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terminfo(5)                       File Formats                       terminfo(5)


       terminfo - terminal capability database




       Terminfo is a database describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs such as nvi(1), lynx(1), mutt(1), and other curses applications,
       using high-level calls to libraries such as curses(3X).  It is also used
       via low-level calls by non-curses applications which may be screen-
       oriented (such as clear(1)) or non-screen (such as tabs(1)).

       Terminfo describes terminals by giving a set of capabilities which they
       have, by specifying how to perform screen operations, and by specifying
       padding requirements and initialization sequences.

       This manual describes ncurses version 6.4 (patch 20221231).

   Terminfo Entry Syntax
       Entries in terminfo consist of a sequence of fields:

       o   Each field ends with a comma "," (embedded commas may be escaped with
           a backslash or written as "\054").

       o   White space between fields is ignored.

       o   The first field in a terminfo entry begins in the first column.

       o   Newlines and leading whitespace (spaces or tabs) may be used for
           formatting entries for readability.  These are removed from parsed

           The infocmp -f and -W options rely on this to format if-then-else
           expressions, or to enforce maximum line-width.  The resulting
           formatted terminal description can be read by tic.

       o   The first field for each terminal gives the names which are known for
           the terminal, separated by "|" characters.

           The first name given is the most common abbreviation for the terminal
           (its primary name), the last name given should be a long name fully
           identifying the terminal (see longname(3X)), and all others are
           treated as synonyms (aliases) for the primary terminal name.

           X/Open Curses advises that all names but the last should be in lower
           case and contain no blanks; the last name may well contain upper case
           and blanks for readability.

           This implementation is not so strict; it allows mixed case in the
           primary name and aliases.  If the last name has no embedded blanks,
           it allows that to be both an alias and a verbose name (but will warn
           about this ambiguity).

       o   Lines beginning with a "#" in the first column are treated as

           While comment lines are legal at any point, the output of captoinfo
           and infotocap (aliases for tic) will move comments so they occur only
           between entries.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen
       using the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware making
       up the terminal should have a root name, thus "hp2621".  This name should
       not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in, or user
       preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode suffix.
       Thus, a vt100 in 132-column mode would be vt100-w.  The following
       suffixes should be used where possible:

             Suffix                  Meaning                   Example
             -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
             -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
             -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
             -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
             -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
             -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
             -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
             -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
             -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
             -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
             -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
             -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb
             -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

   Terminfo Capabilities Syntax
       The terminfo entry consists of several capabilities, i.e., features that
       the terminal has, or methods for exercising the terminal's features.

       After the first field (giving the name(s) of the terminal entry), there
       should be one or more capability fields.  These are boolean, numeric or
       string names with corresponding values:

       o   Boolean capabilities are true when present, false when absent.  There
           is no explicit value for boolean capabilities.

       o   Numeric capabilities have a "#" following the name, then an unsigned
           decimal integer value.

       o   String capabilities have a "=" following the name, then an string of
           characters making up the capability value.

           String capabilities can be split into multiple lines, just as the
           fields comprising a terminal entry can be split into multiple lines.
           While blanks between fields are ignored, blanks embedded within a
           string value are retained, except for leading blanks on a line.

       Any capability can be canceled, i.e., suppressed from the terminal entry,
       by following its name with "@" rather than a capability value.

   Similar Terminals
       If there are two very similar terminals, one (the variant) can be defined
       as being just like the other (the base) with certain exceptions.  In the
       definition of the variant, the string capability use can be given with
       the name of the base terminal:

       o   The capabilities given before use override those in the base type
           named by use.

       o   If there are multiple use capabilities, they are merged in reverse
           order.  That is, the rightmost use reference is processed first, then
           the one to its left, and so forth.

       o   Capabilities given explicitly in the entry override those brought in
           by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use
       reference that imports it, where xx is the capability.  For example, the

              2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and
       hence does not turn on the function key labels when in visual mode.  This
       is useful for different modes for a terminal, or for different user

       An entry included via use can contain canceled capabilities, which have
       the same effect as if those cancels were inline in the using terminal

   Predefined Capabilities
       The following is a complete table of the capabilities included in a
       terminfo description block and available to terminfo-using code.  In each
       line of the table,

       The variable is the name by which the programmer (at the terminfo level)
       accesses the capability.

       The capname is the short name used in the text of the database, and is
       used by a person updating the database.  Whenever possible, capnames are
       chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard (now
       superseded by ECMA-48, which uses identical or very similar names).
       Semantics are also intended to match those of the specification.

       The termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some capabilities
       are new, and have names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of 5
       characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in
       the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally, the description field attempts to convey the semantics of the
       capability.  You may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in the description field indicates that the string is passed
              through tparm(3X) with parameters as given (#i).

              If no parameters are listed in the description, passing the string
              through tparm(3X) may give unexpected results, e.g., if it
              contains percent (%%) signs.

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the number of
              lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

                   Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                   Booleans            name      Code
           auto_left_margin            bw        bw     cub1 wraps from
                                                        column 0 to last
           auto_right_margin           am        am     terminal has
                                                        automatic margins
           back_color_erase            bce       ut     screen erased with
                                                        background color
           can_change                  ccc       cc     terminal can
                                                        re-define existing
           ceol_standout_glitch        xhp       xs     standout not erased
                                                        by overwriting (hp)
           col_addr_glitch             xhpa      YA     only positive motion
                                                        for hpa/mhpa caps
           cpi_changes_res             cpix      YF     changing character
                                                        pitch changes
           cr_cancels_micro_mode       crxm      YB     using cr turns off
                                                        micro mode
           dest_tabs_magic_smso        xt        xt     tabs destructive,
                                                        magic so char
           eat_newline_glitch          xenl      xn     newline ignored
                                                        after 80 cols
           erase_overstrike            eo        eo     can erase
                                                        overstrikes with a
           generic_type                gn        gn     generic line type
           hard_copy                   hc        hc     hardcopy terminal
           hard_cursor                 chts      HC     cursor is hard to
           has_meta_key                km        km     Has a meta key
                                                        (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
           has_print_wheel             daisy     YC     printer needs
                                                        operator to change
                                                        character set
           has_status_line             hs        hs     has extra status
           hue_lightness_saturation    hls       hl     terminal uses only
                                                        HLS color notation
           insert_null_glitch          in        in     insert mode
                                                        distinguishes nulls
           lpi_changes_res             lpix      YG     changing line pitch
                                                        changes resolution
           memory_above                da        da     display may be
                                                        retained above the
           memory_below                db        db     display may be
                                                        retained below the
           move_insert_mode            mir       mi     safe to move while
                                                        in insert mode
           move_standout_mode          msgr      ms     safe to move while
                                                        in standout mode
           needs_xon_xoff              nxon      nx     padding will not
                                                        work, xon/xoff
           no_esc_ctlc                 xsb       xb     beehive (f1=escape,
                                                        f2=ctrl C)
           no_pad_char                 npc       NP     pad character does
                                                        not exist
           non_dest_scroll_region      ndscr     ND     scrolling region is
           non_rev_rmcup               nrrmc     NR     smcup does not
                                                        reverse rmcup
           over_strike                 os        os     terminal can
           prtr_silent                 mc5i      5i     printer will not
                                                        echo on screen
           row_addr_glitch             xvpa      YD     only positive motion
                                                        for vpa/mvpa caps
           semi_auto_right_margin      sam       YE     printing in last
                                                        column causes cr
           status_line_esc_ok          eslok     es     escape can be used
                                                        on the status line
           tilde_glitch                hz        hz     cannot print ~'s
           transparent_underline       ul        ul     underline character
           xon_xoff                    xon       xo     terminal uses
                                                        xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:

                   Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                    Numeric            name      Code
           columns                     cols      co     number of columns in
                                                        a line
           init_tabs                   it        it     tabs initially every
                                                        # spaces
           label_height                lh        lh     rows in each label
           label_width                 lw        lw     columns in each
           lines                       lines     li     number of lines on
                                                        screen or page
           lines_of_memory             lm        lm     lines of memory if >
                                                        line. 0 means varies
           magic_cookie_glitch         xmc       sg     number of blank
                                                        characters left by
                                                        smso or rmso
           max_attributes              ma        ma     maximum combined
                                                        attributes terminal
                                                        can handle
           max_colors                  colors    Co     maximum number of
                                                        colors on screen
           max_pairs                   pairs     pa     maximum number of
                                                        color-pairs on the
           maximum_windows             wnum      MW     maximum number of
                                                        definable windows
           no_color_video              ncv       NC     video attributes
                                                        that cannot be used
                                                        with colors
           num_labels                  nlab      Nl     number of labels on
           padding_baud_rate           pb        pb     lowest baud rate
                                                        where padding needed
           virtual_terminal            vt        vt     virtual terminal
                                                        number (CB/unix)
           width_status_line           wsl       ws     number of columns in
                                                        status line

       The following numeric capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but are not yet documented in the man page.  They came in with
       SVr4's printer support.

