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groff_ms(7)                                                        groff_ms(7)




NAME

       groff_ms - groff ms macros


SYNOPSIS

       groff -ms [ options... ] [ files... ]
       groff -m ms [ options... ] [ files... ]


DESCRIPTION

       This  manual  page  describes the GNU version of the ms macros, part of
       the groff typesetting system.  The ms macros are mostly compatible with
       the  documented behavior of the 4.3 BSD Unix ms macros (see Differences
       from troff ms below for details).   The  ms  macros  are  suitable  for
       reports, letters, books, and technical documentation.


USAGE

       The  ms  macro package expects files to have a certain amount of struc-
       ture.  The simplest documents can begin with a paragraph macro and con-
       sist of text separated by paragraph macros or even blank lines.  Longer
       documents have a structure as follows:

       Document type
              If you use the RP (report) macro at the beginning of  the  docu-
              ment,  groff  prints the cover page information on its own page;
              otherwise it prints the information on the first page with  your
              document  text  immediately  following.   Other document formats
              found in AT&T troff are specific to AT&T or  Berkeley,  and  are
              not supported in groff ms.

       Format and layout
              By setting number registers, you can change your document's type
              (font and size), margins,  spacing,  headers  and  footers,  and
              footnotes.   See  Document  control  registers  below  for  more
              details.

       Cover page
              A cover page consists of a title, and  optionally  the  author's
              name and institution, an abstract, and the date.  See Cover page
              macros below for more details.

       Body   Following the cover page is your document.  It consists of para-
              graphs, headings, and lists.

       Table of contents
              Longer  documents usually include a table of contents, which you
              can add by placing the TC macro at the end of your document.

   Document control registers
       The following table lists the document control number  registers.   For
       the sake of consistency, set registers related to margins at the begin-
       ning of your document, or just after the RP macro.

       Margin settings

              Reg.          Definition             Effective      Default
              ------------------------------------------------------------
              PO     Page offset (left margin)   next page        1i
              LL     Line length                 next paragraph   6i
              LT     Header/footer length        next paragraph   6i
              HM     Top (header) margin         next page        1i
              FM     Bottom (footer) margin      next page        1i
              ------------------------------------------------------------

       Text settings

               Reg.       Definition        Effective      Default
              -----------------------------------------------------
              PS       Point size         next paragraph   10p
              VS       Line spacing       next paragraph   12p
                       (leading)
              PSINCR   Point size         next heading     1p
                       increment for
                       section headings
                       of increasing
                       importance

              GROWPS   Heading level      next heading     0
                       beyond which
                       PSINCR is
                       ignored
              -----------------------------------------------------

       Paragraph settings

                Reg.        Definition        Effective      Default
              -------------------------------------------------------
              PI         Initial indent     next paragraph   5n
              PD         Space between      next paragraph   0.3v
                         paragraphs
              QI         Quoted paragraph   next paragraph   5n
                         indent
              PORPHANS   Number of ini-     next paragraph   1
                         tial lines to be
                         kept together
              HORPHANS   Number of ini-     next heading     1
                         tial lines to be
                         kept with head-
                         ing
              -------------------------------------------------------

       Footnote settings

              Reg.     Definition        Effective      Default
              ----------------------------------------------------
              FL     Footnote length   next footnote   \n[LL]*5/6
              FI     Footnote indent   next footnote   2n
              FF     Footnote format   next footnote   0
              FPS    Point size        next footnote   \n[PS]-2
              FVS    Vert. spacing     next footnote   \n[FPS]+2
              FPD    Para. spacing     next footnote   \n[PD]/2
              ----------------------------------------------------

       Other settings

              Reg.               Definition              Effective    Default
              ----------------------------------------------------------------
              DD      Display, table, eqn, pic spacing   next para.   0.5v
              MINGW   Minimum width between columns      next page    2n
              ----------------------------------------------------------------

   Cover page macros
       Use  the  following  macros to create a cover page for your document in
       the order shown.

       .RP [no]
              Specifies the report format for your document.  The report  for-
              mat  creates  a  separate  cover  page.  With no RP macro, groff
              prints a subset of the cover page on page 1 of your document.

