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groff_mom(7)                                                      groff_mom(7)




NAME

       groff_mom  -  groff  `mom'  macros, `mom' is a `roff' language, part of
       `groff'


SYNOPSIS

       [groff options] files ... files ... files ...


CALLING MOM

       mom is a macro set for groff, designed primarily  to  format  documents
       for PDF and PostScript output.

       mom  provides  two  categories  of  macros: macros for typesetting, and
       macros for document processing.  The typesetting macros provide  access
       to  groff's typesetting capabilities in ways that are simpler to master
       than groff's primitives.  The document processing macros provide highly
       customizable  markup tags that allow the user to design and output pro-
       fessional-looking documents with a minimum of typesetting intervention.

       Files processed with pdfmom(1) with or without the -Tps option, produce
       PDF documents.  The documents include a PDF outline that appears in the
       `Contents'  panel of document viewers, and may contain clickable inter-
       nal and external links.

       When -Tps is absent, groff's native PDF driver, gropdf, is used to gen-
       erate  the output.  When given, the output is still PDF, but processing
       is passed over to pdfroff, which uses groff's PostScript driver, grops.
       Not  all PDF features are available when -Tps is given; its primary use
       is to allow processing of files with embedded PostScript images.

       Files processed with groff -mom (or -m mom) produce  PostScript  output
       by default.

       mom  comes  with her own very complete documentation in HTML format.  A
       separate PDF manual, Producing PDFs with groff and mom, covers full mom
       or PDF usage.


FILES

       om.tmac
              - the main macro file
       mom.tmac
              - a wrapper file that calls om.tmac directly.

       /opt/local/share/doc/groff-1.22.3/html/mom/toc.html
              - entry point to the HTML documentation

       /opt/local/share/doc/groff-1.22.3/pdf/mom-pdf.pdf
              - the PDF manual, Producing PDFs with groff and mom

       /opt/local/share/doc/groff-1.22.3/examples/mom/*.mom
              - example files using mom


DOCUMENTATION IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER

       This part of the man-page contains information just as in groff(7), mom
       macros and mom escape sequences in alphabetical order.

       The logical order of mom macros and mom escape sequences is  very  well
       documented in

       /opt/local/share/doc/groff-1.22.3/html/mom/toc.html
              - entry point to the HTML documentation

       That  document  is  quite good for beginners, but other users should be
       happy to have some documentation in reference style.

       So we restrict this part to the alphabetical order of macros and escape
       sequences.   But,  so  far,  we took all documentation details from the
       toc.html file, just in a more useful alphabetical order.  So this  part
       of the man-page is nothing new, but only a logical arrangement.


QUICK REFERENCE

   Quick Reference of Inline Escape Sequences in alphabetical Order
       \*[<colorname>]
              begin using an initialized colour inline

       \*[BCK n]
              move backwards in a line

       \*[BOLDER]
              invoke pseudo bold inline (related to macro .SETBOLDER)

       \*[BOLDERX]
              off pseudo bold inline (related to macro .SETBOLDER)

       \*[BU n]
              move  characters  pairs closer together inline (related to macro
              .KERN)

       \*[COND]
              invoke pseudo condensing inline (related to macro .CONDENSE)

       \*[CONDX]
              off pseudo condensing inline (related to macro .CONDENSE)

       \*[CONDSUP]...\*[CONDSUPX]
              pseudo-condensed superscript

       \*[DOWN n]
              temporarily move downwards in a line

       \*[EN-MARK]
              mark initial line of a range of line numbers (for use with  line
              numbered endnotes)

       \*[EXT]
              invoke pseudo extending inline (related to macro .EXTEND)

       \*[EXTX]
              off pseudo condensing inline (related to macro .EXTEND)

       \*[EXTSUP]...\*[EXTSUPX]
              pseudo extended superscript

       \*[FU n]
              move  characters  pairs  further  apart inline (related to macro
              .KERN)

       \*[FWD n]
              move forward in a line

       \*[LEADER]
              insert leaders at the end of a line

       \*[RULE]
              draw a full measure rule

       \*[SIZE n]
              change the point size inline (related to macro .PT_SIZE)

       \*[SLANT]
              invoke pseudo italic inline (related to macro .SETSLANT)

       \*[SLANTX]
              off pseudo italic inline (related to macro .SETSLANT)

       \*[ST<n>]...\*[ST<n>X]
              string tabs (mark tab positions inline)

       \*[SUP]...\*[SUPX]
              superscript

       \*[TB+]
              inline escape for .TN (Tab Next)

       \*[UL]...\*[ULX]
              invoke underlining inline (fixed width fonts only)

       \*[UP n]
              temporarily move upwards in a line

   Quick Reference of Macros in alphabetical Order
       .AUTOLEAD
              set the linespacing relative to the point size

       .B_MARGIN
              set a bottom margin

       .BR    break a justified line

       .CENTER
              set line-by-line quad centre

       .CONDENSE
              set the amount to pseudo condense

       .EL    break a line without advancing on the page

       .EXTEND
              set the amount to pseudo extend

       .FALLBACK_FONT
              establish a fallback font (for missing fonts)

       .FAM   alias to .FAMILY

       .FAMILY <family>
              set the family type

       .FT    set the font style (roman, italic, etc.)