                   Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                    Numeric            name      Code
           bit_image_entwining         bitwin    Yo     number of passes for
                                                        each bit-image row
           bit_image_type              bitype    Yp     type of bit-image
           buffer_capacity             bufsz     Ya     numbers of bytes
                                                        buffered before
           buttons                     btns      BT     number of buttons on
           dot_horz_spacing            spinh     Yc     spacing of dots
                                                        horizontally in dots
                                                        per inch
           dot_vert_spacing            spinv     Yb     spacing of pins
                                                        vertically in pins
                                                        per inch
           max_micro_address           maddr     Yd     maximum value in
           max_micro_jump              mjump     Ye     maximum value in
           micro_col_size              mcs       Yf     character step size
                                                        when in micro mode
           micro_line_size             mls       Yg     line step size when
                                                        in micro mode
           number_of_pins              npins     Yh     numbers of pins in
           output_res_char             orc       Yi     horizontal
                                                        resolution in units
                                                        per line
           output_res_horz_inch        orhi      Yk     horizontal
                                                        resolution in units
                                                        per inch
           output_res_line             orl       Yj     vertical resolution
                                                        in units per line
           output_res_vert_inch        orvi      Yl     vertical resolution
                                                        in units per inch
           print_rate                  cps       Ym     print rate in
                                                        characters per
           wide_char_size              widcs     Yn     character step size
                                                        when in double wide

       These are the string capabilities:

                  Variable            Cap-      TCap        Description
                   String             name      Code
          acs_chars                   acsc      ac     graphics charset
                                                       pairs, based on vt100
          back_tab                    cbt       bt     back tab (P)
          bell                        bel       bl     audible signal (bell)
          carriage_return             cr        cr     carriage return (P*)
          change_char_pitch           cpi       ZA     Change number of
                                                       characters per inch to
          change_line_pitch           lpi       ZB     Change number of lines
                                                       per inch to #1
          change_res_horz             chr       ZC     Change horizontal
                                                       resolution to #1
          change_res_vert             cvr       ZD     Change vertical
                                                       resolution to #1
          change_scroll_region        csr       cs     change region to line
                                                       #1 to line #2 (P)
          char_padding                rmp       rP     like ip but when in
                                                       insert mode
          clear_all_tabs              tbc       ct     clear all tab stops
          clear_margins               mgc       MC     clear right and left
                                                       soft margins
          clear_screen                clear     cl     clear screen and home
                                                       cursor (P*)
          clr_bol                     el1       cb     Clear to beginning of
          clr_eol                     el        ce     clear to end of line
          clr_eos                     ed        cd     clear to end of screen
          column_address              hpa       ch     horizontal position
                                                       #1, absolute (P)
          command_character           cmdch     CC     terminal settable cmd
                                                       character in prototype
          create_window               cwin      CW     define a window #1
                                                       from #2,#3 to #4,#5
          cursor_address              cup       cm     move to row #1 columns
          cursor_down                 cud1      do     down one line
          cursor_home                 home      ho     home cursor (if no
          cursor_invisible            civis     vi     make cursor invisible
          cursor_left                 cub1      le     move left one space
          cursor_mem_address          mrcup     CM     memory relative cursor
                                                       addressing, move to
                                                       row #1 columns #2
          cursor_normal               cnorm     ve     make cursor appear
                                                       normal (undo
          cursor_right                cuf1      nd     non-destructive space
                                                       (move right one space)
          cursor_to_ll                ll        ll     last line, first
                                                       column (if no cup)
          cursor_up                   cuu1      up     up one line
          cursor_visible              cvvis     vs     make cursor very
          define_char                 defc      ZE     Define a character #1,
                                                       #2 dots wide,
                                                       descender #3
          delete_character            dch1      dc     delete character (P*)
          delete_line                 dl1       dl     delete line (P*)
          dial_phone                  dial      DI     dial number #1
          dis_status_line             dsl       ds     disable status line
          display_clock               dclk      DK     display clock
          down_half_line              hd        hd     half a line down
          ena_acs                     enacs     eA     enable alternate char
          enter_alt_charset_mode      smacs     as     start alternate
                                                       character set (P)
          enter_am_mode               smam      SA     turn on automatic
          enter_blink_mode            blink     mb     turn on blinking
          enter_bold_mode             bold      md     turn on bold (extra
                                                       bright) mode
          enter_ca_mode               smcup     ti     string to start
                                                       programs using cup
          enter_delete_mode           smdc      dm     enter delete mode
          enter_dim_mode              dim       mh     turn on half-bright
          enter_doublewide_mode       swidm     ZF     Enter double-wide mode
          enter_draft_quality         sdrfq     ZG     Enter draft-quality
          enter_insert_mode           smir      im     enter insert mode
          enter_italics_mode          sitm      ZH     Enter italic mode
          enter_leftward_mode         slm       ZI     Start leftward
                                                       carriage motion
          enter_micro_mode            smicm     ZJ     Start micro-motion
          enter_near_letter_quality   snlq      ZK     Enter NLQ mode
          enter_normal_quality        snrmq     ZL     Enter normal-quality
          enter_protected_mode        prot      mp     turn on protected mode
          enter_reverse_mode          rev       mr     turn on reverse video
          enter_secure_mode           invis     mk     turn on blank mode
                                                       (characters invisible)
          enter_shadow_mode           sshm      ZM     Enter shadow-print
          enter_standout_mode         smso      so     begin standout mode
          enter_subscript_mode        ssubm     ZN     Enter subscript mode
          enter_superscript_mode      ssupm     ZO     Enter superscript mode
          enter_underline_mode        smul      us     begin underline mode
          enter_upward_mode           sum       ZP     Start upward carriage
          enter_xon_mode              smxon     SX     turn on xon/xoff
          erase_chars                 ech       ec     erase #1 characters
          exit_alt_charset_mode       rmacs     ae     end alternate
                                                       character set (P)
          exit_am_mode                rmam      RA     turn off automatic
          exit_attribute_mode         sgr0      me     turn off all
          exit_ca_mode                rmcup     te     strings to end
                                                       programs using cup
          exit_delete_mode            rmdc      ed     end delete mode
          exit_doublewide_mode        rwidm     ZQ     End double-wide mode
          exit_insert_mode            rmir      ei     exit insert mode
          exit_italics_mode           ritm      ZR     End italic mode
          exit_leftward_mode          rlm       ZS     End left-motion mode
          exit_micro_mode             rmicm     ZT     End micro-motion mode
          exit_shadow_mode            rshm      ZU     End shadow-print mode
          exit_standout_mode          rmso      se     exit standout mode
          exit_subscript_mode         rsubm     ZV     End subscript mode
          exit_superscript_mode       rsupm     ZW     End superscript mode
          exit_underline_mode         rmul      ue     exit underline mode
          exit_upward_mode            rum       ZX     End reverse character
          exit_xon_mode               rmxon     RX     turn off xon/xoff
          fixed_pause                 pause     PA     pause for 2-3 seconds
          flash_hook                  hook      fh     flash switch hook
          flash_screen                flash     vb     visible bell (may not
                                                       move cursor)
          form_feed                   ff        ff     hardcopy terminal page
                                                       eject (P*)
          from_status_line            fsl       fs     return from status
          goto_window                 wingo     WG     go to window #1
          hangup                      hup       HU     hang-up phone
          init_1string                is1       i1     initialization string
          init_2string                is2       is     initialization string
          init_3string                is3       i3     initialization string
          init_file                   if        if     name of initialization
          init_prog                   iprog     iP     path name of program
                                                       for initialization
          initialize_color            initc     Ic     initialize color #1 to
          initialize_pair             initp     Ip     Initialize color pair
                                                       #1 to fg=(#2,#3,#4),
          insert_character            ich1      ic     insert character (P)
          insert_line                 il1       al     insert line (P*)
          insert_padding              ip        ip     insert padding after
                                                       inserted character
          key_a1                      ka1       K1     upper left of keypad
          key_a3                      ka3       K3     upper right of keypad
          key_b2                      kb2       K2     center of keypad
          key_backspace               kbs       kb     backspace key
          key_beg                     kbeg      @1     begin key
          key_btab                    kcbt      kB     back-tab key
          key_c1                      kc1       K4     lower left of keypad
          key_c3                      kc3       K5     lower right of keypad
          key_cancel                  kcan      @2     cancel key
          key_catab                   ktbc      ka     clear-all-tabs key
          key_clear                   kclr      kC     clear-screen or erase
          key_close                   kclo      @3     close key
          key_command                 kcmd      @4     command key
          key_copy                    kcpy      @5     copy key
          key_create                  kcrt      @6     create key
          key_ctab                    kctab     kt     clear-tab key
          key_dc                      kdch1     kD     delete-character key
          key_dl                      kdl1      kL     delete-line key
          key_down                    kcud1     kd     down-arrow key
          key_eic                     krmir     kM     sent by rmir or smir
                                                       in insert mode
          key_end                     kend      @7     end key
          key_enter                   kent      @8     enter/send key
          key_eol                     kel       kE     clear-to-end-of-line
          key_eos                     ked       kS     clear-to-end-of-screen
          key_exit                    kext      @9     exit key
          key_f0                      kf0       k0     F0 function key
          key_f1                      kf1       k1     F1 function key
          key_f10                     kf10      k;     F10 function key
          key_f11                     kf11      F1     F11 function key
          key_f12                     kf12      F2     F12 function key
          key_f13                     kf13      F3     F13 function key
          key_f14                     kf14      F4     F14 function key
          key_f15                     kf15      F5     F15 function key
          key_f16                     kf16      F6     F16 function key
          key_f17                     kf17      F7     F17 function key
          key_f18                     kf18      F8     F18 function key
          key_f19                     kf19      F9     F19 function key
          key_f2                      kf2       k2     F2 function key
          key_f20                     kf20      FA     F20 function key
          key_f21                     kf21      FB     F21 function key
          key_f22                     kf22      FC     F22 function key
          key_f23                     kf23      FD     F23 function key
          key_f24                     kf24      FE     F24 function key
          key_f25                     kf25      FF     F25 function key
          key_f26                     kf26      FG     F26 function key
          key_f27                     kf27      FH     F27 function key
          key_f28                     kf28      FI     F28 function key
          key_f29                     kf29      FJ     F29 function key
          key_f3                      kf3       k3     F3 function key
          key_f30                     kf30      FK     F30 function key
          key_f31                     kf31      FL     F31 function key
          key_f32                     kf32      FM     F32 function key
          key_f33                     kf33      FN     F33 function key
          key_f34                     kf34      FO     F34 function key
          key_f35                     kf35      FP     F35 function key
          key_f36                     kf36      FQ     F36 function key
          key_f37                     kf37      FR     F37 function key
          key_f38                     kf38      FS     F38 function key
          key_f39                     kf39      FT     F39 function key
          key_f4                      kf4       k4     F4 function key
          key_f40                     kf40      FU     F40 function key
          key_f41                     kf41      FV     F41 function key
          key_f42                     kf42      FW     F42 function key
          key_f43                     kf43      FX     F43 function key
          key_f44                     kf44      FY     F44 function key
          key_f45                     kf45      FZ     F45 function key
          key_f46                     kf46      Fa     F46 function key
          key_f47                     kf47      Fb     F47 function key
          key_f48                     kf48      Fc     F48 function key
          key_f49                     kf49      Fd     F49 function key
          key_f5                      kf5       k5     F5 function key
          key_f50                     kf50      Fe     F50 function key
          key_f51                     kf51      Ff     F51 function key
          key_f52                     kf52      Fg     F52 function key
          key_f53                     kf53      Fh     F53 function key
          key_f54                     kf54      Fi     F54 function key
          key_f55                     kf55      Fj     F55 function key
          key_f56                     kf56      Fk     F56 function key
          key_f57                     kf57      Fl     F57 function key
          key_f58                     kf58      Fm     F58 function key
          key_f59                     kf59      Fn     F59 function key
          key_f6                      kf6       k6     F6 function key
          key_f60                     kf60      Fo     F60 function key
          key_f61                     kf61      Fp     F61 function key
          key_f62                     kf62      Fq     F62 function key
          key_f63                     kf63      Fr     F63 function key
          key_f7                      kf7       k7     F7 function key
          key_f8                      kf8       k8     F8 function key
          key_f9                      kf9       k9     F9 function key
          key_find                    kfnd      @0     find key
          key_help                    khlp      %1     help key
          key_home                    khome     kh     home key
          key_ic                      kich1     kI     insert-character key
          key_il                      kil1      kA     insert-line key
          key_left                    kcub1     kl     left-arrow key
          key_ll                      kll       kH     lower-left key (home
          key_mark                    kmrk      %2     mark key
          key_message                 kmsg      %3     message key
          key_move                    kmov      %4     move key
          key_next                    knxt      %5     next key
          key_npage                   knp       kN     next-page key
          key_open                    kopn      %6     open key
          key_options                 kopt      %7     options key
          key_ppage                   kpp       kP     previous-page key
          key_previous                kprv      %8     previous key
          key_print                   kprt      %9     print key
          key_redo                    krdo      %0     redo key
          key_reference               kref      &1     reference key
          key_refresh                 krfr      &2     refresh key
          key_replace                 krpl      &3     replace key
          key_restart                 krst      &4     restart key
          key_resume                  kres      &5     resume key
          key_right                   kcuf1     kr     right-arrow key
          key_save                    ksav      &6     save key
          key_sbeg                    kBEG      &9     shifted begin key
          key_scancel                 kCAN      &0     shifted cancel key
          key_scommand                kCMD      *1     shifted command key
          key_scopy                   kCPY      *2     shifted copy key
          key_screate                 kCRT      *3     shifted create key
          key_sdc                     kDC       *4     shifted
                                                       delete-character key
          key_sdl                     kDL       *5     shifted delete-line
          key_select                  kslt      *6     select key
          key_send                    kEND      *7     shifted end key
          key_seol                    kEOL      *8     shifted
          key_sexit                   kEXT      *9     shifted exit key
          key_sf                      kind      kF     scroll-forward key
          key_sfind                   kFND      *0     shifted find key
          key_shelp                   kHLP      #1     shifted help key
          key_shome                   kHOM      #2     shifted home key
          key_sic                     kIC       #3     shifted
                                                       insert-character key
          key_sleft                   kLFT      #4     shifted left-arrow key
          key_smessage                kMSG      %a     shifted message key
          key_smove                   kMOV      %b     shifted move key
          key_snext                   kNXT      %c     shifted next key
          key_soptions                kOPT      %d     shifted options key
          key_sprevious               kPRV      %e     shifted previous key
          key_sprint                  kPRT      %f     shifted print key
          key_sr                      kri       kR     scroll-backward key
          key_sredo                   kRDO      %g     shifted redo key
          key_sreplace                kRPL      %h     shifted replace key
          key_sright                  kRIT      %i     shifted right-arrow
          key_srsume                  kRES      %j     shifted resume key
          key_ssave                   kSAV      !1     shifted save key
          key_ssuspend                kSPD      !2     shifted suspend key
          key_stab                    khts      kT     set-tab key
          key_sundo                   kUND      !3     shifted undo key
          key_suspend                 kspd      &7     suspend key
          key_undo                    kund      &8     undo key
          key_up                      kcuu1     ku     up-arrow key
          keypad_local                rmkx      ke     leave
          keypad_xmit                 smkx      ks     enter
          lab_f0                      lf0       l0     label on function key
                                                       f0 if not f0
          lab_f1                      lf1       l1     label on function key
                                                       f1 if not f1
          lab_f10                     lf10      la     label on function key
                                                       f10 if not f10
          lab_f2                      lf2       l2     label on function key
                                                       f2 if not f2
          lab_f3                      lf3       l3     label on function key
                                                       f3 if not f3
          lab_f4                      lf4       l4     label on function key
                                                       f4 if not f4
          lab_f5                      lf5       l5     label on function key
                                                       f5 if not f5
          lab_f6                      lf6       l6     label on function key
                                                       f6 if not f6
          lab_f7                      lf7       l7     label on function key
                                                       f7 if not f7
          lab_f8                      lf8       l8     label on function key
                                                       f8 if not f8
          lab_f9                      lf9       l9     label on function key
                                                       f9 if not f9
          label_format                fln       Lf     label format
          label_off                   rmln      LF     turn off soft labels
          label_on                    smln      LO     turn on soft labels
          meta_off                    rmm       mo     turn off meta mode
          meta_on                     smm       mm     turn on meta mode
                                                       (8th-bit on)
          micro_column_address        mhpa      ZY     Like column_address in
                                                       micro mode
          micro_down                  mcud1     ZZ     Like cursor_down in
                                                       micro mode
          micro_left                  mcub1     Za     Like cursor_left in
                                                       micro mode
          micro_right                 mcuf1     Zb     Like cursor_right in
                                                       micro mode
          micro_row_address           mvpa      Zc     Like row_address #1 in
                                                       micro mode
          micro_up                    mcuu1     Zd     Like cursor_up in
                                                       micro mode
          newline                     nel       nw     newline (behave like
                                                       cr followed by lf)
          order_of_pins               porder    Ze     Match software bits to
                                                       print-head pins
          orig_colors                 oc        oc     Set all color pairs to
                                                       the original ones
          orig_pair                   op        op     Set default pair to
                                                       its original value
          pad_char                    pad       pc     padding char (instead
                                                       of null)
          parm_dch                    dch       DC     delete #1 characters
          parm_delete_line            dl        DL     delete #1 lines (P*)
          parm_down_cursor            cud       DO     down #1 lines (P*)
          parm_down_micro             mcud      Zf     Like parm_down_cursor
                                                       in micro mode
          parm_ich                    ich       IC     insert #1 characters
          parm_index                  indn      SF     scroll forward #1
                                                       lines (P)
          parm_insert_line            il        AL     insert #1 lines (P*)
          parm_left_cursor            cub       LE     move #1 characters to
                                                       the left (P)
          parm_left_micro             mcub      Zg     Like parm_left_cursor
                                                       in micro mode
          parm_right_cursor           cuf       RI     move #1 characters to
                                                       the right (P*)
          parm_right_micro            mcuf      Zh     Like parm_right_cursor
                                                       in micro mode
          parm_rindex                 rin       SR     scroll back #1 lines
          parm_up_cursor              cuu       UP     up #1 lines (P*)
          parm_up_micro               mcuu      Zi     Like parm_up_cursor in
                                                       micro mode
          pkey_key                    pfkey     pk     program function key
                                                       #1 to type string #2
          pkey_local                  pfloc     pl     program function key
                                                       #1 to execute string
          pkey_xmit                   pfx       px     program function key
                                                       #1 to transmit string
          plab_norm                   pln       pn     program label #1 to
                                                       show string #2
          print_screen                mc0       ps     print contents of
          prtr_non                    mc5p      pO     turn on printer for #1
          prtr_off                    mc4       pf     turn off printer
          prtr_on                     mc5       po     turn on printer
          pulse                       pulse     PU     select pulse dialing
          quick_dial                  qdial     QD     dial number #1 without
          remove_clock                rmclk     RC     remove clock
          repeat_char                 rep       rp     repeat char #1 #2
                                                       times (P*)
          req_for_input               rfi       RF     send next input char
                                                       (for ptys)
          reset_1string               rs1       r1     reset string
          reset_2string               rs2       r2     reset string
          reset_3string               rs3       r3     reset string
          reset_file                  rf        rf     name of reset file
          restore_cursor              rc        rc     restore cursor to
                                                       position of last
          row_address                 vpa       cv     vertical position #1
                                                       absolute (P)
          save_cursor                 sc        sc     save current cursor
                                                       position (P)
          scroll_forward              ind       sf     scroll text up (P)
          scroll_reverse              ri        sr     scroll text down (P)
          select_char_set             scs       Zj     Select character set,
          set_attributes              sgr       sa     define video
                                                       attributes #1-#9 (PG9)
          set_background              setb      Sb     Set background color
          set_bottom_margin           smgb      Zk     Set bottom margin at
                                                       current line
          set_bottom_margin_parm      smgbp     Zl     Set bottom margin at
                                                       line #1 or (if smgtp
                                                       is not given) #2 lines
                                                       from bottom
          set_clock                   sclk      SC     set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                                       mins #3 secs
          set_color_pair              scp       sp     Set current color pair
                                                       to #1
          set_foreground              setf      Sf     Set foreground color
          set_left_margin             smgl      ML     set left soft margin
                                                       at current column.

