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mysql_upgrade(1)             MySQL Database System            mysql_upgrade(1)




NAME

       mysql_upgrade - check and upgrade MySQL tables


SYNOPSIS

       mysql_upgrade [options]


DESCRIPTION

       Each time you upgrade MySQL, you should execute mysql_upgrade, which
       looks for incompatibilities with the upgraded MySQL server:

       o   It upgrades the system tables in the mysql schema so that you can
           take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have
           been added.

       o   It upgrades the Performance Schema and sys schema.

       o   It examines user schemas.

       If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it
       performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table
       repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.11.12,
       "Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes" for manual table repair
       strategies.

       mysql_upgrade communicates directly with the MySQL server, sending it
       the SQL statements required to perform an upgrade.

           Important
           As of MySQL 5.7.12, the default --early-plugin-load value is empty.
           To load the keyring_file plugin, you must use an explicit
           --early-plugin-load option with a nonempty value.

           In MySQL 5.7.11, the default --early-plugin-load value was the name
           of the keyring_file plugin library file, so that plugin was loaded
           by default.  InnoDB tablespace encryption requires the keyring_file
           plugin to be loaded prior to InnoDB initialization, so this change
           of default value introduces an incompatibility for upgrades from
           5.7.11 to 5.7.12 or higher. Administrators who have encrypted
           InnoDB tablespaces must take explicit action to ensure continued
           loading of the keyring_file plugin: Start the server with an
           --early-plugin-load option that names the plugin library file. For
           additional information, see Section 6.4.4, "The MySQL Keyring".

           Important
           If you upgrade to MySQL 5.7.2 or later from a version older than
           5.7.2, a change to the mysql.user table requires a special sequence
           of steps to perform an upgrade using mysql_upgrade. For details,
           see Section 2.11.3, "Changes in MySQL 5.7".

           Note
           On Windows, you must run mysql_upgrade with administrator
           privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as
           Administrator and running the command. Failure to do so may result
           in the upgrade failing to execute correctly.

           Caution
           You should always back up your current MySQL installation before
           performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, "Database Backup Methods".

           Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before
           upgrading your MySQL installation and running mysql_upgrade. See
           Section 2.11, "Upgrading MySQL", for instructions on determining
           whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and
           how to handle them.

       Use mysql_upgrade like this:

        1. Ensure that the server is running.

        2. Invoke mysql_upgrade to upgrade the system tables in the mysql
           schema and check and repair tables in other schemas:

               shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

        3. Stop the server and restart it so that any system table changes
           take effect.

       If you have multiple MySQL server instances to upgrade, invoke
       mysql_upgrade with connection parameters appropriate for connecting to
       each of the desired servers. For example, with servers running on the
       local host on parts 3306 through 3308, upgrade each of them by
       connecting to the appropriate port:

           shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3306 [other_options]
           shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3307 [other_options]
           shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3308 [other_options]

       For local host connections on Unix, the --protocol=tcp option forces a
       connection using TCP/IP rather than the Unix socket file.

       By default, mysql_upgrade runs as the MySQL root user. If the root
       password is expired when you run mysql_upgrade, you will see a message
       that your password is expired and that mysql_upgrade failed as a
       result. To correct this, reset the root password to unexpire it and run
       mysql_upgrade again. First, connect to the server as root:

           shell> mysql -u root -p
           Enter password: ****  <- enter root password here

       Reset the password using ALTER USER:

           mysql> ALTER USER USER() IDENTIFIED BY 'root-password';

       Then exit mysql and run mysql_upgrade again:

           shell> mysql_upgrade [options]


           Note
           If you run the server with the disabled_storage_engines system
           variable set to disable certain storage engines (for example,
           MyISAM), mysql_upgrade might fail with an error like this:

               mysql_upgrade: [ERROR] 3161: Storage engine MyISAM is disabled
               (Table creation is disallowed).

           To handle this, restart the server with disabled_storage_engines
           disabled. Then you should be able to run mysql_upgrade
           successfully. After that, restart the server with
           disabled_storage_engines set to its original value.

