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INTRO(3TIFF)                                                      INTRO(3TIFF)




NAME

       libtiff  -  introduction  to libtiff, a library for reading and writing
       TIFF files


SYNOPSIS

       #include <tiffio.h>

       cc file.c -ltiff


DESCRIPTION

       libtiff is a library for reading and writing data  files  encoded  with
       the  Tag  Image  File format, Revision 6.0 (or revision 5.0 or revision
       4.0). This file  format  is  suitable  for  archiving  multi-color  and
       monochromatic image data.

       The  library  supports  several compression algorithms, as indicated by
       the Compression field, including: no compression (1), CCITT 1D  Huffman
       compression (2), CCITT Group 3 Facsimile compression (3), CCITT Group 4
       Facsimile compression (4), Lempel-Ziv & Welch compression (5), baseline
       JPEG  compression (7), word-aligned 1D Huffman compression (32771), and
       PackBits compression (32773).  In addition,  several  nonstandard  com-
       pression algorithms are supported: the 4-bit compression algorithm used
       by the ThunderScan program (32809) (decompression only),  NeXT's  2-bit
       compression algorithm (32766) (decompression only), an experimental LZ-
       style algorithm known as  Deflate  (32946),  and  an  experimental  CIE
       LogLuv  compression  scheme designed for images with high dynamic range
       (32845 for LogL and 32845 for LogLuv).  Directory information may be in
       either  little- or big-endian byte order-byte swapping is automatically
       done by the library. Data bit ordering may be either  Most  Significant
       Bit  (MSB)  to Least Significant Bit (LSB) or LSB to MSB.  Finally, the
       library does not support files in which the BitsPerSample, Compression,
       MinSampleValue,  or  MaxSampleValue fields are defined differently on a
       per-sample basis (in Rev. 6.0 the Compression tag is not defined  on  a
       per-sample basis, so this is immaterial).


DATA TYPES

       The  library  makes extensive use of C typedefs to promote portability.
       Two sets of typedefs are used, one for communication  with  clients  of
       the  library  and  one  for internal data structures and parsing of the
       TIFF format.  The  following  typedefs  are  exposed  to  users  either
       through  function  definitions or through parameters passed through the
       varargs interfaces.
            typedef unsigned short uint16_t;      16-bit unsigned integer
            typedef unsigned <thing> uint32_t;    32-bit unsigned integer
            typedef unsigned int ttag_t;          directory tag
            typedef uint16_t tdir_t;              directory index
            typedef uint16_t tsample_t;           sample number
            typedef uint32_t tstrip_t;            strip number
            typedef uint32_t ttile_t;             tile number
            typedef int32_t tsize_t;              i/o size in bytes
            typedef void* tdata_t;                image data ref
            typedef void* thandle_t;              client data handle
            typedef int32_t toff_t;               file offset
       Note that tstrip_t, ttile_t, and tsize_t are constrained to be no  more
       than  32-bit quantities by 32-bit fields they are stored in in the TIFF
       image.  Likewise tsample_t is limited by the 16-bit field used to store
       the  SamplesPerPixel tag.  tdir_t constrains the maximum number of IFDs
       that may appear in an image and may be an arbitrary size (w/o penalty).
       ttag_t must be either int, unsigned int, pointer, or double because the
       library uses a varargs interface and ANSI C restricts the type  of  the
       parameter  before an ellipsis to be a promoted type.  toff_t is defined
       as int32_t because TIFF file offsets are (unsigned) 32-bit  quantities.
       A  signed  value  is  used  because some interfaces return -1 on error.
       Finally, note that user-specified data references are passed as  opaque
       handles  and  only  cast  at the lowest layers where their type is pre-
       sumed.


LIST OF ROUTINES

       The following routines are part of the library. Consult specific manual
       pages for details on their operation; on most systems doing ``man func-
       tion-name'' will work.

