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rndc(8)                              BIND9                             rndc(8)




NAME

       rndc - name server control utility


SYNOPSIS

       rndc [-b source-address] [-c config-file] [-k key-file] [-s server]
            [-p port] [-q] [-r] [-V] [-y key_id] [[-4] | [-6]] {command}


DESCRIPTION

       rndc controls the operation of a name server. It supersedes the ndc
       utility that was provided in old BIND releases. If rndc is invoked with
       no command line options or arguments, it prints a short summary of the
       supported commands and the available options and their arguments.

       rndc communicates with the name server over a TCP connection, sending
       commands authenticated with digital signatures. In the current versions
       of rndc and named, the only supported authentication algorithms are
       HMAC-MD5 (for compatibility), HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-SHA224, HMAC-SHA256
       (default), HMAC-SHA384 and HMAC-SHA512. They use a shared secret on
       each end of the connection. This provides TSIG-style authentication for
       the command request and the name server's response. All commands sent
       over the channel must be signed by a key_id known to the server.

       rndc reads a configuration file to determine how to contact the name
       server and decide what algorithm and key it should use.


OPTIONS

       -4
           Use IPv4 only.

       -6
           Use IPv6 only.

       -b source-address
           Use source-address as the source address for the connection to the
           server. Multiple instances are permitted to allow setting of both
           the IPv4 and IPv6 source addresses.

       -c config-file
           Use config-file as the configuration file instead of the default,
           /etc/rndc.conf.

       -k key-file
           Use key-file as the key file instead of the default, /etc/rndc.key.
           The key in /etc/rndc.key will be used to authenticate commands sent
           to the server if the config-file does not exist.

       -s server
           server is the name or address of the server which matches a server
           statement in the configuration file for rndc. If no server is
           supplied on the command line, the host named by the default-server
           clause in the options statement of the rndc configuration file will
           be used.

       -p port
           Send commands to TCP port port instead of BIND 9's default control
           channel port, 953.

       -q
           Quiet mode: Message text returned by the server will not be printed
           except when there is an error.

       -r
           Instructs rndc to print the result code returned by named after
           executing the requested command (e.g., ISC_R_SUCCESS,
           ISC_R_FAILURE, etc).

       -V
           Enable verbose logging.

       -y key_id
           Use the key key_id from the configuration file.  key_id must be
           known by named with the same algorithm and secret string in order
           for control message validation to succeed. If no key_id is
           specified, rndc will first look for a key clause in the server
           statement of the server being used, or if no server statement is
           present for that host, then the default-key clause of the options
           statement. Note that the configuration file contains shared secrets
           which are used to send authenticated control commands to name
           servers. It should therefore not have general read or write access.


COMMANDS

       A list of commands supported by rndc can be seen by running rndc
       without arguments.

       Currently supported commands are:

       addzone zone [class [view]] configuration
           Add a zone while the server is running. This command requires the
           allow-new-zones option to be set to yes. The configuration string
           specified on the command line is the zone configuration text that
           would ordinarily be placed in named.conf.

           The configuration is saved in a file called viewname.nzf (or, if
           named is compiled with liblmdb, an LMDB database file called
           viewname.nzd).  viewname is the name of the view, unless the view
           name contains characters that are incompatible with use as a file
           name, in which case a cryptographic hash of the view name is used
           instead. When named is restarted, the file will be loaded into the
           view configuration, so that zones that were added can persist after
           a restart.

           This sample addzone command would add the zone example.com to the
           default view:

           $rndc addzone example.com '{ type master; file "example.com.db";
           };'

           (Note the brackets and semi-colon around the zone configuration
           text.)

           See also rndc delzone and rndc modzone.

       delzone [-clean] zone [class [view]]
           Delete a zone while the server is running.

           If the -clean argument is specified, the zone's master file (and
           journal file, if any) will be deleted along with the zone. Without
           the -clean option, zone files must be cleaned up by hand. (If the
           zone is of type "slave" or "stub", the files needing to be cleaned
           up will be reported in the output of the rndc delzone command.)