       Unless invoked with the --upgrade-system-tables option, mysql_upgrade
       processes all tables in all user schemas as necessary. Table checking
       might take a long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore
       unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed. Check and
       repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large tables.
       Table checking uses the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE
       statement. For details about what this option entails, see
       Section 13.7.2.2, "CHECK TABLE Syntax".

       mysql_upgrade marks all checked and repaired tables with the current
       MySQL version number. This ensures that the next time you run
       mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can be determined
       whether there is any need to check or repair a given table again.

       mysql_upgrade saves the MySQL version number in a file named
       mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check
       whether all tables have been checked for this release so that
       table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the
       check regardless, use the --force option.

       As of MySQL 5.7.2, mysql_upgrade checks mysql.user system table rows
       and, for any row with an empty plugin column, sets that column to
       'mysql_native_password' or 'mysql_old_password' depending on the hash
       format of the Password column value. As of MySQL 5.7.5, support for
       pre-4.1 password hashing and mysql_old_password was removed, so
       mysql_upgrade sets empty plugin values to 'mysql_native_password' if
       the credentials use a hash format compatible with that plugin. Rows
       with a pre-4.1 password hash must be upgraded manually. For account
       upgrade instructions, see Section 6.4.1.3, "Migrating Away from Pre-4.1
       Password Hashing and the mysql_old_password Plugin".

       mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the time zone tables or
       help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.12, "MySQL
       Server Time Zone Support", and Section 5.1.13, "Server-Side Help
       Support".

       As of MySQL 5.7.7, unless invoked with the --skip-sys-schema option,
       mysql_upgrade installs the sys schema if it is not installed, and
       upgrades it to the current version otherwise. An error occurs if a sys
       schema exists but has no version view, on the assumption that its
       absence indicates a user-created schema:

           A sys schema exists with no sys.version view. If
           you have a user created sys schema, this must be renamed for the
           upgrade to succeed.

       To upgrade in this case, remove or rename the existing sys schema
       first.

       In MySQL 5.7.9 and later, mysql_upgrade checks for partitioned InnoDB
       tables that were created using the generic partitioning handler and
       attempts to upgrade them to InnoDB native partitioning (used in MySQL
       5.7.6 and later). (Bug #76734, Bug #20727344) Also beginning with MySQL
       5.7.9, you can upgrade such tables individually in the mysql client
       using the ALTER TABLE ... UPGRADE PARTITIONING SQL statement.

       mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on
       the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an
       option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs,
       see Section 4.2.2.2, "Using Option Files".

       o   --help

           Display a short help message and exit.

       o   --basedir=dir_name

           The path to the MySQL installation directory. This option was
           removed in MySQL 5.7.2.

       o   --bind-address=ip_address

           On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option
           to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL
           server.

       o   --character-sets-dir=dir_name

           The directory where character sets are installed. See
           Section 10.15, "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --compress, -C

           Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
           possible. See Section 4.2.5, "Connection Compression Control".

       o   --datadir=dir_name

           The path to the data directory. This option was removed in MySQL
           5.7.2.

       o   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

           Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
           d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:O,/tmp/mysql_upgrade.trace.

       o   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       o   --debug-info, -T

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics
           when the program exits.

       o   --default-auth=plugin

           A hint about which client-side authentication plugin to use. See
           Section 6.2.13, "Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --default-character-set=charset_name

           Use charset_name as the default character set. See Section 10.15,
           "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --defaults-extra-file=file_name

           Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix)
           before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.  file_name is interpreted
           relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name
           rather than a full path name.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --defaults-file=file_name

           Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.  file_name is interpreted
           relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name
           rather than a full path name.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --defaults-group-suffix=str

           Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the
           usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysql_upgrade
           normally reads the [client] and [mysql_upgrade] groups. If the
           --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysql_upgrade also
           reads the [client_other] and [mysql_upgrade_other] groups.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --force

           Ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and force execution even if
           mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version of
           MySQL.

       o   --host=host_name, -h host_name

           Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

       o   --login-path=name

           Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login
           path file. A "login path" is an option group containing options
           that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to
           authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the
           mysql_config_editor utility. See mysql_config_editor(1).