          set_left_margin_parm        smglp     Zm     Set left (right)
                                                       margin at column #1
          set_right_margin            smgr      MR     set right soft margin
                                                       at current column
          set_right_margin_parm       smgrp     Zn     Set right margin at
                                                       column #1
          set_tab                     hts       st     set a tab in every
                                                       row, current columns
          set_top_margin              smgt      Zo     Set top margin at
                                                       current line
          set_top_margin_parm         smgtp     Zp     Set top (bottom)
                                                       margin at row #1
          set_window                  wind      wi     current window is
                                                       lines #1-#2 cols #3-#4
          start_bit_image             sbim      Zq     Start printing bit
                                                       image graphics
          start_char_set_def          scsd      Zr     Start character set
                                                       definition #1, with #2
                                                       characters in the set
          stop_bit_image              rbim      Zs     Stop printing bit
                                                       image graphics
          stop_char_set_def           rcsd      Zt     End definition of
                                                       character set #1
          subscript_characters        subcs     Zu     List of subscriptable
          superscript_characters      supcs     Zv     List of
          tab                         ht        ta     tab to next 8-space
                                                       hardware tab stop
          these_cause_cr              docr      Zw     Printing any of these
                                                       characters causes CR
          to_status_line              tsl       ts     move to status line,
                                                       column #1
          tone                        tone      TO     select touch tone
          underline_char              uc        uc     underline char and
                                                       move past it
          up_half_line                hu        hu     half a line up
          user0                       u0        u0     User string #0
          user1                       u1        u1     User string #1
          user2                       u2        u2     User string #2
          user3                       u3        u3     User string #3
          user4                       u4        u4     User string #4
          user5                       u5        u5     User string #5
          user6                       u6        u6     User string #6
          user7                       u7        u7     User string #7
          user8                       u8        u8     User string #8
          user9                       u9        u9     User string #9
          wait_tone                   wait      WA     wait for dial-tone
          xoff_character              xoffc     XF     XOFF character
          xon_character               xonc      XN     XON character
          zero_motion                 zerom     Zx     No motion for
                                                       subsequent character

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but were originally not documented in the man page.

                   Variable            Cap-       TCap      Description
                    String             name       Code
           alt_scancode_esc            scesa      S8     Alternate escape
                                                         for scancode
           bit_image_carriage_return   bicr       Yv     Move to beginning
                                                         of same row
           bit_image_newline           binel      Zz     Move to next row
                                                         of the bit image
           bit_image_repeat            birep      Xy     Repeat bit image
                                                         cell #1 #2 times
           char_set_names              csnm       Zy     Produce #1'th item
                                                         from list of
                                                         character set
           code_set_init               csin       ci     Init sequence for
                                                         multiple codesets
           color_names                 colornm    Yw     Give name for
                                                         color #1
           define_bit_image_region     defbi      Yx     Define rectangular
                                                         bit image region
           device_type                 devt       dv     Indicate
           display_pc_char             dispc      S1     Display PC
                                                         character #1
           end_bit_image_region        endbi      Yy     End a bit-image
           enter_pc_charset_mode       smpch      S2     Enter PC character
                                                         display mode
           enter_scancode_mode         smsc       S4     Enter PC scancode
           exit_pc_charset_mode        rmpch      S3     Exit PC character
                                                         display mode
           exit_scancode_mode          rmsc       S5     Exit PC scancode
           get_mouse                   getm       Gm     Curses should get
                                                         button events,
                                                         parameter #1 not
           key_mouse                   kmous      Km     Mouse event has
           mouse_info                  minfo      Mi     Mouse status
           pc_term_options             pctrm      S6     PC terminal
           pkey_plab                   pfxl       xl     Program function
                                                         key #1 to type
                                                         string #2 and show
                                                         string #3
           req_mouse_pos               reqmp      RQ     Request mouse
           scancode_escape             scesc      S7     Escape for
                                                         scancode emulation
           set0_des_seq                s0ds       s0     Shift to codeset 0
                                                         (EUC set 0, ASCII)
           set1_des_seq                s1ds       s1     Shift to codeset 1
           set2_des_seq                s2ds       s2     Shift to codeset 2
           set3_des_seq                s3ds       s3     Shift to codeset 3
           set_a_background            setab      AB     Set background
                                                         color to #1, using
                                                         ANSI escape
           set_a_foreground            setaf      AF     Set foreground
                                                         color to #1, using
                                                         ANSI escape
           set_color_band              setcolor   Yz     Change to ribbon
                                                         color #1
           set_lr_margin               smglr      ML     Set both left and
                                                         right margins to
                                                         #1, #2.  (ML is
                                                         not in BSD
           set_page_length             slines     YZ     Set page length to
                                                         #1 lines
           set_tb_margin               smgtb      MT     Sets both top and
                                                         bottom margins to
                                                         #1, #2

        The XSI Curses standard added these hardcopy capabilities.  They were
        used in some post-4.1 versions of System V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5 and
        IRIX 6.x.  Except for YI, the ncurses termcap names for them are
        invented.  According to the XSI Curses standard, they have no termcap
        names.  If your compiled terminfo entries use these, they may not be
        binary-compatible with System V terminfo entries after SVr4.1; beware!

                   Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                    String             name      Code
           enter_horizontal_hl_mode    ehhlm     Xh     Enter horizontal
                                                        highlight mode
           enter_left_hl_mode          elhlm     Xl     Enter left highlight
           enter_low_hl_mode           elohlm    Xo     Enter low highlight
           enter_right_hl_mode         erhlm     Xr     Enter right
                                                        highlight mode
           enter_top_hl_mode           ethlm     Xt     Enter top highlight
           enter_vertical_hl_mode      evhlm     Xv     Enter vertical
                                                        highlight mode
           set_a_attributes            sgr1      sA     Define second set of
                                                        video attributes
           set_pglen_inch              slength   YI     Set page length to
                                                        #1 hundredth of an
                                                        inch (some
                                                        implementations use
                                                        sL for termcap).

   User-Defined Capabilities
       The preceding section listed the predefined capabilities.  They deal with
       some special features for terminals no longer (or possibly never)
       produced.  Occasionally there are special features of newer terminals
       which are awkward or impossible to represent by reusing the predefined

       ncurses addresses this limitation by allowing user-defined capabilities.
       The tic and infocmp programs provide the -x option for this purpose.
       When -x is set, tic treats unknown capabilities as user-defined.  That
       is, if tic encounters a capability name which it does not recognize, it
       infers its type (boolean, number or string) from the syntax and makes an
       extended table entry for that capability.  The use_extended_names(3X)
       function makes this information conditionally available to applications.
       The ncurses library provides the data leaving most of the behavior to

       o   User-defined capability strings whose name begins with "k" are
           treated as function keys.

       o   The types (boolean, number, string) determined by tic can be inferred
           by successful calls on tigetflag, etc.

       o   If the capability name happens to be two characters, the capability
           is also available through the termcap interface.

       While termcap is said to be extensible because it does not use a
       predefined set of capabilities, in practice it has been limited to the
       capabilities defined by terminfo implementations.  As a rule, user-
       defined capabilities intended for use by termcap applications should be
       limited to booleans and numbers to avoid running past the 1023 byte limit
       assumed by termcap implementations and their applications.  In
       particular, providing extended sets of function keys (past the 60
       numbered keys and the handful of special named keys) is best done using
       the longer names available using terminfo.

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is
       representative of what a terminfo entry for a modern terminal typically
       looks like.

       ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
               am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
               colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
               bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
               cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
               cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
               cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
               dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
               el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
               ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
               indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
               kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
               mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
               rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
               rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
               s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
               setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
               sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
               smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
               u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

       Entries may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at the
       beginning of each line except the first.  Comments may be included on
       lines beginning with "#".  Capabilities in terminfo are of three types:

       o   Boolean capabilities which indicate that the terminal has some
           particular feature,

       o   numeric capabilities giving the size of the terminal or the size of
           particular delays, and

       o   string capabilities, which give a sequence which can be used to
           perform particular terminal operations.

   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
       terminals have automatic margins (i.e., an automatic return and line-feed
       when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the capability am.
       Hence the description of ansi includes am.  Numeric capabilities are
       followed by the character "#" and then a positive value.  Thus cols,
       which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives the value
       "80" for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be specified in
       decimal, octal or hexadecimal, using the C programming language
       conventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally, string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of line
       sequence) are given by the two-character code, an "=", and then a string
       ending at the next following ",".

       A number of escape sequences are provided in the string valued
       capabilities for easy encoding of characters there:

       o   Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character,

       o   ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and

       o   the sequences

             \n, \l, \r, \t, \b, \f, and \s


             newline, line-feed, return, tab, backspace, form-feed, and space,


       X/Open Curses does not say what "appropriate x" might be.  In practice,
       that is a printable ASCII graphic character.  The special case "^?" is
       interpreted as DEL (127).  In all other cases, the character value is
       AND'd with 0x1f, mapping to ASCII control codes in the range 0 through

       Other escapes include

       o   \^ for ^,

       o   \\ for \,

       o   \, for comma,

       o   \: for :,

       o   and \0 for null.