       .HI [ <measure> ]
              hanging indent

       .HY    automatic hyphenation on/off

       .HY_SET
              set automatic hyphenation parameters

       .IB [ <left measure> <right measure> ]
              indent both

       .IBX [ CLEAR ]
              exit indent both

       .IL [ <measure> ]
              indent left

       .ILX [ CLEAR ]
              exit indent left

       .IQ [ CLEAR ]
              quit any/all indents

       .IR [ <measure> ]
              indent right

       .IRX [ CLEAR ]
              exit indent right

       .JUSTIFY
              justify text to both margins

       .KERN  automatic character pair kerning on/off

       .L_MARGIN
              set a left margin (page offset)

       .LEFT  set line-by-line quad left

       .LL    set a line length

       .LS    set a linespacing (leading)

       .PAGE  set explicit page dimensions and margins

       .PAGEWIDTH
              set a custom page width

       .PAGELENGTH
              set a custom page length

       .PAPER <paper_type>
              set common paper sizes (letter, A4, etc)

       .PT_SIZE
              set the point size

       .QUAD  "justify" text left, centre, or right

       .R_MARGIN
              set a right margin

       .RIGHT set line-by-line quad right

       .SETBOLDER
              set the amount of emboldening

       .SETSLANT
              set the degree of slant

       .SPREAD
              force justify a line

       .SS    set the sentence space size

       .T_MARGIN
              set a top margin

       .TI [ <measure> ]
              temporary left indent

       .WS    set the minimum word space size


DOCUMENTATION OF DETAILS

   Details of Inline Escape Sequences in alphabetical Order
       \*[<colorname>]
              begin using an initialized colour inline

       \*[BCK n]
              move wards in a line

       \*[BOLDER]
       \*[BOLDERX]
              Emboldening on/off

              \*[BOLDER] begins emboldening type.  \*[BOLDERX] turns the  fea-
              ture  off.   Both  are inline escapes, therefore they should not
              appear as separate lines, but rather be embedded in text  lines,
              like this:
                     Not \*[BOLDER]everything\*[BOLDERX] is as it seems.

              Alternatively,  if  you  wanted  the  whole line emboldened, you
              should do
                     \*[BOLDER]Not everything is as it seems.\*[BOLDERX]
              Once \*[BOLDER] is invoked, it remains in  effect  until  turned
              off.

              Note:  If  you're  using  the  document  processing  macros with
              .PRINTSTYLE TYPEWRITE, mom ignores \*[BOLDER] requests.

       \*[BU n]
              move characters pairs closer together inline (related  to  macro
              .KERN)

       \*[COND]
       \*[CONDX]
              Pseudo-condensing on/off

              \*[COND]  begins  pseudo-condensing  type.   \*[CONDX] turns the
              feature off.  Both are inline escapes, therefore they should not
              appear  as separate lines, but rather be embedded in text lines,
              like this:
                     \*[COND]Not everything is as it seems.\*[CONDX]
              \*[COND] remains in effect until you turn it off with \*[CONDX].

              IMPORTANT:  You must turn \*[COND] off before making any changes
              to the point size of your type, either via the .PT_SIZE macro or
              with the \s inline escape.  If you wish the new point size to be
              pseudo-condensed, simply reinvoke \*[COND] afterwards.  Equally,
              \*[COND]  must  be  turned off before changing the condense per-
              centage with .CONDENSE.

              Note: If  you're  using  the  document  processing  macros  with
              .PRINTSTYLE TYPEWRITE, mom ignores \*[COND] requests.

       \*[CONDSUP]...\*[CONDSUPX]
              pseudo-condensed superscript

       \*[DOWN n]
              temporarily move downwards in a line

       \*[EN-MARK]
              mark  initial line of a range of line numbers (for use with line
              numbered endnotes)

       \*[EXT]
       \*[EXTX]
              Pseudo-extending on/off

              \*[EXT] begins pseudo-extending type.  \*[EXTX] turns  the  fea-
              ture  off.   Both  are inline escapes, therefore they should not
              appear as separate lines, but rather be embedded in text  lines,
              like this:
                     \*[EXT]Not everything is as it seems.\*[EXTX]
              \*[EXT] remains in effect until you turn it off with \*[EXTX].

              IMPORTANT:  You  must turn \*[EXT] off before making any changes
              to the point size of your type, either via the .PT_SIZE macro or
              with the \s inline escape.  If you wish the new point size to be
              pseudo-extended, simply reinvoke \*[EXT]  afterwards.   Equally,
              \*[EXT] must be turned off before changing the extend percentage
              with .EXTEND.

              Note: If you are  using  the  document  processing  macros  with
              .PRINTSTYLE TYPEWRITE, mom ignores \*[EXT] requests.

       \*[EXTSUP]...\*[EXTSUPX]
              pseudo extended superscript

       \*[FU n]
              move  characters  pairs  further  apart inline (related to macro
              .KERN)

       \*[FWD n]
              move forward in a line

       \*[LEADER]
              insert leaders at the end of a line

       \*[RULE]
              draw a full measure rule

       \*[SIZE n]
              change the point size inline (related to macro .PT_SIZE)

       \*[SLANT]
       \*[SLANTX]
              Pseudo italic on/off

              \*[SLANT] begins pseudo-italicizing type.  \*[SLANTX] turns  the
              feature off.  Both are inline escapes, therefore they should not
              appear as separate lines, but rather be embedded in text  lines,
              like this:
                     Not \*[SLANT]everything\*[SLANTX] is as it seems.

              Alternatively,  if  you wanted the whole line pseudo-italicized,
              you'd do
                     \*[SLANT]Not everything is as it seems.\*[SLANTX]

              Once \*[SLANT] is invoked, it remains  in  effect  until  turned
              off.

              Note:  If  you're  using  the  document  processing  macros with
              .PRINTSTYLE TYPEWRITE, mom underlines pseudo-italics by default.
              To    change    this    behaviour,   use   the   special   macro
              .SLANT_MEANS_SLANT.

       \*[ST<number>]...\*[ST<number>X]
              Mark positions of string tabs

              The quad direction must  be  LEFT  or  JUSTIFY  (see  .QUAD  and
              .JUSTIFY) or the no-fill mode set to LEFT in order for these in-
              lines to function properly.  Please see IMPORTANT, below.

