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ln(1)                             User Commands                            ln(1)


       ln - make links between files


       ln [OPTION]... [-T] TARGET LINK_NAME
       ln [OPTION]... TARGET
       ln [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY TARGET...


       In the 1st form, create a link to TARGET with the name LINK_NAME.  In the
       2nd form, create a link to TARGET in the current directory.  In the 3rd
       and 4th forms, create links to each TARGET in DIRECTORY.  Create hard
       links by default, symbolic links with --symbolic.  By default, each
       destination (name of new link) should not already exist.  When creating
       hard links, each TARGET must exist.  Symbolic links can hold arbitrary
       text; if later resolved, a relative link is interpreted in relation to
       its parent directory.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

              make a backup of each existing destination file

       -b     like --backup but does not accept an argument

       -d, -F, --directory
              allow the superuser to attempt to hard link directories (note:
              will probably fail due to system restrictions, even for the

       -f, --force
              remove existing destination files

       -i, --interactive
              prompt whether to remove destinations

       -L, --logical
              dereference TARGETs that are symbolic links

       -n, --no-dereference
              treat LINK_NAME as a normal file if it is a symbolic link to a

       -P, --physical
              make hard links directly to symbolic links

       -r, --relative
              with -s, create links relative to link location

       -s, --symbolic
              make symbolic links instead of hard links

       -S, --suffix=SUFFIX
              override the usual backup suffix

       -t, --target-directory=DIRECTORY
              specify the DIRECTORY in which to create the links

       -T, --no-target-directory
              treat LINK_NAME as a normal file always

       -v, --verbose
              print name of each linked file

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       The backup suffix is '~', unless set with --suffix or
       SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX.  The version control method may be selected via the
       --backup option or through the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable.
       Here are the values:

       none, off
              never make backups (even if --backup is given)

       numbered, t
              make numbered backups

       existing, nil
              numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise

       simple, never
              always make simple backups

       Using -s ignores -L and -P.  Otherwise, the last option specified
       controls behavior when a TARGET is a symbolic link, defaulting to -L.


       Written by Mike Parker and David MacKenzie.


       GNU coreutils online help: <>
       Report any translation bugs to <>


       Copyright © 2022 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU GPL
       version 3 or later <>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There
       is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


       link(2), symlink(2)

       Full documentation <>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) ln invocation'

GNU coreutils 9.1                  April 2022                              ln(1)

coreutils 9.1 - Generated Thu Aug 11 18:27:04 CDT 2022
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