           If the zone was originally added via rndc addzone, then it will be
           removed permanently. However, if it was originally configured in
           named.conf, then that original configuration is still in place;
           when the server is restarted or reconfigured, the zone will come
           back. To remove it permanently, it must also be removed from
           named.conf

           See also rndc addzone and rndc modzone.

       dnstap ( -reopen | -roll [number] )
           Close and re-open DNSTAP output files.  rndc dnstap -reopen allows
           the output file to be renamed externally, so that named can
           truncate and re-open it.  rndc dnstap -roll causes the output file
           to be rolled automatically, similar to log files; the most recent
           output file has ".0" appended to its name; the previous most recent
           output file is moved to ".1", and so on. If number is specified,
           then the number of backup log files is limited to that number.

       dumpdb [-all|-cache|-zones|-adb|-bad|-fail] [view ...]
           Dump the server's caches (default) and/or zones to the dump file
           for the specified views. If no view is specified, all views are
           dumped. (See the dump-file option in the BIND 9 Administrator
           Reference Manual.)

       flush
           Flushes the server's cache.

       flushname name [view]
           Flushes the given name from the view's DNS cache and, if
           applicable, from the view's nameserver address database, bad server
           cache and SERVFAIL cache.

       flushtree name [view]
           Flushes the given name, and all of its subdomains, from the view's
           DNS cache, address database, bad server cache, and SERVFAIL cache.

       freeze [zone [class [view]]]
           Suspend updates to a dynamic zone. If no zone is specified, then
           all zones are suspended. This allows manual edits to be made to a
           zone normally updated by dynamic update. It also causes changes in
           the journal file to be synced into the master file. All dynamic
           update attempts will be refused while the zone is frozen.

           See also rndc thaw.

       halt [-p]
           Stop the server immediately. Recent changes made through dynamic
           update or IXFR are not saved to the master files, but will be
           rolled forward from the journal files when the server is restarted.
           If -p is specified named's process id is returned. This allows an
           external process to determine when named had completed halting.

           See also rndc stop.

       loadkeys zone [class [view]]
           Fetch all DNSSEC keys for the given zone from the key directory. If
           they are within their publication period, merge them into the
           zone's DNSKEY RRset. Unlike rndc sign, however, the zone is not
           immediately re-signed by the new keys, but is allowed to
           incrementally re-sign over time.

           This command requires that the auto-dnssec zone option be set to
           maintain, and also requires the zone to be configured to allow
           dynamic DNS. (See "Dynamic Update Policies" in the Administrator
           Reference Manual for more details.)

       managed-keys (status | refresh | sync | destroy) [class [view]]
           Inspect and control the "managed-keys" database which handles RFC
           5011 DNSSEC trust anchor maintenance. If a view is specified, these
           commands are applied to that view; otherwise they are applied to
           all views.

           o   When run with the status keyword, prints the current status of
               the managed-keys database.

           o   When run with the refresh keyword, forces an immediate refresh
               query to be sent for all the managed keys, updating the
               managed-keys database if any new keys are found, without
               waiting the normal refresh interval.

           o   When run with the sync keyword, forces an immediate dump of the
               managed-keys database to disk (in the file managed-keys.bind or
               (viewname.mkeys). This synchronizes the database with its
               journal file, so that the database's current contents can be
               inspected visually.

           o   When run with the destroy keyword, the managed-keys database is
               shut down and deleted, and all key maintenance is terminated.
               This command should be used only with extreme caution.

               Existing keys that are already trusted are not deleted from
               memory; DNSSEC validation can continue after this command is
               used. However, key maintenance operations will cease until
               named is restarted or reconfigured, and all existing key
               maintenance state will be deleted.