              String tabs need to be marked off with inline escapes before be-
              ing  set  up  with  the  .ST  macro.  Any input line may contain
              string tab markers.  <number>, above, means the numeric  identi-
              fier of the tab.

              The following shows a sample input line with string tab markers.
                     \*[ST1]Now  is  the  time\*[ST1X]  for  all   \*[ST2]good
                     men\*ST2X] to come to the aid of the party.

              String  tab 1 begins at the start of the line and ends after the
              word time.  String tab 2 starts at good and ends after men.  In-
              line  escapes  (e.g.   font or point size changes, or horizontal
              movements, including padding) are taken into  account  when  mom
              determines the position and length of string tabs.

              Up to nineteen string tabs may be marked (not necessarily all on
              the same line, of course), and they must be numbered  between  1
              and 19.

              Once  string  tabs have been marked in input lines, they have to
              be set with .ST, after which they may be called, by number, with
              .TAB.

              Note: Lines with string tabs marked off in them are normal input
              lines, i.e. they get printed, just like any input line.  If  you
              want  to  set  up string tabs without the line printing, use the
              .SILENT macro.

              IMPORTANT: Owing to the way  groff  processes  input  lines  and
              turns  them  into  output  lines,  it is not possible for mom to
              guess the correct starting position of string tabs marked off in
              lines that are centered or set flush right.

              Equally,  she  cannot  guess  the starting position if a line is
              fully justified and broken with .SPREAD.

              In other words, in order to use string tabs, LEFT  must  be  ac-
              tive, or, if .QUAD LEFT or JUSTIFY are active, the line on which
              the string tabs are marked must be broken manually with .BR (but
              not .SPREAD).

              To  circumvent  this behaviour, I recommend using the PAD to set
              up string tabs in centered or flush right lines.  Say, for exam-
              ple,  you  want  to use a string tab to underscore the text of a
              centered line with a rule.  Rather than this,
                     .CENTER \*[ST1]A line of text\*[ST1X]\c .EL .ST 1 .TAB  1
                     .PT_SIZE 24 .ALD 3p \*[RULE] .RLD 3p .TQ
              you should do:
                     .QUAD  CENTER  .PAD "#\*[ST1]A line of text\*[ST1X]#" .EL
                     .ST 1 .TAB 1 .PT_SIZE 24 .ALD 3p \*[RULE]  \"  Note  that
                     you  can't  use  \*[UP] or \*[DOWN] with \*[RULE] .RLD 3p
                     .TQ

       \*[SUP]...\*[SUPX]
              superscript

       \*[TB+]
              Inline escape for .TN (Tab Next)

       \*[UL]...\*[ULX]
              invoke underlining inline (fixed width fonts only)

       \*[UP n]
              temporarily move upwards in a line

   Details of Macros in alphabetical Order
       .AUTOLEAD
              set the linespacing relative to the point size

       .B_MARGIN <bottom margin>
              Bottom Margin

              Requires a unit of measure

              .B_MARGIN sets a nominal position at the bottom of the page  be-
              yond which you don't want your type to go.  When the bottom mar-
              gin is reached, mom starts a new  page.   .B_MARGIN  requires  a
              unit of measure.  Decimal fractions are allowed.  To set a nomi-
              nal bottom margin of 3/4 inch, enter
                     .B_MARGIN .75i

              Obviously, if you haven't spaced the type on your pages so  that
              the  last  lines fall perfectly at the bottom margin, the margin
              will vary from page to page.  Usually, but not always, the  last
              line of type that fits on a page before the bottom margin causes
              mom to start a new page.

              Occasionally, owing to a peculiarity in  groff,  an  extra  line
              will  fall below the nominal bottom margin.  If you're using the
              document processing macros, this is unlikely to happen; the doc-
              ument  processing macros are very hard-nosed about aligning bot-
              tom margins.

              Note: The meaning of .B_MARGIN is slightly different when you're
              using the document processing macros.

       .FALLBACK_FONT <fallback font> [ ABORT | WARN ]
              Fallback Font

              In  the event that you pass an invalid argument to .FAMILY (i.e.
              a non-existent family), mom, by default, uses the fallback font,
              Courier  Medium Roman (CR), in order to continue processing your
              file.

              If you'd prefer another fallback font, pass  .FALLBACK_FONT  the
              full  family+font  name of the font you'd like.  For example, if
              you'd rather the fallback font were Times Roman Medium Roman,
                     .FALLBACK_FONT TR
              would do the trick.

              Mom issues a warning whenever a font style set with .FT does not
              exist,  either  because  you haven't registered the style or be-
              cause the font style does not exist in the  current  family  set
              with  .FAMILY.  By default, mom then aborts, which allows you to
              correct the problem.

              If you'd prefer that mom not abort on  non-existent  fonts,  but
              rather  continue  processing using a fallback font, you can pass
              .FALLBACK_FONT the argument WARN, either by itself, or  in  con-
              junction with your chosen fallback font.

              Some examples of invoking .FALLBACK_FONT:

              .FALLBACK_FONT WARN
                     mom  will  issue  a  warning whenever you try to access a
                     non-existent font but will continue processing your  file
                     with the default fallback font, Courier Medium Roman.

              .FALLBACK_FONT TR WARN
                     mom  will  issue  a  warning whenever you try to access a
                     non-existent font but will continue processing your  file
                     with  a  fallback font of Times Roman Medium Roman; addi-
                     tionally, TR will be the fallback font whenever  you  try
                     to access a family that does not exist.

