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groff_char(7)                                                    groff_char(7)




NAME

       groff_char - groff glyph names


DESCRIPTION

       This  manual  page lists the standard groff glyph names and the default
       input mapping, latin1.  The glyphs  in  this  document  look  different
       depending  on  which  output  device was chosen (with option -T for the
       man(1) program or the roff formatter).  Glyphs not  available  for  the
       device  that is being used to print or view this manual page are marked
       with `(N/A)'; the device currently used is `ascii'.

       In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for  direct
       input and named entities for further glyphs.  On ASCII platforms, input
       character codes in the range 0 to 127  (decimal)  represent  the  usual
       7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted
       as the corresponding characters in the latin1 (ISO-8859-1) code set  by
       default.   This mapping is contained in the file latin1.tmac and can be
       changed by loading a different input encoding.  Note that some  of  the
       input  characters are reserved by groff, either for internal use or for
       special input purposes.  On EBCDIC platforms, only code page cp1047  is
       supported  (which  contains  the  same  characters as latin1; the input
       encoding file is called cp1047.tmac).  Again, some input characters are
       reserved for internal and special purposes.

       All  roff  systems provide the concept of named glyphs.  In traditional
       roff systems, only names of length 2 were used, while groff  also  pro-
       vides  support  for  longer  names.  It is strongly suggested that only
       named glyphs are used for all character representations outside of  the
       printable 7-bit ASCII range.

       Some  of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1)
       also produce single glyphs; these exist for historical reasons  or  are
       printable versions of syntactical characters.  They include `\\', `\'',
       `\`', `\-', `\.', and `\e'; see groff(7).

       In groff, all of these different types of characters and glyphs can  be
       tested positively with the `.if c' conditional.


REFERENCE

       In  this  section,  the  glyphs in groff are specified in tabular form.
       The meaning of the columns is as follows.

       Output shows how the glyph is printed for the current device;  although
              this  can  have  quite  a  different  shape on other devices, it
              always represents the same glyph.

       Input  specifies how the glyph is input either directly by a key on the
              keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.

       Code   applies  to  glyphs  which can be input with a single character,
              and gives the ISO latin1 decimal code of that  input  character.
              Note  that  this  code  is  equivalent to the lowest 256 Unicode
              characters, including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127.

       PostScript
              gives the usual PostScript name of the glyph.

       Unicode
              is the glyph name used in composite glyph names.  The  names  in
              the Unicode column look like u0021 or u0041_0300.  In groff, the
              corresponding Unicode characters can be constructed by adding  a
              backslash and a pair of square brackets, for example \[u0021] or
              \[u0041_0300].

   7-bit Character Codes 32-126
       These are the basic glyphs having 7-bit  ASCII  code  values  assigned.
       They  are  identical to the printable characters of the character stan-
       dards ISO-8859-1 (latin1) and Unicode (range Basic Latin).   The  glyph
       names used in composite glyph names are `u0020' up to `u007E'.

       Note  that input characters in the range 0-31 and character 127 are not
       printable characters.  Most of them are invalid  input  characters  for
       groff anyway, and the valid ones have special meaning.  For EBCDIC, the
       printable characters are in the range 66-255.

       48-57  Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

       65-90  Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

       97-122 Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).

       Most of the remaining characters not in the just described ranges print
       as themselves; the only exceptions are the following characters:

       `      the ISO latin1 `Grave Accent' (code 96) prints as `, a left sin-
              gle quotation mark; the original character can be obtained  with
              `\`'.

       '      the  ISO latin1 `Apostrophe' (code 39) prints as ', a right sin-
              gle quotation mark; the original character can be obtained  with
              `\(aq'.

       -      the  ISO  latin1  `Hyphen,  Minus  Sign'  (code 45)  prints as a
              hyphen; a minus sign can be obtained with `\-'.