              If you use the optional no argument, groff prints a  title  page
              but  does  not  repeat any of the title page information (title,
              author, abstract, etc.) on page 1 of the document.

       .P1    (P-one) Prints the header on page 1.  The default is to suppress
              the header.

       .DA [xxx]
              (optional) Print the current date, or the arguments to the macro
              if any, on the title page (if specified)  and  in  the  footers.
              This is the default for nroff.

       .ND [xxx]
              (optional) Print the current date, or the arguments to the macro
              if any, on the title page (if specified) but not in the footers.
              This is the default for troff.

       .TL    Specifies the document title.  Groff collects text following the
              TL macro into the title,  until  reaching  the  author  name  or
              abstract.

       .AU    Specifies  the  author's name.  You can specify multiple authors
              by using an AU macro for each author.

       .AI    Specifies the author's institution.  You  can  specify  multiple
              institutions.

       .AB [no]
              Begins the abstract.  The default is to print the word ABSTRACT,
              centered and in italics, above the text of  the  abstract.   The
              option no suppresses this heading.

       .AE    End the abstract.

   Paragraphs
       Use  the  PP  macro  to create indented paragraphs, and the LP macro to
       create paragraphs with no initial indent.

       The QP macro indents all text at both  left  and  right  margins.   The
       effect  is  identical  to  the  HTML <BLOCKQUOTE> The next paragraph or
       heading returns margins to normal.

       The XP macro produces an exdented paragraph.  The  first  line  of  the
       paragraph  begins at the left margin, and subsequent lines are indented
       (the opposite of PP).

       For each of the above paragraph types, and  also  for  any  list  entry
       introduced by the IP macro (described later), the document control reg-
       ister PORPHANS, sets the minimum number of lines which must be printed,
       after the start of the paragraph, and before any page break occurs.  If
       there is insufficient space remaining on the current page  to  accommo-
       date this number of lines, then a page break is forced before the first
       line of the paragraph is printed.

       Similarly, when a section heading (see subsection Headings below)  pre-
       cedes  any of these paragraph types, the HORPHANS document control reg-
       ister specifies the minimum number of lines of the paragraph which must
       be kept on the same page as the heading.  If insufficient space remains
       on the current page to accommodate the heading and this number of lines
       of  paragraph  text,  then a page break is forced before the heading is
       printed.

   Headings
       Use headings to create a hierarchical structure for your document.   By
       default,  the ms macros print headings in bold using the same font fam-
       ily and point size as the body text.  For output devices which  support
       scalable  fonts,  this behaviour may be modified, by defining the docu-
       ment control registers, GROWPS and PSINCR.

       The following heading macros are available:

       .NH xx Numbered heading.  The argument xx is either a numeric  argument
              to  indicate  the level of the heading, or S xx xx "..."  to set
              the section number explicitly.  If you  specify  heading  levels
              out  of  sequence,  such  as  invoking  .NH 3 after .NH 1, groff
              prints a warning on standard error.

              If the GROWPS register is set to a value greater than the  level
              of  the  heading,  then  the  point  size of the heading will be
              increased by PSINCR units over the text size specified by the PS
              register, for each level by which the heading level is less than
              the value of GROWPS.  For example, the sequence:

                     .nr PS 10
                     .nr GROWPS 3
                     .nr PSINCR 1.5p
                     .
                     .NH 1
                     Top Level Heading
                     .
                     .NH 2
                     Second Level Heading
                     .
                     .NH 3
                     Third Level Heading

              will cause "1. Top Level Heading" to be  printed  in  13pt  bold
              text,  followed  by  "1.1. Second Level Heading"  in 11.5pt bold
              text, while "1.1.1. Third Level Heading", and  all  more  deeply
              nested  heading  levels, will remain in the 10pt bold text which
              is specified by the PS register.

              Note that the value stored in PSINCR  is  interpreted  in  groff
              basic  units;  the  p  scaling  factor  should be employed, when
              assigning a value specified in points.

              The style used to represent the section number,  within  a  num-
              bered heading, is controlled by the SN-STYLE string; this may be
              set to either the SN-DOT  or  the  SN-NO-DOT  style,  (described
              below),  by aliasing SN-STYLE accordingly.  By default, SN-STYLE
              is initialised by defining the alias

                     .als SN-STYLE SN-DOT

              it may be changed to  the  SN-NO-DOT  style,  if  preferred,  by
              defining the alternative alias

                     .als SN-STYLE SN-NO-DOT

              Any  such  change  becomes  effective with the first use of .NH,
              after the new alias is defined.