       Name                     Description
       TIFFCheckpointDirectory  writes the current state of the directory
       TIFFCheckTile            very x,y,z,sample is within image
       TIFFCIELabToRGBInit      initialize CIE L*a*b* 1976 to RGB conversion state
       TIFFCIELabToXYZ          perform CIE L*a*b* 1976 to CIE XYZ conversion
       TIFFClientOpen           open a file for reading or writing
       TIFFClose                close an open file
       TIFFComputeStrip         return strip containing y,sample
       TIFFComputeTile          return tile containing x,y,z,sample
       TIFFCurrentDirectory     return index of current directory
       TIFFCurrentRow           return index of current scanline
       TIFFCurrentStrip         return index of current strip
       TIFFCurrentTile          return index of current tile
       TIFFDataWidth            return the size of TIFF data types
       TIFFError                library error handler
       TIFFFdOpen               open a file for reading or writing
       TIFFFieldDataType        get data type from field information
       TIFFFieldName            get field name from field information
       TIFFFieldPassCount       get whether to pass a value count to Get/SetField
       TIFFFieldReadCount       get number of values to be read from field
       TIFFFieldTag             get tag value from field information
       TIFFFieldWithName        get field information given field name
       TIFFFieldWithTag         get field information given tag
       TIFFFieldWriteCount      get number of values to be written to field
       TIFFFileName             return name of open file
       TIFFFileno               return open file descriptor
       TIFFFindCODEC            find standard codec for the specific scheme
       TIFFFindField            get field information given tag and data type
       TIFFFlush                flush all pending writes
       TIFFFlushData            flush pending data writes
       TIFFGetBitRevTable       return bit reversal table
       TIFFGetField             return tag value in current directory
       TIFFGetFieldDefaulted    return tag value in current directory
       TIFFGetMode              return open file mode
       TIFFGetVersion           return library version string
       TIFFIsCODECConfigured    check, whether we have working codec
       TIFFIsMSB2LSB            return true if image data is being returned
                                with bit 0 as the most significant bit
       TIFFIsTiled              return true if image data is tiled
       TIFFIsByteSwapped        return true if image data is byte-swapped
       TIFFNumberOfStrips       return number of strips in an image
       TIFFNumberOfTiles        return number of tiles in an image
       TIFFOpen                 open a file for reading or writing
       TIFFPrintDirectory       print description of the current directory
       TIFFReadBufferSetup      specify i/o buffer for reading
       TIFFReadDirectory        read the next directory
       TIFFReadEncodedStrip     read and decode a strip of data
       TIFFReadEncodedTile      read and decode a tile of data
       TIFFReadRawStrip         read a raw strip of data
       TIFFReadRawTile          read a raw tile of data
       TIFFReadRGBAImage        read an image into a fixed format raster
       TIFFReadScanline         read and decode a row of data
       TIFFReadTile             read and decode a tile of data
       TIFFRegisterCODEC        override standard codec for the specific scheme
       TIFFReverseBits          reverse bits in an array of bytes
       TIFFRGBAImageBegin       setup decoder state for TIFFRGBAImageGet
       TIFFRGBAImageEnd         release TIFFRGBAImage decoder state
       TIFFRGBAImageGet         read and decode an image
       TIFFRGBAImageOK          is image readable by TIFFRGBAImageGet
       TIFFScanlineSize         return size of a scanline
       TIFFSetDirectory         set the current directory
       TIFFSetSubDirectory      set the current directory
       TIFFSetErrorHandler      set error handler function
       TIFFSetField             set a tag's value in the current directory
       TIFFSetWarningHandler    set warning handler function
       TIFFStripSize            returns size of a strip
       TIFFRawStripSize         returns the number of bytes in a raw strip
       TIFFSwabShort            swap bytes of short
       TIFFSwabLong             swap bytes of long
       TIFFSwabArrayOfShort     swap bytes of an array of shorts
       TIFFSwabArrayOfLong      swap bytes of an array of longs
       TIFFTileRowSize          return size of a row in a tile
       TIFFTileSize             return size of a tile
       TIFFUnRegisterCODEC      unregisters the codec
       TIFFVGetField            return tag value in current directory
       TIFFVGetFieldDefaulted   return tag value in current directory
       TIFFVSetField            set a tag's value in the current directory
       TIFFVStripSize           returns the number of bytes in a strip
       TIFFWarning              library warning handler
       TIFFWriteDirectory       write the current directory
       TIFFWriteEncodedStrip    compress and write a strip of data
       TIFFWriteEncodedTile     compress and write a tile of data
       TIFFWriteRawStrip        write a raw strip of data
       TIFFWriteRawTile         write a raw tile of data
       TIFFWriteScanline        write a scanline of data
       TIFFWriteTile            compress and write a tile of data
       TIFFXYZToRGB             perform CIE XYZ to RGB conversion
       TIFFYCbCrToRGBInit       initialize YCbCr to RGB conversion state
       TIFFYCbCrtoRGB           perform YCbCr to RGB conversion