           \0 will produce \200, which does not terminate a string but behaves
           as a null character on most terminals, providing CS7 is specified.
           See stty(1).

           The reason for this quirk is to maintain binary compatibility of the
           compiled terminfo files with other implementations, e.g., the SVr4
           systems, which document this.  Compiled terminfo files use null-
           terminated strings, with no lengths.  Modifying this would require a
           new binary format, which would not work with other implementations.

       Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere in a string capability,
       enclosed in $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>, and padding characters are
       supplied by tputs(3X) to provide this delay.

       o   The delay must be a number with at most one decimal place of
           precision; it may be followed by suffixes "*" or "/" or both.

       o   A "*" indicates that the padding required is proportional to the
           number of lines affected by the operation, and the amount given is
           the per-affected-unit padding required.  (In the case of insert
           character, the factor is still the number of lines affected.)

           Normally, padding is advisory if the device has the xon capability;
           it is used for cost computation but does not trigger delays.

       o   A "/" suffix indicates that the padding is mandatory and forces a
           delay of the given number of milliseconds even on devices for which
           xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To do this, put
       a period before the capability name.  For example, see the second ind in
       the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       The ncurses library searches for terminal descriptions in several places.
       It uses only the first description found.  The library has a compiled-in
       list of places to search which can be overridden by environment
       variables.  Before starting to search, ncurses eliminates duplicates in
       its search list.

       o   If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted as the
           pathname of a directory containing the compiled description you are
           working on.  Only that directory is searched.

       o   If TERMINFO is not set, ncurses will instead look in the directory
           $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled description.

       o   Next, if the environment variable TERMINFO_DIRS is set, ncurses will
           interpret the contents of that variable as a list of colon-separated
           directories (or database files) to be searched.

           An empty directory name (i.e., if the variable begins or ends with a
           colon, or contains adjacent colons) is interpreted as the system
           location /opt/local/share/terminfo.

       o   Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

           o   a list of directories (no default value), and

           o   the system terminfo directory, /opt/local/share/terminfo (the
               compiled-in default).

   Preparing Descriptions
       We now outline how to prepare descriptions of terminals.  The most
       effective way to prepare a terminal description is by imitating the
       description of a similar terminal in terminfo and to build up a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other
       screen-oriented program to check that they are correct.  Be aware that a
       very unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the ability of the
       terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the
       test program.

       To get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer
       did not document it) a severe test is to edit a large file at 9600 baud,
       delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the "u" key
       several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding is
       usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The number of columns on each line for the terminal is given by the cols
       numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the number of lines
       on the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the terminal wraps
       around to the beginning of the next line when it reaches the right
       margin, then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal can clear
       its screen, leaving the cursor in the home position, then this is given
       by the clear string capability.  If the terminal overstrikes (rather than
       clearing a position when a character is struck over) then it should have
       the os capability.  If the terminal is a printing terminal, with no soft
       copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os applies to storage scope
       terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as well as hard copy and APL
       terminals.)  If there is a code to move the cursor to the left edge of
       the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally this will be carriage
       return, control/M.)  If there is a code to produce an audible signal
       (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace) that capability should be given as cub1.  Similarly, codes to
       move to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and cud1.
       These local cursor motions should not alter the text they pass over, for
       example, you would not normally use "cuf1= " because the space would
       erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       terminfo are undefined at the left and top edges of a CRT terminal.
       Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge, unless
       bw is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In order to
       scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner of the screen
       and send the ind (index) string.

       To scroll text down, a program goes to the top left corner of the screen
       and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind and ri are
       undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences are indn and rin which
       have the same semantics as ind and ri except that they take one
       parameter, and scroll that many lines.  They are also undefined except at
       the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge of
       the screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply to a
       cuf1 from the last column.  The only local motion which is defined from
       the left edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from the left edge will move
       to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is not given, the effect is
       undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box around the edge of the
       screen, for example.  If the terminal has switch selectable automatic
       margins, the terminfo file usually assumes that this is on; i.e., am.  If
       the terminal has a command which moves to the first column of the next
       line, that command can be given as nel (newline).  It does not matter if
       the command clears the remainder of the current line, so if the terminal
       has no cr and lf it may still be possible to craft a working nel out of
       one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and "glass-tty"
       terminals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
               bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
               am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
               ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the terminal
       are described by a parameterized string capability, with printf-like
       escapes such as %x in it.  For example, to address the cursor, the cup
       capability is given, using two parameters: the row and column to address
       to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to the physical
       screen visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.)  If the terminal
       has memory relative cursor addressing, that can be indicated by mrcup.

       The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to manipulate
       it.  Typically a sequence will push one of the parameters onto the stack
       and then print it in some format.  Print (e.g., "%d") is a special case.
       Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand from the stack.  It is
       noted that more complex operations are often necessary, e.g., in the sgr

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs "%"

            as in printf(3), flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a ":" to allow the
            next character to be a "-" flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as an

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

            push i'th parameter

            set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

            set static variable [a-z] to pop()

            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The terms "static" and "dynamic" are misleading.  Historically,
            these are simply two different sets of variables, whose values are
            not reset between calls to tparm(3X).  However, that fact is not
            documented in other implementations.  Relying on it will adversely
            impact portability to other implementations:

            o   SVr2 curses supported dynamic variables.  Those are set only by
                a %P operator.  A %g for a given variable without first setting
                it with %P will give unpredictable results, because dynamic
                variables are an uninitialized local array on the stack in the
                tparm function.

            o   SVr3.2 curses supported static variables.  Those are an array in
                the TERMINAL structure (declared in term.h), and are zeroed
                automatically when the setupterm function allocates the data.

            o   SVr4 curses made no further improvements to the dynamic/static
                variable feature.

            o   Solaris XPG4 curses does not distinguish between dynamic and
                static variables.  They are the same.  Like SVr4 curses, XPG4
                curses does not initialize these explicitly.

            o   Before version 6.3, ncurses stores both dynamic and static
                variables in persistent storage, initialized to zeros.

            o   Beginning with version 6.3, ncurses stores static and dynamic
                variables in the same manner as SVr4.

                o   Unlike other implementations, ncurses zeros dynamic
                    variables before the first %g or %P operator.

                o   Like SVr2, the scope of dynamic variables in ncurses is
                    within the current call to tparm.  Use static variables if
                    persistent storage is needed.

       %'c' char constant c

            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %&, %|, %^
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %=, %>, %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %!, %~
            unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            This forms an if-then-else.  The %e elsepart is optional.  Usually
            the %? expr part pushes a value onto the stack, and %t pops it from
            the stack, testing if it is nonzero (true).  If it is zero (false),
            control passes to the %e (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use the -f option of tic or infocmp to see the structure of if-then-
            else's.  Some strings, e.g., sgr can be very complicated when
            written on one line.  The -f option splits the string into lines
            with the parts indented.

       Binary operations are in postfix form with the operands in the usual
       order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g
       variables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to be
       sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of the
       rows and columns is inverted here, and that the row and column are
       printed as two digits.  Thus its cup capability is

       The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by a
       ^T, with the row and column simply encoded in binary, "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".
       Terminals which use "%c" need to be able to backspace the cursor (cub1),
       and to move the cursor up one line on the screen (cuu1).  This is
       necessary because it is not always safe to transmit \n ^D and \r, as the
       system may change or discard them.  (The library routines dealing with
       terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are never expanded, so \t is safe to
       send.  This turns out to be essential for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by a
       blank character, thus "cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c".  After sending
       "\E=", this pushes the first parameter, pushes the ASCII value for a
       space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two
       previous values) and outputs that value as a character.  Then the same is
       done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is possible using
       the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left
       corner of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly a fast way of
       getting to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll; this may
       involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program should
       never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no assumption
       about the effect of moving up from the home position.  Note that the home
       position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left corner of
       the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP terminals
       cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
       be given as single parameter capabilities hpa (horizontal position
       absolute) and vpa (vertical position absolute).  Sometimes these are
       shorter than the more general two parameter sequence (as with the hp2645)
       and can be used in preference to cup.  If there are parameterized local
       motions (e.g., move n spaces to the right) these can be given as cud,
       cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter indicating how many spaces to
       move.  These are primarily useful if the terminal does not have cup, such
       as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running a program that
       uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can be
       given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from terminals like
       the Concept with more than one page of memory.  If the terminal has only
       memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative cursor
       addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the terminal for
       cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for the TEKTRONIX
       4025, where smcup sets the command character to be the one used by
       terminfo.  If the smcup sequence will not restore the screen after an
       rmcup sequence is output (to the state prior to outputting rmcup),
       specify nrrmc.

       SVr4 (and X/Open Curses) list several string capabilities for setting
       margins.  Two were intended for use with terminals, and another six were
       intended for use with printers.

       o   The two terminal capabilities assume that the terminal may have the
           capability of setting the left and/or right margin at the current
           cursor column position.

       o   The printer capabilities assume that the printer may have two types
           of capability:

           o   the ability to set a top and/or bottom margin using the current
               line position, and

           o   parameterized capabilities for setting the top, bottom, left,
               right margins given the number of rows or columns.

       In practice, the categorization into "terminal" and "printer" is not

       o   The AT&T SVr4 terminal database uses smgl four times, for AT&T

           Three of the four are printers.  They lack the ability to set
           left/right margins by specifying the column.

       o   Other (non-AT&T) terminals may support margins but using different
           assumptions from AT&T.