              After invoking .NH, the assigned heading number is available  in
              the  strings  SN-DOT  (as  it  appears in the default formatting
              style for numbered headings, with a terminating period following
              the  number),  and SN-NO-DOT (with this terminating period omit-
              ted).  The string SN is also defined, as an alias for SN-DOT; if
              preferred,  the  user may redefine it as an alias for SN-NO-DOT,
              by including the initialisation:

                     .als SN SN-NO-DOT

              at any time; the change becomes effective with the next  use  of
              .NH, after the new alias is defined.

       .SH [xx]
              Unnumbered subheading.  The use of the optional xx argument is a
              GNU extension, which adjusts the point size  of  the  unnumbered
              subheading to match that of a numbered heading, introduced using
              .NH xx with the same value of xx.  For example, given  the  same
              settings for PS, GROWPS and PSINCR, as used in the preceding .NH
              example, the sequence:

                     .SH 2
                     An Unnumbered Subheading

              will print "An Unnumbered Subheading" in 11.5pt bold text.

   Highlighting
       The ms macros provide a variety of methods to  highlight  or  emphasize
       text:

       .B [txt [post [pre]]]
              Sets  its  first argument in bold type.  If you specify a second
              argument, groff prints it in the previous font  after  the  bold
              text, with no intervening space (this allows you to set punctua-
              tion after the highlighted text without highlighting the punctu-
              ation).  Similarly, it prints the third argument (if any) in the
              previous font before the first argument.  For example,

                     .B foo ) (

              prints (foo).

              If you give this macro no arguments, groff prints all text  fol-
              lowing  in bold until the next highlighting, paragraph, or head-
              ing macro.

       .R [txt [post [pre]]]
              Sets its first argument in roman (or regular) type.  It operates
              similarly to the B macro otherwise.

       .I [txt [post [pre]]]
              Sets  its  first argument in italic type.  It operates similarly
              to the B macro otherwise.

       .CW [txt [post [pre]]]
              Sets its first argument in a constant width face.   It  operates
              similarly to the B macro otherwise.

       .BI [txt [post [pre]]]
              Sets  its first argument in bold italic type.  It operates simi-
              larly to the B macro otherwise.

       .BX [txt]
              Prints its argument and draws a box around it.  If you  want  to
              box a string that contains spaces, use a digit-width space (\0).

       .UL [txt [post]]
              Prints its first argument with an underline.  If you  specify  a
              second  argument, groff prints it in the previous font after the
              underlined text, with no intervening space.

       .LG    Prints all text following in larger type (2 points  larger  than
              the  current point size) until the next font size, highlighting,
              paragraph, or heading macro.  You can specify this macro  multi-
              ple times to enlarge the point size as needed.

       .SM    Prints all text following in smaller type (2 points smaller than
              the current point size) until the next type size,  highlighting,
              paragraph,  or heading macro.  You can specify this macro multi-
              ple times to reduce the point size as needed.

       .NL    Prints all text following in the normal point size (that is, the
              value of the PS register).

       \*{text\*}
              Print the enclosed text as a superscript.

   Indents
       You  may need to indent sections of text.  A typical use for indents is
       to create nested lists and sublists.

       Use the RS and RE macros to start and end a section of  indented  text,
       respectively.  The PI register controls the amount of indent.

       You  can  nest indented sections as deeply as needed by using multiple,
       nested pairs of RS and RE.

   Lists
       The IP macro handles duties for all lists.  Its syntax is as follows:

       .IP [marker [width]]

              The marker is usually a  bullet  character  \(bu  for  unordered
              lists,  a number (or auto-incrementing number register) for num-
              bered lists, or a word or phrase for  indented  (glossary-style)
              lists.

              The  width  specifies the indent for the body of each list item.
              Once specified, the indent remains the same for all  list  items
              in the document until specified again.

   Tab stops
       Use  the  ta  request  to set tab stops as needed.  Use the TA macro to
       reset tabs to the default (every 5n).  You can redefine the TA macro to
       create a different set of default tab stops.