       Auxiliary functions:
       _TIFFfree                free memory buffer
       _TIFFmalloc              dynamically allocate memory buffer
       _TIFFmemcmp              compare contents of the memory buffers
       _TIFFmemcpy              copy contents of the one buffer to another
       _TIFFmemset              fill memory buffer with a constant byte
       _TIFFrealloc             dynamically reallocate memory buffer



TAG USAGE

       The table below lists the TIFF tags that are recognized and handled  by
       the  library.   If  no  use is indicated in the table, then the library
       reads and writes the tag, but does not use it  internally.   Note  that
       some  tags  are meaningful only when a particular compression scheme is
       being used; e.g.  Group3Options is only useful if Compression is set to
       CCITT  Group  3  encoding.  Tags of this sort are considered codec-spe-
       cific tags and the library does not recognize them except when the Com-
       pression  tag  has  been  previously  set  to  the relevant compression
       scheme.

       Tag Name                Value  R/W  Library Use/Notes
       Artist                  315    R/W
       BadFaxLines             326    R/W
       BitsPerSample           258    R/W  lots
       CellLength              265         parsed but ignored
       CellWidth               264         parsed but ignored
       CleanFaxData            327    R/W
       ColorMap                320    R/W
       ColorResponseUnit       300         parsed but ignored
       Compression             259    R/W  choosing codec
       ConsecutiveBadFaxLines  328    R/W
       Copyright       33432   R/W
       DataType                32996  R    obsoleted by SampleFormat tag
       DateTime                306    R/W
       DocumentName            269    R/W
       DotRange                336    R/W
       ExtraSamples            338    R/W  lots
       FaxRecvParams           34908  R/W
       FaxSubAddress           34909  R/W
       FaxRecvTime             34910  R/W
       FillOrder               266    R/W  control bit order
       FreeByteCounts          289         parsed but ignored
       FreeOffsets             288         parsed but ignored
       GrayResponseCurve       291         parsed but ignored
       GrayResponseUnit        290         parsed but ignored
       Group3Options           292    R/W  used by Group 3 codec
       Group4Options           293    R/W
       HostComputer            316    R/W
       ImageDepth              32997  R/W  tile/strip calculations
       ImageDescription        270    R/W
       ImageLength             257    R/W  lots
       ImageWidth              256    R/W  lots
       InkNames                333    R/W
       InkSet                  332    R/W
       JPEGTables              347    R/W  used by JPEG codec
       Make                    271    R/W
       Matteing                32995  R    obsoleted by ExtraSamples tag
       MaxSampleValue          281    R/W
       MinSampleValue          280    R/W
       Model                   272    R/W
       NewSubFileType          254    R/W  called SubFileType in spec
       NumberOfInks            334    R/W
       Orientation             274    R/W
       PageName                285    R/W
       PageNumber              297    R/W
       PhotometricInterpretation      262  R/Wused by Group 3 and JPEG codecs
       PlanarConfiguration     284    R/W  data i/o
       Predictor               317    R/W  used by LZW and Deflate codecs
       PrimaryChromacities     319    R/W
       ReferenceBlackWhite     532    R/W
       ResolutionUnit          296    R/W  used by Group 3 codec
       RowsPerStrip            278    R/W  data i/o
       SampleFormat            339    R/W
       SamplesPerPixel         277    R/W  lots
       SMinSampleValue         340    R/W
       SMaxSampleValue         341    R/W
       Software                305    R/W
       StoNits                 37439  R/W
       StripByteCounts         279    R/W  data i/o
       StripOffsets            273    R/W  data i/o
       SubFileType             255    R/W  called OSubFileType in spec
       TargetPrinter           337    R/W
       Thresholding            263    R/W
       TileByteCounts          324    R/W  data i/o
       TileDepth               32998  R/W  tile/strip calculations
       TileLength              323    R/W  data i/o
       TileOffsets             324    R/W  data i/o
       TileWidth               322    R/W  data i/o
       TransferFunction        301    R/W
       WhitePoint              318    R/W
       XPosition               286    R/W
       XResolution             282    R/W
       YCbCrCoefficients       529    R/W  used by TIFFRGBAImage support
       YCbCrPositioning        531    R/W  tile/strip size calculations
       YCbCrSubsampling        530    R/W
       YPosition               286    R/W
       YResolution             283    R/W  used by Group 3 codec