              .FALLBACK_FONT TR ABORT
                     mom  will abort whenever you try to access a non-existent
                     font, and will use the fallback font TR whenever you  try
                     to  access  a  family  that does not exist.  If, for some
                     reason,  you  want  to  revert  to  ABORT,   just   enter
                     ".FALLBACK_FONT  ABORT"  and mom will once again abort on
                     font errors.

       .FAM <family>
              Type Family, alias of .FAMILY

       .FAMILY <family>
              Type Family, alias .FAM

              .FAMILY takes one argument: the name of  the  family  you  want.
              Groff  comes with a small set of basic families, each identified
              by a 1-, 2- or 3-letter mnemonic.  The standard families are:
                     A   = Avant Garde BM  = Bookman H    =  Helvetica  HN   =
                     Helvetica  Narrow  N    =  New  Century  Schoolbook P   =
                     Palatino T   = Times Roman ZCM = Zapf Chancery

              The argument you pass to .FAMILY  is  the  identifier  at  left,
              above.  For example, if you want Helvetica, enter
                     .FAMILY H

              Note: The font macro (.FT) lets you specify both the type family
              and the desired font with a single macro.  While  this  saves  a
              few  keystrokes,  I  recommend using .FAMILY for family, and .FT
              for font, except where doing so is genuinely inconvenient.  ZCM,
              for example, only exists in one style: Italic (I).

              Therefore,
                     .FT ZCMI
              makes  more  sense  than setting the family to ZCM, then setting
              the font to I.

              Additional note: If you are running a  version  of  groff  lower
              than  1.19.2, you must follow all .FAMILY requests with a FT re-
              quest, otherwise mom will set all type up to the  next  .FT  re-
              quest in the fallback font.

              If  you  are running a version of groff greater than or equal to
              1.19.2, when you invoke the .FAMILY  macro,  mom  remembers  the
              font  style  (Roman,  Italic, etc) currently in use (if the font
              style exists in the new family) and will  continue  to  use  the
              same font style in the new family.  For example:
                     .FAMILY BM \" Bookman family .FT I \" Medium Italic <some
                     text> \" Bookman Medium Italic  .FAMILY  H  \"  Helvetica
                     family <more text> \" Helvetica Medium Italic

              However, if the font style does not exist in the new family, mom
              will set all subsequent type in the fallback font  (by  default,
              Courier  Medium Roman) until she encounters a .FT request that's
              valid for the family.

              For example, assuming you don't have the font  Medium  Condensed
              Roman (mom extension CD) in the Helvetica family:
                     .FAMILY  UN  \" Univers family .FT CD \" Medium Condensed
                     <some text> \" Univers Medium Condensed .FAMILY H \" Hel-
                     vetica family <more text> \" Courier Medium Roman!

              In  the  above example, you must follow .FAMILY H with a .FT re-
              quest that's valid for Helvetica.

              Please see the Appendices, Adding fonts to groff,  for  informa-
              tion  on adding fonts and families to groff, as well as to see a
              list of the extensions mom provides to groff's basic R, I, B, BI
              styles.

              Suggestion: When adding families to groff, I recommend following
              the established standard for the naming families and fonts.  For
              example, if you add the Garamond family, name the font files
                     GARAMONDR GARAMONDI GARAMONDB GARAMONDBI
              GARAMOND then becomes a valid family name you can pass to .FAMI-
              LY.  (You could, of course, shorten GARAMOND to just G, or  GD.)
              R,  I,  B, and BI after GARAMOND are the roman, italic, bold and
              bold-italic fonts respectively.

       .FONT R | B | BI | <any other valid font style>
              Alias to .FT

       .FT R | B | BI | <any other valid font style>
              Set font

              By default, groff permits .FT to take one of four possible argu-
              ments specifying the desired font:
                     R  =  (Medium) Roman I = (Medium) Italic B = Bold (Roman)
                     BI = Bold Italic

              For example, if your family is Helvetica, entering
                     .FT B
              will give you the Helvetica bold  font.   If  your  family  were
              Palatino, you'd get the Palatino bold font.

              Mom  considerably extends the range of arguments you can pass to
              .FT, making it more convenient to add and access fonts  of  dif-
              fering weights and shapes within the same family.

              Have  a  look  here for a list of the weight/style arguments mom
              allows.  Be aware, though, that you must have  the  fonts,  cor-
              rectly installed and named, in order to use the arguments.  (See
              Adding fonts to groff for instructions and information.)  Please
              also  read  the  ADDITIONAL NOTE found in the description of the
              .FAMILY macro.

              How mom reacts to an invalid argument to .FT  depends  on  which
              version of groff you're using.  If your groff version is greater
              than or equal to 1.19.2, mom will issue a warning and, depending
              on how you've set up the fallback font, either continue process-
              ing using the fallback font, or abort (allowing you  to  correct
              the  problem).   If  your groff version is less than 1.19.2, mom
              will silently continue processing,  using  either  the  fallback
              font  or  the  font  that was in effect prior to the invalid .FT
              call.

              .FT will also accept, as an argument, a  full  family  and  font
              name.

              For example,
                     .FT HB
              will set subsequent type in Helvetica Bold.

              However,  I  strongly recommend keeping family and font separate
              except where doing so is genuinely inconvenient.

              For inline control of fonts, see Inline Escapes, font control.

       .HI [ <measure> ]
              Hanging indent -- the optional argument requires a unit of  mea-
              sure.

              A hanging indent looks like this:
                       The  thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as best
                     I
                         could, but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed
                         revenge.  You who so well know the nature of my soul
                         will not suppose, however, that I gave utterance to a
                         threat, at length I would be avenged...
              The first line of text hangs outside the left margin.

              In  order to use hanging indents, you must first have a left in-
              dent active (set with either .IL or .IB).   Mom  will  not  hang
              text  outside  the left margin set with .L_MARGIN or outside the
              left margin of a tab.