   Displays and keeps
       Use displays to show text-based examples or figures (such as code list-
       ings).  Displays turn off filling, so lines of code  can  be  displayed
       as-is without inserting br requests in between each line.  Displays can
       be kept on a single page, or allowed to break across pages.   The  fol-
       lowing table shows the display types available.


       Use  the  DE  macro to end any display type.  The macros Ds and De were
       formerly provided as aliases for DS and DE, respectively, but they have
       been  removed, and should no longer be used.  X11 documents which actu-
       ally use Ds and De always load a specific macro file from the X11  dis-
       tribution  (macros.t)  which  provides  proper  definitions for the two
       macros.

       To keep text together on a page, such as a paragraph that refers  to  a
       table (or list, or other item) immediately following, use the KS and KE
       macros.  The KS macro begins a block of text to be  kept  on  a  single
       page, and the KE macro ends the block.

       You  can  specify  a  floating keep using the KF and KE macros.  If the
       keep cannot fit on the current page, groff holds the  contents  of  the
       keep and allows text following the keep (in the source file) to fill in
       the remainder of the current page.  When the page breaks, whether by an
       explicit  bp  request  or by reaching the end of the page, groff prints
       the floating keep at the top of the  new  page.   This  is  useful  for
       printing  large  graphics  or tables that do not need to appear exactly
       where specified.

       The macros B1 and B2 can be used to enclose a text within  a  box;  .B1
       begins  the  box,  and  .B2  ends it.  Text in the box is automatically
       placed in a diversion (keep).

   Tables, figures, equations, and references
       The -ms macros support the standard groff preprocessors: tbl, pic, eqn,
       and  refer.  Mark text meant for preprocessors by enclosing it in pairs
       of tags as follows:

       .TS [H] and .TE
              Denotes a table, to be processed by the tbl  preprocessor.   The
              optional  H  argument instructs groff to create a running header
              with the information up to  the  TH  macro.   Groff  prints  the
              header  at  the  beginning  of the table; if the table runs onto
              another page, groff prints the header on the next page as  well.

       .PS and .PE
              Denotes a graphic, to be processed by the pic preprocessor.  You
              can create a pic file by hand, using the AT&T pic manual  avail-
              able  on  the Web as a reference, or by using a graphics program
              such as xfig.

       .EQ [align] and .EN
              Denotes an equation, to be processed by  the  eqn  preprocessor.
              The  optional  align  argument  can be C, L, or I to center (the
              default), left-justify, or indent the equation.

       .[ and .]
              Denotes a reference, to be processed by the refer  preprocessor.
              The  GNU refer(1) manual page provides a comprehensive reference
              to the preprocessor and the format of  the  bibliographic  data-
              base.

   Footnotes
       The  ms  macros  provide a flexible footnote system.  You can specify a
       numbered footnote by using the \** escape, followed by the text of  the
       footnote enclosed by FS and FE macros.

       You  can specify symbolic footnotes by placing the mark character (such
       as \(dg for the dagger character) in the body  text,  followed  by  the
       text of the footnote enclosed by FS \(dg and FE macros.

       You can control how groff prints footnote numbers by changing the value
       of the FF register as follows:

              0      Prints the footnote number as a superscript; indents  the
                     footnote (default).

              1      Prints  the  number  followed  by  a period (like 1.) and
                     indents the footnote.

              2      Like 1, without an indent.

              3      Like 1, but prints the footnote number as a hanging para-
                     graph.

       You can use footnotes safely within keeps and displays, but avoid using
       numbered footnotes within floating keeps.  You can  set  a  second  \**
       between  a  \**  and  its corresponding .FS; as long as each .FS occurs
       after the corresponding \** and the occurrences of .FS are in the  same
       order as the corresponding occurrences of \**.

   Headers and footers
       There are three ways to define headers and footers:

       o  Use  the  strings  LH, CH, and RH to set the left, center, and right
          headers; use LF, CF, and RF to set the left, center, and right foot-
          ers.   This works best for documents that do not distinguish between
          odd and even pages.

       o  Use the OH and EH macros to define headers  for  the  odd  and  even
          pages;  and  OF and EF macros to define footers for the odd and even
          pages.  This is more flexible than defining the individual  strings.
          The syntax for these macros is as follows:

                 .OH 'left'center'right'

          You can replace the quote (') marks with any character not appearing
          in the header or footer text.

