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ipfirewall(4)            BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual            ipfirewall(4)


     ipfirewall -- IP packet filter and traffic accounting


     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/queue.h>
     #include <netinet/in.h>
     #include <netinet/ip_fw.h>

     setsockopt(raw_socket, IPPROTO_IP, ipfw option, struct ipfw, size);


     IPFirewall (sometimes referred to as "ipfw") is a system facility which
     allows filtering, redirecting, and other operations on IP packets travel-
     ling through network interfaces.  Packets are matched by applying an
     ordered list of pattern rules against each packet until a match is found,
     at which point the corresponding action is taken.  Rules are numbered
     from 1 to 65534; multiple rules may share the same number.

     There is one rule that always exists, rule number 65535.  This rule nor-
     mally causes all packets to be dropped.  Hence, any packet which does not
     match a lower numbered rule will be dropped.  However, the kernel compile
     time option IPFIREWALL_DEFAULT_TO_ACCEPT allows the administrator to
     change this fixed rule to permit everything.

     The buffer passed down via the socket-option call should contain a
     "struct ip_fw" that is initialized with the required parameters for the
     firewall command being invoked.  This structure is consistently required
     for every firewall command, even though in some cases the majority of its
     fields will go unused.  The reason for this is the API versioning that
     the firewall supports for the sake of backward compatibility.  The
     version field of this structure should always be set to
     IP_FW_CURRENT_API_VERSION or an EINVAL error will be returned.

     The following socket options are used to manage the rule list:

     IP_FW_ADD    inserts the rule into the rule list

     IP_FW_DEL    deletes all rules having the matching rule number

     IP_FW_GET    returns the (first) rule having the matching rule number

     IP_FW_ZERO   zeros the statistics associated with all rules having the
                  matching rule number.  If the rule number is zero, all rules
                  are zeroed.

     IP_FW_FLUSH  removes all rules (except 65535).

     When the kernel security level is greater than 2, only IP_FW_GET is

   Rule Structure
     Rules are described by the following structure:

     /* One ipfw rule */
     struct ip_fw {
         u_int32_t version;              /* Version of this structure.  Should always be */
                                         /* set to IP_FW_CURRENT_API_VERSION by clients. */
         void *context;                  /* Context that is usable by user processes to */
                                         /* identify this rule. */
         u_int64_t fw_pcnt,fw_bcnt;          /* Packet and byte counters */
         struct in_addr fw_src, fw_dst;      /* Source and destination IP addr */
         struct in_addr fw_smsk, fw_dmsk;    /* Mask for src and dest IP addr */
         u_short fw_number;                  /* Rule number */
         u_int fw_flg;                       /* Flags word */
     #define IP_FW_MAX_PORTS 10              /* A reasonable maximum */
             union {
             u_short fw_pts[IP_FW_MAX_PORTS];        /* Array of port numbers to match */
     #define IP_FW_ICMPTYPES_MAX     128
     #define IP_FW_ICMPTYPES_DIM     (IP_FW_ICMPTYPES_MAX / (sizeof(unsigned) * 8))
             unsigned fw_icmptypes[IP_FW_ICMPTYPES_DIM]; /* ICMP types bitmap */
             } fw_uar;
         u_int fw_ipflg;                     /* IP flags word */
         u_char fw_ipopt,fw_ipnopt;          /* IP options set/unset */
         u_char fw_tcpopt,fw_tcpnopt;        /* TCP options set/unset */
         u_char fw_tcpf,fw_tcpnf;            /* TCP flags set/unset */
         long timestamp;                     /* timestamp (tv_sec) of last match */
         union ip_fw_if fw_in_if, fw_out_if; /* Incoming and outgoing interfaces */
         union {
             u_short fu_divert_port;         /* Divert/tee port (options IPDIVERT) */
             u_short fu_pipe_nr;             /* queue number (option DUMMYNET) */
             u_short fu_skipto_rule;         /* SKIPTO command rule number */
             u_short fu_reject_code;         /* REJECT response code */
             struct sockaddr_in fu_fwd_ip;
         } fw_un;
         u_char fw_prot;                     /* IP protocol */
              * N'of src ports and # of dst ports in ports array (dst ports
              * follow src ports; max of 10 ports in all; count of 0 means
              * match all ports)
         u_char fw_nports;
         void *pipe_ptr;                    /* flow_set ptr for dummynet pipe */
         void *next_rule_ptr ;              /* next rule in case of match */
         uid_t fw_uid;                       /* uid to match */
         int fw_logamount;                   /* amount to log */
         u_int64_t fw_loghighest;            /* highest number packet to log */

     The ip_fw.h header also contains macros for setting the fw_ports field and various
     flags and constants for setting other fields.

   Rule Actions
     Each rule has an action described by the IP_FW_F_COMMAND bits in the
     flags word:

     IP_FW_F_DENY    drop packet

     IP_FW_F_REJECT  drop packet; send rejection via ICMP or TCP

     IP_FW_F_ACCEPT  accept packet

     IP_FW_F_COUNT   increment counters; continue matching

     IP_FW_F_DIVERT  divert packet to a divert(4) socket

     IP_FW_F_TEE     copy packet to a divert(4) socket; continue

     IP_FW_F_SKIPTO  skip to rule number fu_skipto_rule

     In the case of IP_FW_F_REJECT, if the fu_reject_code is a number from 0
     to 255, then an ICMP unreachable packet is sent back to the original
     packet's source IP address, with the corresponding code.  Otherwise, the
     value must be 256 and the protocol IPPROTO_TCP, in which case a TCP reset
     packet is sent instead.

     With IP_FW_F_SKIPTO, all succeeding rules having rule number less than
     fu_skipto_rule are skipped.

   Kernel Options
     Options in the kernel configuration file:

     options IPFIREWALL                enable ipfirewall

     options IPFIREWALL_VERBOSE        enable firewall logging

     options IPFIREWALL_VERBOSE_LIMIT  limit firewall logging

     options IPDIVERT                  enable divert(4) sockets

     When packets match a rule with the IP_FW_F_PRN bit set, and if
     IPFIREWALL_VERBOSE has been enabled,a message is written to /dev/klog
     with the LOG_SECURITY facility (see syslog(3)) for further logging by
     syslogd(8); IPFIREWALL_VERBOSE_LIMIT limits the maximum number of times
     each rule can cause a log message. These variables are also available via
     the sysctl(3) interface.


     The setsockopt() function returns 0 on success.  Otherwise, -1 is
     returned and the global variable errno is set to indicate the error.


     The setsockopt() function will fail if:

     [EINVAL]           The IP option field was improperly formed; an option
                        field was shorter than the minimum value or longer
                        than the option buffer provided.

     [EINVAL]           A structural error in ip_fw structure occurred
                        (n_src_p+n_dst_p too big, ports set for ALL/ICMP pro-
                        tocols etc.).

     [EINVAL]           The version field of the ip_fw structure was set to a
                        value not supported by the currently-installed
                        IPFirewall, or no ip_fw structure was passed to it at

     [EINVAL]           An invalid rule number was used.


     setsockopt(2), divert(4), ip(4), ipfw(8), sysctl(8), syslogd(8)


     The ``tee'' rule is not yet implemented (currently it has no effect).

     This man page still needs work.


     The ipfw facility was initially written as package to BSDI by Daniel
     Boulet <>.  It has been heavily modified and
     ported to FreeBSD by Ugen J.S. Antsilevich <>.

     Several enhancements added by Archie Cobbs <>.

Darwin                           June 22, 1997                          Darwin

Mac OS X 10.9 - Generated Wed Oct 16 06:05:02 CDT 2013
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