              The first time you invoke .HI, you must give it a  measure.   If
              you  want the first line of a paragraph to hang by, say, 1 pica,
              do
                     .IL 1P .HI 1P
              Subsequent invocations of .HI do not require  you  to  supply  a
              measure; mom keeps track of the last measure you gave it.

              Generally  speaking,  you should invoke .HI immediately prior to
              the line you want hung (i.e.  without  any  intervening  control
              lines).   And  because  hanging  indents  affect  only one line,
              there's no need to turn them off.

              IMPORTANT: Unlike IL, IR and IB, measures given to .HI  are  NOT
              additive.   Each time you pass a measure to .HI , the measure is
              treated literally.  Recipe: A numbered list  using  hanging  in-
              dents

              Note:  mom  has macros for setting lists.  This recipe exists to
              demonstrate the use of hanging indents only.
                     .PAGE 8.5i 11i 1i 1i 1i 1i .FAMILY  T .FT      R .PT_SIZE
                     12  .LS       14  .JUSTIFY .KERN .SS 0 .IL \w'\0\0.'  .HI
                     \w'\0\0.'  1.\0The most important point to be  considered
                     is  whether  the  answer to the meaning of Life, the Uni-
                     verse, and Everything really is  42.   We  have  no-one's
                     word  on  the  subject except Mr. Adams'.  .HI 2.\0If the
                     answer to the meaning of Life, the Universe,  and  Every-
                     thing  is  indeed  42,  what impact does this have on the
                     politics of representation?  42 is, after all not a prime
                     number.  Are we to infer that prime numbers don't deserve
                     equal rights and  equal  access  in  the  universe?   .HI
                     3.\0If  42  is deemed non-exclusionary, how do we present
                     it as the answer and, at the same time, forestall  debate
                     on its exclusionary implications?

              First, we invoke a left indent with a measure equal to the width
              of 2 figures spaces plus a period (using the \w inline  escape).
              At  this point, the left indent is active; text afterwards would
              normally be indented.  However, we invoke a  hanging  indent  of
              exactly  the  same  width, which hangs the first line (and first
              line only!) to the left of the indent by the same  distance  (in
              this case, that means "out to the left margin").  Because we be-
              gin the first line with a number, a period, and a figure  space,
              the  actual text (The most important point...) starts at exactly
              the same spot as the indented lines that follow.

              Notice that subsequent invocations of .HI don't require  a  mea-
              sure to be given.

              Paste the example above into a file and preview it with
                     pdfmom filename.mom | ps2pdf - filename.pdf
              to see hanging indents in action.

       .IB [ <left measure> <right measure> ]
              Indent both -- the optional argument requires a unit of measure

              .IB allows you to set or invoke a left and a right indent at the
              same time.

              At its first invocation, you must supply a measure for both  in-
              dents;  at subsequent invocations when you wish to supply a mea-
              sure, both must be given again.  As with .IL and .IR,  the  mea-
              sures  are  added  to the values previously passed to the macro.
              Hence, if you wish to change just one of the  values,  you  must
              give an argument of zero to the other.

              A  word  of advice: If you need to manipulate left and right in-
              dents separately, use a combination of .IL and  .IR  instead  of
              .IB.  You'll save yourself a lot of grief.

              A  minus sign may be prepended to the arguments to subtract from
              their current values.  The \w inline escape may be used to spec-
              ify text-dependent measures, in which case no unit of measure is
              required.  For example,
                     .IB \w'margarine' \w'jello'
              left indents text by the width of the word margarine  and  right
              indents by the width of jello.

              Like  .IL  and .IR, .IB with no argument indents by its last ac-
              tive values.  See the brief explanation of how mom  handles  in-
              dents for more details.

              Note:  Calling  a  tab (with .TAB <n>) automatically cancels any
              active indents.

              Additional note: Invoking .IB automatically turns  off  .IL  and
              .IR.

       .IL [ <measure> ]
              Indent left -- the optional argument requires a unit of measure

              .IL  indents text from the left margin of the page, or if you're
              in a tab, from the left edge of the tab Once IL is on, the  left
              indent  is  applied  uniformly to every subsequent line of text,
              even if you change the line length.

              The first time you invoke .IL, you must give it a measure.  Sub-
              sequent  invocations with a measure add to the previous measure.
              A minus sign may be prepended to the argument to  subtract  from
              the current measure.  The \w inline escape may be used to speci-
              fy a text-dependent measure, in which case no unit of measure is
              required.  For example,
                     .IL \w'margarine'
              indents text by the width of the word margarine.

              With no argument, .IL indents by its last active value.  See the
              brief explanation of how mom handles indents for more details.

              Note: Calling a tab (with .TAB <n>)  automatically  cancels  any
              active indents.

              Additional note: Invoking .IL automatically turns off IB.

       .IQ [ <measure> ]
              IQ -- quit any/all indents

              IMPORTANT  NOTE: The original macro for quitting all indents was
              .IX.  This usage has been deprecated in favour of IQ.  .IX  will
              continue  to  behave  as before, but mom will issue a warning to
              stderr indicating that you should update your documents.

              As a consequence of this change, .ILX, .IRX and .IBX may now al-
              so  be  invoked  as .ILQ, .IRQ and .IBQ.  Both forms are accept-
              able.

              Without an argument, the macros to quit indents  merely  restore
              your  original  margins and line length.  The measures stored in
              the indent macros themselves are saved  so  you  can  call  them
              again without having to supply a measure.

              If  you  pass these macros the optional argument CLEAR, they not
              only restore your original left margin and line length, but also
              clear any values associated with a particular indent style.  The
              next time you need an indent of the same style, you have to sup-
              ply a measure again.