       You can also redefine the PT and BT macros to change  the  behavior  of
       the header and footer, respectively.  The header process also calls the
       (undefined) HD macro after PT ; you can define this macro if  you  need
       additional processing after printing the header (for example, to draw a
       line below the header).

   Margins
       You control margins using a set of number registers.  The following ta-
       ble lists the register names and defaults:

              Reg.          Definition             Effective      Default
              ------------------------------------------------------------
              PO     Page offset (left margin)   next page        1i
              LL     Line length                 next paragraph   6i
              LT     Header/footer length        next paragraph   6i
              HM     Top (header) margin         next page        1i
              FM     Bottom (footer) margin      next page        1i
              ------------------------------------------------------------

       Note  that  there  is no right margin setting.  The combination of page
       offset and line length provide the information necessary to derive  the
       right margin.

   Multiple columns
       The ms macros can set text in as many columns as will reasonably fit on
       the page.  The following macros are available.  All  of  them  force  a
       page break if a multi-column mode is already set.  However, if the cur-
       rent mode is single-column, starting a multi-column mode does not force
       a page break.

       .1C    Single-column mode.

       .2C    Two-column mode.

       .MC [width [gutter]]
              Multi-column  mode.   If you specify no arguments, it is equiva-
              lent to the 2C macro.  Otherwise, width is  the  width  of  each
              column  and gutter is the space between columns.  The MINGW num-
              ber register is the default gutter width.

   Creating a table of contents
       Wrap text that you want to appear in the table of contents in XS and XE
       macros.   Use the TC macro to print the table of contents at the end of
       the document, resetting the page number to i (Roman numeral 1).

       You can manually create a table of contents by specifying a page number
       as  the  first  argument  to  XS.   Add subsequent entries using the XA
       macro.  For example:

              .XS 1
              Introduction
              .XA 2
              A Brief History of the Universe
              .XA 729
              Details of Galactic Formation
              ...
              .XE

       Use the PX macro to print a manually-generated table of contents  with-
       out resetting the page number.

       If you give the argument no to either PX or TC, groff suppresses print-
       ing the title specified by the \*[TOC] string.

   Fractional point sizes
       Traditionally, the ms macros only support integer values for the  docu-
       ment's  font  size and vertical spacing.  To overcome this restriction,
       values larger than or equal to 1000 are  taken  as  fractional  values,
       multiplied  by 1000.  For example, `.nr PS 10250' sets the font size to
       10.25 points.

       The following four registers accept fractional  point  sizes:  PS,  VS,
       FPS, and FVS.

       Due  to  backwards  compatibility, the value of VS must be smaller than
       40000 (this is 40.0 points).


DIFFERENCES FROM troff ms

       The groff ms macros are a complete re-implementation, using no original
       AT&T  code.   Since  they  take  advantage  of the extended features in
       groff, they cannot be used with AT&T troff.  Other differences include:

       o  The  internals  of  groff  ms  differ from the internals of Unix ms.
          Documents that depend upon implementation details of Unix ms may not
          format properly with groff ms.

       o  The  error-handling  policy  of  groff  ms  is  to detect and report
          errors, rather than silently to ignore them.

       o  Some Bell Labs localisms are not implemented by  default.   However,
          if  you call the otherwise undocumented SC section-header macro, you
          will enable implementations of three other archaic Bell Labs macros:
          UC,  P1,  and P2.  These are not enabled by default because (a) they
          were not documented, in the original ms manual, and (b) the  P1  and
          UC macros both collide with different macros in the Berkeley version
          of ms.