           For instance, the DEC VT420 supports left/right margins, but only
           using a column parameter.  As an added complication, the VT420 uses
           two settings to fully enable left/right margins (left/right margin
           mode, and origin mode).  The former enables the margins, which causes
           printed text to wrap within margins, but the latter is needed to
           prevent cursor-addressing outside those margins.

       o   Both DEC VT420 left/right margins are set with a single control
           sequence.  If either is omitted, the corresponding margin is set to
           the left or right edge of the display (rather than leaving the margin

       These are the margin-related capabilities:

                 Name       Description
                 smgl       Set left margin at current column
                 smgr       Set right margin at current column
                 smgb       Set bottom margin at current line
                 smgt       Set top margin at current line
                 smgbp      Set bottom margin at line N
                 smglp      Set left margin at column N
                 smgrp      Set right margin at column N
                 smgtp      Set top margin at line N
                 smglr      Set both left and right margins to L and R
                 smgtb      Set both top and bottom margins to T and B

       When writing an application that uses these string capabilities, the
       pairs should be first checked to see if each capability in the pair is
       set or only one is set:

       o   If both smglp and smgrp are set, each is used with a single argument,
           N, that gives the column number of the left and right margin,

       o   If both smgtp and smgbp are set, each is used to set the top and
           bottom margin, respectively:

           o   smgtp is used with a single argument, N, the line number of the
               top margin.

           o   smgbp is used with two arguments, N and M, that give the line
               number of the bottom margin, the first counting from the top of
               the page and the second counting from the bottom.  This
               accommodates the two styles of specifying the bottom margin in
               different manufacturers' printers.

           When designing a terminfo entry for a printer that has a settable
           bottom margin, only the first or second argument should be used,
           depending on the printer.  When developing an application that uses
           smgbp to set the bottom margin, both arguments must be given.

       Conversely, when only one capability in the pair is set:

       o   If only one of smglp and smgrp is set, then it is used with two
           arguments, the column number of the left and right margins, in that

       o   Likewise, if only one of smgtp and smgbp is set, then it is used with
           two arguments that give the top and bottom margins, in that order,
           counting from the top of the page.

           When designing a terminfo entry for a printer that requires setting
           both left and right or top and bottom margins simultaneously, only
           one capability in the pairs smglp and smgrp or smgtp and smgbp should
           be defined, leaving the other unset.

       Except for very old terminal descriptions, e.g., those developed for
       SVr4, the scheme just described should be considered obsolete.  An
       improved set of capabilities was added late in the SVr4 releases (smglr
       and smgtb), which explicitly use two parameters for setting the
       left/right or top/bottom margins.

       When setting margins, the line- and column-values are zero-based.

       The mgc string capability should be defined.  Applications such as
       tabs(1) rely upon this to reset all margins.

   Area Clears
       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
       line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as el.  If the
       terminal can clear from the beginning of the line to the current position
       inclusive, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as el1.
       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
       display, then this should be given as ed.  Ed is only defined from the
       first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated by a request to
       delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not available.)

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If the terminal can open a new blank line before the line where the
       cursor is, this should be given as il1; this is done only from the first
       position of a line.  The cursor must then appear on the newly blank line.
       If the terminal can delete the line which the cursor is on, then this
       should be given as dl1; this is done only from the first position on the
       line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which take a single
       parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as il and dl.

       If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like the vt100) the
       command to set this can be described with the csr capability, which takes
       two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region.  The
       cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr on a
       properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor) commands
       may be useful for ensuring that your synthesized insert/delete string
       does not move the cursor.  (Note that the ncurses(3X) library does this
       synthesis automatically, so you need not compose insert/delete strings
       for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a
       combination of index with the memory-lock feature found on some terminals
       (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has insert/delete).

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen can also be done using
       ri or ind on many terminals without a true insert/delete line, and is
       often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each scrolling window
       is effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.  To test for this
       capability, create a scrolling region in the middle of the screen, write
       something to the bottom line, move the cursor to the top of the region,
       and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off the bottom of
       the region by the ri re-appears, then scrolling is non-destructive.
       System V and XSI Curses expect that ind, ri, indn, and rin will simulate
       destructive scrolling; their documentation cautions you not to define csr
       unless this is true.  This curses implementation is more liberal and will
       do explicit erases after scrolling if ndsrc is defined.

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory,
       which all commands affect, it should be given as the parameterized string
       wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines in memory
       and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability
       should be given; if display memory can be retained below, then db should
       be given.  These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling may bring
       non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri may bring
       down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals with respect to
       insert/delete character which can be described using terminfo.  The most
       common insert/delete character operations affect only the characters on
       the current line and shift characters off the end of the line rigidly.
       Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer Owl, make a
       distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen, shifting upon
       an insert or delete only to an untyped blank on the screen which is
       either eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.

       You can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the screen
       and then typing text separated by cursor motions.  Type "abc    def"
       using local cursor motions (not spaces) between the "abc" and the "def".
       Then position the cursor before the "abc" and put the terminal in insert
       mode.  If typing characters causes the rest of the line to shift rigidly
       and characters to fall off the end, then your terminal does not
       distinguish between blanks and untyped positions.  If the "abc" shifts
       over to the "def" which then move together around the end of the current
       line and onto the next as you insert, you have the second type of
       terminal, and should give the capability in, which stands for "insert

       While these are two logically separate attributes (one line versus multi-
       line insert mode, and special treatment of untyped spaces) we have seen
       no terminals whose insert mode cannot be described with the single

       Terminfo can describe both terminals which have an insert mode, and
       terminals which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on the
       current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give
       as rmir the sequence to leave insert mode.  Now give as ich1 any sequence
       needed to be sent just before sending the character to be inserted.  Most
       terminals with a true insert mode will not give ich1; terminals which
       send a sequence to open a screen position should give it here.

       If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable to ich1.
       Technically, you should not give both unless the terminal actually
       requires both to be used in combination.  Accordingly, some non-curses
       applications get confused if both are present; the symptom is doubled
       characters in an update using insert.  This requirement is now rare; most
       ich sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir insert modes do
       not require ich1 before each character.  Therefore, the new curses
       actually assumes this is the case and uses either rmir/smir or ich/ich1
       as appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write an entry to be used
       under new curses for a terminal old enough to need both, include the
       rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds
       in ip (a string option).  Any other sequence which may need to be sent
       after an insert of a single character may also be given in ip.  If your
       terminal needs both to be placed into an "insert mode" and a special code
       to precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir and ich1 can be
       given, and both will be used.  The ich capability, with one parameter, n,
       will repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed while not in insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It is occasionally necessary to move around while in insert mode to
       delete characters on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab after the
       insertion position).  If your terminal allows motion while in insert mode
       you can give the capability mir to speed up inserting in this case.
       Omitting mir will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably
       Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the way their insert mode

       Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch with one
       parameter, n, to delete n characters, and delete mode by giving smdc and
       rmdc to enter and exit delete mode (any mode the terminal needs to be
       placed in for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters (equivalent to outputting n blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
       be represented in a number of different ways.  You should choose one
       display form as standout mode, representing a good, high contrast, easy-
       on-the-eyes, format for highlighting error messages and other attention
       getters.  (If you have a choice, reverse video plus half-bright is good,
       or reverse video alone.)  The sequences to enter and exit standout mode
       are given as smso and rmso, respectively.  If the code to change into or
       out of standout mode leaves one or even two blank spaces on the screen,
       as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then xmc should be given to tell how
       many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and
       rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
       character and move the cursor one space to the right, such as the
       Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other capabilities to enter various highlighting modes include blink
       (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or half-bright) invis
       (blanking or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video) sgr0
       (turn off all attribute modes) smacs (enter alternate character set mode)
       and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on any of these
       modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of modes, this
       should be given as sgr (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each
       parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is on or
       off.  The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline, reverse,
       blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate character set.  Not all modes
       need be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding separate
       attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

                tparm parameter      attribute        escape sequence

                none                 none             \E[0m
                p1                   standout         \E[0;1;7m
                p2                   underline        \E[0;4m
                p3                   reverse          \E[0;7m
                p4                   blink            \E[0;5m
                p5                   dim              not available
                p6                   bold             \E[0;1m
                p7                   invis            \E[0;8m
                p8                   protect          not used
                p9                   altcharset       ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes, since
       there is no quick way to determine whether they are active.  Standout is
       set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.  The vt220 terminal has
       a protect mode, though it is not commonly used in sgr because it protects
       characters on the screen from the host's erasures.  The altcharset mode
       also is different in that it is either ^O or ^N, depending on whether it
       is off or on.  If all modes are turned on, the resulting sequence is

       Some sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is output
       when either p1 or p3 is true, that is, if either standout or reverse
       modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

             sequence             when to output      terminfo translation

             \E[0                 always              \E[0
             ;1                   if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
             ;4                   if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
             ;5                   if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
             ;7                   if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
             ;8                   if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
             m                    always              m
             ^N or ^O             if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember that if you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.  Also, some
       implementations rely on sgr being given if sgr0 is, Not all terminfo
       entries necessarily have an sgr string, however.  Many terminfo entries
       are derived from termcap entries which have no sgr string.  The only
       drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap also assumes that sgr0
       does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals with the "magic cookie" glitch (xmc) deposit special "cookies"
       when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the display
       algorithm rather than having extra bits for each character.  Some
       terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically leave standout mode when
       they move to a new line or the cursor is addressed.  Programs using
       standout mode should exit standout mode before moving the cursor or
       sending a newline, unless the msgr capability, asserting that it is safe
       to move in standout mode, is present.

       If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
       quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given as flash; it must not
       move the cursor.

       If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not on
       the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into an
       easier to find block or blinking underline) give this sequence as cvvis.
       If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give that as
       civis.  The capability cnorm should be given which undoes the effects of
       both of these modes.

