
           that will be used for it, unless there was already a DNSKEY RRset
           in place, in which case the existing TTL would take precedence.
           Setting the default TTL to 0 or none removes it.

       -p protocol
           Sets the protocol value for the generated key. The protocol is a
           number between 0 and 255. The default is 3 (DNSSEC). Other possible
           values for this argument are listed in RFC 2535 and its successors.

           Quiet mode: Suppresses unnecessary output, including progress
           indication. Without this option, when dnssec-keygen is run
           interactively to generate an RSA or DSA key pair, it will print a
           string of symbols to stderr indicating the progress of the key
           generation. A '.' indicates that a random number has been found
           which passed an initial sieve test; '+' means a number has passed a
           single round of the Miller-Rabin primality test; a space means that
           the number has passed all the tests and is a satisfactory key.

       -r randomdev
           Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating system does
           not provide a /dev/random or equivalent device, the default source
           of randomness is keyboard input.  randomdev specifies the name of a
           character device or file containing random data to be used instead
           of the default. The special value keyboard indicates that keyboard
           input should be used.

       -S key
           Create a new key which is an explicit successor to an existing key.
           The name, algorithm, size, and type of the key will be set to match
           the existing key. The activation date of the new key will be set to
           the inactivation date of the existing one. The publication date
           will be set to the activation date minus the prepublication
           interval, which defaults to 30 days.

       -s strength
           Specifies the strength value of the key. The strength is a number
           between 0 and 15, and currently has no defined purpose in DNSSEC.

       -T rrtype
           Specifies the resource record type to use for the key.  rrtype must
           be either DNSKEY or KEY. The default is DNSKEY when using a DNSSEC
           algorithm, but it can be overridden to KEY for use with SIG(0).
           Using any TSIG algorithm (HMAC-* or DH) forces this option to KEY.

       -t type
           Indicates the use of the key.  type must be one of AUTHCONF,
           NOAUTHCONF, NOAUTH, or NOCONF. The default is AUTHCONF. AUTH refers
           to the ability to authenticate data, and CONF the ability to
           encrypt data.

       -v level
           Sets the debugging level.


       Dates can be expressed in the format YYYYMMDD or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS. If the
       argument begins with a '+' or '-', it is interpreted as an offset from
       the present time. For convenience, if such an offset is followed by one
       of the suffixes 'y', 'mo', 'w', 'd', 'h', or 'mi', then the offset is
       computed in years (defined as 365 24-hour days, ignoring leap years),
       months (defined as 30 24-hour days), weeks, days, hours, or minutes,
       respectively. Without a suffix, the offset is computed in seconds.

       -P date/offset
           Sets the date on which a key is to be published to the zone. After
           that date, the key will be included in the zone but will not be
           used to sign it. If not set, and if the -G option has not been
           used, the default is "now".

       -A date/offset
           Sets the date on which the key is to be activated. After that date,
           the key will be included in the zone and used to sign it. If not
           set, and if the -G option has not been used, the default is "now".

       -R date/offset
           Sets the date on which the key is to be revoked. After that date,
           the key will be flagged as revoked. It will be included in the zone
           and will be used to sign it.

       -I date/offset
           Sets the date on which the key is to be retired. After that date,
           the key will still be included in the zone, but it will not be used
           to sign it.

       -D date/offset
           Sets the date on which the key is to be deleted. After that date,
           the key will no longer be included in the zone. (It may remain in
           the key repository, however.)

       -i interval
           Sets the prepublication interval for a key. If set, then the
           publication and activation dates must be separated by at least this
           much time. If the activation date is specified but the publication
           date isn't, then the publication date will default to this much
           time before the activation date; conversely, if the publication
           date is specified but activation date isn't, then activation will
           be set to this much time after publication.

           If the key is being created as an explicit successor to another
           key, then the default prepublication interval is 30 days; otherwise
           it is zero.

           As with date offsets, if the argument is followed by one of the
           suffixes 'y', 'mo', 'w', 'd', 'h', or 'mi', then the interval is
           measured in years, months, weeks, days, hours, or minutes,
           respectively. Without a suffix, the interval is measured in


       When dnssec-keygen completes successfully, it prints a string of the
       form Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii to the standard output. This is an identification
       string for the key it has generated.

       o   nnnn is the key name.

       o   aaa is the numeric representation of the algorithm.

       o   iiiii is the key identifier (or footprint).

       dnssec-keygen creates two files, with names based on the printed
       string.  Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.key contains the public key, and
       Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.private contains the private key.

       The .key file contains a DNS KEY record that can be inserted into a
       zone file (directly or with a $INCLUDE statement).

       The .private file contains algorithm-specific fields. For obvious
       security reasons, this file does not have general read permission.

       Both .key and .private files are generated for symmetric encryption
       algorithms such as HMAC-MD5, even though the public and private key are


       To generate a 768-bit DSA key for the domain, the following
       command would be issued:

       dnssec-keygen -a DSA -b 768 -n ZONE

       The command would print a string of the form:

       In this example, dnssec-keygen creates the files and


       dnssec-signzone(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, RFC 2539,
       RFC 2845, RFC 4034.


       Internet Systems Consortium


       Copyright (C) 2004, 2005, 2007-2012 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc.
       Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Internet Software Consortium.

BIND9                            June 30, 2000                dnssec-keygen(8)

bind 9.9.2 - Generated Wed Oct 10 06:36:08 CDT 2012
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