          These emulations are sufficient to give back the  1976  Kernighan  &
          Cherry  paper  Typesetting  Mathematics  -  User's Guide its section
          headings, and restore some text that had gone missing  as  arguments
          of  undefined macros.  No warranty express or implied is given as to
          how well the typographic details these produce  match  the  original
          Bell Labs macros.

       o  Berkeley  localisms,  in  particular  the  TM and CT macros, are not
          implemented.

       o  Groff ms does not work in compatibility  mode  (e.g.,  with  the  -C
          option).

       o  There is no support for typewriter-like devices.

       o  Groff ms does not provide cut marks.

       o  Multiple  line spacing is not supported (use a larger vertical spac-
          ing instead).

       o  Some Unix ms documentation says that the CW and GW number  registers
          can  be  used  to control the column width and gutter width, respec-
          tively.  These number registers are not used in groff ms.

       o  Macros that cause a reset (paragraphs, headings,  etc.)  may  change
          the  indent.   Macros  that  change  the  indent do not increment or
          decrement the indent, but rather set it absolutely.  This can  cause
          problems  for  documents that define additional macros of their own.
          The solution is to use not the in request but instead the RS and  RE
          macros.

       o  The  number  register  GS is set to 1 by the groff ms macros, but is
          not used by the Unix ms macros.  Documents that  need  to  determine
          whether they are being formatted with Unix ms or groff ms should use
          this number register.

       o  To make groff ms use the default page offset (which  also  specifies
          the  left  margin), the PO number register must stay undefined until
          the first ms macro is evaluated.  This implies that PO should not be
          used early in the document, unless it is changed also: Remember that
          accessing an undefined register automatically defines it.

   Strings
       You can redefine the following strings to adapt the groff ms macros  to
       languages other than English:

                             String       Default Value
                           -------------------------------
                           REFERENCES   References
                           ABSTRACT     ABSTRACT
                           TOC          Table of Contents
                           MONTH1       January
                           MONTH2       February
                           MONTH3       March
                           MONTH4       April
                           MONTH5       May
                           MONTH6       June
                           MONTH7       July
                           MONTH8       August
                           MONTH9       September
                           MONTH10      October
                           MONTH11      November
                           MONTH12      December
                           -------------------------------

       The \*- string produces an em dash -- like this.

       Use  \*Q  and  \*U to get a left and right typographer's quote, respec-
       tively, in troff (and plain quotes in nroff).

   Text Settings
       The FAM string sets the default font family.  If this string  is  unde-
       fined at initialization, it is set to Times.

       The point size, vertical spacing, and inter-paragraph spacing for foot-
       notes are controlled by the number registers FPS, FVS, and FPD; at ini-
       tialization  these  are set to \n(PS-2, \n[FPS]+2, and \n(PD/2, respec-
       tively.  If any of these registers are defined  before  initialization,
       the initialization macro does not change them.

       The  hyphenation  flags  (as set by the hy request) are set from the HY
       register; the default is 14.

       Improved accent marks (as originally defined in Berkeley's ms  version)
       are available by specifying the AM macro at the beginning of your docu-
       ment.  You can place an accent over most characters by  specifying  the
       string  defining the accent directly after the character.  For example,
       n\*~ produces an n with a tilde over it.


NAMING CONVENTIONS

       The following conventions are used for names  of  macros,  strings  and
       number  registers.   External names available to documents that use the
       groff ms macros contain only uppercase letters and digits.

       Internally the macros are divided into modules; naming conventions  are
       as follows:

       o  Names used only within one module are of the form module*name.

       o  Names  used  outside the module in which they are defined are of the
          form module@name.

       o  Names associated with a  particular  environment  are  of  the  form
          environment:name; these are used only within the par module.

       o  name does not have a module prefix.

       o  Constructed   names  used  to  implement  arrays  are  of  the  form
          array!index.

       Thus the groff ms macros reserve the following names:

       o  Names containing the characters *, @, and :.

       o  Names containing only uppercase letters and digits.


FILES

       /opt/local/share/groff/1.22.3/tmac/ms.tmac (a wrapper file for s.tmac)
       /opt/local/share/groff/1.22.3/tmac/s.tmac


SEE ALSO

       groff(1), troff(1), tbl(1), pic(1), eqn(1), refer(1), Groff: The GNU
       Implementation of troff by Trent Fisher and Werner Lemberg.


COPYING

       Copyright (C) 1989-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
       manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
       manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the
       entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a per-
       mission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this man-
       ual into another language, under the above conditions for modified ver-
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       tions approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the origi-
       nal English.


AUTHORS

       Original manual page by James Clark et al, rewritten by Larry Kollar



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