       If your terminal correctly generates underlined characters (with no
       special codes needed) even though it does not overstrike, then you should
       give the capability ul.  If a character overstriking another leaves both
       characters on the screen, specify the capability os.  If overstrikes are
       erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are
       pressed, this information can be given.  Note that it is not possible to
       handle terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies, for
       example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be set to
       transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.  Otherwise
       the keypad is assumed to always transmit.

       The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down arrow, and
       home keys can be given as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome
       respectively.  If there are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the
       codes they send can be given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys have
       labels other than the default f0 through f10, the labels can be given as
       lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given:

       o   kll (home down),

       o   kbs (backspace),

       o   ktbc (clear all tabs),

       o   kctab (clear the tab stop in this column),

       o   kclr (clear screen or erase key),

       o   kdch1 (delete character),

       o   kdl1 (delete line),

       o   krmir (exit insert mode),

       o   kel (clear to end of line),

       o   ked (clear to end of screen),

       o   kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

       o   kil1 (insert line),

       o   knp (next page),

       o   kpp (previous page),

       o   kind (scroll forward/down),

       o   kri (scroll backward/up),

       o   khts (set a tab stop in this column).

       In addition, if the keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the four
       arrow keys, the other five keys can be given as ka1, ka3, kb2, kc1, and
       kc3.  These keys are useful when the effects of a 3 by 3 directional pad
       are needed.

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.
       A string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.  Each of
       these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to program
       (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.  Function key numbers
       out of this range may program undefined keys in a terminal dependent
       manner.  The difference between the capabilities is that pfkey causes
       pressing the given key to be the same as the user typing the given
       string; pfloc causes the string to be executed by the terminal in local;
       and pfx causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh define the number of programmable screen
       labels and their width and height.  If there are commands to turn the
       labels on and off, give them in smln and rmln.  smln is normally output
       after one or more pln sequences to make sure that the change becomes

   Tabs and Initialization
       A few capabilities are used only for tabs:

       o   If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to the next
           tab stop can be given as ht (usually control/I).

       o   A "back-tab" command which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop
           can be given as cbt.

           By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being
           expanded by the computer rather than being sent to the terminal,
           programs should not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since the
           user may not have the tab stops properly set.

       o   If the terminal has hardware tabs which are initially set every n
           spaces when the terminal is powered up, the numeric parameter it is
           given, showing the number of spaces the tabs are set to.

           The it capability is normally used by the tset command to determine
           whether to set the mode for hardware tab expansion, and whether to
           set the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops that can be saved
           in non-volatile memory, the terminfo description can assume that they
           are properly set.

       Other capabilities include

       o   is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings for the terminal,

       o   iprog, the path name of a program to be run to initialize the

       o   and if, the name of a file containing long initialization strings.

       These strings are expected to set the terminal into modes consistent with
       the rest of the terminfo description.  They are normally sent to the
       terminal, by the init option of the tput program, each time the user logs
       in.  They will be printed in the following order:

              run the program

                     is1 and

              set the margins using
                     mgc or
                     smglp and smgrp or
                     smgl and smgr

              set tabs using
                     tbc and hts

              print the file

              and finally output

       Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal modes can be set
       up without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in is2 and
       special cases in is1 and is3.

       A set of sequences that does a harder reset from a totally unknown state
       can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2 , if and is3
       respectively.  These strings are output by reset option of tput, or by
       the reset program (an alias of tset), which is used when the terminal
       gets into a wedged state.  Commands are normally placed in rs1, rs2 rs3
       and rf only if they produce annoying effects on the screen and are not
       necessary when logging in.  For example, the command to set the vt100
       into 80-column mode would normally be part of is2, but it causes an
       annoying glitch of the screen and is not normally needed since the
       terminal is usually already in 80-column mode.

       The reset program writes strings including iprog, etc., in the same order
       as the init program, using rs1, etc., instead of is1, etc.  If any of
       rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are missing, the reset
       program falls back upon the corresponding initialization capability

       If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as
       tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current column
       of every row).  If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs than
       can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

       The tput reset command uses the same capability strings as the reset
       command, although the two programs (tput and reset) provide different
       command-line options.

       In practice, these terminfo capabilities are not often used in
       initialization of tabs (though they are required for the tabs program):

       o   Almost all hardware terminals (at least those which supported tabs)
           initialized those to every eight columns:

           The only exception was the AT&T 2300 series, which set tabs to every
           five columns.

       o   In particular, developers of the hardware terminals which are
           commonly used as models for modern terminal emulators provided
           documentation demonstrating that eight columns were the standard.

       o   Because of this, the terminal initialization programs tput and tset
           use the tbc (clear_all_tabs) and hts (set_tab) capabilities directly
           only when the it (init_tabs) capability is set to a value other than

   Delays and Padding
       Many older and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF or DTR
       handshaking, including hard copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs
       (including, for example, DEC VT100s).  These may require padding
       characters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is, it
       automatically emits ^S back to the host when its input buffers are close
       to full), set xon.  This capability suppresses the emission of padding.
       You can also set it for memory-mapped console devices effectively that do
       not have a speed limit.  Padding information should still be included so
       that routines can make better decisions about relative costs, but actual
       pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
       below the value of pb.  If the entry has no padding baud rate, then
       whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
       string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some terminals have an extra "status line" which is not normally used by
       software (and thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

       The simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but not
       part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a
       status line of this kind, as would a 24-line VT100 with a 23-line
       scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is indicated
       by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to access the
       status line.  These may be expressed as a string with single parameter
       tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the status
       line.  The capability fsl must return to the main-screen cursor positions
       before the last tsl.  You may need to embed the string values of sc (save
       cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl and fsl to accomplish this.

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as the width of
       the terminal.  If this is untrue, you can specify it with the numeric
       capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The boolean capability eslok specifies that escape sequences, tabs, etc.,
       work ordinarily in the status line.

       The ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these capabilities.
       They are documented here in case they ever become important.

   Line Graphics
       Many terminals have alternate character sets useful for forms-drawing.
       Terminfo and curses have built-in support for most of the drawing
       characters supported by the VT100, with some characters from the AT&T
       4410v1 added.  This alternate character set may be specified by the acsc

          Glyph                       ACS            Ascii     acsc     acsc
          Name                        Name           Default   Char     Value
          arrow pointing right        ACS_RARROW     >         +        0x2b
          arrow pointing left         ACS_LARROW     <         ,        0x2c
          arrow pointing up           ACS_UARROW     ^         -        0x2d
          arrow pointing down         ACS_DARROW     v         .        0x2e
          solid square block          ACS_BLOCK      #         0        0x30
          diamond                     ACS_DIAMOND    +         `        0x60
          checker board (stipple)     ACS_CKBOARD    :         a        0x61
          degree symbol               ACS_DEGREE     \         f        0x66
          plus/minus                  ACS_PLMINUS    #         g        0x67
          board of squares            ACS_BOARD      #         h        0x68
          lantern symbol              ACS_LANTERN    #         i        0x69
          lower right corner          ACS_LRCORNER   +         j        0x6a
          upper right corner          ACS_URCORNER   +         k        0x6b
          upper left corner           ACS_ULCORNER   +         l        0x6c
          lower left corner           ACS_LLCORNER   +         m        0x6d
          large plus or crossover     ACS_PLUS       +         n        0x6e
          scan line 1                 ACS_S1         ~         o        0x6f
          scan line 3                 ACS_S3         -         p        0x70
          horizontal line             ACS_HLINE      -         q        0x71
          scan line 7                 ACS_S7         -         r        0x72
          scan line 9                 ACS_S9         _         s        0x73
          tee pointing right          ACS_LTEE       +         t        0x74
          tee pointing left           ACS_RTEE       +         u        0x75
          tee pointing up             ACS_BTEE       +         v        0x76
          tee pointing down           ACS_TTEE       +         w        0x77
          vertical line               ACS_VLINE      |         x        0x78
          less-than-or-equal-to       ACS_LEQUAL     <         y        0x79
          greater-than-or-equal-to    ACS_GEQUAL     >         z        0x7a
          greek pi                    ACS_PI         *         {        0x7b
          not-equal                   ACS_NEQUAL     !         |        0x7c
          UK pound sign               ACS_STERLING   f         }        0x7d
          bullet                      ACS_BULLET     o         ~        0x7e

       A few notes apply to the table itself:

       o   X/Open Curses incorrectly states that the mapping for lantern is
           uppercase "I" although Unix implementations use the lowercase "i"

       o   The DEC VT100 implemented graphics using the alternate character set
           feature, temporarily switching modes and sending characters in the
           range 0x60 (96) to 0x7e (126) (the acsc Value column in the table).

       o   The AT&T terminal added graphics characters outside that range.

           Some of the characters within the range do not match the VT100;
           presumably they were used in the AT&T terminal: board of squares
           replaces the VT100 newline symbol, while lantern symbol replaces the
           VT100 vertical tab symbol.  The other VT100 symbols for control
           characters (horizontal tab, carriage return and line-feed) are not
           (re)used in curses.

       The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add a column to
       a copy of this table for your terminal, giving the character which (when
       emitted between smacs/rmacs switches) will be rendered as the
       corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character
       pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
       The curses library functions init_pair and init_color manipulate the
       color pairs and color values discussed in this section (see
       curs_color(3X) for details on these and related functions).

       Most color terminals are either "Tektronix-like" or "HP-like":

       o   Tektronix-like terminals have a predefined set of N colors (where N
           is usually 8), and can set character-cell foreground and background
           characters independently, mixing them into N * N color-pairs.

       o   On HP-like terminals, the user must set each color pair up separately
           (foreground and background are not independently settable).  Up to M
           color-pairs may be set up from 2*M different colors.  ANSI-compatible
           terminals are Tektronix-like.