               Running rndc reconfig or restarting named immediately after
               this command will cause key maintenance to be reinitialized
               from scratch, just as if the server were being started for the
               first time. This is primarily intended for testing, but it may
               also be used, for example, to jumpstart the acquisition of new
               keys in the event of a trust anchor rollover, or as a
               brute-force repair for key maintenance problems.

       modzone zone [class [view]] configuration
           Modify the configuration of a zone while the server is running.
           This command requires the allow-new-zones option to be set to yes.
           As with addzone, the configuration string specified on the command
           line is the zone configuration text that would ordinarily be placed
           in named.conf.

           If the zone was originally added via rndc addzone, the
           configuration changes will be recorded permanently and will still
           be in effect after the server is restarted or reconfigured.
           However, if it was originally configured in named.conf, then that
           original configuration is still in place; when the server is
           restarted or reconfigured, the zone will revert to its original
           configuration. To make the changes permanent, it must also be
           modified in named.conf

           See also rndc addzone and rndc delzone.

       notify zone [class [view]]
           Resend NOTIFY messages for the zone.

       notrace
           Sets the server's debugging level to 0.

           See also rndc trace.

       nta [( -class class | -dump | -force | -remove | -lifetime duration)]
       domain [view]
           Sets a DNSSEC negative trust anchor (NTA) for domain, with a
           lifetime of duration. The default lifetime is configured in
           named.conf via the nta-lifetime option, and defaults to one hour.
           The lifetime cannot exceed one week.

           A negative trust anchor selectively disables DNSSEC validation for
           zones that are known to be failing because of misconfiguration
           rather than an attack. When data to be validated is at or below an
           active NTA (and above any other configured trust anchors), named
           will abort the DNSSEC validation process and treat the data as
           insecure rather than bogus. This continues until the NTA's lifetime
           is elapsed.

           NTAs persist across restarts of the named server. The NTAs for a
           view are saved in a file called name.nta, where name is the name of
           the view, or if it contains characters that are incompatible with
           use as a file name, a cryptographic hash generated from the name of
           the view.

           An existing NTA can be removed by using the -remove option.

           An NTA's lifetime can be specified with the -lifetime option.
           TTL-style suffixes can be used to specify the lifetime in seconds,
           minutes, or hours. If the specified NTA already exists, its
           lifetime will be updated to the new value. Setting lifetime to zero
           is equivalent to -remove.

           If the -dump is used, any other arguments are ignored, and a list
           of existing NTAs is printed (note that this may include NTAs that
           are expired but have not yet been cleaned up).

           Normally, named will periodically test to see whether data below an
           NTA can now be validated (see the nta-recheck option in the
           Administrator Reference Manual for details). If data can be
           validated, then the NTA is regarded as no longer necessary, and
           will be allowed to expire early. The -force overrides this behavior
           and forces an NTA to persist for its entire lifetime, regardless of
           whether data could be validated if the NTA were not present.

           The view class can be specified with -class. The default is class
           IN, which is the only class for which DNSSEC is currently
           supported.

           All of these options can be shortened, i.e., to -l, -r, -d, -f, and
           -c.

       querylog [ on | off ]
           Enable or disable query logging. (For backward compatibility, this
           command can also be used without an argument to toggle query
           logging on and off.)

           Query logging can also be enabled by explicitly directing the
           queriescategory to a channel in the logging section of named.conf
           or by specifying querylog yes; in the options section of
           named.conf.

       reconfig
           Reload the configuration file and load new zones, but do not reload
           existing zone files even if they have changed. This is faster than
           a full reload when there is a large number of zones because it
           avoids the need to examine the modification times of the zones
           files.

       recursing
           Dump the list of queries named is currently recursing on, and the
           list of domains to which iterative queries are currently being
           sent. (The second list includes the number of fetches currently
           active for the given domain, and how many have been passed or
           dropped because of the fetches-per-zone option.)

       refresh zone [class [view]]
           Schedule zone maintenance for the given zone.

       reload
           Reload configuration file and zones.

       reload zone [class [view]]
           Reload the given zone.

       retransfer zone [class [view]]
           Retransfer the given slave zone from the master server.

