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dnssec-keygen(8)                    BIND 9                    dnssec-keygen(8)




NAME

       dnssec-keygen - DNSSEC key generation tool


SYNOPSIS

       dnssec-keygen  [-3]  [-A  date/offset] [-a algorithm] [-b keysize] [-C]
       [-c class] [-D date/offset] [-d bits] [-D sync date/offset] [-E engine]
       [-f  flag]  [-G] [-g generator] [-h] [-I date/offset] [-i interval] [-K
       directory] [-k policy] [-L ttl] [-l file] [-n nametype]  [-P  date/off-
       set] [-P sync date/offset] [-p protocol] [-q] [-R date/offset] [-S key]
       [-s strength] [-T rrtype] [-t type] [-V] [-v level] {name}


DESCRIPTION

       dnssec-keygen generates keys for DNSSEC (Secure DNS), as defined in RFC
       2535  and RFC 4034. It can also generate keys for use with TSIG (Trans-
       action Signatures) as defined in RFC 2845, or TKEY (Transaction Key) as
       defined in RFC 2930.

       The  name of the key is specified on the command line. For DNSSEC keys,
       this must match the name of the zone for which the key is being  gener-
       ated.

       The  dnssec-keymgr command acts as a wrapper around dnssec-keygen, gen-
       erating and updating keys as needed to enforce defined  security  poli-
       cies  such  as  key  rollover  scheduling.  Using  dnssec-keymgr may be
       preferable to direct use of dnssec-keygen.


OPTIONS

       -3     This option uses an NSEC3-capable algorithm to generate a DNSSEC
              key. If this option is used with an algorithm that has both NSEC
              and NSEC3 versions, then the  NSEC3  version  is  selected;  for
              example,  dnssec-keygen  -3a  RSASHA1 specifies the NSEC3RSASHA1
              algorithm.

       -a algorithm
              This option selects  the  cryptographic  algorithm.  For  DNSSEC
              keys,   the   value   of  algorithm  must  be  one  of  RSASHA1,
              NSEC3RSASHA1,  RSASHA256,   RSASHA512,   ECDSAP256SHA256,   ECD-
              SAP384SHA384,  ED25519, or ED448. For TKEY, the value must be DH
              (Diffie-Hellman); specifying this value automatically  sets  the
              -T KEY option as well.

              These  values are case-insensitive. In some cases, abbreviations
              are supported, such as ECDSA256 for ECDSAP256SHA256 and ECDSA384
              for  ECDSAP384SHA384.  If RSASHA1 is specified along with the -3
              option, NSEC3RSASHA1 is used instead.

              This parameter must  be  specified  except  when  using  the  -S
              option, which copies the algorithm from the predecessor key.

              In prior releases, HMAC algorithms could be generated for use as
              TSIG keys, but that feature was  removed  in  BIND  9.13.0.  Use
              tsig-keygen to generate TSIG keys.

       -b keysize
              This  option specifies the number of bits in the key. The choice
              of key size depends on the algorithm  used:  RSA  keys  must  be
              between  1024 and 4096 bits; Diffie-Hellman keys must be between
              128 and 4096 bits. Elliptic curve algorithms do  not  need  this
              parameter.

              If   the  key  size  is  not  specified,  some  algorithms  have
              pre-defined defaults. For example, RSA keys for  use  as  DNSSEC
              zone-signing keys have a default size of 1024 bits; RSA keys for
              use as key-signing keys (KSKs, generated with -f KSK) default to
              2048 bits.

       -C     This  option  enables  compatibility  mode,  which  generates an
              old-style  key,  without  any  timing  metadata.   By   default,
              dnssec-keygen  includes  the key's creation date in the metadata
              stored with the private key; other dates may  be  set  there  as
              well,  including  publication  date,  activation date, etc. Keys
              that include this data may be incompatible with  older  versions
              of BIND; the -C option suppresses them.

       -c class
              This  option  indicates  that  the DNS record containing the key
              should have the specified class. If not specified, class  IN  is
              used.

       -d bits
              This  option  specifies the key size in bits. For the algorithms
              RSASHA1, NSEC3RSASA1, RSASHA256, and RSASHA512 the key size must
              be  between  1024 and 4096 bits; DH size is between 128 and 4096
              bits. This option is  ignored  for  algorithms  ECDSAP256SHA256,
              ECDSAP384SHA384, ED25519, and ED448.