              .IQ CLEAR, as you'd suspect, quits and clears the values for all
              indent styles at once.

       .IR [ <measure> ]
              Indent right -- the optional argument requires a unit of measure

              .IR indents text from the right margin of the page, or if you're
              in a tab, from the end of the tab.

              The first time you invoke .IR, you must give it a measure.  Sub-
              sequent  invocations  with  a measure add to the previous indent
              measure.  A minus sign may be prepended to the argument to  sub-
              tract from the current indent measure.  The \w inline escape may
              be used to specify a text-dependent measure, in  which  case  no
              unit of measure is required.  For example,
                     .IR \w'jello'
              indents text by the width of the word jello.

              With no argument, .IR indents by its last active value.  See the
              brief explanation of how mom handles indents for more details.

              Note: Calling a tab (with .TAB <n>)  automatically  cancels  any
              active indents.

              Additional note: Invoking .IR automatically turns off IB.

       .L_MARGIN <left margin>
              Left Margin

              L_MARGIN  establishes  the  distance  from  the left edge of the
              printer sheet at which you want your type to start.  It  may  be
              used  any time, and remains in effect until you enter a new val-
              ue.

              Left indents and tabs are calculated from the value you pass  to
              .L_MARGIN,  hence  it's  always  a good idea to invoke it before
              starting any serious typesetting.  A  unit  of  measure  is  re-
              quired.   Decimal  fractions are allowed.  Therefore, to set the
              left margin at 3 picas (1/2 inch), you'd enter either
                     .L_MARGIN 3P
              or
                     .L_MARGIN .5i

              If you use the macros .PAGE, .PAGEWIDTH or .PAPER without invok-
              ing  .L_MARGIN  (either before or afterwards), mom automatically
              sets .L_MARGIN to 1 inch.

              Note: .L_MARGIN behaves in a special way when you're  using  the
              document processing macros.

       .MCO   Begin multi-column setting.

              .MCO  (Multi-Column On) is the macro you use to begin multi-col-
              umn setting.  It marks the current baseline as the top  of  your
              columns,  for use later with .MCR.  See the introduction to col-
              umns for an explanation of multi-columns and some sample  input.

              Note:  Do  not confuse .MCO with the .COLUMNS macro in the docu-
              ment processing macros.

       .MCR   Once you've turned multi-columns on (with .MCO),  .MCR,  at  any
              time, returns you to the top of your columns.

       .MCX [ <distance to advance below longest column> ]
              Optional argument requires a unit of measure.

              .MCX  takes you out of any tab you were in (by silently invoking
              .TQ) and advances to the bottom of the longest column.

              Without an argument, .MCX advances 1 linespace below the longest
              column.

              Linespace, in this instance, is the leading in effect at the mo-
              ment .MCX is invoked.

              If you pass the <distance> argument to .MCX, it advances 1 line-
              space  below  the  longest  column (see above) PLUS the distance
              specified by the argument.  The argument requires a unit of mea-
              sure;  therefore,  to advance an extra 6 points below where .MCX
              would normally place you, you'd enter
                     .MCX 6p

              Note: If you wish to advance a precise distance below the  base-
              line  of the longest column, use .MCX with an argument of 0 (ze-
              ro; no unit of measure required) in conjunction  with  the  .ALD
              macro, like this:
                     .MCX 0 .ALD 24p
              The  above advances to precisely 24 points below the baseline of
              the longest column.

       .NEWPAGE

              Whenever you want to start a new page, use .NEWPAGE,  by  itself
              with  no  argument.   Mom  will finish up processing the current
              page and move you to the top of a new one (subject  to  the  top
              margin set with .T_MARGIN).

       .PAGE <width> [ <length> [ <lm> [ <rm> [ <tm> [ <bm> ] ] ] ] ]

              All arguments require a unit of measure

              IMPORTANT: If you're using the document processing macros, .PAGE
              must come after .START.  Otherwise, it should go at the top of a
              document,  prior  to  any text.  And remember, when you're using
              the document processing macros, top  margin  and  bottom  margin
              mean  something  slightly  different than when you're using just
              the typesetting macros (see Top and bottom margins  in  document
              processing).

              .PAGE  lets you establish paper dimensions and page margins with
              a single macro.  The only required argument is page width.   The
              rest  are  optional, but they must appear in order and you can't
              skip over any.  <lm>, <rm>, <tm> and <bm>  refer  to  the  left,
              right, top and bottom margins respectively.

              Assuming  your  page  dimensions are 11 inches by 17 inches, and
              that's all you want to set, enter
                     .PAGE 11i 17i
              If you want to set the left margin as well, say, at 1 inch, PAGE
              would look like this:
                     .PAGE 11i 17i 1i

              Now  suppose  you also want to set the top margin, say, at 1-1/2
              inches.  <tm> comes after <rm> in the  optional  arguments,  but
              you can't skip over any arguments, therefore to set the top mar-
              gin, you must also give a right margin.  The .PAGE  macro  would
              look like this:
                     .PAGE 11i 17i 1i 1i 1.5i
                                      |    | required right---+   +---top mar-
                     gin
                             margin

              Clearly, .PAGE is best used when you want a  convenient  way  to
              tell  mom  just  the dimensions of your printer sheet (width and
              length), or when you want to tell her everything about the  page
              (dimensions and all the margins), for example
                     .PAGE 8.5i 11i 45p 45p 45p 45p
              This  sets  up an 81/2 by 11 inch page with margins of 45 points
              (5/8-inch) all around.

              Additionally, if you invoke .PAGE with a  top  margin  argument,
              any macros you invoke after .PAGE will almost certainly move the
              baseline of the first line of text down by  one  linespace.   To
              compensate, do
                     .RLD 1v
              immediately before entering any text, or, if it's feasible, make
              .PAGE the last macro you invoke prior to entering text.