           If the zone is configured to use inline-signing, the signed version
           of the zone is discarded; after the retransfer of the unsigned
           version is complete, the signed version will be regenerated with
           all new signatures.

       scan
           Scan the list of available network interfaces for changes, without
           performing a full reconfig or waiting for the interface-interval
           timer.

       secroots [-] [view ...]
           Dump the security roots (i.e., trust anchors configured via
           trusted-keys, managed-keys, or dnssec-validation auto) and negative
           trust anchors for the specified views. If no view is specified, all
           views are dumped. Security roots will indicate whether they are
           configured as trusted keys, managed keys, or initializing managed
           keys (managed keys that have not yet been updated by a successful
           key refresh query).

           If the first argument is "-", then the output is returned via the
           rndc response channel and printed to the standard output.
           Otherwise, it is written to the secroots dump file, which defaults
           to named.secroots, but can be overridden via the secroots-file
           option in named.conf.

           See also rndc managed-keys.

       serve-stale ( on | off | reset | status ) [class [view]]
           Enable, disable, reset, or report the current status of the serving
           of stale answers as configured in named.conf.

           If serving of stale answers is disabled by rndc-serve-stale off,
           then it will remain disabled even if named is reloaded or
           reconfigured.  rndc serve-stale reset restores the setting as
           configured in named.conf.

           rndc serve-stale status will report whether serving of stale
           answers is currently enabled, disabled by the configuration, or
           disabled by rndc. It will also report the values of
           stale-answer-ttl and max-stale-ttl.

       showzone zone [class [view]]
           Print the configuration of a running zone.

           See also rndc zonestatus.

       sign zone [class [view]]
           Fetch all DNSSEC keys for the given zone from the key directory
           (see the key-directory option in the BIND 9 Administrator Reference
           Manual). If they are within their publication period, merge them
           into the zone's DNSKEY RRset. If the DNSKEY RRset is changed, then
           the zone is automatically re-signed with the new key set.

           This command requires that the auto-dnssec zone option be set to
           allow or maintain, and also requires the zone to be configured to
           allow dynamic DNS. (See "Dynamic Update Policies" in the
           Administrator Reference Manual for more details.)

           See also rndc loadkeys.

       signing [( -list | -clear keyid/algorithm | -clear all | -nsec3param (
       parameters | none ) | -serial value ) ] zone [class [view]]
           List, edit, or remove the DNSSEC signing state records for the
           specified zone. The status of ongoing DNSSEC operations (such as
           signing or generating NSEC3 chains) is stored in the zone in the
           form of DNS resource records of type sig-signing-type.  rndc
           signing -list converts these records into a human-readable form,
           indicating which keys are currently signing or have finished
           signing the zone, and which NSEC3 chains are being created or
           removed.

           rndc signing -clear can remove a single key (specified in the same
           format that rndc signing -list uses to display it), or all keys. In
           either case, only completed keys are removed; any record indicating
           that a key has not yet finished signing the zone will be retained.

           rndc signing -nsec3param sets the NSEC3 parameters for a zone. This
           is the only supported mechanism for using NSEC3 with inline-signing
           zones. Parameters are specified in the same format as an NSEC3PARAM
           resource record: hash algorithm, flags, iterations, and salt, in
           that order.

           Currently, the only defined value for hash algorithm is 1,
           representing SHA-1. The flags may be set to 0 or 1, depending on
           whether you wish to set the opt-out bit in the NSEC3 chain.
           iterations defines the number of additional times to apply the
           algorithm when generating an NSEC3 hash. The salt is a string of
           data expressed in hexadecimal, a hyphen (`-') if no salt is to be
           used, or the keyword auto, which causes named to generate a random
           64-bit salt.