       ~      the ISO latin1 `Tilde' (code 126)  is  reduced  in  size  to  be
              usable  as  a  diacritic;  a  larger  glyph can be obtained with
              `\(ti'.

       ^      the ISO latin1 `Circumflex Accent' (code 94) is reduced in  size
              to be usable as a diacritic; a larger glyph can be obtained with
              `\(ha'.



   8-bit Character Codes 160 to 255
       They are interpreted as printable characters according  to  the  latin1
       (ISO-8859-1)  code  set,  being  identical to the Unicode range Latin-1
       Supplement.

       Input characters in range 128-159 (on non-EBCDIC hosts) are not  print-
       able characters.

       160    the ISO latin1 no-break space is mapped to `\~', the stretchable
              space character.

       173    the soft hyphen control character.  groff never uses this  char-
              acter  for  output  (thus it is omitted in the table below); the
              input character 173 is mapped onto `\%'.

       The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255) are printable  characters  that
       print  as themselves.  Although they can be specified directly with the
       keyboard on systems with a latin1 code page, it is better to use  their
       glyph names; see next section.



   Named Glyphs
       Glyph  names  can  be  embedded  into the document text by using escape
       sequences.  groff(7) describes how these escape sequences look.   Glyph
       names  can  consist  of  quite  arbitrary  characters from the ASCII or
       latin1 code set, not only alphanumeric characters.  Here some examples:

       \(ch   A glyph having the 2-character name ch.

       \[char_name]
              A  glyph having the name char_name (having length 1, 2, 3, ...).
              Note that `c' is not the same as `\[c]' (c a single  character):
              The latter is internally mapped to glyph name `\c'.  By default,
              groff defines a single glyph name  starting  with  a  backslash,
              namely `\-', which can be either accessed as `\-' or `\[-]'.

       \[base_glyph composite_1 composite_2 ...]
              A composite glyph; see below for a more detailed description.

       In  groff,  each 8-bit input character can also referred to by the con-
       struct `\[charn]' where n is the decimal code of the character, a  num-
       ber  between  0  and 255  without leading zeros (those entities are not
       glyph names).  They are normally mapped onto  glyphs  using  the  .trin
       request.

       Another  special  convention  is  the  handling  of  glyphs  with names
       directly derived from a Unicode code point; this is shown in the  `Uni-
       code'  column  of the table below.  In general, all glyphs not having a
       name as listed in this manual page can be accessed with the  `\[uXXXX]'
       construct;  please go to section `Using Symbols' in the groff info man-
       ual for more details.

       Moreover, new glyph names can be created  by  the  .char  request;  see
       groff(7).

       In the following, a plus sign in the `Notes' column indicates that this
       particular glyph name appears in the PS version of the  original  troff
       documentation, CSTR 54.

       Entries  marked  with  `***'  denote  glyphs  for mathematical purposes
       (mainly used for DVI output).  Normally, such glyphs have metrics which
       make them unusable in normal text.



       Ligatures and Other Latin Glyphs



       Accented Characters



       Accents

       The composite request is used to map most of the accents to non-spacing
       glyph names; the values given in parentheses are the original (spacing)
       ones.



       Quotes



       Punctuation



       Brackets

       The  extensible bracket pieces are font-invariant glyphs.  In classical
       troff only one glyph  was  available  to  vertically  extend  brackets,
       braces,  and parentheses: `bv'.  We map it rather arbitrarily to u23AA.