              Please read the Important note on page dimensions and  papersize
              for information on ensuring groff respects your .PAGE dimensions
              and margins.

       .PAGELENGTH <length of printer sheet>
              tells mom how long your printer sheet is.  It  works  just  like
              .PAGEWIDTH.

              Therefore, to tell mom your printer sheet is 11 inches long, you
              enter
                     .PAGELENGTH 11i
              Please read the important note on page dimensions and  papersize
              for information on ensuring groff respects your PAGELENGTH.

       .PAGEWIDTH <width of printer sheet>

              The argument to .PAGEWIDTH is the width of your printer sheet.

              .PAGEWIDTH  requires  a  unit of measure.  Decimal fractions are
              allowed.  Hence, to tell mom that  the  width  of  your  printer
              sheet is 81/2 inches, you enter
                     .PAGEWIDTH 8.5i

              Please  read the Important note on page dimensions and papersize
              for information on ensuring groff respects your PAGEWIDTH.

       .PAPER <paper type>
              provides a convenient way to set the page  dimensions  for  some
              common  printer  sheet  sizes.  The argument <paper type> can be
              one of: LETTER, LEGAL, STATEMENT, TABLOID, LEDGER, FOLIO,  QUAR-
              TO, EXECUTIVE, 10x14, A3, A4, A5, B4, B5.

       .PRINTSTYLE

       .PT_SIZE <size of type in points>
              Point size of type, does not require a unit of measure.

              .PT_SIZE  (Point  Size)  takes one argument: the size of type in
              points.  Unlike most other macros that  establish  the  size  or
              measure  of something, .PT_SIZE does not require that you supply
              a unit of measure since it's a near  universal  convention  that
              type  size is measured in points.  Therefore, to change the type
              size to, say, 11 points, enter
                     .PT_SIZE 11
              Point sizes may be fractional (e.g. 10.25 or 12.5).

              You can prepend a plus or  a  minus  sign  to  the  argument  to
              .PT_SIZE, in which case the point size will be changed by + or -
              the original value.  For example, if the point size is 12 ,  and
              you want 14 , you can do
                     .PT_SIZE +2
              then later reset it to 12 with
                     .PT_SIZE -2
              The size of type can also be changed inline.

              Note:  It  is  unfortunate that the pic preprocessor has already
              taken the name, PS, and thus mom's macro for setting point sizes
              can't  use it.  However, if you aren't using pic, you might want
              to alias .PT_SIZE as .PS, since there'd be no conflict.  For ex-
              ample
                     .ALIAS PS PT_SIZE
              would allow you to set point sizes with .PS.

       .R_MARGIN <right margin>
              Right Margin

              Requires a unit of measure.

              IMPORTANT:   .R_MARGIN,   if   used,  must  come  after  .PAPER,
              .PAGEWIDTH, .L_MARGIN, and/or .PAGE (if  a  right  margin  isn't
              given  to  PAGE).   The reason is that .R_MARGIN calculates line
              length from the overall page dimensions and the left margin.

              Obviously, it can't make the calculation if it doesn't know  the
              page width and the left margin.

              .R_MARGIN  establishes  the amount of space you want between the
              end of typeset lines and the right  hand  edge  of  the  printer
              sheet.   In other words, it sets the line length.  .R_MARGIN re-
              quires a unit of measure.  Decimal fractions are allowed.

              The line length macro (LL) can be used in  place  of  .R_MARGIN.
              In  either case, the last one invoked sets the line length.  The
              choice of which to use is up to you.  In some instances, you may
              find  it  easier to think of a section of type as having a right
              margin.  In others, giving a line length may make more sense.

              For example, if you're setting a page of type  you  know  should
              have  6-pica  margins  left and right, it makes sense to enter a
              left and right margin, like this:
                     .L_MARGIN 6P .R_MARGIN 6P

              That way, you don't have to worry  about  calculating  the  line
              length.   On  the  other hand, if you know the line length for a
              patch of type should be 17 picas and 3 points, entering the line
              length with LL is much easier than calculating the right margin,
              e.g.
                     .LL 17P+3p

              If you use the macros .PAGE, .PAGEWIDTH or PAPER without  invok-
              ing  .R_MARGIN afterwards, mom automatically sets .R_MARGIN to 1
              inch.  If you set a line length after these macros  (with  .LL),
              the  line length calculated by .R_MARGIN is, of course, overrid-
              den.

              Note: .R_MARGIN behaves in a special way when you're  using  the
              document processing macros.

       .ST <tab number> L | R | C | J [ QUAD ]

              After  string  tabs  have  been marked off on an input line (see
              \*[ST]...\*[STX]), you need to set them by giving them a  direc-
              tion and, optionally, the QUAD argument.

              In this respect, .ST is like .TAB_SET except that you don't have
              to give .ST an indent or a line  length  (that's  already  taken
              care of, inline, by \*[ST]...\*[STX]).

              If you want string tab 1 to be left, enter
                     .ST 1 L
              If you want it to be left and filled, enter
                     .ST 1 L QUAD
              If you want it to be justified, enter
                     .ST 1 J

       .TAB <tab number>
              After tabs have been defined (either with .TAB_SET or .ST), .TAB
              moves to whatever tab number you pass it as an argument.

              For example,
                     .TAB 3
              moves you to tab 3.

              Note: .TAB breaks the line preceding it  and  advances  1  line-
              space.  Hence,
                     .TAB 1 A line of text in tab 1.  .TAB 2 A line of text in
                     tab 2.
              produces, on output
                     A line of text in tab 1.                                A
                     line of text in tab 2.