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The
       numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify the maximum numbers of
       colors and color-pairs that can be displayed simultaneously.  The op
       (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their
       default values for the terminal.  The oc string resets all colors or
       color-pairs to their default values for the terminal.  Some terminals
       (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the
       current background color rather than the power-up default background;
       these should have the boolean capability bce.

       While the curses library works with color pairs (reflecting the inability
       of some devices to set foreground and background colors independently),
       there are separate capabilities for setting these features:

       o   To change the current foreground or background color on a Tektronix-
           type terminal, use setaf (set ANSI foreground) and setab (set ANSI
           background) or setf (set foreground) and setb (set background).
           These take one parameter, the color number.  The SVr4 documentation
           describes only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft says that "If the terminal
           supports ANSI escape sequences to set background and foreground, they
           should be coded as setaf and setab, respectively.

       o   If the terminal supports other escape sequences to set background and
           foreground, they should be coded as setf and setb, respectively.  The
           vidputs and the refresh(3X) functions use the setaf and setab
           capabilities if they are defined.

       The setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric argument
       each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab are portably defined as follows
       (the middle column is the symbolic #define available in the header for
       the curses or ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware is free to map
       these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal locations in color

                     Color       #define       Value       RGB
                     black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                     red       COLOR_RED         1     max,0,0
                     green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                     yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max,max,0
                     blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,0,max
                     magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                     cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,max,max
                     white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a different
       mapping, i.e.,

                     Color       #define       Value       RGB
                     black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                     blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,0,max
                     green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                     cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,max,max
                     red       COLOR_RED         4     max,0,0
                     magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                     yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max,max,0
                     white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities;
       otherwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number parameter to set
       which color pair is current.

       Some terminals allow the color values to be modified:

       o   On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability ccc may be present to
           indicate that colors can be modified.  If so, the initc capability
           will take a color number (0 to colors - 1)and three more parameters
           which describe the color.  These three parameters default to being
           interpreted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.  If the boolean
           capability hls is present, they are instead as HLS (Hue, Lightness,
           Saturation) indices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       o   On an HP-like terminal, initp may give a capability for changing a
           color-pair value.  It will take seven parameters; a color-pair number
           (0 to max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing first background and
           then foreground colors.  These parameters must be (Red, Green, Blue)
           or (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

       On some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can
       register these collisions with the ncv capability.  This is a bit-mask of
       attributes not to be used when colors are enabled.  The correspondence
       with the attributes understood by curses is as follows:

                   Attribute              Bit   Decimal      Set by
                   A_STANDOUT             0     1            sgr
                   A_UNDERLINE            1     2            sgr
                   A_REVERSE              2     4            sgr
                   A_BLINK                3     8            sgr
                   A_DIM                  4     16           sgr
                   A_BOLD                 5     32           sgr
                   A_INVIS                6     64           sgr
                   A_PROTECT              7     128          sgr
                   A_ALTCHARSET           8     256          sgr
                   A_HORIZONTAL           9     512          sgr1
                   A_LEFT                 10    1024         sgr1
                   A_LOW                  11    2048         sgr1
                   A_RIGHT                12    4096         sgr1
                   A_TOP                  13    8192         sgr1
                   A_VERTICAL             14    16384        sgr1
                   A_ITALIC               15    32768        sitm

       For example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute collides
       with the foreground color blue and is not available in color mode.  These
       should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4 curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and optimizes
       the output in favor of colors.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
       string is used.  If the terminal does not have a pad character, specify
       npc.  Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC variable;
       though the application may set this value to something other than a null,
       ncurses will test npc first and use napms if the terminal has no pad

       If the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).  This is primarily useful
       for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy terminals.  If a hard-copy
       terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this as ff (usually

       If there is a command to repeat a given character a given number of times
       (to save time transmitting a large number of identical characters) this
       can be indicated with the parameterized string rep.  The first parameter
       is the character to be repeated and the second is the number of times to
       repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the same as

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
       4025, this can be indicated with cmdch.  A prototype command character is
       chosen which is used in all capabilities.  This character is given in the
       cmdch capability to identify it.  The following convention is supported
       on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a CC
       variable, and if found, all occurrences of the prototype character are
       replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific kind of known
       terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and network, should include the
       gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they do not
       know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not apply to
       virtual terminal descriptions for which the escape sequences are known.)

       If the terminal has a "meta key" which acts as a shift key, setting the
       8th bit of any character transmitted, this fact can be indicated with km.
       Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th bit is parity and it will
       usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this "meta mode" on and
       off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at
       once, the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A value of
       lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there is
       still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual terminal
       protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to the
       terminal can be given as mc0: print the contents of the screen, mc4: turn
       off the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When the printer is on,
       all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the printer.  It is
       undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen when
       the printer is on.  A variation mc5p takes one parameter, and leaves the
       printer on for as many characters as the value of the parameter, then
       turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed 255.  All text,
       including mc4, is transparently passed to the printer while an mc5p is in

   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow "~" characters to be displayed
       should indicate hz.

       Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap, such as
       the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If el is required to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the variable indicating
       this is now "dest_tabs_magic_smso"; in older versions, it was
       teleray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not
       possible to position the cursor on top of a "magic cookie", that to erase
       standout mode it is instead necessary to use delete and insert line.  The
       ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the escape or
       control/C characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1 key is used for
       escape and f2 for control/C.  (Only certain Superbees have this problem,
       depending on the ROM.)  Note that in older terminfo versions, this
       capability was called "beehive_glitch"; it is now "no_esc_ctl_c".

       Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more
       capabilities of the form xx.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry has
       even approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-table maximum.
       Unfortunately, the termcap translations are much more strictly limited
       (to 1023 bytes), thus termcap translations of long terminfo entries can
       cause problems.

       The man pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent instruct the user
       to allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.  The entry gets
       null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes the maximum safe
       length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending on what the
       application and the termcap library being used does, and where in the
       termcap file the terminal type that tgetent is searching for is, several
       bad things can happen.

       Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find an
       entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the
       entries to 1023 bytes.  Some application programs allocate more than the
       recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with it: before
       "tc" expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability that
       tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add on
       its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability,
       then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because it
       affects more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is the
       length of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the backslash-
       newline pairs, which tgetent strips out while reading it.  Some termcap
       libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).  Now

       o   a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       o   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       o   and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads
           the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length, to see if
           it is the entry it wants,

       o   and tgetent is searching for a terminal type that either is the long
           entry, appears in the termcap file after the long entry, or does not
           appear in the file at all (so that tgetent has to search the whole
           termcap file).

       Then tgetent will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack, and probably core
       dump the program.  Programs like telnet are particularly vulnerable;
       modern telnets pass along values like the terminal type automatically.
       The results are almost as undesirable with a termcap library, like SunOS
       4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages when it reads an
       overly long termcap entry.  If a termcap library truncates long entries,
       like OSF/1 3.0, it is immune to dying here but will return incorrect data
       for the terminal.

       The "after tc expansion" length will have a similar effect to the above,
       but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal type, since
       tgetent only does "tc" expansion once it is found the terminal type it
       was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can cause, on
       various combinations of termcap libraries and applications, a core dump,
       warnings, or incorrect operation.  If it is too long even before "tc"
       expansion, it will have this effect even for users of some other terminal
       types and users whose TERM variable does not have a termcap entry.

       When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of
       tic(1M) issues warning messages when the pre-tc length of a termcap
       translation is too long.  The -c (check) option also checks resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It is not wise to count on portability of binary terminfo entries between
       commercial UNIX versions.  The problem is that there are at least two
       versions of terminfo (under HP-UX and AIX) which diverged from System V
       terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension capabilities to the string
       table that (in the binary format) collide with System V and XSI Curses


       Searching for terminal descriptions in $HOME/.terminfo and TERMINFO_DIRS
       is not supported by older implementations.

       Some SVr4 curses implementations, and all previous to SVr4, do not
       interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether msgr licenses movement while in an
       alternate-character-set mode (such modes may, among other things, map CR
       and NL to characters that do not trigger local motions).  The ncurses
       implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises the
       possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite
       interpretation may need terminfo entries made for ncurses to have msgr
       turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character modes
       in a slightly non-standard way to get better update efficiency.  See the
       Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The parameter substitutions for set_clock and display_clock are not
       documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They are deduced from the
       documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be careful assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses library wants to
       interpret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals and emulators like xterm
       that can return mouse-tracking information in the keyboard-input stream.

       X/Open Curses does not mention italics.  Portable applications must
       assume that numeric capabilities are signed 16-bit values.  This includes
       the no_color_video (ncv) capability.  The 32768 mask value used for
       italics with ncv can be confused with an absent or cancelled ncv.  If
       italics should work with colors, then the ncv value must be specified,
       even if it is zero.

       Different commercial ports of terminfo and curses support different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different
       extension sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       o   SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       o   SGI -- Supports the SVr4 set, adds one undocumented extended string
           capability (set_pglen).

       o   SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo
           capabilities.  The booleans end with xon_xoff; the numerics with
           width_status_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       o   HP/UX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus the SVr[234] numerics
           num_labels, label_height, label_width, plus function keys 11 through
           63, plus plab_norm, label_on, and label_off, plus some incompatible
           extensions in the string table.

       o   AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63,
           plus a number of incompatible string table extensions.

       o   OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.


                                files containing terminal descriptions


       infocmp(1M), tabs(1), tic(1M), curses(3X), curs_color(3X),
       curs_variables(3X), printf(3), term_variables(3X).  term(5).


       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.


ncurses 6.4 - Generated Fri Jan 6 19:42:31 CST 2023
© 2000-2024
Individual documents may contain additional copyright information.