       Note that not all devices contain extensible bracket pieces  which  can
       be  piled  up  with `\b' due to the restrictions of the escape's piling
       algorithm.  A general solution to build brackets out of pieces  is  the
       following macro:

              .\" Make a pile centered vertically 0.5em
              .\" above the baseline.
              .\" The first argument is placed at the top.
              .\" The pile is returned in string `pile'
              .eo
              .de pile-make
              .  nr pile-wd 0
              .  nr pile-ht 0
              .  ds pile-args
              .
              .  nr pile-# \n[.$]
              .  while \n[pile-#] \{\
              .    nr pile-wd (\n[pile-wd] >? \w'\$[\n[pile-#]]')
              .    nr pile-ht +(\n[rst] - \n[rsb])
              .    as pile-args \v'\n[rsb]u'\"
              .    as pile-args \Z'\$[\n[pile-#]]'\"
              .    as pile-args \v'-\n[rst]u'\"
              .    nr pile-# -1
              .  \}
              .
              .  ds pile \v'(-0.5m + (\n[pile-ht]u / 2u))'\"
              .  as pile \*[pile-args]\"
              .  as pile \v'((\n[pile-ht]u / 2u) + 0.5m)'\"
              .  as pile \h'\n[pile-wd]u'\"
              ..
              .ec

       Another  complication  is  the  fact  that  some glyphs which represent
       bracket pieces in original troff can be  used  for  other  mathematical
       symbols also, for example `lf' and `rf' which provide the `floor' oper-
       ator.  Other devices (most notably for DVI  output)  don't  unify  such
       glyphs.  For this reason, the four glyphs `lf', `rf', lc', and `rc' are
       not unified with similarly looking  bracket  pieces.   In  groff,  only
       glyphs  with  long  names  are  guaranteed to pile up correctly for all
       devices (provided those glyphs exist).



       Arrows



       Lines

       The font-invariant glyphs `br', `ul', and `rn' form corners;  they  can
       be used to build boxes.  Note that both the PostScript and the Unicode-
       derived names of these three glyphs are just rough approximations.

       `rn' also serves in classical troff as the horizontal extension of  the
       square root sign.

       `ru' is a font-invariant glyph, namely a rule of length 0.5m.



       Use `\[radicalex]', not `\[overline]', for continuation of square root.

       Text markers



       Legal Symbols



       The Bell Labs logo is not supported in groff.

       Currency symbols



       Units



       Logical Symbols



       Mathematical Symbols



       Greek glyphs

       These glyphs are intended for technical use, not for real  Greek;  nor-
       mally, the uppercase letters have upright shape, and the lowercase ones
       are slanted.  There is a problem with the mapping of letter phi to Uni-
       code.   Prior  to  Unicode  version 3.0, the difference between U+03C6,
       GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI, and U+03D5, GREEK PHI SYMBOL, was  not  clearly
       described; only the glyph shapes in the Unicode book could be used as a
       reference.  Starting with Unicode 3.0, the reference glyphs  have  been
       exchanged  and described verbally also: In mathematical context, U+03D5
       is the stroked variant and U+03C6 the curly glyph.  Unfortunately, most
       font vendors didn't update their fonts to this (incompatible) change in
       Unicode.  At the time of this writing (January 2006), it is  not  clear
       yet  whether  the  Adobe  Glyph  Names `phi' and `phi1' also change its
       meaning if used for mathematics, thus compatibility problems are likely
       to happen - being conservative, groff currently assumes that `phi' in a
       PostScript symbol font is the stroked version.

       In groff, symbol `\[*f]' always denotes the stroked version of phi, and
       `\[+f]' the curly variant.



       Card symbols




SEE ALSO

       groff(1)
              the GNU roff formatter

       groff(7)
              a short reference of the groff formatting language

       An  extension  to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J.
       Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

       The Unicode Standard


COPYING

       Copyright (C) 1989-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This file is part of  groff  (GNU  roff),  which  is  a  free  software
       project.

       You  can  redistribute  it  and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
       General Public License as published by the  Free  Software  Foundation,
       either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with this program.  If not, see GPL2


AUTHORS

       This  document was written by James Clark with additions by Werner Lem-
       berg and Bernd Warken This document was revised to use real  tables  by
       Eric S. Raymond



1.22.3                          4 November 2014                  groff_char(7)

groff 1.22.3 - Generated Mon Oct 12 18:15:22 CDT 2015
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