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PERLOS390(1pm)         Perl Programmers Reference Guide         PERLOS390(1pm)




NAME

       perlos390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390 and z/OS


SYNOPSIS

       This document will help you Configure, build, test and install Perl on
       OS/390 (aka z/OS) Unix System Services.

       This document needs to be updated, but we don't know what it should
       say.  Please submit comments to <https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues>.


DESCRIPTION

       This is a fully ported Perl for OS/390 Version 2 Release 3, 5, 6, 7, 8,
       and 9.  It may work on other versions or releases, but those are the
       ones we have tested it on.

       You may need to carry out some system configuration tasks before
       running the Configure script for Perl.

   Tools
       The z/OS Unix Tools and Toys list may prove helpful and contains links
       to ports of much of the software helpful for building Perl.
       <http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html>

   Unpacking Perl distribution on OS/390
       If using ftp remember to transfer the distribution in binary format.

       Gunzip/gzip for OS/390 is discussed at:

         http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html

       to extract an ASCII tar archive on OS/390, try this:

          pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < latest.tar

       or

          zcat latest.tar.Z | pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r

       If you get lots of errors of the form

        tar: FSUM7171 ...: cannot set uid/gid: EDC5139I Operation not permitted

       you did not read the above and tried to use tar instead of pax, you'll
       first have to remove the (now corrupt) perl directory

          rm -rf perl-...

       and then use pax.

   Setup and utilities for Perl on OS/390
       Be sure that your yacc installation is in place including any necessary
       parser template files. If you have not already done so then be sure to:

         cp /samples/yyparse.c /etc

       This may also be a good time to ensure that your /etc/protocol file and
       either your /etc/resolv.conf or /etc/hosts files are in place.  The IBM
       document that described such USS system setup issues was SC28-1890-07
       "OS/390 UNIX System Services Planning", in particular Chapter 6 on
       customizing the OE shell.

       GNU make for OS/390, which is recommended for the build of perl (as
       well as building CPAN modules and extensions), is available from the
       "Tools".

       Some people have reported encountering "Out of memory!" errors while
       trying to build Perl using GNU make binaries.  If you encounter such
       trouble then try to download the source code kit and build GNU make
       from source to eliminate any such trouble.  You might also find GNU
       make (as well as Perl and Apache) in the red-piece/book "Open Source
       Software for OS/390 UNIX", SG24-5944-00 from IBM.

       If instead of the recommended GNU make you would like to use the system
       supplied make program then be sure to install the default rules file
       properly via the shell command:

           cp /samples/startup.mk /etc

       and be sure to also set the environment variable _C89_CCMODE=1
       (exporting _C89_CCMODE=1 is also a good idea for users of GNU make).

       You might also want to have GNU groff for OS/390 installed before
       running the "make install" step for Perl.

       There is a syntax error in the /usr/include/sys/socket.h header file
       that IBM supplies with USS V2R7, V2R8, and possibly V2R9.  The problem
       with the header file is that near the definition of the SO_REUSEPORT
       constant there is a spurious extra '/' character outside of a comment
       like so:

        #define SO_REUSEPORT    0x0200    /* allow local address & port
                                             reuse */                    /

       You could edit that header yourself to remove that last '/', or you
       might note that Language Environment (LE) APAR PQ39997 describes the
       problem and PTF's UQ46272 and UQ46271 are the (R8 at least) fixes and
       apply them.  If left unattended that syntax error will turn up as an
       inability for Perl to build its "Socket" extension.

       For successful testing you may need to turn on the sticky bit for your
       world readable /tmp directory if you have not already done so (see man
       chmod).

   Configure Perl on OS/390
       Once you have unpacked the distribution, run "sh Configure" (see
       INSTALL for a full discussion of the Configure options).  There is a
       "hints" file for os390 that specifies the correct values for most
       things.  Some things to watch out for include:

       Shell

       A message of the form:

        (I see you are using the Korn shell.  Some ksh's blow up on Configure,
        mainly on older exotic systems.  If yours does, try the Bourne shell instead.)

       is nothing to worry about at all.

       Samples

       Some of the parser default template files in /samples are needed in
       /etc.  In particular be sure that you at least copy /samples/yyparse.c
       to /etc before running Perl's Configure.  This step ensures successful
       extraction of EBCDIC versions of parser files such as perly.c and
       perly.h.  This has to be done before running Configure the first time.
       If you failed to do so then the easiest way to re-Configure Perl is to
       delete your misconfigured build root and re-extract the source from the
       tar ball.  Then you must ensure that /etc/yyparse.c is properly in
       place before attempting to re-run Configure.

       Dynamic loading

       Dynamic loading is required if you want to use XS modules from CPAN
       (like DBI (and DBD's), JSON::XS, and Text::CSV_XS) or update CORE
       modules from CPAN with newer versions (like Encode) without rebuilding
       all of the perl binary.