           So, for example, to create an NSEC3 chain using the SHA-1 hash
           algorithm, no opt-out flag, 10 iterations, and a salt value of
           "FFFF", use: rndc signing -nsec3param 1 0 10 FFFF zone. To set the
           opt-out flag, 15 iterations, and no salt, use: rndc signing
           -nsec3param 1 1 15 - zone.

           rndc signing -nsec3param none removes an existing NSEC3 chain and
           replaces it with NSEC.

           rndc signing -serial value sets the serial number of the zone to
           value. If the value would cause the serial number to go backwards
           it will be rejected. The primary use is to set the serial on inline
           signed zones.

       stats
           Write server statistics to the statistics file. (See the
           statistics-file option in the BIND 9 Administrator Reference
           Manual.)

       status
           Display status of the server. Note that the number of zones
           includes the internal bind/CH zone and the default ./IN hint zone
           if there is not an explicit root zone configured.

       stop [-p]
           Stop the server, making sure any recent changes made through
           dynamic update or IXFR are first saved to the master files of the
           updated zones. If -p is specified named's process id is returned.
           This allows an external process to determine when named had
           completed stopping.

           See also rndc halt.

       sync [-clean] [zone [class [view]]]
           Sync changes in the journal file for a dynamic zone to the master
           file. If the "-clean" option is specified, the journal file is also
           removed. If no zone is specified, then all zones are synced.

       tcp-timeouts [initial idle keepalive advertised]
           When called without arguments, display the current values of the
           tcp-initial-timeout, tcp-idle-timeout, tcp-keepalive-timeout and
           tcp-advertised-timeout options. When called with arguments, update
           these values. This allows an administrator to make rapid
           adjustments when under a denial of service attack. See the
           descriptions of these options in the BIND 9 Administrator Reference
           Manual for details of their use.

       thaw [zone [class [view]]]
           Enable updates to a frozen dynamic zone. If no zone is specified,
           then all frozen zones are enabled. This causes the server to reload
           the zone from disk, and re-enables dynamic updates after the load
           has completed. After a zone is thawed, dynamic updates will no
           longer be refused. If the zone has changed and the
           ixfr-from-differences option is in use, then the journal file will
           be updated to reflect changes in the zone. Otherwise, if the zone
           has changed, any existing journal file will be removed.

           See also rndc freeze.

       trace
           Increment the servers debugging level by one.

       trace level
           Sets the server's debugging level to an explicit value.

           See also rndc notrace.

       tsig-delete keyname [view]
           Delete a given TKEY-negotiated key from the server. (This does not
           apply to statically configured TSIG keys.)

       tsig-list
           List the names of all TSIG keys currently configured for use by
           named in each view. The list both statically configured keys and
           dynamic TKEY-negotiated keys.

       validation ( on | off | status ) [view ...]
           Enable, disable, or check the current status of DNSSEC validation.
           Note dnssec-enable also needs to be set to yes or auto to be
           effective. It defaults to enabled.

       zonestatus zone [class [view]]
           Displays the current status of the given zone, including the master
           file name and any include files from which it was loaded, when it
           was most recently loaded, the current serial number, the number of
           nodes, whether the zone supports dynamic updates, whether the zone
           is DNSSEC signed, whether it uses automatic DNSSEC key management
           or inline signing, and the scheduled refresh or expiry times for
           the zone.

           See also rndc showzone.

       rndc commands that specify zone names, such as reload, retransfer or
       zonestatus, can be ambiguous when applied to zones of type redirect.
       Redirect zones are always called ".", and can be confused with zones of
       type hint or with slaved copies of the root zone. To specify a redirect
       zone, use the special zone name -redirect, without a trailing period.
       (With a trailing period, this would specify a zone called "-redirect".)


LIMITATIONS

       There is currently no way to provide the shared secret for a key_id
       without using the configuration file.

       Several error messages could be clearer.


SEE ALSO

       rndc.conf(5), rndc-confgen(8), named(8), named.conf(5), ndc(8), BIND 9
       Administrator Reference Manual.


AUTHOR

       Internet Systems Consortium, Inc.


COPYRIGHT

       Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2013-2018 Internet Systems
       Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")



ISC                               2014-08-15                           rndc(8)

bind 9.12.3 - Generated Sat Oct 20 08:58:32 CDT 2018
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