              If  you  want  the  tabs to line up, use .TN (Tab Next) or, more
              conveniently, the inline escape \*[TB+]:
                     .TAB 1 A line of text in tab 1.\*[TB+] A line of text  in
                     tab 2.
              which produces
                     A line of text in tab 1.   A line of text in tab 2.

              If the text in your tabs runs to several lines, and you want the
              first lines of each tab to align, you must use the  multi-column
              macros.

              Additional  note:  Any  indents in effect prior to calling a tab
              are automatically turned off by TAB.  If you were  happily  zip-
              ping  down the page with a left indent of 2 picas turned on, and
              you call a tab whose indent from the left  margin  is  6  picas,
              your  new distance from the left margin will be 6 picas, not I 6
              picas plus the 2 pica indent.

              Tabs are not by nature columnar, which is to  say  that  if  the
              text  inside  a  tab  runs to several lines, calling another tab
              does not automatically move to the baseline of the first line in
              the previous tab.  To demonstrate:
                     TAB  1  Carrots  Potatoes  Broccoli  .TAB  2  $1.99/5 lbs
                     $0.25/lb $0.99/bunch
              produces, on output
                     Carrots Potatoes Broccoli
                                 $1.99/5 lbs
                                 $0.25/lb
                                 $0.99/bunch

       .TB <tab number>
              Alias to .TAB

       .TI [ <measure> ]
              Temporary left indent -- the optional argument requires  a  unit
              of measure

              A temporary indent is one that applies only to the first line of
              text that comes after it.  Its chief use is indenting the  first
              line  of paragraphs.  (Mom's .PP macro, for example, uses a tem-
              porary indent.)

              The first time you invoke .TI, you must give it a  measure.   If
              you want to indent the first line of a paragraph by, say, 2 ems,
              do
                     .TI 2m

              Subsequent invocations of .TI do not require  you  to  supply  a
              measure; mom keeps track of the last measure you gave it.

              Because temporary indents are temporary, there's no need to turn
              them off.

              IMPORTANT: Unlike .IL, .IR and IB, measures given to .TI are NOT
              additive.   In the following example, the second ".TI 2P" is ex-
              actly 2 picas.
                     .TI 1P The beginning of a paragraph... .TI 2P The  begin-
                     ning of another paragraph...

       .TN    Tab Next

              Inline escape \*[TB+]

              TN  moves  over  to  the  next tab in numeric sequence (tab n+1)
              without advancing on the page.  See the NOTE in the  description
              of the .TAB macro for an example of how TN works.

              In  tabs that aren't given the QUAD argument when they're set up
              with .TAB_SET or ST, you must terminate the line  preceding  .TN
              with  the  \c inline escape.  Conversely, if you did give a QUAD
              argument to .TAB_SET or ST, the \c must not be used.

              If you find remembering whether to put in the \c bothersome, you
              may prefer to use the inline escape alternative to .TN, \*[TB+],
              which works consistently regardless of the fill mode.

              Note: You must put text in the input line immediately after .TN.
              Stacking of .TN's is not allowed.  In other words, you cannot do
                     .TAB 1 Some text\c .TN Some more text\c .TN .TN Yet  more
                     text
              The above example, assuming tabs numbered from 1 to 4, should be
              entered
                     .TAB 1 Some text\c .TN Some more text\c .TN \&\c .TN  Yet
                     more text
              \& is a zero-width, non-printing character that groff recognizes
              as valid input, hence meets the requirement for input text  fol-
              lowing .TN.

       .TQ    TQ  takes  you out of whatever tab you were in, advances 1 line-
              space, and restores the left margin, line length, quad direction
              and fill mode that were in effect prior to invoking any tabs.

       .T_MARGIN <top margin>
              Top margin

              Requires a unit of measure

              .T_MARGIN  establishes  the distance from the top of the printer
              sheet at which you want your type to start.  It requires a  unit
              of  measure,  and  decimal  fractions are allowed.  To set a top
              margin of 21/2 centimetres, you'd enter
                     .T_MARGIN 2.5c
              .T_MARGIN calculates the vertical position of the first line  of
              type  on a page by treating the top edge of the printer sheet as
              a baseline.  Therefore,
                     .T_MARGIN 1.5i
              puts the baseline of the first line of type 11/2 inches  beneath
              the top of the page.

              Note:  .T_MARGIN  means something slightly different when you're
              using the document processing macros.  See Top and  bottom  mar-
              gins in document processing for an explanation.

              IMPORTANT:  .T_MARGIN  does  two  things: it establishes the top
              margin for pages that come after it and it moves to  that  posi-
              tion  on  the current page.  Therefore, .T_MARGIN should only be
              used at the top of a file (prior to entering text) or after NEW-
              PAGE, like this:
                     .NEWPAGE .T_MARGIN 6P <text>


SEE ALSO

       groff_mom(7),

       /opt/local/share/doc/groff-1.22.3/html/mom/toc.html
              - entry point to the HTML documentation

       - HTML documentation online

       - the mom macros homepage


BUGS

       Please  send  bug  reports to the groff-bug mailing list or directly to
       the authors.


COPYING

       Copyright (C) 2002-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This file is part of groff, a free software project.

       You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the  terms  of  the  GNU
       General  Public License as published by the "Free Software Foundation",
       either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with groff, see the files COPYING and LICENSE in the top  directory  of
       the groff Text source package.

       Or read the manpage gpl(1).  You can also visit <http://www.gnu.org/li-
       censes/>.


AUTHORS

       mom was written by Peter Schaffter and revised by Werner Lemberg

       PDF support was provided by Deri James

       The alphabetical documentation of macros and escape seqauences in  this
       man-page were written by the mom team.



Groff Version 1.22.3            4 November 2014                   groff_mom(7)

groff 1.22.3 - Generated Mon Oct 12 18:44:11 CDT 2015
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