       This port will support dynamic loading, but it is not selected by
       default.  If you would like to experiment with dynamic loading then be
       sure to specify -Dusedl in the arguments to the Configure script.  See
       the comments in hints/os390.sh for more information on dynamic loading.
       If you build with dynamic loading then you will need to add the
       $archlibexp/CORE directory to your LIBPATH environment variable in
       order for perl to work.  See the config.sh file for the value of
       $archlibexp.  If in trying to use Perl you see an error message similar
       to:

        CEE3501S The module libperl.dll was not found.
          From entry point __dllstaticinit at compile unit offset +00000194
          at

       then your LIBPATH does not have the location of libperl.x and either
       libperl.dll or libperl.so in it.  Add that directory to your LIBPATH
       and proceed.

       In hints/os390.sh, selecting -Dusedl will default to *also* select
       -Duseshrplib.  Having a shared plib not only requires LIBPATH to be set
       to the correct location of libperl.so but also makes it close to
       impossible to run more than one different perl that was built this way
       at the same time.

       All objects that are involved in -Dusedl builds should be compiled for
       this, probably by adding to all ccflags

        -qexportall -qxplink -qdll -Wc,XPLINK,dll,EXPORTALL -Wl,XPLINK,dll

       Optimizing

       Do not turn on the compiler optimization flag "-O".  There is a bug in
       either the optimizer or perl that causes perl to not work correctly
       when the optimizer is on.

       Config files

       Some of the configuration files in /etc used by the networking APIs are
       either missing or have the wrong names.  In particular, make sure that
       there's either an /etc/resolv.conf or an /etc/hosts, so that
       gethostbyname() works, and make sure that the file /etc/proto has been
       renamed to /etc/protocol (NOT /etc/protocols, as used by other Unix
       systems).  You may have to look for things like HOSTNAME and
       DOMAINORIGIN in the "//'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'" PDS member in order to
       properly set up your /etc networking files.

   Build, Test, Install Perl on OS/390
       Simply put:

           sh Configure
           make
           make test

       if everything looks ok (see the next section for test/IVP diagnosis)
       then:

           make install

       this last step may or may not require UID=0 privileges depending on how
       you answered the questions that Configure asked and whether or not you
       have write access to the directories you specified.

   Build Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
       "Out of memory!" messages during the build of Perl are most often fixed
       by re building the GNU make utility for OS/390 from a source code kit.

       Building debugging-enabled binaries (with -g or -g3) will increase the
       chance of getting these errors. Prevent -g if possible.

       Another memory limiting item to check is your MAXASSIZE parameter in
       your 'SYS1.PARMLIB(BPXPRMxx)' data set (note too that as of V2R8
       address space limits can be set on a per user ID basis in the USS
       segment of a RACF profile).  People have reported successful builds of
       Perl with MAXASSIZE parameters as small as 503316480 (and it may be
       possible to build Perl with a MAXASSIZE smaller than that).

       Within USS your /etc/profile or $HOME/.profile may limit your ulimit
       settings.  Check that the following command returns reasonable values:

           ulimit -a

       To conserve memory you should have your compiler modules loaded into
       the Link Pack Area (LPA/ELPA) rather than in a link list or step lib.

       If the c89 compiler complains of syntax errors during the build of the
       Socket extension then be sure to fix the syntax error in the system
       header /usr/include/sys/socket.h.

   Testing Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
       The "make test" step runs a Perl Verification Procedure, usually before
       installation.  You might encounter STDERR messages even during a
       successful run of "make test".  Here is a guide to some of the more
       commonly seen anomalies:

       Signals

       A message of the form:

        io/openpid...........CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
        CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
        CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
        ok

       indicates that the t/io/openpid.t test of Perl has passed but done so
       with extraneous messages on stderr from CEE.

       File::Temp

       A message of the form:

        lib/ftmp-security....File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/)
        is not safe (sticky bit not set when world writable?) at
        lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
        File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe (sticky
        bit not set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
        ok

       indicates a problem with the permissions on your /tmp directory within
       the HFS.  To correct that problem issue the command:

           chmod a+t /tmp

       from an account with write access to the directory entry for /tmp.

       Out of Memory!

       Recent perl test suite is quite memory hungry. In addition to the
       comments above on memory limitations it is also worth checking for
       _CEE_RUNOPTS in your environment. Perl now has (in miniperlmain.c) a C

       The C code asks for:


       The important parts of that are the second argument (the increment) to
       HEAP, and allowing the stack to be "Above the (16M) line". If the heap
       increment is too small then when perl (for example loading
       unicode/Name.pl) tries to create a "big" (400K+) string it cannot fit
       in a single segment and you get "Out of Memory!" - even if there is
       still plenty of memory available.

       A related issue is use with perl's malloc. Perl's malloc uses "sbrk()"
       to get memory, and "sbrk()" is limited to the first allocation so in
       this case something like:

         HEAP(8M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K)

       is needed to get through the test suite.