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --max-allowed-packet=value

           The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The
           default value is 24MB. The minimum and maximum values are 4KB and
           2GB.

       o   --net-buffer-length=value

           The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication. The
           default value is 1MB a 1KB. The minimum and maximum values are 4KB
           and 16MB.

       o   --no-defaults

           Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to
           reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be
           used to prevent them from being read.

           The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read
           in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way
           than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used.
           (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See
           mysql_config_editor(1).)

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password of the MySQL account used for connecting to the
           server. The password value is optional. If not given, mysql_upgrade
           prompts for one. If given, there must be no space between
           --password= or -p and the password following it. If no password
           option is specified, the default is to send no password.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
           insecure. To avoid giving the password on the command line, use an
           option file. See Section 6.1.2.1, "End-User Guidelines for Password
           Security".

           To explicitly specify that there is no password and that
           mysql_upgrade should not prompt for one, use the --skip-password
           option.

       o   --pipe, -W

           On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option
           applies only if the server was started with the named_pipe system
           variable enabled to support named-pipe connections. In addition,
           the user making the connection must be a member of the Windows
           group specified by the named_pipe_full_access_group system
           variable.

       o   --plugin-dir=dir_name

           The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if
           the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication
           plugin but mysql_upgrade does not find it. See Section 6.2.13,
           "Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           For TCP/IP connections, the port number to use.

       o   --print-defaults

           Print the program name and all options that it gets from option
           files.

       o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is
           useful when the other connection parameters normally result in use
           of a protocol other than the one you want. For details on the
           permissible values, see Section 4.2.4, "Connecting to the MySQL
           Server Using Command Options".

       o   --shared-memory-base-name=name

           On Windows, the shared-memory name to use for connections made
           using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL.
           The shared-memory name is case-sensitive.

           This option applies only if the server was started with the
           shared_memory system variable enabled to support shared-memory
           connections.

       o   --skip-sys-schema

           By default, mysql_upgrade installs the sys schema if it is not
           installed, and upgrades it to the current version otherwise. The
           --skip-sys-schema option suppresses this behavior.

       o   --socket=path, -S path

           For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
           Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

           On Windows, this option applies only if the server was started with
           the named_pipe system variable enabled to support named-pipe
           connections. In addition, the user making the connection must be a
           member of the Windows group specified by the
           named_pipe_full_access_group system variable.

       o   --ssl*

           Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the
           server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and
           certificates. See the section called "Command Options for Encrypted
           Connections".

       o   --tls-version=protocol_list

           The permissible TLS protocols for encrypted connections. The value
           is a list of one or more comma-separated protocol names. The
           protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL
           library used to compile MySQL. For details, see Section 6.3.2,
           "Encrypted Connection TLS Protocols and Ciphers".

           This option was added in MySQL 5.7.10.

       o   --tmpdir=dir_name, -t dir_name

           The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary files.
           This option was removed in MySQL 5.7.5 due to a reimplementation
           that no longer uses temporary files.

       o   --upgrade-system-tables, -s

           Upgrade only the system tables in the mysql schema, do not upgrade
           user schemas.

       o   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The user name of the MySQL account to use for connecting to the
           server. The default user name is root.

       o   --verbose

           Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

       o   --version-check, -k

           Check the version of the server to which mysql_upgrade is
           connecting to verify that it is the same as the version for which
           mysql_upgrade was built. If not, mysql_upgrade exits. This option
           is enabled by default; to disable the check, use
           --skip-version-check.

       o   --write-binlog

           By default, binary logging by mysql_upgrade is disabled. Invoke the
           program with --write-binlog if you want its actions to be written
           to the binary log.

           When the server is running with global transaction identifiers
           (GTIDs) enabled (gtid_mode=ON), do not enable binary logging by
           mysql_upgrade.


COPYRIGHT

       Copyright (C) 1997, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights
       reserved.

       This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.

       This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
       51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see
       http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.



SEE ALSO

       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available online at
       http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.


AUTHOR

       Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).



MySQL 5.7                         09/27/2019                  mysql_upgrade(1)

mysql 5.7.28 - Generated Fri Nov 8 15:58:54 CST 2019
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