       -E engine
              This  option  specifies  the cryptographic hardware to use, when
              applicable.

              When BIND 9 is built with OpenSSL, this needs to be set  to  the
              OpenSSL engine identifier that drives the cryptographic acceler-
              ator or hardware service module (usually pkcs11). When  BIND  is
              built with native PKCS#11 cryptography (--enable-native-pkcs11),
              it defaults to the path of the PKCS#11 provider  library  speci-
              fied via --with-pkcs11.

       -f flag
              This  option  sets  the  specified flag in the flag field of the
              KEY/DNSKEY record.  The only recognized flags are KSK (Key-Sign-
              ing Key) and REVOKE.

       -G     This  option  generates  a  key, but does not publish it or sign
              with it. This option is incompatible with -P and -A.

       -g generator
              This option indicates the  generator  to  use  if  generating  a
              Diffie-Hellman  key. Allowed values are 2 and 5. If no generator
              is specified, a known prime from RFC 2539 is used  if  possible;
              otherwise the default is 2.

       -h     This  option prints a short summary of the options and arguments
              to dnssec-keygen.

       -K directory
              This option sets the directory in which the key files are to  be
              written.

       -k policy
              This option creates keys for a specific dnssec-policy. If a pol-
              icy uses multiple keys, dnssec-keygen generates  multiple  keys.
              This  also  creates  a  ".state"  file  to keep track of the key
              state.

              This option creates keys according to the dnssec-policy configu-
              ration,  hence it cannot be used at the same time as many of the
              other options that dnssec-keygen provides.

       -L ttl This option sets the default TTL to use for this key when it  is
              converted into a DNSKEY RR. This is the TTL used when the key is
              imported into a zone, unless there was already a DNSKEY RRset in
              place,  in which case the existing TTL takes precedence. If this
              value is not set and there is no existing DNSKEY RRset, the  TTL
              defaults to the SOA TTL. Setting the default TTL to 0 or none is
              the same as leaving it unset.

       -l file
              This option  provides  a  configuration  file  that  contains  a
              dnssec-policy statement (matching the policy set with -k).

       -n nametype
              This  option  specifies  the owner type of the key. The value of
              nametype  must  either  be  ZONE  (for   a   DNSSEC   zone   key
              (KEY/DNSKEY)),  HOST or ENTITY (for a key associated with a host
              (KEY)), USER (for a key associated with a user (KEY)), or  OTHER
              (DNSKEY). These values are case-insensitive. The default is ZONE
              for DNSKEY generation.

       -p protocol
              This option sets the protocol value for the generated  key,  for
              use with -T KEY. The protocol is a number between 0 and 255. The
              default is 3 (DNSSEC). Other possible values for  this  argument
              are listed in RFC 2535 and its successors.

       -q     This  option  sets quiet mode, which suppresses unnecessary out-
              put, including progress indication. Without  this  option,  when
              dnssec-keygen is run interactively to generate an RSA or DSA key
              pair, it prints a string of symbols  to  stderr  indicating  the
              progress of the key generation. A . indicates that a random num-
              ber has been found which passed an initial sieve test; + means a
              number  has  passed a single round of the Miller-Rabin primality
              test; and a space ( ) means that the number has passed  all  the
              tests and is a satisfactory key.

       -S key This  option creates a new key which is an explicit successor to
              an existing key.  The name, algorithm, size, and type of the key
              are  set  to  match the existing key. The activation date of the
              new key is set to the inactivation date of the existing one. The
              publication date is set to the activation date minus the prepub-
              lication interval, which defaults to 30 days.

       -s strength
              This option  specifies  the  strength  value  of  the  key.  The
              strength  is  a  number  between  0 and 15, and currently has no
              defined purpose in DNSSEC.

       -T rrtype
              This option specifies the resource record type to  use  for  the
              key.  rrtype must be either DNSKEY or KEY. The default is DNSKEY
              when using a DNSSEC algorithm, but it can be overridden  to  KEY
              for use with SIG(0).

       -t type
              This  option  indicates the type of the key for use with -T KEY.
              type must be one of AUTHCONF, NOAUTHCONF, NOAUTH, or NOCONF. The
              default  is AUTHCONF. AUTH refers to the ability to authenticate
              data, and CONF to the ability to encrypt data.

       -V     This option prints version information.