   Installation Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
       The installman script will try to run on OS/390.  There will be fewer
       errors if you have a roff utility installed.  You can obtain GNU groff
       from the Redbook SG24-5944-00 ftp site.

   Usage Hints for Perl on OS/390
       When using perl on OS/390 please keep in mind that the EBCDIC and ASCII
       character sets are different.  See perlebcdic.pod for more on such
       character set issues.  Perl builtin functions that may behave
       differently under EBCDIC are also mentioned in the perlport.pod
       document.

       Open Edition (UNIX System Services) from V2R8 onward does support
       #!/path/to/perl script invocation.  There is a PTF available from IBM
       for V2R7 that will allow shell/kernel support for #!.  USS releases
       prior to V2R7 did not support the #! means of script invocation.  If
       you are running V2R6 or earlier then see:

           head `whence perldoc`

       for an example of how to use the "eval exec" trick to ask the shell to
       have Perl run your scripts on those older releases of Unix System
       Services.

       If you are having trouble with square brackets then consider switching
       your rlogin or telnet client.  Try to avoid older 3270 emulators and
       ISHELL for working with Perl on USS.

   Floating Point Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
       There appears to be a bug in the floating point implementation on S/390
       systems such that calling int() on the product of a number and a small
       magnitude number is not the same as calling int() on the quotient of
       that number and a large magnitude number.  For example, in the
       following Perl code:

           my $x = 100000.0;
           my $y = int($x * 1e-5) * 1e5; # '0'
           my $z = int($x / 1e+5) * 1e5;  # '100000'
           print "\$y is $y and \$z is $z\n"; # $y is 0 and $z is 100000

       Although one would expect the quantities $y and $z to be the same and
       equal to 100000 they will differ and instead will be 0 and 100000
       respectively.

       The problem can be further examined in a roughly equivalent C program:

           #include <stdio.h>
           #include <math.h>
           main()
           {
           double r1,r2;
           double x = 100000.0;
           double y = 0.0;
           double z = 0.0;
           x = 100000.0 * 1e-5;
           r1 = modf (x,&y);
           x = 100000.0 / 1e+5;
           r2 = modf (x,&z);
           printf("y is %e and z is %e\n",y*1e5,z*1e5);
           /* y is 0.000000e+00 and z is 1.000000e+05 (with c89) */
           }

   Modules and Extensions for Perl on OS/390
       Pure Perl (that is non XS) modules may be installed via the usual:

           perl Makefile.PL
           make
           make test
           make install

       If you built perl with dynamic loading capability then that would also
       be the way to build XS based extensions.  However, if you built perl
       with the default static linking you can still build XS based extensions
       for OS/390 but you will need to follow the instructions in
       ExtUtils::MakeMaker for building statically linked perl binaries.  In
       the simplest configurations building a static perl + XS extension boils
       down to:

           perl Makefile.PL
           make
           make perl
           make test
           make install
           make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl

       In most cases people have reported better results with GNU make rather
       than the system's /bin/make program, whether for plain modules or for
       XS based extensions.

       If the make process encounters trouble with either compilation or
       linking then try setting the _C89_CCMODE to 1.  Assuming sh is your
       login shell then run:

           export _C89_CCMODE=1

       If tcsh is your login shell then use the setenv command.


AUTHORS

       David Fiander and Peter Prymmer with thanks to Dennis Longnecker and
       William Raffloer for valuable reports, LPAR and PTF feedback.  Thanks
       to Mike MacIsaac and Egon Terwedow for SG24-5944-00.  Thanks to Ignasi
       Roca for pointing out the floating point problems.  Thanks to John
       Goodyear for dynamic loading help.


SEE ALSO

       INSTALL, perlport(1), perlebcdic(1), ExtUtils::MakeMaker(3).

        http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html

        http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/SG245944.html

        http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html#opensrc

        http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/

        http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/ceea3030/

        http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/CBCUG030/

   Mailing list for Perl on OS/390
       If you are interested in the z/OS (formerly known as OS/390) and POSIX-
       BC (BS2000) ports of Perl then see the perl-mvs mailing list.  To
       subscribe, send an empty message to perl-mvs-subscribe@perl.org.

       See also:

           https://lists.perl.org/list/perl-mvs.html

       There are web archives of the mailing list at:

           https://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.mvs/


HISTORY

       This document was originally written by David Fiander for the 5.005
       release of Perl.

       This document was podified for the 5.005_03 release of Perl 11 March
       1999.

       Updated 12 November 2000 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.

       Updated 15 January  2001 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.

       Updated 24 January  2001 to mention dynamic loading.

       Updated 12 March    2001 to mention //'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'.

       Updated 28 November 2001 for broken URLs.

       Updated 03 October  2019 for perl-5.33.3+



perl v5.34.0                      2020-10-04                    PERLOS390(1pm)

perl 5.34.0 - Generated Sat Feb 26 19:06:26 CST 2022
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