PSEUDO TAGS

       In addition to the normal TIFF tags the library supports  a  collection
       of  tags  whose  values  lie in a range outside the valid range of TIFF
       tags.  These tags are termed pseudo-tags and are used to control  vari-
       ous  codec-specific functions within the library.  The table below sum-
       marizes the defined pseudo-tags.

       Tag Name                Codec  R/W  Library Use/Notes
       TIFFTAG_FAXMODE         G3     R/W  general codec operation
       TIFFTAG_FAXFILLFUNC     G3/G4  R/W  bitmap fill function
       TIFFTAG_JPEGQUALITY     JPEG   R/W  compression quality control
       TIFFTAG_JPEGCOLORMODE   JPEG   R/W  control colorspace conversions
       TIFFTAG_JPEGTABLESMODE  JPEG   R/W  control contents of JPEGTables tag
       TIFFTAG_ZIPQUALITY      Deflate     R/Wcompression quality level
       TIFFTAG_PIXARLOGDATAFMT PixarLog    R/Wuser data format
       TIFFTAG_PIXARLOGQUALITY PixarLog    R/Wcompression quality level
       TIFFTAG_SGILOGDATAFMT   SGILog R/W  user data format

       TIFFTAG_FAXMODE
              Control the operation of the Group  3  codec.   Possible  values
              (independent  bits that can be combined by or'ing them together)
              are: FAXMODE_CLASSIC (enable old-style format in which  the  RTC
              is  written  at the end of the last strip), FAXMODE_NORTC (oppo-
              site  of  FAXMODE_CLASSIC;  also  called  FAXMODE_CLASSF),  FAX-
              MODE_NOEOL  (do  not write EOL codes at the start of each row of
              data), FAXMODE_BYTEALIGN (align each encoded  row  to  an  8-bit
              boundary),  FAXMODE_WORDALIGN  (align  each  encoded  row  to an
              16-bit boundary), The default value is dependent on the compres-
              sion  scheme;  this  pseudo-tag is used by the various G3 and G4
              codecs to share code.

       TIFFTAG_FAXFILLFUNC
              Control the function used to convert arrays of black  and  white
              runs  to  packed  bit  arrays.   This  hook can be used to image
              decoded scanlines in multi-bit depth rasters (e.g.  for  display
              in colormap mode) or for other purposes.  The default value is a
              pointer to a builtin function that images packed bilevel data.

       TIFFTAG_IPTCNEWSPHOTO
              Tag contains image metadata per the IPTC newsphoto  spec:  Head-
              line, captioning, credit, etc... Used by most wire services.

       TIFFTAG_PHOTOSHOP
              Tag contains Photoshop captioning information and metadata. Pho-
              toshop uses in parallel and redundantly alongside  IPTCNEWSPHOTO
              information.

       TIFFTAG_JPEGQUALITY
              Control the compression quality level used in the baseline algo-
              rithm.  Note that quality levels are in the range 0-100  with  a
              default value of 75.

       TIFFTAG_JPEGCOLORMODE
              Control  whether or not conversion is done between RGB and YCbCr
              colorspaces.  Possible values  are:  JPEGCOLORMODE_RAW  (do  not
              convert),   and  JPEGCOLORMODE_RGB  (convert  to/from  RGB)  The
              default value is JPEGCOLORMODE_RAW.