       -v level
              This option sets the debugging level.


TIMING OPTIONS

       Dates can be expressed in the format YYYYMMDD or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS. If the
       argument  begins with a + or -, it is interpreted as an offset from the
       present time. For convenience, if such an offset is followed by one  of
       the  suffixes  y,  mo,  w,  d, h, or mi, then the offset is computed in
       years (defined as  365  24-hour  days,  ignoring  leap  years),  months
       (defined  as  30 24-hour days), weeks, days, hours, or minutes, respec-
       tively. Without a suffix, the offset is computed in seconds. To explic-
       itly prevent a date from being set, use none or never.

       -P date/offset
              This  option  sets the date on which a key is to be published to
              the zone. After that date, the key is included in the  zone  but
              is not used to sign it. If not set, and if the -G option has not
              been used, the default is the current date.

       -P sync date/offset
              This option sets the date on which CDS and CDNSKEY records  that
              match this key are to be published to the zone.

       -A date/offset
              This  option  sets the date on which the key is to be activated.
              After that date, the key is included in the  zone  and  used  to
              sign it. If not set, and if the -G option has not been used, the
              default is the current date. If set, and -P is not set, the pub-
              lication  date is set to the activation date minus the prepubli-
              cation interval.

       -R date/offset
              This option sets the date on which the key  is  to  be  revoked.
              After  that  date, the key is flagged as revoked. It is included
              in the zone and is used to sign it.

       -I date/offset
              This option sets the date on which the key  is  to  be  retired.
              After  that  date, the key is still included in the zone, but it
              is not used to sign it.

       -D date/offset
              This option sets the date on which the key  is  to  be  deleted.
              After  that  date,  the  key  is no longer included in the zone.
              (However, it may remain in the key repository.)

       -D sync date/offset
              This option sets the date on which the CDS and  CDNSKEY  records
              that match this key are to be deleted.

       -i interval
              This  option sets the prepublication interval for a key. If set,
              then the publication and activation dates must be  separated  by
              at least this much time. If the activation date is specified but
              the publication date is not, the publication  date  defaults  to
              this  much  time  before the activation date; conversely, if the
              publication date is specified but not the activation date, acti-
              vation is set to this much time after publication.

              If  the key is being created as an explicit successor to another
              key, then the default prepublication interval is 30 days; other-
              wise it is zero.

              As  with date offsets, if the argument is followed by one of the
              suffixes y, mo, w, d, h, or mi,  the  interval  is  measured  in
              years,  months,  weeks,  days,  hours, or minutes, respectively.
              Without a suffix, the interval is measured in seconds.


GENERATED KEYS

       When dnssec-keygen completes successfully, it prints a  string  of  the
       form Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii to the standard output. This is an identification
       string for the key it has generated.

       o nnnn is the key name.

       o aaa is the numeric representation of the algorithm.

       o iiiii is the key identifier (or footprint).

       dnssec-keygen creates two  files,  with  names  based  on  the  printed
       string.    Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.key    contains   the   public   key,   and
       Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.private contains the private key.

       The .key file contains a DNSKEY or KEY record. When  a  zone  is  being
       signed  by  named  or  dnssec-signzone  -S, DNSKEY records are included
       automatically. In other cases, the .key file can  be  inserted  into  a
       zone file manually or with an $INCLUDE statement.

       The .private file contains algorithm-specific fields. For obvious secu-
       rity reasons, this file does not have general read permission.


EXAMPLE

       To generate an ECDSAP256SHA256 zone-signing  key  for  the  zone  exam-
       ple.com, issue the command:

       dnssec-keygen -a ECDSAP256SHA256 example.com

       The command prints a string of the form:

       Kexample.com.+013+26160

       In    this    example,   dnssec-keygen   creates   the   files   Kexam-
       ple.com.+013+26160.key and Kexample.com.+013+26160.private.

       To generate a matching key-signing key, issue the command:

       dnssec-keygen -a ECDSAP256SHA256 -f KSK example.com


SEE ALSO

       dnssec-signzone(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference  Manual,  RFC  2539,
       RFC 2845, RFC 4034.


AUTHOR

       Internet Systems Consortium


COPYRIGHT

       2021, Internet Systems Consortium



9.16.12                           2021-02-04                  dnssec-keygen(8)

bind 9.16.12 - Generated Sat Feb 20 15:03:37 CST 2021
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