       TIFFTAG_JPEGTABLESMODE
              Control the information written in the JPEGTables tag.  Possible
              values  (independent  bits  that  can be combined by or'ing them
              together)  are:   JPEGTABLESMODE_QUANT   (include   quantization
              tables),   and  JPEGTABLESMODE_HUFF  (include  Huffman  encoding
              tables).   The  default  value  is  JPEGTABLESMODE_QUANT|JPEGTA-
              BLESMODE_HUFF.

       TIFFTAG_ZIPQUALITY
              Control  the  compression  technique  used by the Deflate codec.
              Quality levels are in the range 1-9 with larger numbers yielding
              better compression at the cost of more computation.  The default
              quality level is 6 which yields a good time-space tradeoff.

       TIFFTAG_PIXARLOGDATAFMT
              Control the format of user data passed in to the PixarLog  codec
              when  encoding and passed out from when decoding.  Possible val-
              ues are: PIXARLOGDATAFMT_8BIT for 8-bit unsigned pixels,  PIXAR-
              LOGDATAFMT_8BITABGR  for  8-bit  unsigned  ABGR-ordered  pixels,
              PIXARLOGDATAFMT_11BITLOG for 11-bit log-encoded raw data, PIXAR-
              LOGDATAFMT_12BITPICIO  for  12-bit PICIO-compatible data, PIXAR-
              LOGDATAFMT_16BIT  for  16-bit  signed  samples,  and   PIXARLOG-
              DATAFMT_FLOAT for 32-bit IEEE floating point samples.

       TIFFTAG_PIXARLOGQUALITY
              Control  the  compression  technique used by the PixarLog codec.
              This value is treated identically to TIFFTAG_ZIPQUALITY; see the
              above description.

       TIFFTAG_SGILOGDATAFMT
              Control  the format of client data passed in to the SGILog codec
              when encoding and passed out from when decoding.  Possible  val-
              ues  are: SGILOGDATAFMT_FLTXYZ for converting between LogLuv and
              32-bit IEEE floating valued XYZ  pixels,  SGILOGDATAFMT_16BITLUV
              for   16-bit  encoded  Luv  pixels,  SGILOGDATAFMT_32BITRAW  and
              SGILOGDATAFMT_24BITRAW  for  no  conversion  of  data,   SGILOG-
              DATAFMT_8BITRGB  for  returning  8-bit RGB data (valid only when
              decoding LogLuv-encoded data), SGILOGDATAFMT_FLTY for converting
              between  LogL  and 32-bit IEEE floating valued Y pixels, SGILOG-
              DATAFMT_16BITL  for  16-bit  encoded  L  pixels,   and   SGILOG-
              DATAFMT_8BITGRY  for  returning 8-bit greyscale data (valid only
              when decoding LogL-encoded data).


DIAGNOSTICS

       All error messages are directed  through  the  TIFFError  routine.   By
       default messages are directed to stderr in the form: module: message\n.
       Warning messages are likewise directed through the TIFFWarning routine.


SEE ALSO

       fax2tiff(1),   gif2tiff(1),   pal2rgb(1),   ppm2tiff(1),  rgb2ycbcr(1),
       ras2tiff(1), raw2tiff(1), sgi2tiff(1), tiff2bw(1), tiffdither(1), tiff-
       dump(1),  tiffcp(1), tiffcmp(1), tiffgt(1), tiffinfo(1), tiffmedian(1),
       tiffsplit(1), tiffsv(1).

       Tag Image File Format Specification -- Revision 6.0, an Aldus Technical
       Memorandum.

       The  Spirit  of TIFF Class F, an appendix to the TIFF 5.0 specification
       prepared by Cygnet Technologies.

       Libtiff library home page: http://www.simplesystems.org/libtiff/


BUGS

       The library does not support multi-sample  images  where  some  samples
       have different bits/sample.

       The  library  does not support random access to compressed data that is
       organized with more than one row per tile or strip.



libtiff                        November 2, 2005                   INTRO(3TIFF)

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